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Year 2006 , Volume  38, Issue 3
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1
Obituary - Dr. Imran Ali Siddiqui (2nd April 1972 - 7th August 2006)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

Obituary - Dr. Imran Ali Siddiqui (2nd April 1972 - 7th August 2006)
ABSTRACT:
Dr. Abdul Ghaffar, Ms. Maria Hamid & Dr. Fatima S. Mehdi

497-498 Download
2
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - L. RANUNCULACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - L. RANUNCULACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 27 species representing 10 genera of the family Ranunculaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar rarely apolar. Mostly sub-prolate, often oblate-spheroidal to prolate, colpate or pantocolpate, rarely pantoporate, sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly spinulose or scabrate often striate or verucate. On the basis of exine ornamentation and apertural types, 5 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Clematis grata-type, Delphinium denudatum-type, Ranunculus muricatus-type Thalictrum isopyroides-type and Trollius acaulis-type.

499-509 Download
3
PALYNOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE GENUS CALENDULA (CALENDULEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN
AKBAR ALI MEO AND MIR AJAB KHAN*

PALYNOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE GENUS CALENDULA (CALENDULEAE-COMPOSITAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The pollen morphology of Calendula species was investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains are prolate-spheroidal in equatorial view and semi-angular in polar view, tri. to tetrazoncolporate, caveate and echinate. Size of polar axis and equatorial diameter, exine thickness, spine length are presented. Variation exists at species level i.e. exine thickness is higher in C.arvensis L. (6.3 µm) as compared to C.officinalis L. (3.3 µm). Existence of simple and closely placed pair of spines are highly diagnostic in Calendula. In C. officinalis spines are mostly paired and in C. arvensis mostly simple but closely placed pairs of spines also exist.

511-520 Download
4
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF INULA L. (s.str.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF INULA L. (s.str.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Numerical analysis of 21 species belonging to the genera Inula L. (s.str.), Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Dittrichia Greuter and Iphiona Cass., was carried out to find out the interrelationship of these taxa. Two distinct groups of taxa are formed from which one group comprises of Dittrichia and Pentanema and other group is represented by Inula, Duhaldea and Iphiona. The grouping of the taxa points out the close affinity and the genus Inula L. (s.str.) is further divided into two distinct groups which indicates the heterogenous and paraphyletic nature of the genus.

521-526 Download
5
MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SOME ENDEMIC ALKANNA SPECIES
CANAN ÖZDEMIR* AND YASIN ALTAN

MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SOME ENDEMIC ALKANNA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study is to provide information on the morphological and anatomical properties of Alkanna froedinii Rech.fil and Alkana cardifolia C. Koch, which are endemic in Turkey and are used in folk medicine. It has been reported that A. froedinii and A. cardiofolia are closely related to each other. In this study, the Alkanna species have been investigated for morphological and anatomical differences. It has been observed A.froedinii has some different characteristics from A. cardiofolia such as numerous setiform and glandular hairs.

527-537 Download
6
MODELLING POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TAXUS WALLICHIANA IN PALAS VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ZAFEER SAQIB, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN*

MODELLING POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TAXUS WALLICHIANA IN PALAS VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Desktop modelling software in combination with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has led species distributions modelling and proving a very powerful tool. DOMAIN model was used to produce potential distribution map of Taxus wallichiana in Palas valley. A similarity index cutoff of 0.95-1 was used to define core habitat of the species. Overall accuracy of the predictive model was 87.2%. Potentially areas identified of spatial distribution of Taxus wallichiana through modeling process can be used for its in situ conservation.

539-542 Download
7
CLASSIFICATION AND ORDINATION OF VEGETATION COMMUNITIES OF THE LOHIBEHR RESERVE FOREST AND ITS SURROUNDING AREAS, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK* AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN**

CLASSIFICATION AND ORDINATION OF VEGETATION COMMUNITIES OF THE LOHIBEHR RESERVE FOREST AND ITS SURROUNDING AREAS, RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Agglomerative clustering, Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (WINSPAN), and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used for the plant community analysis. Remotely sensed data was used as a surrogate in identifying and locating field sites from where floristic composition, environmental and spatial data were collected. Characteristic plant species of each community type are presented together with the information on dominance and sub-dominance species. Four plant communities were recognized. Classification and ordination techniques provided very similar results based on the floristic composition. The results formed the basis for the mapping spatial distribution of vegetation communities using image analysis techniques.

543-558 Download
8
LAND-COVER MAPPING: A REMOTE SENSING APPROACH
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN*

LAND-COVER MAPPING: A REMOTE SENSING APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
SPOT (Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre) XS (multi-spectral) satellite sensor data were evaluated for mapping different land-covers/uses in the suburb of Rawalpindi to assess the impact of urbanization on the scrub forest dominated by Acacia modesta. Various data layers were generated and co-registered with the land-cover map. Field data collected using GPS were employed to evaluate the land-cover map. The results showed that several land-cover types can easily be identified and mapped while some land-covers were difficult to identify, as they could be confused with each other due to their similar spectral reflectance. Thirteen land-covers were mapped using fuzzy supervised likelihood classifier. The statistical evaluation of the classified image indicated an overall accuracy of 72.86% with a kappa statistics of 0.70. The results suggest that extensive and massive clearance of reserve forest occurred in most of the forest stands. The existing scrub forest is becoming smaller and fragmented; only patches of mature forest are left in forest stand 6, 7 and 8, which are under threat from urban encroachment evincing that soon the remaining forest will be engulfed by concrete jungle if Rawalpindi Authority and the Forest Department of Rawalpindi District does not take immediate auction as a priority to save this national heritage. Cover types map derived could be used as a valuable base for the monitoring changes in land-cover pattern and deforestation assessment of the scrub forest of the study site.

