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Year 1995 , Volume  27, Issue 1
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
PROFESSOR MAJEED AHMAD (1916-1987)
M. JALALUDDIN

PROFESSOR MAJEED AHMAD (1916-1987)
ABSTRACT:
Professor Majeed Ahmad was born on May 16, 1916 at Unnao in Lucknow, India. He received his school and college education in Lucknow and obtained M.Sc. degree from Lucknow University (India) in 1938 and Ph.D. degree in 1948 from the University of Cambridge, England.

1-2 Download
2
SPECIES OF THE GENUS BRYOPSIS LAMOUROUX (BRYOPSIDALES-CHLOROPHYCEAE-CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN

SPECIES OF THE GENUS BRYOPSIS LAMOUROUX (BRYOPSIDALES-CHLOROPHYCEAE-CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A critical study of the genus Bryopsis Lamour., from the coast of Pakistan showed the occurrence of 16 species comprising 4 new ones viz., B. aishae Nizam. sp.nov., B. pakislanica Nizam. sp.nov., B. manorensis Nizam. sp.nov. and B. qasimensis Nizam. sp.nov., 8 new records viz., B. caespilosa Suhr, B. corticulans (?) Setchell, B. duplex De Not., B. fasligiala Kütz., B. harveyana J. Ag., B. indica A. & E.S. Gepps, B. penicillala Suhr and B. pennata Lamour., whereas the remaining 4 ones viz., B. corymbosa J. Ag., B. hypnoitks Lamour., B. pennarula J. Ag. and B. plumosa (Huds.) C.Ag. have been reported earlier.

3-39 Download
3
SOME FRESHWATER GREEN ALGAE NEAR BALOCHISTAN COAST OF PAKISTAN
K. AISHA AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

SOME FRESHWATER GREEN ALGAE NEAR BALOCHISTAN COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five taxa including 3 species of Chlorophyta viz., Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Nees, E. nizamuddinii Aisha et Shameel sp. nov., E. saifullahii Aisha et Shameel sp. novo and 2 forms of Charophyta viz., Chara vulgaris L. f. atrovirens (Lowe) H. et J. Groves and C. vulgaris f. calveraensis Wood have been described from an area close to the coast of Balochistan province. All are new records of freshwater algae from Pakistan.

41-48 Download
4
A CAESPITOSE-TOPHULOSE CYSTOSEIRA SPECIES FROM TRIPOLI, LIBYA
MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN

A CAESPITOSE-TOPHULOSE CYSTOSEIRA SPECIES FROM TRIPOLI, LIBYA
ABSTRACT:
A new species, Cystoseira masoudii Nizam., characterized by caespitose habit possessing smooth/spinose tophulose is described.

49-54 Download
5
USE OF GUS-MARKED RHIZOBIUM AND BRADYRHIZOBIUM STRAINS FOR STUDYING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE INFECTION PROCESS
FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ, M. AURANGZAIB KHAN*, SOHAIL HAMEED, EJAZ RASUL* AND KAUSER A. MALIK

USE OF GUS-MARKED RHIZOBIUM AND BRADYRHIZOBIUM STRAINS FOR STUDYING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE INFECTION PROCESS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of diurnally administered temperature regimes on the infection process of 3 Vigna spp., and 1Medicago sp., inoculated with GUS-marked (brady) rhizobial strains was examined. Conditions optimized for blue color development to indicate the presence of GUS-marked Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in the roots and nodules of inoculated plant showed significant results with 50 µg ml-1 X-gluc buffer and 3 and 5 minutes of vacuum infiltration for young and mature nodules, respectively. Root hair colonization, curling, infection thread and nodule formation were observed in all the legumes at 30°C without any temperature shock. In V. radiata, no infection thread was found even at optimum temperature of 30°C. Root hair curling and infection thread formation were not observed in the genotypes exposed to temperature stresses, except in V. unguiculata, where the infection thread aborted in the root hair. Root hair colonization was observed a day after inoculation in plants subjected to both high or low temperature stresses, indicating the survival of (Brady)rhizobium strains under temperature stress conditions. The strains were unable to nodulate the host plants due to poor root hair development.

