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Year 2005 , Volume  37, Issue 1
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-XLIII. LYTHRACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MOHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-XLIII. LYTHRACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 7 species representing 5 genera of the family Lythraceae from Pakistan have been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Lythraceae is an eurypalynous family. Pollen grains are generally free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate or heterocolpate. Shape of pollen grains are sub-prolate or prolate often oblate-spheroidal. Sexine thicker or as thick as nexine. Tectum reticulate rugulate or scabrate to sub-psilate. The pollen morphology of the family Lythraceae is significantly helpful at generic and specific level. On the basis of apertural types 2 distinct pollen types viz., Lagerstroemia indica - type and Ammannia baccifera- type are recognized.

1-6 Download
2
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SIBBALDIA SPECIES (ROSACEAE)
SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SIBBALDIA SPECIES (ROSACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The pollen grain of all the species of the genus Sibbaldia (Rosaceae) has been examined by light microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The pollen grains are prolate spheroidal to prolate. Colpi are long and thin. On the basis of size, the pollen grains are divided into two groups.

7-13 Download
3
STUDIES ON THE POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS SISYMBRIUM AND MONOTYPIC GENERA ATELANTHERA AND ARCYOSPERMA (BRASSICACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
REHANA KHAN

STUDIES ON THE POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS SISYMBRIUM AND MONOTYPIC GENERA ATELANTHERA AND ARCYOSPERMA (BRASSICACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen grains of 8 species belonging to 3 genera viz., Atelanthera, Arcyosperma and Sisymbrium (Brassicaceae) from Pakistan were studied by light microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical isopolar, prolate spheroidal, prolate and subprolate, tectum reticulate to granulated. On the basis of number of aperture two distinct pollen types are recognized. Atelanthera pollen type 6 colporate and Sisymbrium pollen type 3-4 colpate. Palynological data has been useful at generic and specific levels.

15-22 Download
4
EFFECTS OF SOME FUNGICIDES ON POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
*N. TORT, I. ÖZTÜRK AND A. GÜVENSEN

EFFECTS OF SOME FUNGICIDES ON POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
In this investigation, the effects of fungicides Switch 62.5 WG (%37.5 Cyprodinil + % 25 Fludioxonil) and Mythos SC 300 (300 g/ L Pyrimethanil); widely used on greenhouse grown tomatoes against grey mould (Botrytis cinerea); were studied on the morphology and anatomy of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollens. Application of excessive dosages of fungicides affected fruit production and quality, as such possible effects due to overdose applications were put forth. Fungicides were applied to tomatoes grown in pots in the greenhouse at recommended dosage (60 g/100 L water for Switch; 125 mL/100 L water for Mythos) and double the recommended dosage (120 g/100 L water for Switch; 250 mL/100 L water for Mythos). The pollen width-length, exine-intine layer thickness, pore width-length, crevice width-length were measured using an ocular micrometre. The data obtained revealed that there was a reduction in the values of the groups getting fungicide application as compared to the control. Increased dosage resulted in a decrease in the values of fertile pollen percentages in all fungicide applied groups and the toxic effect became more evident at higher doses. Generally there was an overall increase in the percentage of oblate spheroidal type pollens at higher dosages as compared to the control, but the percentage of prolate spheroidal types decreased. Furthermore, some pollen morphological structures that are not observed in the control group were encountered in the pollens in polar view at 60 g/ 100 L Switch and 125 mL/ 100 L Mythos.

23-30 Download
5
THE VALIDATION OF HIBISCUS MICRANTHUS L.f. var. ALII S. ABEDIN AND EUPHORBIA ABDULGHAFOORIANA S. ABEDIN
SULTANUL ABEDIN

THE VALIDATION OF HIBISCUS MICRANTHUS L.f. var. ALII S. ABEDIN AND EUPHORBIA ABDULGHAFOORIANA S. ABEDIN
ABSTRACT:
Hibiscus micranthus L.f. var alli S. Abedin and Euphorbia abdulghafooriana S. Abedin were inadvertently published earlier without latin diagnoses. They are being provided with latin diagnoses for the valid publication.

31-32 Download
6
ORNITHOGALUM SUMBULIANUM (HYACINTHACEAE), A NEW ENDEMIC SPECIES FROM SOUTH WEST ANATOLIA
OLCAY DINÇ DÜSEN AND ISMAIL GÖKHAN DENIZ

ORNITHOGALUM SUMBULIANUM (HYACINTHACEAE), A NEW ENDEMIC SPECIES FROM SOUTH WEST ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
A new endemic species of Ornithogalum sumbulianum O. D. Düsen & I.G. Deniz sp. nov. (Hyacinthaceae) is described from south-west Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters for discrimination from the most similar taxon are given.