559-570 Download
9
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK* AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN**

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA
ABSTRACT:
In Pakistan in spite of few attempts for mapping land-cover types, satellite remotely sensed data has not been used extensively; and its potential is not being explored for providing information on mapping vegetation cover in general and ecological communities in particular. In this study, we used SPOT(Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre) multispectral (XS) satellite sensor data in visible and near infrared portion of the light spectrum as a surrogate for distribution of ecological vegetation groups defined by the classification and ordination methods (the most commonly used multivariate techniques used in floristic composition classification in vegetation ecology) and non-vegetation classes. The results indicate that classification of vegetation groups based on species composition identified using classification and ordination techniques to some extent resemble to those groups classified using SPOT XS data with least accuracy in comparison to non-vegetation classes which were more homogenous and spectrally separable and were classified more accurately in comparison. Two classification models i.e. supervised maximum likelihood and fuzzy supervised classification showed similar overall level of accuracies. The possibilities of lower classification accuracies and difficulties of classifying ecological communities based on the species composition using remotely sensor data are discussed.

571-582 Download
10
PROPAGATION OF CTV-FREE SWEET ORANGE [CITRUS SINENSIS (L.) OSBECK] PLANTS THROUGH MICROBUDDING TECHNIQUE
MAZHAR ABBAS, M. M. KHAN,*, S. M. MUGHAL1, MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI1 AND HAIDER ABBAS2

PROPAGATION OF CTV-FREE SWEET ORANGE [CITRUS SINENSIS (L.) OSBECK] PLANTS THROUGH MICROBUDDING TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Microbudding technique was used for the early propagation of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. Musambi plants, free of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) using thermotherapy. Source plants of sweet orange, both infected and apparently healthy, were collected from the orchards at Sahiwal and Faisalabad and analyzed along with microbudded plants through ELISA. Budwood of 3 mm and 4 mm in size was microbudded at two different heights (15 cm and 23 cm). Maximum (50%) success of microbudding was obtained, when budwood of 4mm was microbudded at the height of 23 cm. It would suggest that microbudding could efficiently be used for the early propagation of CTV free Musambi plants.

583-587 Download
11
EMBRYOGENESIS IN UNDEVELOPED OVULES OF CITRUS CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO GAMMA RADIATION
NAFEES ALTAF

EMBRYOGENESIS IN UNDEVELOPED OVULES OF CITRUS CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO GAMMA RADIATION
ABSTRACT:
Immature fruits of 36 Citrus cultivars were exposed to 0 - 12 kr gamma radiation. The maximum average embryo per nucellus (EN) were recorded after 4 months of ovule culture. In control (0 kr), the EN were 6.27, 6.06, 5.62 and 4.86 in Kinnow, Jaffa, Gada dehi and Sweet lime respectively. In 3 kr, EN were 6.85, 6. 23, 5.86, 4.60 in Foster, Kinnow, Valencia and Gada dehi, respectively. In 6 kr, EN were 8.33, 8.12, 5.66 and 3.66 in Foster, Kinnow, Pine apple and Kherna Khatta respectively. In 9 kr, EN were 7.31, 6.76, 5.30 and 3.15 in Kinnow, Foster, Jaffa and Kherna Khatta respectively. In 12 kr, EN were 5.88, 3.92, 3.80 and 2.50 in Kinnow, Foster, Jaffa and Rough lemon respectively. In general, there was suppression of embryogenesis in 9 and 12 kr. The healthy embryos with normal balanced germination were ex-vitro grafted on rough lemon seedlings for growth and development.

589-595 Download
12
IN VITRO BUD CULTURE OF KINNOW TREE
NAFEES ALTAF

IN VITRO BUD CULTURE OF KINNOW TREE
ABSTRACT:
Tissues from field grown trees have contamination problems in In vitro cultures. Two hundred explants were tried in each sterilizing chemical viz., HgCl2 and NaOCl. Both the chemicals were effective in making clean explants growth as 62 (31%) and 67 (33%) respectively. The dead explants were 25 and 23. The buds sprouted and upon subculturing, shoots were grown in MS medium supplemented with BA (2 mg/l), GA (1 mg/l), proline (5 mg/l). The developed shoots rooted in half strength medium with addition of IBA (2 mg/l). Our objective was to obtain rooted shoots. Although there were callus formation, leaf growth but no true shoot elongation. The rooted shoots were grafted on young rough lemon seedlings. The overall procedure is lengthy but plants can be obtained from In vitro bud culture of field grown Kinnow tree.

597-601 Download
13
EFFECT OF STIONIC COMBINATION ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
WAQAR AHMED, M.A. PERVEZ, M. AMJAD, M. KHALID*, C. M. AYYUB AND M. AZHER NAWAZ

EFFECT OF STIONIC COMBINATION ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
ABSTRACT:
Citrus is a leading fruit crop of Pakistan. Among citrus cultivars, Kinnow is the most prominent and shares about 95% of total citrus production in Pakistan. The monopolized cultivation of Kinnow scion grafted over rough lemon needs a substituted rootstock for higher yield/return and for longer productive tree life. Trials for the selection of suitable rootstock for Kinnow mandarin under subtropical environmental conditions and highly alkaline rhizosphere were carried out in the experimental fruit orchard of the Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2003-2005. The studies revealed that Volkamer lemon, Brazilian sour orange and Citrumello 4475 were the reliable rootstocks for citriculture industry of the Punjab province.

603-612 Download
14
EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE) BY USING BRACKISH WATER IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS
M.A. NAEEM AND S. MUHAMMAD

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE) BY USING BRACKISH WATER IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Impact of different pre-sowing seed treatments on growth of barley by using brackish water for irrigation in different combinations of CaSO4 (10 mM), CaSO4 (30 mM), Gibberellic Acid (20 ppm), Gibberellic Acid (60 ppm) and hydro priming for 12 h were investigated in pot experiment. Artificially prepared brackish water was used for irrigation throughout the crop growth period. Maximum seed germination was observed in treatment with GA3 (20 ppm followed by CaSO4 (10 mM) while the minimum in farmer practice treatment (control). Similar trend was found in the straw yield. Highest Na+ concentration was observed in leaves of plants in pre-sowing seed treatment with GA3 (20 ppm) with a median content of 50.25 ppm while minimum in hydro priming for 12 h. Similar trend was found in the K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ analyzed at the booting stage. Highest Cl- concentration was observed in plant with median content of 150.03 ppm, while minimum in CaSO4 (10 mM) in the leaf of barley at booting stage with a median content of 125.03 ppm respectively. The maximum Na+: K+ ratio in the plant leaf was observed in control (farmer practice) with a median content of 0.280 and lowest in CaSO4 (10 mM) with a median content of 0.226. The Ca2+: Mg2+ ratios were observed maximum almost in all the primed treatments than farmer practice (control).