55-62 Download
6
COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF THREE GREEN MANURES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION
TAHIR HUSSAIN, RIAZ AHMAD, TARIQ JAVAID, G. JILANI AND S.N. AKHTAR

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF THREE GREEN MANURES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ACCUMULATION
ABSTRACT:
The performance of three green manure plant species viz., Sesbania aculeala, S. rostrata and Cyamopsis lelragonoloba was studied at different growth stages under field conditions. An the green manures upto 45 days of growth produced shoot dry biomass and shoot nitrogen contents similar to plants grown for upto 60 days. S. roslrala was found superior to other species in terms of biomass production and nitrogen contribution.

63-66 Download
7
MORPHOLOGY OF THE FRUITS OF DAMPIERA SPECIES AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR, MUHAMMAD TAHIR M.RAJPUT AND R.C. CAROLIN

MORPHOLOGY OF THE FRUITS OF DAMPIERA SPECIES AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
SEM study of the fruits of Dampiera exhibit a complex morphological and micromorphological diversity providing valuable taxonomic information. The shape and surface pattern can be of high systematic significance. Ridged and non-ridged surface with colliculate to irregularly colliculate pattern are recognised. Six different fruit shapes are identified which provide a useful basis for distinguishing species at sectional level.

67-72 Download
8
A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF POGOSTEMON DESF. SPECIES (LAMIACEAE) FROM BANGLADESH
SYEDA S. TAHIR*, MAHBUBA KHANAM AND SYED Z. HUSAIN

A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF POGOSTEMON DESF. SPECIES (LAMIACEAE) FROM BANGLADESH
ABSTRACT:
An investigation of leaf, calyx and nutlet microcharacters of 13 species of the genus Pogostemon found in Bangladesh was conducted using the SEM and their reliability as taxonomic markers is discussed. Leaf surfaces are mostly covered with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Stomata are paracytic mostly levelled with epidermal surface or rarely elevated. In some species leaf surface is rough and have undulating ridges under which sessile glandular hairs are sunken. Calyx surface of all the species have trichomes. Nutlet sculpturing shows mostly reticulate or irregular shallow discoid pattern with undulating ridges.

73-82 Download
9
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - II. SPHENOCLEACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - II. SPHENOCLEACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of the family Sphenocleaceae has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are generally colporate, small, trilobed, oblate - spheroidal with subpsilale tectum.

83-86 Download
10
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - llI. ELATINACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN - llI. ELATINACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 3 species of the genus Bergia L., from Pakistan belonging to the family Elatinaceae has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical, isopolar, oblate - spheroidal to prolate - spheroidal, often sub-oblate, tricolporate, l.Ono-aperturate with fossulate - reticulate tectum. On the basis of shape, colpal membrane and exine pattern, 2 distinct pollen types viz., Bergia aestivosa - type and Bergia suffruticosa - type are recognized.

87-92 Download
11
BUZZ - POLLINATION IN TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) R. BR. (BORAGINACEAE).
TUFAIL AHMED, GHULAM R. SARWAR, TAHIR ALl AND M. QAISER

BUZZ - POLLINATION IN TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) R. BR. (BORAGINACEAE).
ABSTRACT:
Trrichodesma indicum (L.) R. Br. (Boraginaceae) flowers throughout the year. Flower was protandrous and remained in bloom for ± 3 days. Buzz-pollination was carried out stemotribically by two species of Anthophora (Apidae). Pollen - ovule ratio and breeding experiments (hand-pollination treatments) revealed it 15 a facultative xenogamous species. It is a non-apomictic species as except emasculation treatment for apomixis, all the hand pollination treatments resulted in normal fruit and seed set.

93-99 Download
12
EFFECT OF EXPLANT SOURCE ON IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PLANTS THROUGH TISSUE PROLIFERATION IN PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. CV. FUSLI
IQBAL HUSSAIN, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND AZRA QURAISHI

EFFECT OF EXPLANT SOURCE ON IN VITRO REGENERATION OF PLANTS THROUGH TISSUE PROLIFERATION IN PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. CV. FUSLI
ABSTRACT:
The effect of explant source on in vitro regeneration of plants through tissue proliferation in Phoenix dactyliftra L. cv Fusli is reported.

