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Year 1999 , Volume  31, Issue 1
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XVII. FRANKENIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XVII. FRANKENIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of the family Frankeniaceae has been examined from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are generally colpate, sub-oblate. Tectum densely rugulate with scabrate.

1-3 Download
2
ISOZYME MARKERS IN COTTON BREEDING 1. STANDARDIZATION OF DIFFERENT ISOZYME SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
SHAFQAT FAROOQ, NAYYER IQBAL AND ANJUMAN ARA ZAIDI

ISOZYME MARKERS IN COTTON BREEDING 1. STANDARDIZATION OF DIFFERENT ISOZYME SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
ABSTRACT:
Isozyme peroxidase (Pox), shikimic dehydrogenase (Sdh), superoxide-dismutase (Sod), esterase (Est), phosphoglucoisomerase (Pgi) and catalase (Cat) were standardised for different varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and one variety of G. arboreum using stacking and resolving polyacrlyamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Isozymes were extracted in different buffers using fresh leaves collected from different cotton cultivars growing in the field. Isozyme shikimate dehydrogenase and esterase have been smdied in different varieties of G. hirsutum in addition to the remaining isozymes which have been reported only for G. arboreum and G. herbaceum. The objectives of the study were to standardize different isozyme systems for G. hirsutum varieties using material collected from field. identification of an isozyme system through which inter and intravarietal differences and genetic changes occurring in the plant growing under stress condition can be detected, and detection of a polymorphic locus which can be correlated with the stress prevailing in the area (s) of cotton cultivation. Electrophoretic profiles of isozymes showed generally monomorphic patterns for isozymes esterase and superoxide dismutase and thus detected minor inter and/or intravarietal differences. The remaining isozyme systems appeared polymorphic and differentiated different plants of a variyty and different varieties from each other. Most of the isozymes appeared to be controlled by one or two loci except peroxidase for which 7 different loci were identified. Possibilities of using the observed isozyme polymorphism in persuing the prescribed objectives are discussed.

5-20 Download
3
CHANGES IN ACTIVITY AND ISOZYMES OF PEROXIDASE DURING IN VITRO DEDIFFERENTIATION AND CALLUS PROLIFERATION IN DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OFSOYBEAN
KUNWAR SHOAIB AND JAVED IQBAL*

CHANGES IN ACTIVITY AND ISOZYMES OF PEROXIDASE DURING IN VITRO DEDIFFERENTIATION AND CALLUS PROLIFERATION IN DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OFSOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Total activity of peroxidase and its isozymic profiles in the explants of soybean during the process of dedifferentiation was investigated. The explants obtained from aseptically germinated seedling were transferred to callusing medium containing MS salts supplemented with 9.0 uM (2.0 mgl-1) 2,4-D and 6.9 uM (1.5 mgl-1) Kinetin. Total activity of peroxidase increased in hypocotyl (0.75 to 1.80), cotyledon (0.55 to 1.20) and internode (0.31 to 1.00) during dedifferentiation process with a peak of activity observed prior to callus initiation. In leaf however, there was a sharp decline in enzyme activity (1.42 to 0.30) after excission with a moderate increase (0.96) prior to callus initiation. Electrophoretic pattern of peroxidases were organ specific. The explant of hypocotyl internode and leaf had three band each but with different Rf values. The expant of cotyledon showed only one isozyme. In all the explants marked changes were associated with the process of dedifferentiation. Once the meristematic activity was triggered no further qualitative changes took place in the isozymes. Calluses of all the four explant had only two bands and these persisted during successive subcultures.

21-29 Download
4
PLANT REGENERATION FROM HYPOCOTYL EXPLANTS OF CITRULLUS LANATUS THUNB.
R. ISLAM, A. HOQUE, M.H. RAHMAN AND A. AHAD

PLANT REGENERATION FROM HYPOCOTYL EXPLANTS OF CITRULLUS LANATUS THUNB.
ABSTRACT:
Adventitious shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants was examined in Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Hypocotyl explants of 2,3.4,5 and 6 week old seedlings when cultured on LS medium containing BA, Kn, Zip with or without 0.5-1.Q mg/l IAA showed that 1.0 mg/l BA and 1.0 mg/l IAA proved ideal for shoot differentiation from 2 week old hypocotyl explants. Shoots elongated on the medium with 0.5 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l BA and later rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l IBA.

