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Year 1994 , Volume  26, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
DR. SULTAN AHMAD (1910-1983)
A. GHAFFAR AND S. I. ALI

DR. SULTAN AHMAD (1910-1983)
ABSTRACT:
 Dr. Sultan Ahmad, an eminent mycologist, died of heart attack on 11 th November 1983 in Lahore after a long illness. He was a chronic patient of diabetes melitus. In the later part of his life he developed retinopathy, suffered from renal failure and remained on dialysis before breathing his last. May God Almighty shower His blessings upon the departed soul and may his soul rest in eternal peace in heaven. Amen.Dr. Sultan Ahmad was born on 6th June 1910 at Ladhar, Sheikhupura, Punjab, now Pakistan. He obtained his M.Sc degree in 1932 from the University of the Punjab, Labore where he worked with Prof. S.R. Kashyap on Aithisoniella himalyensis Kash. He also obtained the B.Ed. degree from the Punjab University, Lahore in 1934 and served as a teacher in a High School in Gujrat and then as a Lecturer in Biology at Rohtak. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, he returned to Lahore and joined the Government College, Lahore. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1950 for his work on Gasteromycetes of West Pakistan which he submitted under the supervision of Professor Dr. Ahmad Ali Qureshi and later D.Sc in 1957 from the University of the Punjab. Dr. Sultan Ahmad retired as Professor and Head of the Department of Botany, Government College Lahore in 1970. The University of the Punjab appointed him as Professor Emeritus in 1972 and Dr. Sultan Ahmad continued to involve himself in research work on the fungi of Pakistan.

201-202 Download
2
STUDIES ON THE FRESHWATER ALGAE OF MAKKAH AREA, SAUDI ARABIA
M.E.E. EL-NAGGAR

STUDIES ON THE FRESHWATER ALGAE OF MAKKAH AREA, SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
The composition and distribution of fresh-water algae in Makkah area of Saudi Arabia were investigated. Of a total number of 107 species recorded, 37 belong to Cyanophyta, 34 to Bacillariophyta, 29 to Chlorophyta, 6 to Euglenophyta and 1 to Pyrrhophyta. The most common genera were Oscillatoria (14 spp.), Spirogyra (8 spp.), Navicula (7 spp.), Nitzschia (7 spp.), Gloeocapsa and Euglena (each with 4 spp.) where Merismopedia elegans, Oscillatoria amphibia and O. tenuiswere most widely distributed. AI-Taif locality had 64 algal species. Among the dominant algae in Makkah area, the green alga Oedogonium gracilis was chemically investigated and was characterized by having high amount of ash and protein, 17 amino acids where glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid and leucine were predominant.

203-213 Download
3
RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GENUS POROPSIS KÜTZ
MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN, FATHALLA A. EL-MENIFI* AND M. GODEH*

RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GENUS POROPSIS KÜTZ
ABSTRACT:
Poropsis Kütz., is retained as a genus of its own because of smooth axes, absence of articulations and lobules.

215-219 Download
4
FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH PISTACIA VERA
ZAKIA BILGRAMI AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH PISTACIA VERA
ABSTRACT:
Using ISTA techniques, 9 genera and 22 species of fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Aspergillus candidus, A. clavatus, A. jlavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. wentii, Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Cladosporium sp, D. state of Cochliobolus spiciJer, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum, Fusarium spp., Penicillium camemberti, P. decumbens, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus sp., and Trichodenna harzianum were isolated from different parts of pistachio nuts collected from different parts of Pakistan. Of these, A. jlavus and A. niger were found predominant. The cotyledons were infected by greater number of fungi with less infection in shell, seed coat and axis (radicle and plumule). Less number of fungi were isolated by deep freezing method as compared to agar plate and blotter methods. Sterilization of seeds with 1% Ca(OCI)2 reduced the infection of Aspergillus species only.