101-104 Download
13
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN THE SUSPENSION CULTURES OF VIGNA RADIATA L.
K. KHATOON AND N. ARA

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN THE SUSPENSION CULTURES OF VIGNA RADIATA L.
ABSTRACT:
Suspension cultures established from hypocotyl derived calli pretreated with AS (adenine sulfate) and (NH4)2SO4, (ammonium sulfate) stimulated somatic embryogenesis in addition to root morphogenesis. All stages of embryos were produced but shoot formation was not observed. Control cultures exhibited rooting response only.

105-109 Download
14
COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES FOR EARLY MATURITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)
NAAZAR ALl, J.C. WYNNE AND J.P. MURPHY*

COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES FOR EARLY MATURITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)
ABSTRACT:
To develop early maturing and large seeded cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) virginia type alltivars (No. 334, Banki and NC-9) were crossed with four early spanish type lines (ICGSE-4, ICGSE-130, ICGSE-147 and 'Chico') in a factorial mating design. Fl and F2 generations were evaluated in the field to clctermine the combining ability of the parents for maturity and other agronomic traits. General combining ability (GCA) estimates were highly significant for all traits except maturity index in the F1 Specific combinina ability (SCA) estimates were nonsignificant for all traits except 100 seed weight in the F2 generation. The magnitude of GCA was much greater than SCA for all the traits in both generations indicating that additive genetic variance was more important than nonadditive genetic variance. Among male parents, ICGSE130 gave highest GCA for yield per plant, maturity, and 100 seed weight, whereas ICGSE-147 gave highest GCA for 20 pod length and seed number per 50 pods. Among adapted female parents, NC 9 gave the best GCA for yield per plant, 20 pod length, seed weight, and shelling percentage.

111-119 Download
15
COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES IN 5X5 DIALLEL INTRAHIRSUTUM CROSSES
MOHAMMED JURlAL BALOCH, HIDAYATULLAH BHUTTO, REHMATULLAH RIND* AND GHULAM HUSSAIN TUNIO

COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES IN 5X5 DIALLEL INTRAHIRSUTUM CROSSES
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to determine general and specific combining abilities of seed cotton yield, of bolls, sympodial branches, ginning outturn percent, seed and lint indices from 5x5 diallel intraI crosses. Qalandari was the best general combiner of the parents studied for seed cotton yield and of bolls followed by K-68-9. Parent Acala SJI which had the poorest general combining ability for yield and number of bolls, was the top parent for ginning outturn percent and seed and lint indices. The that formed the best general combining ability did not always form best specific combining ability with every other parents, however, Qalandri with highest general combining ability estimate also ranked first in specific combination with NIAB-78. The regression of observed vs expected values suggested the importance of specific combining ability (control of dominant genes) for seed cotton yield and seed and lint indices, "aeneral combining ability (control of additive genes) for number of bolls, sympodial branches and gining outtum percentage. The consistency in estimates of Combining ability for bolts and yield indicate that selection based on number of bolls will result in simultaneous improvement in cotton yield.

121-126 Download
16
UTILIZATION OF RAPD MARKERS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CULTIVATED AND WILD RICE SPECIES
S. FAROOQ, T. M. SHAH, M. ARIF AND N. IQBAL

UTILIZATION OF RAPD MARKERS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CULTIVATED AND WILD RICE SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were generated in Perkin Elmer DNA Thermal Cycler using genomic DNAs extracted from different rice varieties/species and 6 synthetic 10 mer primers of series -S. Material included in the study comprised 5 cultivated and 11 wild salt tolerant and sensitive varieties/spccies with different genomes and ploidy level. The scorable DNA fragments amplified by different primers ranged between 22 and 47 fragments per primer. Of the total 212 fragments that were amplified, 99 fragments were scored as potential genetic markers to be used for cultivar identification. Of the 99 markers, 50 (51 %) were cultivar specific while 49 markers were genome specific. One marker appeared only in salt tolerant cultivated rice varietie8 while another appeared both in wild and cultivated but salt tolerant varieties. Based on these markers, 3 out of 5 cultivated and 5 out of 11wild rice species were distinguished from cach other. Inter and intraspecific variations were also detected. The markers identified in the present study can bc used to check seed quality, for fingerprinting of a specific cultivar and to detect transfer of genetic material from wild species to cultivated varieties. The results showed the potential of RAPD markers for gene lagging experiments particularly tagging genes for salt tolerance.