31-35 Download
5
MANIPULATION OF INTERNODAL SEGMENTS OF F1 TOMATO HYBRIDS RAISED IN VITRO UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI, MUSHTAQ AHMAD* AND HIDAYAT ULLAH SUPPAL*

MANIPULATION OF INTERNODAL SEGMENTS OF F1 TOMATO HYBRIDS RAISED IN VITRO UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
ABSTRACT:
The relative morphogenetic response of internodal segments of tomato hybrids viz., Bornia and Royesta was studied at varying concentration of BAP, Kn, NAA and IAA. NAA @ 3 uM/I proved to be better than IAA @ 3 uMI in combination with different PGR regimes of both BAP (0, 3, 6, 9 uM/I) as well as Kn (0, 6

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6
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CHARACTER CORRELATION IN PURE LINES, F1 AND F2 PROGENIES OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
A. BAKHSH*, T. GULL, AFSARI SHARIF, M. ARSHAD* AND B.A. MALIK*

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CHARACTER CORRELATION IN PURE LINES, F1 AND F2 PROGENIES OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
An investigation was carried out to estimate genetic variability and level of association of grain yield with its various components, separately in 18 parental lines

41-53 Download
7
ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS IN LEAVES OF 9 MANGROVE SPECIES OF ORISSA COAST, INDIA
U.C.BASAK, A.B.DAS AND P.DAS

ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS IN LEAVES OF 9 MANGROVE SPECIES OF ORISSA COAST, INDIA
ABSTRACT:
Photosynthetic pigments, TAN (Titrable Acid Number), proteins, polyphenols and tannin con leaves of 9 species of mangroves viz., Acanthus ilicifolius, A. ebracteatus, A. volubilis, Brownlowia tersa, Bruguiera cylindrica, B. gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata and Xylocarpus mekongensis found in the mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika and Mahanadi delta of Orissa were estimated chlorophyll content varied from 0.16% in B. tersa to 1.05 % in A. volubilis. Calculated chlorophyIl a:b ratio was minimum (1.23) in C. rugal and maximum (3.85) in A. ilicifolius. The carotenoids as accessory pi also varied from 0.08% in B. rersa to 0.76% in A. ilicifolius. Analysis of variance showed inti interspecific variations in photosynthetic activities. TAN values revealed appreciable variations from 2 32.86 in B. gymnorrhiza and A. ilicifolius, respectively. TAN values showed negative correlatio chlorophyll band carotenoids but highly significant positive correlation was noted with chlorophyIl a among the species. Total buffer soluble protein content in leaf varied significantly from 13.26 % B. cylindrica to 21.05% in X. mekongensis. The quantitative analysis of tannin and polyphenols from the of mangroves showed significant variation ranging from 14.56% to 40.11 % in X. mekongensis and C. tagal and 15.65 % to 38.64 % in A. volubilis and C. tagal, respectively. Statistical analysis of the endogenous polyphenols and tannins showed no interdependence with leaf proteins.

55-62 Download
8
STUDY OF SOME KINETIC PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE FROM RICE LEAVES
MIAN WAJAHAT HUSSAIN*