221-228 Download
5
USE OF VERTICILLIUM CHLAMYDOSPORIUM IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ROOT-ROT DISEASE OF CHICKPEA
S. EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE, M..J. ZAKI* ,M.ABID** AND A.GHAFFAR

USE OF VERTICILLIUM CHLAMYDOSPORIUM IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ROOT-ROT DISEASE OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Verticillium chlamydosporium isolated from eggs of Meloidogyne incognita, root knot nematode, inhibited the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani Fusarium solani and F.oxysporum in vitro. In a field experiment v.chlamydosporium was found more or equally effective than Paecilomyces lilacinus, Talaromyces flavus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in controlling the infection of M.phaseolina, R.solani, F.oxysporum and F.solani in chickpea. Combined use ofv.chlamydosporium and B. japonicum showed betler control of F.oxysporum than their separate use. Combined use of B.japonicum and T.flavus produced greater plant height and fresh weight of shoot in chickpea.

229-233 Download
6
PSEUDOMONAS FLORA OF CITRUS-PLANT NURSERIES IN THE JORDAN VALLEY
MAHMUD ABUSSAUD AND BAYEN MAHAWREH

PSEUDOMONAS FLORA OF CITRUS-PLANT NURSERIES IN THE JORDAN VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
Pscudomonas species isolated from soils cultivated with citrus plants (204) and plant galls (46) in the Jordan Valley were physiologically and biochemically classified into fluorescent group (74) and nonfluorescent group (176). All plant gali isolates belong to fluorescent group. The soil isolates (145) and the plant gall isolates (46) were pathogenic to tobacco plants. The non-fluorescent group included: P. maltuphilia (53), P. cepaeia (41), P. avenae (21), P. solanacearun (20), P. cissicola (18), P. cattleya (8), P. paucimobilis (4), P. citrulli (3), P. mesophiliea (3), P. andmpogonis (3) and P. amygdali (2) and the fluorescent group P. syringae (62), P. fluorescens (7) and P. chlororaphis (5).

235-240 Download
7
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN NITROGEN-FIXING ABILITY (C2H2 REDUCTION) AND HYDROGEN UPTAKE BY ROOT NODULES OF CORlARIA NEPALENSIS ANDDATISCA CANNABINAI
M. SAJJAD MIRZA, A.H. CHAUDHARY1 AND A.D.L. AKKERMANS2

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN NITROGEN-FIXING ABILITY (C2H2 REDUCTION) AND HYDROGEN UPTAKE BY ROOT NODULES OF CORlARIA NEPALENSIS ANDDATISCA CANNABINAI
ABSTRACT:
 A study was made on the seasonal fluctuations in N2-fixing (C2H2 reduction) activity and uptake hydrogenase activity of the root nodules of Coriaria nepalensis and Datisca cannabina. Nitrogenase activity of the nodules of both plants showed biphasic curves with peaks in spring and late summer. Acetylene reduction by the root nodules of Coriaria nepalensis was highest (16.4 µ mol. C2H4 g-1 fresh nodule Wt. h-1) during July while the peak acetylene reduction activity (14.8 µ mol. C2H4 g-1 fresh nodule wt. h-1) of Dansca cannabina nodules was determined in April. Less than 15% of the enzyme activity was retained by the nodules in winter. The nodules of both plant species consumed hydrogen on incubation with a gas mixture containing H2 indicating an uptake hydrogenase activity. The H2 uptake by the excised nodules of both Coriaria and Dalisca was highest (2.16 and 1.95 µ mol. H2 consumed g-1 fresh nodule Wt. h-1, respectively) in May. The presence of an uptake hydrogenase was confirmed in nodule homogenates with phenazine metasulphate as an artificial electron acceptor. Purified vesicle cluster suspensions (20 µm residue) showed highest hydrogenase activity, indicating that the enzyme is associated with the endophyte.

241-246 Download
8
CONFIRMATION OF AN ISOLATE FROM DATISCA CANNABINA AS ATYPICAL FRANKIA STRAIN USING PCR AMPLIFIED 16S rRNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
SOHAIL HAMEED, FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ, M.SAJJAD MIRZA, KAUSER A. MALIK AND ANTOON D.L. AKKERMANS*

CONFIRMATION OF AN ISOLATE FROM DATISCA CANNABINA AS ATYPICAL FRANKIA STRAIN USING PCR AMPLIFIED 16S rRNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
An actinomycete (Dc2) was isolated from the nitrogen fixing root nodules of Dalisca cannabina. The actinomycete Conned hyphae and sporangia, like typical Frankia strains but failed to infect host plants. This noninfective isolate was confirmed as Frankia by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