33-36 Download
7
MICHELIA XINNINGIA (MAGNOLIACEAE) - A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
QI-XIA MA, QING-WEN ZENG, REN-ZHANG ZHOU AND FU-WU XING*

MICHELIA XINNINGIA (MAGNOLIACEAE) - A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Michelia xinningia Law & R. Z. Zhou, a new species from Xing'an County, Guangxi Province, China, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to M. platypetala Hand.-Mazz., but differs in its buds, young twigs, lower surfaces of leaves and petioles with golden villose; tepals obovate, outer ones 4-5×c.2cm, filaments red, anthers laterally dehiscent.

37-39 Download
8
INHERITANCE OF QUALITATIVE TRAITS AND THEIR LINKAGE IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD*, ABDUL GHAFOOR AND AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI**

INHERITANCE OF QUALITATIVE TRAITS AND THEIR LINKAGE IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
ABSTRACT:
Four parents (Mash 1, Mash 3, MM 33-40, and 45726) were used to study inheritance of four qualitative characters, i.e., pubescence, seed coat colour, presence of spots on the seed coat and pod colour. All the four traits revealed monogenic nature of inheritance segregating in Mandelian ratio (3:1). The hairiness pattern was observed dominant over non-hairiness; brown seed coat colour dominant over green seed coat colour. Presence of spots on seed coat was dominant to absence of spots and black pods were dominant over brown pods in blackgram. Out of three hybrids, two (Mash 1/MM33-40 and 45726/MM33-40) revealed linkage between pod colour vs presence of spots on seed coat and pod colour vs seed coat colour that is suggested to be used for preliminary mapping in blackgram.

41-46 Download
9
SOURCES OF GENETIC RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN AND BLACKGRAM AGAINST URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS (ULCV)
MUHAMMAD BASHIR, ZAHOOR AHMAD AND ABDUL GHAFOOR

SOURCES OF GENETIC RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN AND BLACKGRAM AGAINST URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS (ULCV)
ABSTRACT:
In order to identify sources of genetic resistance in mungbean and blackgram (mash), 32 accessions (16 each of mungbean and blackgram) were evaluated under greenhouse conditions by sap inoculation method. The inoculated plants of each accession were also tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal antiserum to ULCV to separate the resistant plants from susceptible ones. From mungbean, only five genotypes viz., VC-3960 (A-88), VC-3960 (A-89), 98-CMH-016, NM-2 and BRM-195 were found highly resistant to ULCV. These genotypes neither expressed disease symptoms nor virus was detected by ELISA. However, in case of 98MG-003 genotype

47-51 Download
10
VARIATION IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FOR REACTION TO VIRUS INFECTION
MUHAMMAD BASHIR, TARIQ AZEEM*, ASGHAR ALI AND MUHAMMAD IJAZ*

VARIATION IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FOR REACTION TO VIRUS INFECTION
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to assess the variation among lentil germplasm for their reaction to natural virus infection and to identify sources of resistance against viruses infecting lentil. Based on field observations and ELISA, a great variation was observed among lentil genotypes for their reaction to natural virus infection. Lentil was infected by pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean stain virus (BBSV) and faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV). PSbMV was the most common virus with 64 % of lentil genotypes infected followed by CMV (35%), BBSV (16%), BYMV (14%) and FBNYV (10%). Out of 108 lentil germplasm accessions/breeding lines tested, none of the genotypes was found as highly resistant. However, thirty (64%) and 9 (35%) genotypes were found as resistant and moderately resistant respectively to viral diseases infection. Out of 9 moderately resistant genotypes, four were from Pakistan (99CL-002, 97CL-010, 93CL-005