127-138 Download
17
EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON NEUROTOXIN CONTENT IN LEAVES OF LATHYRUS SATIVUS
A. BANO AND M. SANAULLAH

EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON NEUROTOXIN CONTENT IN LEAVES OF LATHYRUS SATIVUS
ABSTRACT:
Effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) on accumulation of Beta N-oxalylamino-Lalanine (BoAA) in leaves of Lathyrus sativus L., cvs. K 424 and K 280 under drought stress was examined. Simultaneous application of ABA and drought was inhibitory to BoAA accumulation under drought as compared to ABA application after 12 days of drought period. Simultaneous application of GA and drought was stimulatory to BoAA accumulation than that of GA applied after 12 days of drought stress. Indigenous Variety K 280 having higher BoAA content than the exotic variety K 424 showed low percentage of BoAA under drought stress. Rewatering of stressed plants of K 424 reduced BoAA whereas rewatering of K 280 increased BoAA as compared to drought stress treatment. Reduction in BoAA following simultaneous application of ABA and drought may be due to favourable effect of ABA in water conservation mechanism.

139-141 Download
18
EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES, ROOT CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
R.K. MONDAL AND N.K. PAUL

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES, ROOT CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Two cultivars of mustard, Sambal and Daulat were grown in soil in polythene bags under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Soil moisture had significant effect on total dry matter production and leaf area development. In irrigated plants more assimilates were translocated to the reproductive parts. Leaf area ratio (LAR) and leaf weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in the well-watered plants. Relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), relative leaf growth rate (RLGR) and specific leaf area (SLA) were not affected by soil moisture. Among the root characters, only the number of primary roots was significantly higher in the well-watered plants. Seed yield and some of its components increased by irrigation. Reasons for better performance of Daulat in the water-stressed condition are discussed.

143-150 Download
19
STUDIES ON GROWTH AND SALT REGULATION IN SOME HAWPHYTES AS INFLUENCED BY EDAPHIC AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
HUMAIRA MARYAM, SHOAIB ISMAIL, FARKHUNDA ALA AND RAFIQ AHMAD

STUDIES ON GROWTH AND SALT REGULATION IN SOME HAWPHYTES AS INFLUENCED BY EDAPHIC AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Variations in plant growth due to changes in edaphic and climatic conditions in two halophytic species viz., Suaeda fruticosa (L.) and Tamarix indica Willd., from the saline community at Karachi University campus are reported. Growth rates of plants and regulation of Na + and C1-salts with reference to prevailing climatic and edaphic conditions were studied from mid of July to first week of November. Soil moisture content increased with soil depth in both the species studied while electrical conductivity was high in the uppennost part of the soil profile. Maximum salt accumulation was observed in ranging from EC: 110-130 dS.m-1 at soil surface of 0-5 cm. Concentrations of Na + and C1- ions in the saturated soil extract significantly corresponded to the electrical conductivities observed at different time period and at different soil depths. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rates exhibited an increase with more water availability in soil. No significant variation was evident in plant moisture content in both the species. r. indica exhibited comparatively higher organic matter and low ash as compared to S.fruticosa. Concentration of C1- remained unaffacted in T. indica. Plant volume increased with time in S. fruticosa exhibiting higher rate of increase in volume as compared to T. indica. Moisture content and soil salinity (BC) significantly affec,ed growth in both S. fruticosa and T. indica, whereas, growth of T. indica was also influenced by Na + content of soil. Percentage of both Na + and C1- ions in relation to the external medium concentrations showed higher proportion of Na + in both the species, although T. indica exhibited a relatively less absorption and accumulation of both the ions as compared to external medium.

151-163 Download
20
HARDENING POTENTIAL IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AT HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS
M.A. SETHAR, *D.L. LAIDMAN, *J.M. WILSON AND R.B.MIRBAHAR

HARDENING POTENTIAL IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AT HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Leaves of cotton cultivar 5-12 were acclimated at temperatures ranging from 35 to 44°C for different lime periods followed by heat stress at 45 or 46°C. The heat acclimation potential was analyzed by Chlorophyll Fluorescence technique. The recovery of Fv / Fm ratio after application of heat stress was the paramev mler for detennination of the acclimation potential. Very small fluorescence (Fv / Fm ) values were recorded after heat stress at 46°C with fairly good response when acclimated leaves were heat stressed at 4S°C.