247-251 Download
9
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH OF RHIZOBIUM SPP., NODULATION AND HEIGHT OF PROSOPIS SPECIES
DURR-E-HABIB ROOMI, A. GHAFFAR, R. AHMAD AND S. ISMAIL

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH OF RHIZOBIUM SPP., NODULATION AND HEIGHT OF PROSOPIS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of salinity on the growth of Rhizobium spp., isolated from Prosopis glandulosa and P. juliflora was studied in vitro. Growth of Rhizobium isolated from both Prosopis species increased at all salinity levels as compared with the control (0.01 %) except at 1% NaC1 level. Rhizobium sp., isolated from P. glandulosa showed a gradual decline as salinity increased from 0.3 to 1.0%; that isolated from P. juliflora showed a decline as salinity increased from 0.2 to 1.0%. Increasing salinity caused a gradual reduction in seed germination, height of the plant, number of nodules per plant and nodule size.

253-258 Download
10
SALT TOLERANCE STUDIES ON PANICUM ANTIDOTALE RETZ.
EJAZ RASUL, TAHIR RIZWAN SOHAIL AND KHALID MAHMOOD

SALT TOLERANCE STUDIES ON PANICUM ANTIDOTALE RETZ.
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance of Pallicum antidotale Retz., was studied using gravel culture with root medium electricaI conductivity (EC) levels ranging from 3 to 20 dS/m. Salinity decreased the seed germination and plant powth. A 50% relative-to-control reduction in dry mass yield was observed at EC 15.9 dS/m. Na contents in plant shoots increased whereas K contents decreased in response to increasing salinity. Ca concentration exhibited non-significant variation over control. CI contcnt alongwith N and protein percentage increased with increasing root medium salinity.

259-263 Download
11
SCREENING OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS spp.) FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION AT BARREN SANDY AREAS USING HIGHLY SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATION
RAFIQ AHMAD, SHOAIB ISMAIL, M. MOINUDDIN AND TARANA SHAHEEN

SCREENING OF MESQUITE (PROSOPIS spp.) FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION AT BARREN SANDY AREAS USING HIGHLY SALINE WATER FOR IRRIGATION
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were carried out to screen local and exotic species/accession/provenances of Prosopis species at germination and seedling stages under salinity conditions. Field trials were also undertaken to .Iuate potential species/ accessions /provenances under salt stress. Seeds of indigenous P. juliflora and P.giandulosa showed higher germination than seeds of P. cineraria and the exotic species under non.tine as well as under different levels of salinity stress with EC values of NaCl solutions ranging from 030 dS.m-1 There was a decrease in germination of all species with increasing salinity levels. Seedling anergence was completely inhibited above EC 10 dS.m -1 in P. juliflora and P. cineraria and above EC 15 dS.m-1 in P. glandulosa. Growth of 3 indigenous and 2 exotic Prosopis species/provenances in pots containing sandy soil irrigated with dilutions of sea water adjusted at ECiw : of 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS.m -1 showed that P. glandulosa did not survive beyond ECiw : of 20 dS.m-1. Among the surviving plants, P. juliflora obtained from Brazil grew at the highest salt concentration and showed minimum biomass reduction in comparision with other species. In a field experiment, seedlings of 12 indigenous and 8 exotic species/accessions/provenances of Proscpis transplanted under field conditions and irrigated with saline water (EC: 14-16 dS.m-1) showed that the indigenous species/provenances, viz., P. juliflora (D.I Khan) and P. glandulosa(Sujawal), and the exotic species/accessions, P. alba (Acc.# 0166) and 2 South American species showed better growth in terms of plant height and stem diameter under prevailing haloxeric conditions. Importance of mesquite CIItivation for providing fodder, fuelwood, timber, and checking

265-282 Download
12
PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM DERIVED THROUGH CROSSES BE1WEEM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND AEGILOPS CYUNDRICA. I. PRODUCTION OF SALT TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM.
S. FAROOQ, M. ASGHAR, E.ASKARI AND T.M. SHAH