STUDY OF SOME KINETIC PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE FROM RICE LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Rice (Orya sativa 1. cv. IR-30) was grown hydroponically in growth chambers at 28/23°C day/night temperatures with 14-h photoperiod and quantum irradiance of 450 umol m-2 S-l. Sucrose phosphate ;ynthase (SPS) activity in desalted extracts from 21 days old leaves was measured in saturating and "limiting" ( Pi included) substrate conditions. Evidence is presented that SPS activity via UDP estimation underestimates !the enzyme activity in rice. Substrate UDP-Glc and Fru-6-P saturation curves in presence of G1c-6-P were hyperbolic with apparent Km(UDP-G1c) of 2.7 mM and SO.5 (Fru-6-P) of 1.2 mM. G1c-6-P activated SPS rand apparent Kact was 3.2 mM. Diel SPS profiles indicated that rice SPS was activated in light and this activation was more marked under "limiting" assay conditions. Pi inhibition of SPS was dependent upon suubstrate conditions; being more pronounced in "limiting" conditions. Mannose and Pi feeding experiments rindicated that rice SPS was activated by mannose in darkness and the activated enzyme was not sensitive to Pi. In contrast, SPS from leaves fed with Pi was substantially inhibited when Pi was included in the assay medium. The data suggests that rice SPS may exist in different forms. It may also be possible that P insensitive form is more active in light while Pi sensitive in the dark.

63-77 Download
9
RADIOLABELLED (Me-3H) THYMIDINE INCORPORATION INTO DNA IN ROOTS OF COTTON SEEDLING
Q.I. CHACHAR, D.L. LAIDMAN*, J.I. DAVIES*, R.B. MIRBAHAR AND M.A. SETHAR

RADIOLABELLED (Me-3H) THYMIDINE INCORPORATION INTO DNA IN ROOTS OF COTTON SEEDLING
ABSTRACT:
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) Cv. MNH-93 was tested to see the differences in rates of cell division betWeen slow-growing and fast-growing roots by maesuring the (Me-3H) thymidine incorporation into DNA. At early 24 and 36 h germination times, the incorporation of (Me-3H) thymidine into DNA was more in long than in short roots. At germination times after 36h, the incorporation was almost the same in the tips of roots of all lengths. Thymidine incorporation values were markedly higher in younger (24-48h) roots than in older (60-96h) roots.

79-84 Download
10
EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY ON PMEase ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HIGHER PLANTS
G.M. BALOCH, A.S. LARIK, M.S. KALWAR AND A.H. BALOCH

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY ON PMEase ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HIGHER PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of phosphorus deficiency on PMEase activity in cotton, wheat and rice was investigated. Seedlings grown with and without phosphorus added to the growth medium using pNPP substrates at different pH levels showed that PMEase activity in cotton seedlings was 68-69% higher in without and 55-56% with phosphorus added to growth medium than rice and wheat seedlings in pNPP substrate, whereas in 4-MUP substrate PM Ease activity in cotton seedlings was 68-70% higher than those of rice and 61-62% in wheat seedlings. All plant species displayed higher PMEase activity when grown in growth medium without phosphorous than the plants grown in growth medium with phosphorus.

85-91 Download
11
EFFECT OF DIPTEREX INSECTICIDE ON CARBOHYDRATE, RNA, DNA AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK AND VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
ZAMIN SHAHEED SIDDIQUI AND SOALIHA AHMED

EFFECT OF DIPTEREX INSECTICIDE ON CARBOHYDRATE, RNA, DNA AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK AND VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
ABSTRACT:
Use of Dipterex insecticide showed a decrease in carbohydrate, RNA and DNA contents of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo with more adverse effects on V. radiata specially at higher concentration of insecticide. An increase in total phenolic content was however recorded in the two test species.

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12
EFFECT OF METHANOL AS A GROWTH PROMOTER FOR TOMATO PRODUCTION
AHMED A. AL MASOUM AND HASSAN A. AL MASRI

EFFECT OF METHANOL AS A GROWTH PROMOTER FOR TOMATO PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of methanol on the growth and productivity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a sandy soil during 1996 and 1997. Plants were transplanted in the field and sprayed with methanol to run off at 5,10,15 and 20% concentrations at two different intervals starting from the first week followed by a second application after two weeks. MeOH showed no significant effects on plant height, number of branches and leaf area and plant productivity in total yield, fruit mass, fruit volume and total soluble solids. Since methanol had similar or adverse effect on tomato growth and productivity, it should not be recommended as a growth promoter.