613-622 Download
15
EVALUATION OF POTTING MEDIA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ROUGH LEMON NURSERY STOCK
M. MUMTAZ KHAN*, M. AZAM KHAN, MAZHAR ABBAS, MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI, M. A. ALI AND HAIDER ABBAS**

EVALUATION OF POTTING MEDIA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ROUGH LEMON NURSERY STOCK
ABSTRACT:
Effect of different potting media on growth of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri L.) rootstock was studied. Freshly harvested seeds of rough lemon were germinated in flat trays of sterilized sand under greenhouse conditions. Six week old seedlings, uniform in size were transplanted from trays to pots (15x15 cm). Leaf manure, peat, spent compost of oyster and button mushroom were added in different compositions with soil, sand, leaf manure and farmyard manure (FYM). Physical and chemical characteristics of different media combination were studied. Data was collected on monthly basis for plant growth parameters. Sand +peat (1:1) proved to be a superior potting medium followed by sand + peat + spent compost of Button mushroom (1:1:1) for growth of rough lemon (C. jambhiri) nursery stock.

623-629 Download
16
PLANT REGENERATION VIA ORGANOGENESIS OR SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN SUGARCANE: HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN AND ABDULLAH KHATRI

PLANT REGENERATION VIA ORGANOGENESIS OR SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN SUGARCANE: HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
Embryogenic callus was obtained by culturing young leaves of sugarcane on modified MS medium containing 4mg/l 2,4-D. Many embryos were formed when the callus was transferred on the medium containing low concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l). The callus transferred on the medium without 2,4-D turned black after 7 to 10 days of sub-culturing. Embryos were cytoplasmically rich and showed the typical organization of grass embryos. Somatic embryos were regenerated on the regeneration media (MS salts + 2 mg/l each Kin, IAA and IBA + 2% sugar) and profused rooting was observed on medium containing MS + 1 mg/l IBA + 6% sugar. Rooted plantlets were transferred into the field after hardening for further evaluation.

631-636 Download
17
CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
AYŞE GUL NASIRCILAR, KENAN TURGUT*, KAYAHAN FISKIN

CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM MATURE EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Mature embryos of 5 Triticum aestivum and 5 T. durum cultivars formed embryogenic callus on two different media. Embryos were removed from surface sterilised seeds and placed with the scutellum upwards on a solid agar medium containing the inorganic components of Murashige & Skoog and 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 1 mg/L naphtalenacetic acid (NAA). The developed calli and regenerated plants were maintained on 2,4-D or NAA free MS medium. Wheat plants can be regenerated via two different systems. There were significant differences in percentage of callus induction and regeneration capacity on the different initiation medium. Among the T.aestivum cultivars, Yakar had the highest regeneration capacity in both induction medium. In T.durum cultivars, Kiziltan gave the highest regeneration capacity in MS+2,4 D medium and Yilmaz gave the highest regeneration capacity in MS+NAA medium. A strong genotypic effect on the culture responses was found for both induction medium.

637-645 Download
18
C4 PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDATIVE PROTECTION OF C3 DESERT SHRUB HEDYSARUM SCOPARIUM IN NORTHWEST CHINA
CHUN-MEI GONG*, XIAO-WEI GAO*, DONG-LIANG CHENG* AND GEN-XUAN WANG**

C4 PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDATIVE PROTECTION OF C3 DESERT SHRUB HEDYSARUM SCOPARIUM IN NORTHWEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
To understand the adaptive mechanisms, and the strategy and direction of evolution of exploiting plants for living in oasis-desert transitional areas where there was a water gradient, mechanisms of C4 photosynthesis and antioxidative protection were studied in leaves and assimilating shoots of C3 desert shrub Hedysarum scoparium under water gradient accompanied with high irradiance and high temperature in simulated water gradient trial site that lies in the desert. In this study, C4 pathway was detected in the leaves and assimilating shoots of H. scoparium and the antioxidative enzymatic system was found to be very important in the protection against oxidants, both increasing considerably antioxidative enzymes and C4 photosynthetic enzymes under increasing water stress in C3 plant. The results indicated that the C4 photosynthetic response of assimilating shoots was more positive than that of leaves with water condition exacerbate. It was proposed that the direction of evolution of organs of C4 photosynthesis and positive interaction between antioxidative enzymes and C4 photosynthetic key enzymes in C3 desert species were important factors for plant growth, survival and reproduction in water gradient environment.

647-661 Download
19
TIME COURSE OF ION ACCUMULATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SALT TOLERANCE OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE LINES OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
M. QASIM AND M. ASHRAF*

TIME COURSE OF ION ACCUMULATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SALT TOLERANCE OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE LINES OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the time course of ion accumulation in two genetically diverse lines of canola (Brassica napus) viz., Dunkeld (salt tolerant) and Cyclon (salt sensitive) subjected to 2.4 (control), 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1 of NaCl. Plants were harvested every 10-day interval after the initiation of salt treatment and harvesting continued until 5th harvest i.e., 50 days after the initiation of salt treatment. An age-dependent accumulation of Na+ and Cl- occurred in both lines and the discrimination in the two lines with respect to ion accumulation was discernable at the last three harvests, Dunkeld was significantly lower in shoot Na+ and Cl- as compared to Cyclon. The salt tolerant line Dunkeld maintained higher K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios than those of the salt sensitive line Cyclon under saline conditions. However, the discrimination between the two canola lines with respect to K+/Na+ ratio was discernable at the later growth stages, whereas that of Ca2+/Na+ ratio at all stages. Discrimination between the two genetically diverse lines of canola with respect to accumulation of toxic ions was only possible at the later stages of vegetative growth rather than at the early stages.