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM DERIVED THROUGH CROSSES BE1WEEM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND AEGILOPS CYUNDRICA. I. PRODUCTION OF SALT TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM.
ABSTRACT:
To produce salt-tolerant wheat germplasm through wide hybridization, 8 different salt-tolerant accessions of Ae. cylindrica were crossed with 3 hexaploid wheat cultivars: Pak-81, LU-26, and Shalimar88. Frequency of seed set ranged between 1.72% (Shalimar-88 x Ae. cylindrica acc. 38-53) and 52.6% (Pak81 x Ae. cylindrica acc. G.). The performance of wheat cultivars LU-26 and Shalimar-88 as female parent for F hybrid production was poor. Frequency of BC1 seed production ranged between 0.53% (Pak-81 x Ae. cylindrical I LU-26) and 8.92% (Shalimar-88 x Ae. cylindrical/ LU-26). BC1 plants with different chromosome numbers were selfed to produce BC1F1 derivatives. Seven BC1combinations produced selfed seeds ranging between 1 and 200. Six BC1 combinations did not produce selfed seeds and were backcrossed again with LU-26 to produce BC2 seeds, which ranged between 1 and 12 seeds per BC1 combInation. Of the 30 different BC2 seeds produced in different combinations, only 19 produced BC2F1 selfed seeds. All the BC2F 1 and BC1F2 seeds were tested for germination under saline solutions of EC 2.5 (control) 15, 20, and 25 dS/m. Salinity induced reduction and delay in seed germination; reduction in shoot and root length and in seedling fresh weight was observed with considerable variation among different salinity levels and among different genotypes at one salinity level. The results have been discussed with reference to the wide hybridization approach and its potential use in the production of Fneuc variability for polygenically controlled characters such as salt-tolerance.

283-292 Download
13
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINI1Y AND WATERLOGGING ON GROWfH AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN ATRIPLEX AMNICOLA PAUL G. WILSON
FARKHUNDA ALA, SHOAIB ISMAIL, RAFIQ AHMAD AND HUMAlRA MARYAM

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINI1Y AND WATERLOGGING ON GROWfH AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN ATRIPLEX AMNICOLA PAUL G. WILSON
ABSTRACT:
The interactive effects of different salt concentrations (EC: 0, 10 and 20 dS.m-1) and waterlogging levels of 75, 100 and 125% water holding capacity on growth of Atriplex amnicola Paul G. Wilson in sandy loam and silty loam soils was studied. Plant growth in terms of shoot volume decreased in salinity treatments, with no significant differences at waterlogging treatments. There was an increase in shoot volume in silty loam soil as compared to sandy loam soil. Leaf area: weight ratio (LA:W) showed definite responces to both salinity and waterlogging treatments. Silty loam soil produced higher biomass as compared to sandy loam soil. High salt contents of EC: 20 dS,m-1at 125% WHC showed adverse effects on biomass production. In sandy loam soils, different plant parts showed non-significant variation in organic matter and ash contents for salt levels, whereas, lib contents increased and organic matter decreased at waterlogging levels. Silty loam soil exhibited low percentage of organic matter than sandy loam soils. Shoot biomass productivities correlated to both soil alinity and plant volume data. Regression equations have been calculated to determine the estimated biomass over a period of time.

293-309 Download
14
PARTITIONING OF ASSIMILATES DURING VEGETATIVE STAGES OF THE FOUR VARIETIES OF WHEAT
BUSHRA NOSHIN, IMTIAZ-UL-HAQ AND PAIGHAM SHAH

PARTITIONING OF ASSIMILATES DURING VEGETATIVE STAGES OF THE FOUR VARIETIES OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Four varieties of wheat viz., C591, C273, Pak-81 and Pirsabak-85 partitioned different proportions of assimilates to the different organs having different functions. Varieties C591 and C273 grew taller, reached anthesis stage earlier and partitioned more assimilates to stem and less to spike and leaves tiling in smaller spikes, while Pak-81 and Pirsabak-85 partitioned more assimilates to spikes and leaves thus they had larger spikes than the tall varieties. Upto anthesis the 4 varieties produced about the same total biomass indicating that Pak-81 and Pirsabak-85 had lower net assimilation rate since their total green leaf areas were greater than C591 and C273.