97-101 Download
13
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND ROW SPACINGS ON SOYBEAN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN AUTUMN UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
SHER MAHMOOD SHAH, M. ASLAM, S. SHAFIQ AND M. ASLAM HAYAT*

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND ROW SPACINGS ON SOYBEAN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN AUTUMN UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing dates and row spacings on yield and yield components of different soybean genotypes under rainfed conditions. The newly developed test genotypes NARC-V and NARC-III produced significantly higher yield of 4264 and 4262 kg per hectare, respectively, at 45 cm apart rows. The check genotype William-82 gave smallest grain yield. Highest number of pods per plant were observed in NARC-IV and NARC-V, when planted on early date and gradually decreased as the sowing was delayed. The genotype NARC-IV and NARC-V produced highest number of pods when planted at 45 cm apart rows. Number of pods decreased as the spacing was decreased. William82, being a taller genotype, produced taller plants when planted early. Delayed plantings and closer spacings produced smaller plants.

103-108 Download
14
EFFECT OF DROUGHT SIMULATION ON GRAIN WEIGHT, PROTEIN AND LYSINE CONTENT OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MAQBOOL AHMAD AND M. AFZAL ARAIN

EFFECT OF DROUGHT SIMULATION ON GRAIN WEIGHT, PROTEIN AND LYSINE CONTENT OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Effect of drought simulation (terminal, preanthesis, postanthesis and full irrigation) on grain weight, protein and lysine content in different strains of bread wheat viz., Chakwal, Pavon, AZS-4 and AZS-17 was studied under field conditions. Water stress especially terminal and postanthesis decreased (P< 0.05) grain weight. whereas protein and lysine content significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Correlation between grain weight and protein content was negative and highly significant (r = -0.672, n= 16). Reduction in endosperm due to water deficit could be the probable cause for lower grain weight and enhanced protein content.

109-114 Download
15
RAPID MULTIPLEX PCR FOR THE SPECIFIC DETECTION OF TWO WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED GEMINIVIRUS SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH COTTON LEAF CURL DISEASE IN PAKISTAN
SHAHID MANSOOR, AFTAB BASHIR, SULTAN H. KHAN, MAZHAR HUSSAIN, M. SAEED, YUSUF ZAFAR, PETER G. MARKHAM*, AND KAUSER A. MALIK

RAPID MULTIPLEX PCR FOR THE SPECIFIC DETECTION OF TWO WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED GEMINIVIRUS SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH COTTON LEAF CURL DISEASE IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan is associated with two whitefly-transmitted geminivirus species named cotton leaf curl virus Pk1 (CLCuV-Pk1) and cotton leaf curl virus Pk2 (CLCuV-Pk2). PCR is a highly specific and reliable technique for the detection of geminiviruses. A protocol has been developed for rapid isolation of a suitable template for PCR. The method is based either on the adsorption of DNA template from cleared lysate on PCR tubes or a rapid minipreparation of total DNA by CTAB method. Similarly, a simplified protocol is used for the isolation of total DNA from individual whitefly which is suitable for PCR amplification. Primers have been designed in such a way that the two geminivirus species are amplified in a single tube by multiplex PCR. In this PCR virus sense primer is common to both viruses in the rep gene whereas the complementary sense primer is specific for either of the two viruses. For CLCuV-Pk1, the reverse primer is designed at the start of C4 ORF gene whereas for CLCuV-Pk2 the primer is designed at the start of rep gene. The two PCR products of about 360 bp (CLCuV-Pk1) and 510 bp (CLCuV-Pk2) are resolved on an agarose gel. A rapid profIle for multiplex PCR was used and completed in 2 hr. The whole process of template preparation, PCR and the detection of PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis is completed in a single day. The protocol has been used reliably for the detection of cotton geminiviruses in plant and whitefly samples collected from the field.