165-168 Download
21
WHEAT PRODUCTION AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING TIME UNDER RAINFED CONDITION OF ELMARJ-LIBYA
RAHMAT ULLAH KHAN AND ABDUR RASHID

WHEAT PRODUCTION AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING TIME UNDER RAINFED CONDITION OF ELMARJ-LIBYA
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments on seeding dates were conducted during 1990-91 and 1991-92 to determine the optimum time for sowing of wheat crop under rainfed condition. Early as well as late sowing of wheat reduced the yield. The optimum time of planting of Durum wheat variety Mexicale was found to be 4 to 21December to obtain maximum grain production.

169-173 Download
22
EFFECT OF TOPSIN FUNGICIDE (METHYL TIDOPHENATE) ON CHLOROPHYLL, PROTEIN AND PHENOL CONTENTS OF HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS AND CAPSICUM ANNUM
SOALIHA AHMED AND Z.S. SIDDIQUI

EFFECT OF TOPSIN FUNGICIDE (METHYL TIDOPHENATE) ON CHLOROPHYLL, PROTEIN AND PHENOL CONTENTS OF HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS AND CAPSICUM ANNUM
ABSTRACT:
Effect of Topsin fungicide (Methyl thiophenate) on chlorophyll, protein and phenol contents of Hibiscus esculentus and Capsicum annuum was examined. Topsin showed an increase in all the biochemical parameters with differences in response in the two test species.

175-178 Download
23
THE INFLUENCE OF PROPICONAZOLE FUNGICIDE APPLICATION ON HARD RED SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS
ASLAM KHAN* AND L.A. SPILDE

THE INFLUENCE OF PROPICONAZOLE FUNGICIDE APPLICATION ON HARD RED SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of foliar applied systemic fungicide propiconazole (1-[[2-2,4 dichlorophenyl) on the agronomic, seed quality, and economic response of hard spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated under rain-fed conditions. Propiconazole applied at Feekes growth stage (GS) 10 suppressed leaf spot disease but had no effect on grain yield or other traits measured. Percent reflectance of 800 nm wavelength radiation increased as the visually estimated leaf spot disease severity decreased following fungicide treatment, indicating that foliar reflection may be an efficient and reliable assessment of foliar disease. The use of propiconazole to control foliar diseases and maximize spring wheat production is not economically feasible under other similar enviromental conditions.

179-186 Download
24
DIFFERENCES IN PROTEIN CONTENT IN LEAVES OF RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE VARIETIES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) AFTER INFECTION WITH BROWN RUST FUNGUS (PUCCINIA RECONDITA)
SOALIHA AHMED, YASMIN YUSUF AND HAJRA AZHAR ALl

DIFFERENCES IN PROTEIN CONTENT IN LEAVES OF RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE VARIETIES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) AFTER INFECTION WITH BROWN RUST FUNGUS (PUCCINIA RECONDITA)
ABSTRACT:
Protein content in 8 different varieties of wheat after infection with Puccinia recondira, the brown rust fungus was examined. Protein content showed an increase in resistant and moderately resistant varieties upto 3 days which later declined. In susceptible and moderately susceptible varieties no significant change in protein content was observed after 3 days, which later increased and showed maximum increase after 5 days, with a sharp decline after 7 days interval. Resistant varieties were significantly different in protein content as compared to susceptible varieties.

187-191 Download
25
IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOTYPES IN ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.) LAB., THE CAUSE OF CHICKPEA BLIGHT IN PAKISTAN
FARHAT F. JAMIL, M. SARWAR, IKRAMUL HAQ and NIGHAT BASHIR

IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOTYPES IN ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.) LAB., THE CAUSE OF CHICKPEA BLIGHT IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
One hundred and two isolates of Ascochyra rabiei differing in their cultural characters were selected for pathotype analysis from a large collection of isolates obtained from chickpea growing areas of Pakistan during 1984 - 92. On the basis of pathogenicity on 11chickpea differentials, the isolates were classified into 8 pathogenic groups. Out of 102 isolates tested, only 6 were highly virulent, 8 least virulent whereas others were in between-the two extremes.