311-320 Download
15
BLATIONSHIP OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO POSTHARVEST WATER LOSS IN PEPPER FRUITS (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
MUHAMMAD BANARAS* ,NORMAN K. WWNDS AND PAUL W. BOSLAND

BLATIONSHIP OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO POSTHARVEST WATER LOSS IN PEPPER FRUITS (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Relationship between physical properties affecting postharvest water loss in pepper fruits wereexamined. Three pepper types viz., 'Keystone' (Bell Pepper), 'NuMex R Naky' (long green) and 'Santa AI Grande' (yellow Wax) were significantly different in their initial water content, fruit surface area, fruit surface area to volume ratio, cuticle weight and epicuticular wax content. The rates of postharvest water loss at 8,14 and 20°C were significantly different in the three pepper types. Postharvest water loss was not related to initial water content at any storage temperature or cuticle weight at 8°C. Large sized leyitone' fruits with small surface area to volume ratio and high epicuticular wax contents lost weight at significantly lower rate. No stomata on the surface of pepper fruits were found. Epicuticular wax was generally amorphous.

321-326 Download
16
EFFICACY OF HERBICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF GRASSY AND BROAD LEAF WEEDS IN WHEAT CROP AT EL-MARJ LIBYA
REHMA T ULLAH KHAN AND ABDUR RASHID

EFFICACY OF HERBICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF GRASSY AND BROAD LEAF WEEDS IN WHEAT CROP AT EL-MARJ LIBYA
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted at the Australian Demon stration Farm at EI-Marj Libya during the winter season 1988-89 and 1989-90 to determine the efficacy of herbicides on grassy and broad leaf weeds and grain yield of Wheat variety Mexicale. Herbicides viz., moxan, Brominal, Dicuran and Dosanex alone and in different combinations were tested. Illoxan 36 F.e. 2.2. lit + 2 lit Brominal H/ha and Illoxan 36 F.C 2.5 lit + llit Brominal H/ha increased the yield significantly over other treatments in 1988-89 while Dicuran 500 F.W 5 lit/ha and Dosanex F.L 6 lit/ha in 1989-90. The herbicide treatments showed varied response on weed control according to prevailing wecd infestation in both the years. Dicuran 500 P.W and Dosancx F.L were more phytotoxic than the mixture of Illoxan 36 F.C and Brominal-H.

327-330 Download
17
EFFECT OF CONTEMPORARY ROTATION SIMULATION ON THE GRAIN WEIGHT, PROTEIN AND LYSINE CONTENT OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MAQBOOL AHMAD, M.A. ARAIN AND K.A. SIDDIQUI

EFFECT OF CONTEMPORARY ROTATION SIMULATION ON THE GRAIN WEIGHT, PROTEIN AND LYSINE CONTENT OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Effect of contemporary rotation simulation on grain weight, protein and lysine content of four commercial cuhivars (Pavon, Sarsabz, Mehran 89 and T.J. 83). and 21 new promising strains of bread wheat was studied Late sowing decreased (P < 0.05) grain weight, but protein and lysine contents were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced. Correlation between grain weight and development period of grain was positive (r=0.581), whereas, development period and protein (r = -0.463) and protein and grain weight (r = -0.263)was' negative. Higher temperature in the post-anthesis period oflate sown wheats probably shortened the pin filling period, which resulted in the reduced endosperm. The reduction in endosperm due to late sowing my be responsible for lower grain weight and enhanced protein content.

331-339 Download
18
POLLEN IRRADIATION IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
M. ASLAM, R.M.S. IQBAL, M.B.CHAUDHRY AND A.A. BANDESHA

POLLEN IRRADIATION IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Response of cotton pollen to 05, 1.0, 2 and 5 kR of gammarays prior to cross pollination was determined in various cross-combinations. A low dose of 0.5 kR applied to pollen enhanced boll set and seeds per pollination, whereas pollen irradiation with higher doses of 2.0 to 5.0 kR, before cross polinations showed a sharp decline in boll set and seed production compared to control treatment. M1 generation studies showed that higher doses of 2.0 to 5.0 kR of pollen radiation decreased the emergence and survival rate whereas phenotypic and fertility changes significantly increased at 2.0 kR. Varietal response to pollen radiation was non significant for phenotypic changes but significant for fertility changes. Treatment of pollen with 0.5 to 1.0 kR of gamma-rays is suitable for inducing useful genetic ,variability in cotton.