663-672 Download
20
EFFECTS OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (VI) ON ROOT GROWTH AND CELL DIVISION IN ROOT TIP CELLS OF AMARANTHUS VIRIDIS L.
J.H. ZOU1, M. WANG1, W.S. JIANG2 AND D.H. LIU1*

EFFECTS OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (VI) ON ROOT GROWTH AND CELL DIVISION IN ROOT TIP CELLS OF AMARANTHUS VIRIDIS L.
ABSTRACT:
The effects of different concentrations of Cr(VI) (10-6 M to 10-3 M) on root growth and cell division in root tips of Amaranthus viridis L., were studied. Chromium (VI) had toxic effects on the root tip cells during mitosis, such as colchicine mitoses, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness. Chromosome stickiness implied the high toxicity of Cr(VI). The mitotic index decreased with increased concentration of Cr(VI), duration of treatment time and the ratio of anomalous dividing cells reversed. The results also indicated that the root growth was completely stopped by 10-3 M Cr(VI) after 24 h treatment time, and slightly inhibited by 10-4 M Cr(VI) during the whole experiment. Chromium (VI) had a stimulatory effect on the root growth of A. viridis L. exposed to 10-5 M Cr(VI) during the entire experiment. The mitotic index in the present study can be correlated with rate of root growth, suggesting that the inhibition of root growth resulted from inhibition of cell division.

673-681 Download
21
EFFECT OF GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CHICKPEA [CICER ARIETINUM (L.)]
AHMAD BAKHSH, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD* AND A.M. HAQQANI

EFFECT OF GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CHICKPEA [CICER ARIETINUM (L.)]
ABSTRACT:
Effect of genotype x environment interaction was studied on relationship between yield and three yield components in 20 genotypes of chickpea. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the three yield components at all the locations. It was found that the pattern and strength of correlation between number of seeds pod-1 and yield, between number of seeds pod-1 and number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 and number of branches plant-1 differed from location to location. The relationship of fruit bearing branches and number of pods plant-1 with grain yield remained positive at all the locations, though the strength of their correlation with grain yield was affected by environments. On the basis of this study it is proposed that importance should be placed on number of pods and number of fruit bearing branches while making selection from segregating populations for yield improvement.

683-690 Download
22
RESPONSE OF RADISH TO INTEGRATED USE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND RECYCLED ORGANIC WASTE
H. N. ASGHAR, M. ISHAQ, Z.A. ZAHIR*, M. KHALID AND M. ARSHAD

RESPONSE OF RADISH TO INTEGRATED USE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND RECYCLED ORGANIC WASTE
ABSTRACT:
Recycling of organic wastes could convert them into a value-added product that may be effective even when applied in small quantity compared with the traditional use of their huge quantities. Two field trials were conducted to evaluate the integrated use of recycled organic waste and chemical fertilizers for improving growth and yield of radish. Recycled organic waste (compost) was enriched with an auxin precursor L-tryptohan (@ 6 mg kg-1 compost) and this enriched compost was tested alone and in combination with recommended nitrogen fertilizer @ 50 and 75%. Enriched compost + 50% recommended nitrogen fertilizer produced significantly better results in almost all the parameters except number of leaves plant-1 and root length. Other parameters like leaf area, root girth, total biomass plant-1, and yield ha-1 were increased by 82, 68

691-700 Download
23
UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM AND SOME NUTRIENT IONS BY ROOTS AND SHOOTS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
D.H. LIU*, M. WANG, J.H. ZOU AND W.S. JIANG**

UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM AND SOME NUTRIENT IONS BY ROOTS AND SHOOTS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The effects of the different concentrations of Cd on accumulation of four cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) viz., Nongda No. 108, Liyu No. 6, Shendan No. 10 and Tangkang No. 5, were investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Cd accumulation in the roots and shoots,and the interactions among Mn, Fe and Cu were also analyzed in the present study. The concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 . 2.5 H2O) used were in the range of 10-4 M to 10-6 M. The results indicated that the Cd levels in roots and shoots of four cultivars increased significantly (P < 0.005) with increasing Cd concentration. Cadmium ions were concentrated mainly in the roots, and small amounts of Cd were transferred to the shoots. In Liyu No. 6, the distributive levels of Cd in the roots decreased with increasing the concentration of Cd. Liyu No. 6 had more ability to remove Cd from solutions and accumulate it when compared with the other cultivars. This kind of cultivar with many roots, a high biomass and high ability to accumulate Cd can play a very important role in the soil contaminated by Cd.

701-709 Download
24
EFFECT OF PEARLING ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYTATE CONTENT OF WHEAT-SORGHUM FLOUR
SALIM-UR-REHMAN*, M. MUSHTAQ AHMAD1, IJAZ AHMAD BHATTI2, RIZWAN SHAFIQUE, GHULAM MUEEN UD DIN AND MIAN ANJUM MURTAZA

EFFECT OF PEARLING ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYTATE CONTENT OF WHEAT-SORGHUM FLOUR
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pearling of grains on physico-chemical and rheological characteristics as well as phytate contents of wheat-sorghum flour. Wheat and sorghum grains were milled into flour after pearling. The amount of chemical constituents such as protein, fiber, fat, ash, phytate, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn decreased where as nitrogen free extract in wheat and sorghum flours increased as a result of pearling of grains. Wheat flour was substituted with 15% and 30% whole and pearled sorghum grain flours which significantly affected the farinographic and amylographic characteristics of composite flours. Substitution of wheat flour with sorghum flour decreased the water absorption and dough viscosity. Composite flour containing 15% pearled sorghum and 85% pearled wheat flours showed maximum improvement in dough development time, dough stability, tolerance index and softening of dough. Phytic acid was also drastically affected by heat treatment during preparation of chapattis.