53-60 Download
11
GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FOR BOTANICAL DESCRIPTORS IN RELATION WITH GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN
TAYYABA SULTANA, ABDUL GHAFOOR* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FOR BOTANICAL DESCRIPTORS IN RELATION WITH GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN
ABSTRACT:
Three hundred and seventeen accessions of lentil collected from all over the country were characterized for stem colour, pedicle colour, growth habit, tendrils, hairiness, leaf pubescence, leaflet size, pod pigmentation, pod indehiscence, presence/absence of beak, seed coat colour, seed coat pattern, seed coat pattern colour and cotyledon colour. Out of these accessions, 76 were heterogeneous that needs to evaluate carefully to isolate pure lines. Inter and intra-accession variation indicated the presence of local wealth for lentil that is yet needed to collect, therefore further exploration missions are suggested to collect germplasm from remote areas of NWFP, NA and Baluchistan with maximum emphasis to interiors rather than closer to motorable roads. High variability was observed for growth habit, leaf pubescence, leaflet size, seed coat colour, seed coat pattern and seed coat pattern colour that could be expanded and exploited for developing breeding material and to use for Marker Assisted Selection. Though clusters analysis grouped together accessions with greater genetic similarity, the cluster did not necessarily include all the accessions from same origin. Low level of association between genetic diversity and geographic distribution is expected to be due to less representation of accessions from particular area that is needed to be studied uniformly.

61-69 Download
12
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PISUM SATIVUM AND A STRATEGY FOR INDIGENOUS BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
ABDUL GHAFOOR * , ZAHOOR AHMAD AND RASHID ANWAR

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PISUM SATIVUM AND A STRATEGY FOR INDIGENOUS BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Pisum sativum germplasm collected from Pakistan was evaluated for agronomic traits and analyzed for biodiversity within each district. The differences proved its validity in substantiating the postulated regions of diversity or gene centres. Migration of landraces into new regions, followed by some degree of contamination by mixture or out crossing with other landraces were observed that might be due to frequent exchange of germplasm or transportation of grains from one place to others. The areas with a high level of stress is expected to present tolerance to environmental stresses, but homogeneous mixtures that needs less extensive sampling for genetic resources conservation purposes. The study confirmed the existence of a wealth of phenotypic divergence in the local pea germplasm and identified pure-lines are suggested to be utilized in crop improvement through simple selection or using in hybrid program. The variation appears attributable to different districts without influence that how frequently area was explored. Further collecting missions to main pea areas with greater diversity could concentrate efforts on sampling as many geographically and ecologically distinct areas as possible, rather than collecting extensively from fields close to motorable roads. The germplasm with high mean values along with medium to high genetic variance should be exploited through simple selection.

71-77 Download
13
IDENTIFICATION OF BLIGHT RESISTANT GENOTYPES FROM LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GENETIC RESOURCES
SHEIKH MUHAMMAD IQBAL AND ABDUL GHAFOOR*

IDENTIFICATION OF BLIGHT RESISTANT GENOTYPES FROM LOCAL AND EXOTIC CHICKPEA GENETIC RESOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Four hundred and forty eight chickpea genotypes obtained from local and exotic sources were screened against blight at two stages during winter 2002-03. None of the genotypes was highly resistant at any stage, whereas 46 genotypes at seedling in the greenhouse and 94 at pod formation stage in the field were resistant. Thirty genotypes were resistant at both the stages and these are suggested to test under multilocational/agronomic trials for further varietal development. Based on relationship among two stages it is suggested that screening could better be done at seedling stage for preliminary selection and then genotypes with high level of resistance at seedling should be reconfirmed at pod formation stage. Common genotypes, which were resistant at seedling and adult plant stage, are suggested to be utilized in breeding programme to build disease resistance pyramids due to complex nature of Ascochyta blight. Disease at seedling and adult plant stage exhibited high association although level of infection was higher at seedling stage. It is suggested to screen huge germplasm lines at seedling stage under greenhouse conditions to save time and labour. Genotypes that give higher level of resistance at seedling stage could be screened at adult plant stage under field conditions.

79-86 Download
14
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SDS-PAGE MARKERS AND ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT IN CHICKPEA
SHEIKH MUHAMMAD IQBAL*, ABDUL GHAFOOR AND NAJMA AYUB**

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SDS-PAGE MARKERS AND ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT IN CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to determine the relationship of chickpea genotypes towards blight disease reaction, in vitro growth of A. rabiei on sap extracted from chickpea and seed protein pattern by SDS-PAGE. Seed proteins were analyzed through slab type SDS-PAGE using 11.25% Polyacrylamide gel and 6 ml of sample quantity. Most of the genotypes grouped on the basis of disease reaction and in-vitro fungus growth but no association between disease and SDS-PAGE was observed. Out of 12 SDS-PAGE markers, 6 were polymorphic and gel was divided into three regions. The genotypes with similar banding patterns were suggested to test by 2-D electrophoresis and DNA markers for genetic diversity. Cluster analysis revealed mixed grouping of susceptible and tolerant genotypes that indicated no response for classifying chickpea for disease reaction on the basis of SDS-PAGE. A low level of genetic diversity was observed among 57 genotypes although those originated from diverse sources. As SDS-PAGE alone did not exhibit high level of variation rather disease rating was more reliable than protein peptides, but simultaneous study for both aspects (disease and biochemical analysis) is suggested. Due to less effectiveness of SDS-PAGE in resolving intra-specific genetic diversity in cultivated chickpea and disease reaction, wild Cicer spp., are suggested to be included. Further, biochemical markers are suggested to enhance by adding DNA markers (RAPD, RFLP, AFLP) in relation with Ascochyta blight for further evaluation and screening that will help in marker assisted selection (MAS).