341-346 Download
19
KARYOTYPIC STUDIES IN LENS CULINARIS MEDIC, S.SP. MACROSPERMA cv. LAIRD X PRECOZ
SHAFIQUE-UR-REHMAN AND CD. MUHAMMAD ALTAF

KARYOTYPIC STUDIES IN LENS CULINARIS MEDIC, S.SP. MACROSPERMA cv. LAIRD X PRECOZ
ABSTRACT:
Karyotypic analysis of Lens culinaris Medic., s.sp. Macrosperma Laird x Precoz was carried out to dcrermine the chromosomal positions. The diploid chromosome number was 14. The Karyotype characterized its seven pairs of chromosomes into 3 metacentric and 4 sub-metacentric pairs. No chromosome with secondary constriction was observed. The total chromosomal length of the diploid complement was 45.74 µm whereas, the average chromosomal length observed was 3.67 µm. The Karyotypic formula was K (n = 7) = 3 M+4Sm. A Karyogram and an idiogram was prepared for further cytogenetic studies.

347-352 Download
20
APPLICATION OF A SOMATIC AND MEIOTIC CYTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE TO DIVERSE PLANT GENERA AND SPECIES IN THE TRITICEAE
A. MUJEEB-KAZI, Q. JAHAN*, A.A. VAHIDY

APPLICATION OF A SOMATIC AND MEIOTIC CYTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE TO DIVERSE PLANT GENERA AND SPECIES IN THE TRITICEAE
ABSTRACT:
Within the Triticeae, cereal crop improvement alternatively exploits use of alien genetic variation emanating from several annual and perennial species. Somatic and meiotic cytological procedures are used to diagnose the presence of alien chromosomes forms, an essential component in derived progenies. Quality somatic analytical products are achieved through a high cellular mitotic index, chromosome definition, primary and secondary constriction detail, intense nuclear staining with minimum to none cytoplasmic staining and virtually no chromosome stickiness. Meiotic preparations with similar attributes are considered to be representative of high quality, where in addition separation of multivalent associations and minimum chromosome stretching are more crucial. Such cytological results described in this technique, are anticipated to serve as the basis to further build upon with other differential heterochromatin staining and molecular cytology aspects.

353-366 Download
21
Stability performance of sunflower cultivars
F.P. Xanthopoulos

Stability performance of sunflower cultivars
ABSTRACT:
This research evaluated the stability performance of sunflower cultivars in two groups of regional trials in the Northeast part of Greece. Genotype-environment interaction was measured by Ihe linear response to environmenl effects and by the deviation from linear response. The data from the two groups of cultivars showed thaI only two hybrids were stable for seed yield across the examined environments. An open pollinated variety and a hybrid that was used as checks, displayed unstable performance. The majority of sunflower cultivars followed linear response to the environmental effects. However, the unpredictable component of the genotype-environment interaction variance i.e., the deviation from the linear response, ad high variation and much more importance than the predictable component.

367-371 Download
22
Identification of different wheat genotypes through polymorphism based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
S. Farooq, T.M. Shah, E. Askari, A.A. Zaidi, M. Arif and N. Iqbal

Identification of different wheat genotypes through polymorphism based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
ABSTRACT:
Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect polymorphism in 10 different salt-tolerant wheat introgression lines produced through wide hybridization, 2 cultivated hexaploid wheat varieties, a tetraploid wheat variety and salt-tolerant accession D of Aegilops cylindrica. DNAs extracted from fresh leaves by the CTAB method were amplified using 25 µ.L reaction volume in a Perkin Elmer Thermal Cycler and randomly sequenced 10 mer synthetic primers. Based on amplification reactions, all the primers were divided into 4 categories. Category A primers reacted with all the wheat lines, category B with none, category C with 10-14, and category D with 3-7 wheat lines. Of the 18 reactive primers, 11(61%) detected polymorphism in all the test material. The level of polymorphism was low and ranged from 1.2 to 22.8%. Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands including very intense, easily visible and less visible bands. Of the 9 salt-tolerant introgression wheat lines, 6 were identified on the basis of polymorphic bands. Our study indicated possibilities for using Randon Amplified Polymorphic , DNA (RAPD) markers to detect specific variations in the genome that could be used for varietal finger printing