711-719 Download
25
COMBINED EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE ON GROWTH AND NUTRITIVE COMPOSITION OF SOYBEAN PLANTS
ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI* AND SOALIHA AHMED

COMBINED EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE ON GROWTH AND NUTRITIVE COMPOSITION OF SOYBEAN PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out in a field located at Department of Botany, University of Karachi where soil was treated with various concentrations of pesticides before sowing. Combined effects of pesticides on soybean growth and nutritive composition of seeds were observed. Pesticide treated soil had significant effects on leaf growth components such as leaf area ratio, leaf area index, specific leaf area, net assimilation rate, leaf weight ratio and leaf area duration. Low concentration of pesticide enhanced leaf growth components at all the growth stages studied. The plants grown at the site treated with 0.25g L-1 pesticide, displayed maximum relative growth rate (RGR) and crop growth rate (CGR) compared to control. However, significant reduction in CGR and RGR were recorded at the sites treated with 0.5 and 0.75g L-1 concentration. Total phenols in leaf, shoot and fruit were used as a stress indicator to ascertain the possibility of chemical stress caused by systemic pesticide. 114 and 220% increase in total phenol at vegetative stage and 50

721-733 Download
26
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PRETREATMENTS ON THE GERMINATION OF DIFFERENT WILD CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM L.) SEED SOURCES
DERYA EŞEN, OKTAY YILDIZ, EMRAH ÇIÇEK, SEMSETTIN KULAÇ AND ÇIGDEM KUTSAL

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PRETREATMENTS ON THE GERMINATION OF DIFFERENT WILD CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM L.) SEED SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is an important native hardwood species of Turkey with its high-valued wood. It is also listed as a 'noble hardwood' in Europe with strongly emphasized conservation, sustainable use and genetic potential. Wild cherry seeds are deeply dormant, and level of dormancy may vary significantly within the species. This causes substantial difficulties during seedling production. The effects of different artificial and natural pretreatments in seed germination of three Turkish wild cherry seed sources was examined. The effects of different 0.1 % citric acid soaking treatments prior to cold stratification on the seed germination of a separate seed source was also examined. Pretreatments made significant effects on speed of and cumulative seed germination with substantially different seed source responses. Successive periods of complex, warm and cold artificial stratification regimes rather than cold period alone as well as natural stratification substantially improved the dormancy breaking and germination of wild cherry seeds. Seeds from K. Eregli were superior over those of the other seed sources in both speed and cumulative rate of germination. Seeds soaked in 0.1% citric acid for 48 hours followed by a 90-day cold stratification period enhanced germination significantly, yet longer acid exposures decreased seed germination substantially.

735-743 Download
27
ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PHYTOLACCA BACCIS (POKE ROOT) EXTRACT INCREASES BRAIN SEROTONIN METABOLISM AND DECREASES FOOD INTAKE IN RATS
SAIDA HAIDER, MISBAH ROOHI, SAIMA KHALIQ, TAHIRA PERVEEN AND DARAKHSHAN J. HALEEM

ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PHYTOLACCA BACCIS (POKE ROOT) EXTRACT INCREASES BRAIN SEROTONIN METABOLISM AND DECREASES FOOD INTAKE IN RATS
ABSTRACT:
Central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Evidence also shows that causes of obesity are also linked to the brain serotonin levels. Most of the medications for the treatment of obesity work by increasing the availability of anorexiogenic neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present work Phytolacca baccis, a weight reducing homeopathic medication was used to study its effects on food intake and brain serotonin metabolism in rats. After 4 weeks of daily administration of drug, the rats exhibited a decrease in food intake and body weight. Brain serotonin metabolism on the other hand increased. The drug also exhibited anxiogenic effects in rats when tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM). The results of the present study suggest that Phytolacca baccis induced increases of brain 5-HT levels may be involved in the weight reducing effects of the drug.

745-750 Download
28
OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS CHARA (CHAROPHYTA) IN SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN
SAIDA HAIDER, MISBAH ROOHI, SAIMA KHALIQ, TAHIRA PERVEEN AND DARAKHSHAN J. HALEEM

OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS CHARA (CHAROPHYTA) IN SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICT OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Evidence also shows that causes of obesity are also linked to the brain serotonin levels. Most of the medications for the treatment of obesity work by increasing the availability of anorexiogenic neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present work Phytolacca baccis, a weight reducing homeopathic medication was used to study its effects on food intake and brain serotonin metabolism in rats. After 4 weeks of daily administration of drug, the rats exhibited a decrease in food intake and body weight. Brain serotonin metabolism on the other hand increased. The drug also exhibited anxiogenic effects in rats when tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM). The results of the present study suggest that Phytolacca baccis induced increases of brain 5-HT levels may be involved in the weight reducing effects of the drug.

751-755 Download
29
IMMUNOASSAY-BASED APPROACH FOR DETECTION OF NOVEL BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS -ENDOTOXINS, ENTOMOCIDAL TO COTTON APHIDS (APHIS GOSSYPII) AND WHITEFLIES (BEMISIA TABACI)
KAUSAR MALIK AND SHEIKH RIAZUDDIN

IMMUNOASSAY-BASED APPROACH FOR DETECTION OF NOVEL BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS -ENDOTOXINS, ENTOMOCIDAL TO COTTON APHIDS (APHIS GOSSYPII) AND WHITEFLIES (BEMISIA TABACI)
ABSTRACT:
A new strategy, which is based on immunoassay, has been developed to screen locally isolated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Delta endotoxins of three Bt strains (INS 2.13, HFZ 24.3 and GU 9.1) were prepared, electrophoresed on native PAGE and electroeluted the purified delta endotoxins from gels. Determined the toxicity of purified delta endotoxins against cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) and whiteflies (B. tabaci). N-terminal sequences of the purified proteins (d endotoxins) of these three entomocidal Bt isolates showed no significant homology to protein sequences in the Gen bank (NCBI) protein database. The purified proteins having novelty in their sequences were used as antigens for the immunization of rabbits to raise polyclonal antibodies. The affinity purified antibodies were used in immunoassays to screen 170 Bt isolates for entomocidal activity and obtained promising results.