193-199 Download
26
SEEDBORNE MYCOFLORA OF TOMATO
SHAHIDA PERVEEN AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

SEEDBORNE MYCOFLORA OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Using ISTA techniques, the seedborne mycoflora of 24 samples of tomato seeds collected from different parts of Pakistan was examined. Of the 37 species of fungi belonging to 20 genera isolated, 22 species of fungi belonging to 15 genera were found to be new records from Pakistan. Fusarium solani, F. moniliforme, Aspergillus jlavus, Allernaria allernala and Drechslera australiensis were predominant. Greater number of fungal species, both in sterilized and non-sterilized seeds, were recorded by agar plate method followed by blotter and deep-freezing method.

201-208 Download
27
NEW RECORDS OF SOILBORNE ROOT INFECTING FUNGI IN PAKISTAN
SALEEM SHAHZAD AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

NEW RECORDS OF SOILBORNE ROOT INFECTING FUNGI IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Species of Bipolaris, Botryodiplodia, Cephaliophora, Cephalosporium, Colletotrichum, Corynascus, Curvularia, Exerohilum, Fusarium, Macrophomiful, Melanospora, Nigrospora, Rhizoclonia, Sclerotium, Slemphylium and an unidentified basidiomycete were recorded on several new hosts from Pakistan. Cephaliophora tropica, Corynascus sp., and Exerohilum holmii are new reports from Pakistan.

209-216 Download
28
EFFECT OF NEEM OIL ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI
SYED ASIM REHAN KAZMI, SALEEM SRAHZAD* AND ISHRAT NIAZ

EFFECT OF NEEM OIL ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Effect of neem oil and benomyl on the growth of root infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoclonia solani and Fusarium moniliforme was examined. Benomyl showed greater suppression in growth of R. solani and F. moniliforme than neem oil whereas neem oil @ 0.1 % was more effective against M. phaseolina than benomyl. Efficacy of benomyl and neem oil increased with increase in concentration. Neem oil extracted from seed samples collected from different localities showed variable suppression of growth of the test fungi.

217-220 Download
29
EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE COLONIZATION OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON ROOTS OF CHICKPEA
TARIQ HUSAIN AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE COLONIZATION OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON ROOTS OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Colonization of Macrophomina phaseolina on roots of chickpea was higher when plants were subjected to moisture stress as compared to unstressed plants. Colonization on primary roots was greater at early stages with secondary roots infected at later stages of plant growth.

221-225 Download
30
EFFECT OF BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM AND FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF SOYBEAN
SYED EHTESHAMUL- HAQUE AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

EFFECT OF BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM AND FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Seed dressing of soybean with Bradyrhizobium japonicum alone or mixed with different concentration of fungicides viz., benlate, dithane, bavistin and vitavax showed significant (p < 0.001) protection of roots from infection of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. Use of B.japonicum with benlate or bavistin against Fusarium spp., and M.phaseolina and with dithane against Fusarium spp., were more effective than their separate use. B.japonicum used with bavistin (@ 2500 a.i.) showed highest number of nodules per plant. Plant height increased over untreated control where seeds were treated with B.japonicum, benlate, bavistin or dithane or fungicides mixed with B.japonicum.

227-232 Download
31
SOME BIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL AND SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS (PLRV) IN PAKISTAN
M. ARIF, S.M. MUGHAL, S. KHALID AND S. HASSAN*

SOME BIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL AND SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS (PLRV) IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Mean incidence of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in the plains of Pakistan was recorded as 44% in general, 53 % in the market or uncertified seed and 11% in certified or improved seed. The virus was successfully transmitted by side cleft grafting of infected potato to Datura slramonium and Physalis jloridana which proved useful hosts for the maintenance and propagation of the virus. The virus was purified through extraction in phosphate or citrate buffer and precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by 2-3 cycles of differential centrifugation. The average yield of virus was 0.265 mg per kg of source tissue. The virus sedimented as single component in sucrose density gradients, reacted positively against potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) antiserum in gel immunodiffusion tests and absorbed UV light with a 260/280 ratio of I. 7. Isometric particles of 25 nm in diameter were observed under electron microscope (EM). The virus identity was also confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and serological specific electron microscopy (SSEM).