87-96 Download
15
BIOCHEMISTRY OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST WILT DISEASE CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS
IFTIKHAR A. KHAN, S. SARWAR ALAM, A. HAQ AND ABDUL JABBAR*

BIOCHEMISTRY OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST WILT DISEASE CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS
ABSTRACT:
Chickpea lines Flip 90-131C, Flip 96-152C, Flip 96-153C, Flip 96-155C, Flip 96-158C and ICCV 95503 were found highly resistant (0% incidence) to wilt disease whereas Flip 85-29C, Flip 85-30C and Flip 96-154C (16-17% incidence) were resistant to wilt disease. The chickpea lines Flip 85-29C, Flip 89-14C, Flip 90-2C, Flip 92-148C and UC 27 were found resistant when screened against culture filtrate of the same isolate, while the lines Flip 90-74C, Flip 96-153, Flip 96-155C, Flip 96-157C, ICCV 95503 and UC 15 were tolerant. The two methods of screening did not show complete correlation. Total phenols in the uninoculated roots of resistant/susceptible test lines did not show any correlation with the wilt resistance because the susceptible lines produced higher phenolic contents as compared to the resistant lines. The uninoculated roots of resistant chickpea lines produced antifungal compounds whereas the susceptible line did not produce any active compounds. The inoculated roots of both resistant and susceptible lines produced higher antifungal activity as compared to uninoculated ones. The resistant chickpea lines produced an additional antifungal compound at Rf value 0.79 which was absent in susceptible lines, which might have a role in imparting resistance against wilt disease. The methanol extract of the stem produced one inhibitory zone at Rf value 0.11.

97-104 Download
16
SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS CARBON UNDER A WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING SYSTEM RECEIVING UREA AND FARMYARD MANURE IN DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS
TARIQ MAHMOOD*, REHMAT ALI, FAQIR HUSSAIN AND GHULAM RASUL TAHIR

SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS CARBON UNDER A WHEAT-MAIZE CROPPING SYSTEM RECEIVING UREA AND FARMYARD MANURE IN DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Seasonal changes in carbon (C) availability and soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) were studied under an irrigated wheat-maize system receiving urea at 50 or 100 kg N ha-1 year-1 in combination with 8 or 16 t ha-1 year-1of farmyard manure (FYM). Treatment effects on Cmic were not visible during the wheat growing season, whereas fertilizer application significantly increased Cmic during the maize growing season. In unfertilized soil, Cmic was similar under two crops, whereas fertilized soils showed 11-56% higher Cmic under maize than under wheat. Under both crops, C availability, as assessed by aerobically mineralizable C (AMC) and total organic C, was generally higher in fertilized soils than in the unfertilized. Fertilized soils showed much higher AMC under wheat than under maize; the stimulatory effect being much more pronounced due to increasing application rate of FYM than that of urea. In fertilized soils, but not in the unfertilized, specific respiratory activity (SRA) of soil microbial biomass was twice higher under wheat as compared to that under maize. Results suggested that the soil microflora under wheat was probably dominated by 'r-strategists', which respired more C as CO2 than that incorporated into microbial biomass. In contrast, 'k-strategists' dominated under maize, incorporating relatively more C into their biomass than that respired as CO2. Fertilizer application significantly increased Cmic turnover rate; while increasing the FYM application rate further increased the turnover rate, the increasing urea level had no effect. The overall high Cmic turnover rate, particularly in fertilized soils (1.69-2.29 year-1) indicated that nutrient cycling through soil microbial biomass may be substantial under agro-climatic conditions prevailing in this region.