373-382 Download
23
Morphogenesis in the suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum cv. varginica: The effect of kinetin
Khalida Khatoon

Morphogenesis in the suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum cv. varginica: The effect of kinetin
ABSTRACT:
Suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Virginica established from epidermal tissue-derived callus on medium supplemented with 5x10-6M NAA alone or with 5xl0-7 M kinetin when subcultured on auxin licking morphogenetic medium containing kinetin, exhibited morphogenesis. The mode of regeneration was dependent on the concentration of kinetin. Low concentrations of kinetin favoured root. and embryoIe structure development while high concentration of kinetin induced tightly aggregated clusters of shoots. The regenerated structures showed a general tendency towards a gradual increase in the number of shoots with a concomitant decrease in their size at increasing concentrations of kinetin. Histological study of the embryo-like structures revealed their resemblance with the zygotic embryos.

383-392 Download
24
Plant regeneration from excised cotyledon of Aegle marmelos Corr
R. Islam, M.R. Karim, S.M. Rahman, M. Hussain and O.I. Joarder

Plant regeneration from excised cotyledon of Aegle marmelos Corr
ABSTRACT:
A protocol for excising and culturing cotyledon explants from seeds of different ages of Aegle marmelos was developed. Cotyledon explants formed callus and shoot buds on agarsolidified Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium containing several combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). The highest frequency of adventitious bud forming explants and maximum number of shoots per explant were obtained from 110-150 days old cotyledons. BAP with lAA or GA3gave better result than BAP alone. Shoots were elongated by transferring explants with shoot buds to same basal medium containing 1.0 mg/I kinetin (kn) and 0.1 mg/I lAA. The in vitro regenerated shoots rooted when cultured on half strength MS medium containing 25 mg/I indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regeneration by this method may be useful for mass propagation of A. marmelos.

393-396 Download
25
S.E.M. studies of trichome types in representative species of the sect. Polyactium and Sect. Ligularia in the genus Pelargonium L. Her. (Geraniaceae)
Syeda Saleha Tahir, Maria Liz-Balchin, S.Z. Husain and M.T.M. Rajput

S.E.M. studies of trichome types in representative species of the sect. Polyactium and Sect. Ligularia in the genus Pelargonium L. Her. (Geraniaceae)
ABSTRACT:
Trichomes from the leaves of 11 species of Pelargonium L' Herit., were examined with the S.E.M. Trichomes observed were of either non-glandular unicellular and uniseriate-type or were glandular, uniserrate stalk of different length, with a unicellular head consisting of spherical or oblong spherical terminal cell. The surface of the trichomes were smooth to granulate-tuberculate. The study revealed that trichomes of the leaf indumentum can be used as an additional aid in the identification and determination of relationship between the species.

397-407 Download
26
Micromorphological studies of seven specIes of the genus Medicago L., (Fabaceae) from Pakistan
S.Z. Husain, Khadija Aziz, Saleha Tahir Syeda and Nusrat Jahan

Micromorphological studies of seven specIes of the genus Medicago L., (Fabaceae) from Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
Using Scanning Electron Microscope a micromorphological study of leaf and seed coat surfaces of all the 7 species in the genus Medicago L, from Pakistan was carried out. The seed coat sculpturing revealed 3 main surface patterns viz., verrucate, papillate and rumeniate-tugose. Leaf epidermis was found to be covered with waxy material in all taxa, exhibiting verrucate to colliculate pattern with irregular arrangement of cells. Leaf trichomes are unicellular with granulate surfaces. A key based on micromorphological characters observed has been proposed to identify the species.

409-419 Download
27
Pollen Flora of Pakistan - 1. Malvaceae
Anjum Perveen, Shahida Siddiqui, Amir Fatima and M. Qaiser

Pollen Flora of Pakistan - 1. Malvaceae
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 42 species belonging to 12 genera of the family Malvaceae from Pakistan were examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen morphology of the family is fairly uniform. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical apolar, rarely isopolar (Abutilon), mostly spheroidal to oblate - spheroidal rarely sub-oblate, pantoporate or triporate zonoaperturate. Tectum uniformly echinate, medium to finely -perforated, or punctate with granules or scabrae in between spines. On the basis of various pollen characters viz., polarity, , diameter of grains, exine thickness and spines size, 6 distinct pollen types recognized areAbelmoschus crinitus - type, Abutilon indicum - type, Hibiscus aristi-valvis type, Malva parviflora - type, Senra incana - type aml Sida ovata - type.