757-765 Download
30
IDENTIFICATION, PURIFICATION, CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A NOVEL RECEPTOR FOR BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS CRY1A DELTA-ENDOTOXINS IN THE BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANES OF THE HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
KAUSAR MALIK, SHEIKH AMER RIAZUDDIN AND SHEIKH RIAZUDDIN

IDENTIFICATION, PURIFICATION, CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A NOVEL RECEPTOR FOR BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS CRY1A DELTA-ENDOTOXINS IN THE BRUSH BORDER MEMBRANES OF THE HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
ABSTRACT:
Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are effective in controlling agriculturally and biomedically harmful insects. However, little is known about the mechanism of insecticidal activity of these proteins. We report here a 65 kDa Protein present in the extract of the larval midgut membrane of Helicoverpa armigera as putative receptor for Bt Cry1A delta-endotoxin, on the basis of binding affinity to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not to Cry2A. The protein has been highly purified by a combination of chromatography, electrophoresis and isoelectrifocussing techniques. The isolated protein exists as an oligodimer in its native form. The purified protein exhibits amino-peptidase activity. N-terminal sequence of the purified protein shows no homology to protein sequences in the Gen bank (NCBI) protein database. Degenerate primers were designed, based on N-terminal sequence of the purified protein and hybridization of Probe with mRNAs of Helicoverpa armigera indicated sequence complementarity. The structural gene of this purified protein was cloned in pGEX-4T-3 expression vector. The cloned Protein exhibited binding properties, aminopeptidase activity and other characteristics of native protein of Helicoverpa armigera. Larval mortality of Helicoverpa armigera to Cry1A toxin was considerably reduced when the larvae were pre-fed a diet containing antibodies to the 65 kDa protein, presumably due to blocking of the receptor sites in BBMVs.

767-778 Download
31
MANIPULATION OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND METHODS FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT HABITATS
RUBINA ARSHAD, SHAFQAT FAROOQ AND SAYYED SHAHID ALI**

MANIPULATION OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND METHODS FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT HABITATS
ABSTRACT:
Rapid and reliable identification of about 400 isolates of Escherichia coli collected from soil, water, plants and animal faeces was made by membrane filtration (MF), culture media and biochemical methods. Utilization of three types of selective and differential agar media (MacConkey, Eosin Methylene Blue: EBM and Endo agar) rather than one increased the chances of successful isolation/identification. The identified bacteria were re-confirmed through the use of biochemical (IMViC) tests, and diagnostic kits made for this purpose. The results obtained after comparative studies indicated that isolation media and methods used in the present study are not only simple and reliable for large-scale bacterial identification but at the same time are more cost-effective compared to commercially available diagnostic kits. It is anticipated that by using such methods, isolation and identification of E. coli can be done effectively without importing expensive diagnostic kits, which is most often difficult especially in the developing countries and thus becomes limiting factor for microbiological investigations.

779-789 Download
32
CHARACTERIZATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF BACTERIAL DIVERSITY COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS LOCAL HABITATS-1. DIVERSITY IN ESCHERICHIA COLI
RUBINA ARSHAD*, SHAFQAT FAROOQ AND SYED SHAHID ALI

CHARACTERIZATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF BACTERIAL DIVERSITY COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS LOCAL HABITATS-1. DIVERSITY IN ESCHERICHIA COLI
ABSTRACT:
Escherichia coli strains have been collected from different local habitats including soil, water, plants, animals and human faces. These strains were characterized for different penicillin acylases (PA), which hydrolyse penicillin G and/or V to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA): a key intermediate of semi synthetic penicillin. The study was conducted with the objectives to describe i) parameters used to differentiate different isolates, ii) to report variation in strains to produce various acylases, iii) to describe the importance and utilization of various strains and iv) to introduce to other microbiologists the E. coli strains collected and maintained by bacterial diversity collection section (BDCS) of NIAB. Our ultimate aim is to maintain a collection of locally isolated E. coli to supplement the on-going efforts of isolating new PA producing bacteria. About 98 % of the collected E. coli strains can produce penicillin G and amplicillin acylases while penicillin V acylase was exhibited by 57% strains. Co-existence of penicillin acylase and -lactamase was observed in all the strains. Some of the strains also possessed co-existence of more than three acylases. Based on the variability in the production of various acylases, 79 E. coli strains were differentiated, which are being described with the hope that in the post WTO era these strains would be able to provide the help to local industry and researchers.

791-797 Download
33
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME NATURALLY GROWING AND EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
MUHSIN KONUK, AHMET AFYON*, AND DURSUN YAGIZ*

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME NATURALLY GROWING AND EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
ABSTRACT:
Water, dried material, pH, protein, ash, lipid, cellulose, non-cellulose carbohydrate, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Zn contents of 15 edible and naturally growing mushrooms from Western Black Sea Region of Turkey have been analysed. Both organic and inorganic elements were analysed statistically by Pearson correlation analyse and some statistically meaningful values were obtained among the data obtained. Chemical analysis results also showed that mushrooms have large amount of protein and minerals, but lipid concentration is very low.

799-804 Download
34
ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM AVICENNIA MARINA
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND FATIMA S. MEHDI

ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM AVICENNIA MARINA
ABSTRACT:
A total number of 37 species of fungi belonging to 21 genera were isolated from different parts of Avicennia marina plant collected from different coastal areas of Pakistan. Of these 16 fungal species are new reports from Pakistan. Of the different plant parts, highest numbers of fungi were isolated from leaves followed by stem and pneumatophore. Greatrr numbers of fungi were observed from Sandspit, West wharf and Boat basin.

805-810 Download
35
USE OF AVICENNIA MARINA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON OKRA AND MASH BEAN
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, FATIMA S. MEHDI AND M. JAVED ZAKI

USE OF AVICENNIA MARINA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON OKRA AND MASH BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Use of leaves, stem and pneumatophore of Avicennia marina in the control the root infecting fungi viz., Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on mash bean and okra plants was observed. Germination of seeds, shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight were significantly increased in both okra and mash bean where A. marina plant parts viz., stem and pneumatophore powder was used @ 5% w/w. Infection of Fusarium spp., R. solani and M. phaseolina was significantly reduced in okra and mash bean plants where soil was amended with A. marina plant parts powder @ 5% w/w. A. marina leaves powder was more effective in control of root infecting fungi followed by stem and pneumatophore.