115-123 Download
16
READ-THROUGH PROTEIN GENE OF POTATO MOP-TOP FUROVIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACQUISITION AND TRANSMISSION OF THE VIRUS BY SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA F.SP. SUBTERRANEA
MOHAMMED ARIF, BRIAN REAVY* AND LESLEY TORRANCE*

READ-THROUGH PROTEIN GENE OF POTATO MOP-TOP FUROVIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACQUISITION AND TRANSMISSION OF THE VIRUS BY SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA F.SP. SUBTERRANEA
ABSTRACT:
Spontaneous deletion was detected in read-through domain of potato mop-top furovirus (PMTV) RNA 3 of isolate T by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PCR amplification of readthrough of PMTV-T and comparison with PMTV-S, a full-length isolate, indicated 700 nucleotides difference in size but no difference in coat protein gene. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end of the read-through gene of PMTV-T relative to that of PMTV-S occurs in 3' -half of the gene and is associated with loss of transmission by the fungus vector, Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea. A mono-fungal S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea was unable to acquire and transmit PMTV-T which had 700 nucleotides deletion in 5'-half of read-through domain of PMTV RNA 3, while PMTV-S with full-length read-through gene was efficiently acquired and transmitted by the same fungus cultures. These results indicated that readthrough gene encoded on RNA 3 is involved in acquisition and transmission of PMTV by its fungal vector, S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

125-136 Download
17
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF WEED SPECIES INVADING KALLAR GRASS (LEPTOCHLOA FUSCA (L.) KUNTH) IN SALINE AGRICULTURAL LAND
KHALID MAHMOOD, KAUSER A. MALIK, KHALID H. SHEIKH*, ALTAF HUSSAIN AND M.A.K. LODHI**

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF WEED SPECIES INVADING KALLAR GRASS (LEPTOCHLOA FUSCA (L.) KUNTH) IN SALINE AGRICULTURAL LAND
ABSTRACT:
Cynodon dartyton (L.) Pers., Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf, Kochia indica Wight, Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf., Sporobolus arabicus Boiss., and Suaeda fruticosa (L.) Forssk. established in well defined patches in saline fields planted with Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth). Water extracts, shoot material of different species decomposing in soil and leachates from soils amended with shoot materials inhibited seed germination and/or growth of Kallar grass to varying degrees. Each species showed allelopathic potential against Kallar grass in one or more tests. Six allelochemicals viz., benzoic, ferulic, caffeic, p-OHbenzoic, vanillic and syringic acids were identified in water and/or hydrolysis extracts of different species. Four of these compounds (present in all species) inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of Kallar grass. Allelopathic influence of invading species and autotoxicity are important factors causing elimination of Kallar grass from weed patches and its decreased productivity in older stands.

137-149 Download
18
EFFECT OF 2,4-D AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) SCHUMANN AND THE LEACHING OF CHEMICALS IN SOIL
S. SHAHlD SHAUKAT, ARIF-UZ-ZAMAN AND UZMA SHERWANI

EFFECT OF 2,4-D AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON SEED GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) SCHUMANN AND THE LEACHING OF CHEMICALS IN SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Relative toxicity of five phenolic compounds and 2,4-D herbicide on seed germination and early seedling growth of Pennisetum americanum (L.) Schumann and the degree of leaching of 2,4-D and benzoic acid in clay loam and sandy soil was studied. 2,4-D @ 10 and 50 ppm caused greater reduction in seed germination and root and shoot growth than the phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds reduced seed geemination percentage in the order: benzoic acid > p-coumaric > catechol > chlorogenic acid > gallic acid. A similar trend was observed with respect to root and shoot growth. 2,4-D in conjunction with pcoumaric acid and catechol exhibited synergistic effect on the process of germination and seedling growth. In the leaching experiment, greatest toxic effect was observed in the first 2 cm depth and lowest at 6 cm depth. Greater leaching of both 2,4-D and benzoic acid occurred in sandy soil compared to clay loam.

151-161 Download
19
EFFECT OF INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION AND INUNDATION REGIME ON THE GROWTH OF ARTHROCNEMUM MACROSTA HYUM IN A COASTAL SWAMP IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
BILQUEES GUL AND M. AJMAL KHAN

EFFECT OF INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION AND INUNDATION REGIME ON THE GROWTH OF ARTHROCNEMUM MACROSTA HYUM IN A COASTAL SWAMP IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Arthrocnemum macrostachyum is a stem succulent halophyte commonly found in the intertidal communities in the, tropics and subtropics. The effect of density on the growth of a population of A. macrostachyum in various zones at the Arabian Sea coast was studied. Above ground biomass was low in lower swamp and a change in density has little affect in all zones. Below ground biomass showed a considerable reduction in the upper swamp in comparison to the middle and lower swamp. Height of the plant remained unaffected by density but was substantially reduced in lower swamp. Number of branches and basal area of the plants decreased with increasing density while middle swamp plants showed high basal area and branching.