421-440 Download
28
Effect of Meloidogyne graminicola on root growth of rice and Echinochloa colonum L.
M.H. Soomro and N.G.M. Hague

Effect of Meloidogyne graminicola on root growth of rice and Echinochloa colonum L.
ABSTRACT:
The effect of Meloidogyne graminicola on root morphology and growth of rice and the Echinochloa colonum grass was investigated under glasshouse conditions. Invasion by nematode juveniles reduced total root length and the length of axes and laterals in both hosts, while the number of axes (nodal) in infested rice roots increased due to nematode invasion. On infested roots of both hosts, the laterals grew in clusters and appeared earlier than on uninfested roots. When a root was invaded by the nematodes and a gall formed, the growth of the root was checked and secondary laterals grew on the gall. Upto 11.6% in rice and 21:3% of total laterals in E. colonum were grrowing, on the actual galls formed due to nematode invasion.

441-449 Download
29
A multivariate analysis of the niches and guild structure of plant populations in a desert landscape
S. Shahid Shaukat

A multivariate analysis of the niches and guild structure of plant populations in a desert landscape
ABSTRACT:
The first three components (explaining 71.75% of the total variance) derived from principal component analysis were used to define the ecological niches of the plant populations in a desert landscape. The paper examines the niche parameters of breadth and overlap and investigates the guild structure within the assemblage. On the basis of overall (product) niche width three species Blepharis sindica, Commiphora wightii and Prosopis cineraria were shown to be generalists while five species - Prosopis juliflora, Cordia gharaf, Senna hlolosericea, Rhazya stricta and Grewia tenax appeared to be specialists. Average importance value of species was weakly positively correlated with the niche width. Pairwise niche overlaps varied considerably, ranging from 0.0886 to 0.9958 but the average overlap was high on all three niche axes. Although the niche dimensions were theoretically independent from each other, pairwise overlaps, along the axes were correlated. The extent of diffuse overlap for different species varied with the niche axes. In the three dimensional niche space, Senna holosericea experiences the least overlap while Zizyphus nummularia faces the most. Analytical study of niche packing disclosed that species were packed more closely along niche dimensions than is predicted by competition theory. The problem of interpreting overlap measures as indices of competition intensity are discussed. Analysis of guild structure revealed two major guilds each comprising of two subguilds. Coexistence of species in the face of high niche overlap is explained.

451-465 Download
30
Dielectric properties of leaves from some plant species
R.A. Hashmi, N. Bano, S. Khatoon and T. Ayub

Dielectric properties of leaves from some plant species
ABSTRACT:
Dielectric properties of fresh leaves of Ficus benghalensis, F. elastica, F. religiosa and Morus nigra (Moraceae) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae) were measured with time over a wide range of frequencies. The dielectric responses of different species belonging to the same family were qualitatively similar, whereas responses of samples belonging to different families were substantially different. The observed dielectric spectra were found to be a strong function of time. Although the overall effect of time was the reduction in sample conductance but the rate of reduction varied from species to species, which might be due to their anatomical and phytochemical properties

467-475 Download
31
A NEW COMBINATION IN THE GENUS LOTUS L.
S. I. ALl

A NEW COMBINATION IN THE GENUS LOTUS L.
ABSTRACT:
Astragalus (Bentham, 1865). This was maintained by Baker (1876) and more recently by Ali (1977). Rechinger f. (1957) described a new genus Kerstania Rech. f. based on K. nuristanica Rech. f. which has been shown to be conspecific with Astragalus hosackioides (Royle ex Benth.) Benth. (Ali, 1958). Rechinger f., (1984) has retained Podolotus Benth., as a separate genus whereas Polhill (1981) while discussing the genera of the tribe Loteae, has reduced Podolotus Royle ex Benth. (Astragalus sect. Podolotus (Royle) Benth.) to the synonymy of the genus. Following Polhill (1981), Astragalus hosackioides (Royle ex Benth.) Benth., is being transferred to the genus Lotus L. 

477-477 Download
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