105-117 Download
17
INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON GROWTH AND OSMOTIC RELATIONS OF SPOROBOLUS IOCLADOS
SALMAN GULZAR1, M. AJMAL KHAN2, IRWIN A. UNGAR3 AND XIAOJING LIU4

INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON GROWTH AND OSMOTIC RELATIONS OF SPOROBOLUS IOCLADOS
ABSTRACT:
Sporobolus ioclados (Nees ex Trin.) Nees (Poaceae) is a perennial salt secreting grass distributed from coastal sand dunes and marshes of the Arabian Sea to saline flats throughout the Indus basin in Pakistan. Effects of NaCl on growth, water relations and ion accumulation were studied. Plants were grown in 0

119-129 Download
18
SALINITY EFFECTS ON SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF DIFFERENT INBRED RICE LINES
AISHA SHEREEN, S. MUMTAZ, S. RAZA, M.A. KHAN AND S. SOLANGI

SALINITY EFFECTS ON SEEDLING GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF DIFFERENT INBRED RICE LINES
ABSTRACT:
Water culture studies of short (seedling stage) and long term (maturity) stage were conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of salinity (0, 50, 75 mM NaCl) on the growth, yield and yield components of different inbred rice lines. Studies at seedling stage showed significant growth reduction in term of leaf mortality and shoot fresh weight in all tested lines under salinity. However, the rate of reduction varied among different lines. Variable responses to salinity have been observed at vegetative and reproductive stages. The lines which have shown tolerance at seedling stage exhibited greater reduction in their grain production. All yield contributing characters like fertility, tiller numbers, panicle number and panicle length were significantly reduced under salinity. Among these contributing characters sterility was found to be major cause of yield losses under saline conditions.

131-139 Download
19
SEASONAL VARIATION IN WATER RELATIONS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPF. GROWING NEAR SANDSPIT, KARACHI
IRFAN AZIZ*, SALMAN GULZAR**, MEHER NOOR AND M. AJMAL KHAN

SEASONAL VARIATION IN WATER RELATIONS OF HALOPYRUM MUCRONATUM (L.) STAPF. GROWING NEAR SANDSPIT, KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Halopyrum mucronatum (L) Stapf., is a salt tolerant grass found on the coastal dunes of Arabian Sea. Seasonal variations in water relations of H. mucronatum were studied near Sandspit, Karachi over a one-year period. Water and osmotic potentials were higher during the monsoon (July and August), stomatal conductance was high and plants maintained turgor. Water potential, osmotic potential and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing soil electrical conductivity. This indicates that plants minimize their water uptake during stress to achieve osmotic adjustment, which helps them to survive in desert ecosystem.

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20
SCREENING OF PLANT LEAVES AS GRAIN PROTECTANTS AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM DURING STORAGE
TOOBA HAQ, N. F. USMANI AND TAHIR ABBAS

SCREENING OF PLANT LEAVES AS GRAIN PROTECTANTS AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM DURING STORAGE
ABSTRACT:
Many species of plants have potential to be utilized as medicinal and therapeutic agents, not only for the treatment of various diseases of man and animals but can also be used as insect control agents for various stored grains. Present work has been focussed to assess the repellency and toxicity of some medicinal plants immune to insect attack. Response varied with plant materials, insect species and exposure time. The potential of leaves of five plants viz., Eucalyptus, Bougainvillea glabra, Azadirachta indica, Saraca indica and Ricinus communis, were selected as grain protectants against insect infestation. Forty five days storage of wheat grain samples were tested with 5% (by weight) of above mentioned selected test leaves which showed 78% to 76% of repellency against Tribolium castaneum insect as compared to the control samples of wheat grain without test leaves.

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21
A SURVEY OF AMYLOLYTIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI FROM NATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES
MUHAMMAD SOHAIL, AQEEL AHMAD, SALEEM SHAHZAD1 AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

A SURVEY OF AMYLOLYTIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI FROM NATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES
ABSTRACT:
Starches are one of the most important naturally occurring glucose polymers that are present in plants. They are used as the starting material for the production of a variety of different types of compounds of commercial importance. The usual process is the treatment of starch at an elevated temperature to gelatinize followed by liquefaction by chemicals or by enzymes. Enzymatic liquefaction has an edge over chemical treatment process. Microbes are, in general, the source of commercial enzymes. Present study was initiated to screen the microbial population for their ability to possess amylolytic potential where 117 strains of bacteria and 130 fungal strains were isolated and screened. A considerable number of both were found to produce amylase. Bacillus sp., and Aspergillus sp., were the most active amylase producers. Bacterial enzymes showed maximum activity at slightly elevated temperature and at alkaline pH while one of the fungal enzymes retained most of its activity even at a temperature of 80ºC, however, level of activity was reduced when reaction was carried out at alkaline pH. Genetic studies revealed that starch is a suitable inducer in case of fungi, while maltose seems to be a better inducer than that of starch in case of bacteria.