811-815 Download
36
ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOSORPTION OF ZINC BY INDIGENOUS FUNGAL STRAINS ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS RH05 AND ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RH07
R. FARYAL*, A. LODHI* AND A. HAMEED*

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOSORPTION OF ZINC BY INDIGENOUS FUNGAL STRAINS ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS RH05 AND ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RH07
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metal pollution of soil, water bodies and air is one of the major issues in Pakistan. In order to develop a biosorbent for removal of Zn from wastewater, a study was designed in which fungi were isolated from soil of local textile industry. Major fungal genera observed were Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Rhodotorula sp., Dreshlera sp., and Curvularia sp. Resistance studies were carried out on Sabouraud- dextrose agar. A. flavus RH07 and A. fumigatus RH05 showed maximum resistance for Zn (6500mg/L). A. flavus RH07 and A. fumigatus RH05 were selected and characterized for growth and Zn detoxification studies. Optimum pH and temperature for Zn detoxification were 5.0 and 28oC, respectively, for A. fumigatus RH05 whereas, A. flavus RH07 showed Zn biosorption at optimum pH 4.0 and temperature 28oC in growing condition. Non-growing biomass of Aspergillus fumigatus RH05 and Aspergillus flavus RH07 served as better biosorbents. Temperature and pH were vital parameters, which affected the rate of Zn removal by both Aspergillus fumigatus RH05 and Aspergillus flavus RH07. Oven dried dead biomass of both strains was best adsorbent over a wide pH and temperature range.

817-832 Download
37
PREVALENCE OF DERMATOPHYTIC INFECTIONS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN DURING THE YEAR 2003-2004
FARHEEN ANSARI AND SHAMEEM ARA SIDDIQUI

PREVALENCE OF DERMATOPHYTIC INFECTIONS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN DURING THE YEAR 2003-2004
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out using clinical material from patients having dermatophytic infection of hair, skin and nails in Karachi during the year 2003-2004. Of the 90 samples collected from the Institute of Skin Diseases, Karachi, 51 (30 males and 21 females) were found positive for dermatophytic infections, all belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Of the five species isolated and identified, Trichophyton violaceum 21 (41%) was found to be the most prevalent followed by T. rubrum 14 (27%), T. tonsurans 9 (18%), T. verrucosum 6 (12%) and T. mentagrophytes one (2%). The incidence of infection was seen to be the highest in patients of the age of 20 years.

833-836 Download
38
SOME UREDINALES FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ASIM SULTAN*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ,A.N. KHALID1 AND RUKHSANA BAJWA2

SOME UREDINALES FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During a survey of rust flora of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Melampsora chelidonii-pierotii, Phragmidium bulbosum, P. mysorense, Puccinia ambigua, P. arthraxonis-ciliaris, P. sonchii and P. pimpinellae have been found infecting different plant species. Out of these Melampsora chelidonii-pierotii and P. arthraxonis-ciliaris are addition to our rust flora. The aecial stages of P. pimpinellae, Phragmidium bulbosum and P. mysorense, uredinial stage of Puccinia ambigua and telial stage of P. sonchii are reported for the first time from Pakistan.

837-841 Download
39
CORRELATION BETWEEN PLANT GROWTH AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION IN SOME RAINY SEASON GRASSES
TEHMINA ANJUM, ARSHAD JAVAID* AND M. BABUR MAHMOOD SHAH

CORRELATION BETWEEN PLANT GROWTH AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION IN SOME RAINY SEASON GRASSES
ABSTRACT:
Mycorrhizal status and correlation between plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization of 13 rainy season grasses of Punjab, Pakistan viz. Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & Hubb., Dactyloctenium aegyptium Beauv., Digitaria timorensis (Kunth) Balansa, Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link, Eleusine indica Gaetn., Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv., E. tenella Roem. & Schult., Leptochloa chinensis Nees, Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus, Setaria glauca Beauv., Setaria verticillata Beauv., Urochloa panicoides Beauv., were studied. A great variation in different root and shoot growth parameters was recorded in different grasses. All the test grass species were found to be mycorrhizal. However, there was a great variation in degree of mycorrhizal colonization in different grass species. Mycelial, arbuscular and vesicular infections ranged from 21-82%, 0-56% and 4-42% in various test grasses. D. timorensis, B. ramose, B. reptans and E. tenella were found to be the more densely colonized grasses than rest of the test species. Mycelial and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with different root and shoot growth parameters. However, the correlations between different mycorrhizal and root/shoot growth parameters were insignificant.

843-849 Download
40
RESPONSE OF BLACK GRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] TO BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM INOCULATION UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL AMENDMENT SYSTEMS
ARSHAD JAVAID* , RUKHSANA BAJWA AND TEHMINA ANJUM

RESPONSE OF BLACK GRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] TO BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM INOCULATION UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL AMENDMENT SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Growth, nodulation and yield response of Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] to inoculation by two strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum viz., TAL-102 and MN-S was studied in different soil amendment systems. Soil was used either un-amended or amended with farmyard manure (FYM), Trifolium alexandrianum L., green manure (GM) or NPK fertilizers. In FYM and GM amendments, inoculation failed to induce any change in nodulation while in un-amended and NPK amended soils inoculation resulted in an increase in number and biomass of nodules. Effect of inoculation was more pronounced in NPK than in un-amended soil. In un-amended and FYM amendment, inoculation failed to induce any significant change in shoot biomass and grain yield while in GM amendment inoculation resulted in a significant reduction in the said parameters. In NPK fertilizers amendment, the enhanced nodulation in response to bradyrhizobial inoculation resulted in a subsequent increase in shoot biomass and grain yield. Grain yield was positively correlated with nodule biomass in FYM and NPK fertilizers amendments.