233-241 Download
32
PURIFICATION AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF SOME ISOLATES OF BLACKEYE COWPEA MOSAIC AND COWPEA APHID-BORNE MOSAIC POTYVIRUSES
MUHAMMAD BASHIR AND R.O. HAMPTON

PURIFICATION AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF SOME ISOLATES OF BLACKEYE COWPEA MOSAIC AND COWPEA APHID-BORNE MOSAIC POTYVIRUSES
ABSTRACT:
Two isolates of blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICMV) and two of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic (CABMV) potyviruses were purified by three purification procedures. Variable virus yields of each isolate of each virus were obtained with different virus-host combinations and purification procedures. Highest average virus yields of 4.6 µg and 3.4 µg per 50 g of infected tobacco leaf tissue were obtained from CABMV isolate RN7C and BlCMV isolate PU- 7B. Method-3 was most effective for purification of both viruses. Carbon tetracWoride when used in combination with chloroform as a clarifying agent improved purification of the BICMV isolates, but was harmful to CABMV isolates. Borate buffer was superior than phosphate for purification of both viruses. Addition of EDTA and Triton X-IOO in extraction and resuspension buffers circumvented virion aggregation. Leaf dip or purified virus preparations of BlCMV or CABMV isolates, examined under the electron microscope, contained elongated flexuous particles of modal length of 742 nm and 725 om for BICMV and CABMV, respectively, and confirmed particle morphology of potyvirus group.

243-249 Download
33
BERMUDA GRASS WIDTE LEAF CAUSED BY PHYTOPLASMAS IN PAKISTAN
ZAHOOR AHMAD, M. BASHIR, KAZUO NAKASHIMA*, TAKAO MITSUEDA AND NOBOU MURATA

BERMUDA GRASS WIDTE LEAF CAUSED BY PHYTOPLASMAS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Bennuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) is widely distributed in Pakistan. The lawn grass at the Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI) at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad showed white leaf symptoms of chlorosis and adventitious branching in patches which some people related to nutritional deficiency. To identify the causal organism the diseased and apparently healthy leaves were collected and to determine the involvement of Phytoplasmas DNA was extracted from the leaves using technique as described by Nakashima et al., (1991). The extracted DNA was sent to Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) for the assay based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification. The DNA of clean Bennuda grass grown in Japan and that of white leaf infected grass from Thailand, were included in the assay as references. The DNA assay was carried out using the primer (universal set) developed by Namba et al., (1993) which amplifies a segment of 16S rRNA gene specific to Mollecutes.

251-252 Download
34
COLONIZATION OF DEAD NEEDLES OF QUETTA PINE (PINUS HALEPENSIS L.) BY AQUATIC HYPHOMYCETES
FATIMA S. MEHDI* AND ZAKIA HASAN

COLONIZATION OF DEAD NEEDLES OF QUETTA PINE (PINUS HALEPENSIS L.) BY AQUATIC HYPHOMYCETES
ABSTRACT:
Ingold (1966) reported that aquatic hyphomycetes were unable to colonize conifer needles. Since then, no report has been published on colonization of pine needles by aquatic hyphomycetes. An experiment was, therefore, carried out to see the colonization of dead needles of Quetta pine (Pinus halepensis L) by aquatic hyphomycetes in water stream near the fish house of Urak, Quetta. The stream in this area has a width of 1-2 meters, maximum depth 25-30 cm, average water temperature around 19°C, average pH 7.5 and approximate conductivity 0.9 mm/cm.

253-254 Download
35
A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CLOSTERJUM FROM PAKISTAN
MASUD-UL-HASSAN, TAHMINA RASOOL AND MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN*

A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CLOSTERJUM FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During our investigations on the freshwater algae of the Puujab, we came across an interesting collection of Closterium spp., usually growing as planctonic in the rice fields. A gigantic form of Closterium sp., was detected which is designated as Closterium pakistani cum M-Hassan, Rasool and Nizam., sp. nov.

255-256 Download
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