155-161 Download
22
ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY IN THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF VARIOUS SEAWEED FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
H. SABINA, S. TASNEEM, *SAMREEN, *Y. KAUSAR, *M. I. CHOUDHARY AND R. ALIYA

ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY IN THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF VARIOUS SEAWEED FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Crude seaweed extracts of Caulerpa racemosa, Ulva fasciata, Caulerpa faridii, Codium flabellatum, Laurencia pinnatifida, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, Gracilaria corticata and Scinaia hatei exhibited significant results while Codium iyengarii, Ulva reticulate, Ulva rigida, Scinaia indica, Centroceras clavulatum and Botryocladia leptopoda showed good activity against leishmania in vitro. This unique characteristic of algae will help in the development of novel antileishmanial agents against the prevention of leishmania disease.

163-168 Download
23
EFFECT OF INOCULATION WITH VAM-FUNGI AND BRADYRHIZOBIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN IN SINDH
M. JALALUDDIN

EFFECT OF INOCULATION WITH VAM-FUNGI AND BRADYRHIZOBIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN IN SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Inoculation of soybean seeds variety William 82 and NARC-II with rhizobase inocula of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi - Glomus macrocarpum and G. warcupii and root nodule bacterium, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, showed an increase in VAM-infection and root nodulation over the control. An increase in fresh weight, dry weight and seed weight was also observed as compared to control.

169-173 Download
24
PATHOGENCITY OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ON DIFFERENT CROPS AND EFFECT OF INOCULUM DENSITY ON COLONIZATION OF MUNGBEAN AND SUNFLOWER ROOTS
FOUZIA YAQUB AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

PATHOGENCITY OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ON DIFFERENT CROPS AND EFFECT OF INOCULUM DENSITY ON COLONIZATION OF MUNGBEAN AND SUNFLOWER ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
Sclerotium rolfsii proved to be highly pathogenic on sunflower, mungbean and sugar beet, mildly pathogenic on tomato, lentil, sweet pumpkin and cabbage, and non-pathogenic on cauliflower plants in pot experiments. Increase in inoculum density of S. rolfsii caused gradual reduction in growth parameters of sunflower and mungbean plants whereas a positive correlation was observed between root colonization and population of S. rolfsii in soil.

175-180 Download
25
STUDIES ON SEED-BORNE FUNGI OF WHEAT IN SINDH PROVINCE AND THEIR EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION
M. ASLAM RAJPUT, MUMTAZ. A. PATHAN*, A. MUBEEN LODHI**, G. SARWAR SHAH* AND KHALIL A. KHANZADA***

STUDIES ON SEED-BORNE FUNGI OF WHEAT IN SINDH PROVINCE AND THEIR EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION
ABSTRACT:
One hundred twenty wheat seed samples collected from Sindh wheat growing areas were tested for fungal seed-borne pathogens by using the standard blotter method. Five seed borne fungi viz., Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Curvuluria lunata and Stemphylium herhurum were isolated from 12 wheat varieties viz., Mehran, T.J-83, Soghat, Sarsabz, Anmol, Johar, C-591, Sindh-81, Pak-70, Mexipak-65, H-68 and Faisalabad-85 respectively. Alternaria tenuis was predominance with an infection range from 22.5-47.5%. Maximum seed germination was observed in Anmol and minimum in Pak-70. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Anmol and Sarsabz followed by H-68 and minimum in Pak-70, Mehran-89, Soghat and Johar.

181-185 Download
26
FIRST REPORT OF PYTHIUM OSTRACODES DRECHSLER FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

FIRST REPORT OF PYTHIUM OSTRACODES DRECHSLER FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During a taxonomic study on Oomycetous fungi from Sindh province of Pakistan, a Pythium species was isolated from soil collected from guava field in Hyderabad district, Sindh, Pakistan. Morphologically this species resembled P. ostracodes which is re-described and illustrated herein. It appeared to be the first report of P. ostracodes from Pakistan.

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27
MORCHELLA ELATA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

MORCHELLA ELATA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Morchella elata has been recorded for the first time from the Gilgit valley (Mushkin forest) Pakistan. This spices is characterized by the production of brown or redish purple, elongated, cylindrical, slightly pointed globular, longitudinal pits, and colorless, ellipsoid

193-194 Download
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