851-857 Download
41
DETECTION OF YEAST MYCOFLORA FROM MILK AND YOGURT IN PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, FAIZA-IFTIKHAR1 AND SHARFUN-NAHAR2

DETECTION OF YEAST MYCOFLORA FROM MILK AND YOGURT IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirty five yeast species belonging to 14 genera from milk and 16 species belonging to 9 genera from samples of yogurt were isolated, and identified on the basis of morphological and physiological/biochemical characteristics. These included teleomorphic and anamorphic ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeast species. All yeast species appear to be new report from Pakistan. Bullera pyricola¸ Candida succiphila, Debaryomyces castellii, D. hansenii and Pichia angusta were predominantly isolated from samples of milk as compared to yogurt.

859-868 Download
42
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PEPPERMINT
SABAHAT SAEED, ASMA NAIM AND PERWEEN TARIQ

IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PEPPERMINT
ABSTRACT:
Antibacterial activities of different forms of peppermint (Mentha piperita) viz., aqueous infusion, decoction, juice and essential oil were investigated against 100 isolates belonging to 11 different species of Gram -ve bacilli viz., Escherichia coli (30), Klebsiella pneumoniae (25), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15), Salmonella typhi

869-872 Download
43
FUNGI DETECTED ON SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS (RITHA) FRUIT FROM MIANI FOREST IN HYDERABAD, SINDH
SHAISTA AKHUND, MUHAMMAD SUHAIL, ISHRAT RANI AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

FUNGI DETECTED ON SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS (RITHA) FRUIT FROM MIANI FOREST IN HYDERABAD, SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Ritha or Soapnut tree (Sapindus trifoliatus) is a beautiful, tropical, deciduous tree of Asian continent. The species is indigenous to India and China and widely cultivated in upper reaches of Indo-Gangetic plains, Shivaliks and sub-Himalayan tracts at altitudes 200m to1500m asl (Levavi Oculos

873-874 Download
44
EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT OF COTTON CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. VASINFECTUM
ABDUL QAYOOM RAJPUT, M. H. ARAIN, *M. A. PATHAN, *M. M. JISKANI AND *A. M. LODHI

EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT OF COTTON CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. VASINFECTUM
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Snyd. & Hans was isolated from wilted cotton plants collected from Shahdad Pur and Tando Jam. Pathogenicity test of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was conducted on four cotton varieties viz, Cris-9, TH-41/83. CIM-448 and Shahbaz-95. The growth of artificially inoculated plants of Cris-9 and TH-41/83 significantly reduced and plants were completely dried after 20 days of inoculation. The numbers of germinated plants were also lower as compared to Shahbaz-95 and CIM-448. Carbendazim at its three doses significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus followed by Thiophanate methyl and Dithane M-45. There was not significant difference in mycelial growth of the fungus on Thiovit (35.75 mm) and control (37.87 mm) in which fungicide was not used. The maximum root and shoot length of cotton varieties was recorded with Carbendazim followed by Thiophanate methyl. The growth was significantly increased in Shahbaz-95 and CIM-448 as compared to Cris-9 and TH-41/83 varieties. Carbendazim also significantly reduced the colonization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on root pieces of Cris-9 variety. The growth of Cris-9 also increased when plants were inoculated with low level of inoculum (10.75cm and 12.25cm) than at high inoculum levels (6.72cm and 5.85cm).

875-880 Download
45
EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
FOUZIA YAQUB AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
ABSTRACT:
Six fungicides viz., Benomyl, Sancozeb, Thiovit, Dithane M-45, Carbandazim and Topsin-M were tested against Sclerotium rolfsii by food poison method. At low concentration, no fungicide inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii, however, at high concentration Dithane M-45 and Sencozeb significantly reduced the growth.

881-883 Download
46
EFFECT OF MEDIUM, TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON IN VITRO GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE ISOLATED FROM MANGO
MUHAMMAD ALI KHANZADA, ABDUL QAYOOM RAJPUT AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFECT OF MEDIUM, TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON IN VITRO GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE ISOLATED FROM MANGO
ABSTRACT:
In this study the effects of culture media, temperature, light and fertilizers on mycelial growth and pycnidial production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae were evaluated. Potato sucrose agar (PSA), Corn meal agar (CMDA) and Yeast extract manitol agar (YEMA) were most suitable for mycelial growth of the test fungus. Potato carrot agar (PCA) was not suitable for either mycelial growth or pycnidia production. The YEMA appeared to be the best medium for pycnidial formation. The fungus grew from 20 to 45ºC, with optimum growth at 30-40ºC with no growth below 15ºC. The maximum numbers of pycnidia were produced at 35-40ºC. Different light regimes had no impact on mycelium growth and pycnidia production. The increasing concentrations of urea and DAP reduced the mycelial growth and pycnidia production.

885-889 Download
47
COPRINUS CINEREUS A NEW REPORT FROM GILGIT VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

COPRINUS CINEREUS A NEW REPORT FROM GILGIT VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Coprinus cinereus is reported for the first time from Gilgit valley, Pakistan. This inedible species is characterized by the production of white fruiting body with black gills and ellipsoid spores 6-7x10-12µm in size.

891-892 Download
48
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF GREEN NOCTILUCA SCINTILLANS BLOOMS IN COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN, NORTH ARABIAN SEA
FURQANA CHAGHTAI AND S.M. SAIFULLAH*

ON THE OCCURRENCE OF GREEN NOCTILUCA SCINTILLANS BLOOMS IN COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN, NORTH ARABIAN SEA
ABSTRACT:
The green Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid & Swezy 1921 and its green water discolouration are reported here for the first time from the coastal waters of Northwest Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan. The symbiont present inside was recognized as Pedinomonas noctilucae (Subrahmanyan) Sweeney. Patches of green water were observed occasionally in the highly polluted coastal areas with dense mangrove vegetation during five-year period. The concentration of the organism was as high as 2.4 million cells per liter imparting green coloration to the seawater, which lasted for about a week.

893-898 Download
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