163-172 Download
20
FRANKIA AND RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AS INOCULUM FOR FAST GROWING TREES IN SALINE ENVIRONMENT
FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ, SOHAIL HAMEED AND KAUSER A MALIK

FRANKIA AND RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AS INOCULUM FOR FAST GROWING TREES IN SALINE ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Frankia strains isolated from actinorhizae of 7 Casuarina/Allocasuarina species were screened for nodulation and nitrogen fixing ability on Casuarina glauco and C. obesa plants under controlled environmental conditions. Five out of 13 strains were found to induce root nodules on C. glauco with none on C. obesa. Similarly various rhizobial strains were screened for nodulation and nitrogen fixation on 4 Acacia species. Frankia strains CcOI and CcI3 and Rhizobium strains Abal, Ar2-1 and PMA63/1 were checked for sodium chloride tolerance in vitro. Frankia strain CcDI showed tolerance for upto 500 mM NaCI concentration (Ec47 dSm-1 approx.), whereas strain Cc13 was sensitive to even 100 mM NaCI concentration (Ec 9 dSm-fapprox.). The 3 rhizobial strains showed tolerance upto 300 mM NaCI concentration (Ec 28 dSm-le approx.). A morphological and dry weight analysis for the initiation and development of sporangia in Frankia strains CcO1 and Cc13 grown on modified basal propionate medium showed increase in dry weight and number of sporangia fonnation.

173-182 Download
21
A COMPARISON OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION BETWEEN WILD AND CULTIVATED LEGUMES OF SINDH
A. MAHMOOD

A COMPARISON OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATION BETWEEN WILD AND CULTIVATED LEGUMES OF SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Estimates of nitrogen concentration in cultivated and wild species of 115 leguminous plants of Sindh are reported. The main aim of this investigation was to find relationship between nitrogen contents of nodulated versus non-nodulated legumes, between wild and cultivated legumes and between herbs, shrubs and tree legumes. Nitrogen concentrations of nodulated plants were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than nonnodulated plants. Nitrogen concentrations of cultivated plants were marginally better (p<0.l) when compared with wild plants. Nitrogen contents of herbs and shrubs showed a significant correlation (p < 0.05). This relationship was non-significant between herbs and trees and between shrubs and trees. Nitrogen concentrations of the leguminous plants were also correlated with soil texture, soil pH and nodulation frequency. Nodulation frequency did not bear significant correlation with soil textural type but showed a significant correlation with soil pH (p<0.0l). Nitrogen concentration showed a significant relationship with soil pH (p<0.0l) and with nodulation frequency (p<0.0l). The significance of wild legumes growing in natural ecosystems of Sindh is discussed.

183-192 Download
22
STUDIES ON AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF THREE GREEN ALGAE AS AN ELICITOR OF PLANT DEFENCE MECHANISM
FATIMA BI AND SEEMA IQBAL

STUDIES ON AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF THREE GREEN ALGAE AS AN ELICITOR OF PLANT DEFENCE MECHANISM
ABSTRACT:
Codium eiongatum, Cauierpa texijlora and Viva lactuius (green algae) were collected from Karachi coast. High Molecular Weight Crude Elicitor Preparation (HMWCEP) of these plants were obtained by sequential extraction of H2O, dilute NaOH and HCl, ethanol precipitation and freeze drying. Results showed hat yields were high in NaOH extracts ranging from 4.3 - 69.6%. These HMWCEP were chemically anaysed for total sugar, protein, SO4 group and uronic acid content. Elicitor activity was determined in terms of induced browning in Cicer arietinum (chickpea) tissues. Amongst the three algae HMWCEP of Codium elongatum was found the most active elicitor and produced maximum browning after 24 hour incubation at 25°C.

193-198 Download
23
DISTRIBUTION AND SEASONAL BIOMASS OF SEAWEEDS ON THE ROCKY SHORE OF BULEJI, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
SHAISTA HAMEED AND MUZAMMIL AHMED

DISTRIBUTION AND SEASONAL BIOMASS OF SEAWEEDS ON THE ROCKY SHORE OF BULEJI, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Of a total of 41 genera and 66 species of red, green and brown seaweeds collected from the rocky shore of Buleji during August

199-210 Download
24
MELANOTHAMNUS AFAQHUSAINII, A NEW RED ALGA FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
MUSTAFA SHAMEEL*

MELANOTHAMNUS AFAQHUSAINII, A NEW RED ALGA FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Melanothamnus afaqhusainii Shameel is characterised by large size of thallus (up to 80 cm) with 7-14 celled thick cortical zone, bearing conical (spindle shaped) propagule-like bodies, up to 365 um long x 100 um broad, consisting of up to 21 tiers of cells and borne only on Polysiphonia-like dwarf branches. It differs from S. somalensis in all these characters.

211-214 Download
25
CODIUM SAIFULLAHll NIZAM., SP. NOV. FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN

CODIUM SAIFULLAHll NIZAM., SP. NOV. FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Codium saifullahii Nizam., sp. nov., is characterized by flattened thallus and a great variation in shape size of utricles as well as gametangia.

215-218 Download
26
VALIDITY OF NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF AMPHISOLENIA STEIN
S.M. SAIFULLAH

VALIDITY OF NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF AMPHISOLENIA STEIN
ABSTRACT:
Amphisolenia Stein is a warm water marine planktonic dinoflagellate (Taylor

219-220 Download
27
AN ADDITION TO PHLOEOSPORELLA HOHN.
S.Q. ABBAS, B.C. SUTTON** AND A. GHAFFAR*

AN ADDITION TO PHLOEOSPORELLA HOHN.
ABSTRACT:
A new combination Phloeosporella salvodorae (Prasad, Singh & Bhatnagar) Abbas, Sutton & Ghaffar is proposed based on Septogloeum salvadorae Prasad, Singh & Bhatnagar.

221-225 Download
28
DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN IN ALMOND SEED
ZAKIA BILGRAMI AND A. GHAFFAR

DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN IN ALMOND SEED
ABSTRACT:
TLC technique and plug method were used for the detection of aflatoxin in almond seed. Of the 25 seed samples examined, 5 were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (5.8-140 ug/kg) which included 2 samples that showed the presence of B2 (7.0-140 u/kg) also. Out of 29 isolates of A.flavus tested, 9 showed the presence of aflatoxin B1 with 1:2 ratio of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains.

227-230 Download
29
USE OF AMMONIA GAS IN THE CONTROL OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION IN SUNFLOWER SEED
SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND A. GHAFFAR

USE OF AMMONIA GAS IN THE CONTROL OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION IN SUNFLOWER SEED
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower seeds inoculated with Aspergillus flavus reduced seed geemination with greater production of aflatoxin during storage. Use of ammonia gas although reduced seed germination but infection of A. flavus decreased with consequent reduction in aflatoxin production. Use of ammonia gas for 15 minutes was fonnd optimum for significant supression of the production of aflatoxin B1 and 5 minutes for aflatoxin B2.

231-235 Download
30
USE OF PSEUDONIONAS AERUGINOSA WITH RHIZOBIA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF MASHBEAN (VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER)
I.A. SIDDIQUI, S. EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE AND A. GHAFFAR

USE OF PSEUDONIONAS AERUGINOSA WITH RHIZOBIA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF MASHBEAN (VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER)
ABSTRACT:
Use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with or without Badyrhizobium sp., significantly reduced Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani infection on mashbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper under green house conditions. P. aeruginosa also enhanced plant growth and showed greater nodulation in mashbean plants.

237-242 Download
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