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Year 2005 , Volume  37, Issue 2
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLIV. RHAMNACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLIV. RHAMNACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 11 species representing 5 genera of the family Rhamnaceae from Pakistan have been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Rhamnaceae is a stenopalynous family. Pollen grains are generally free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate. Shape of pollen grains are sub-prolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely prolate. Sexine thicker or thinner or as thick as nexine. Tectum striate to striate-rugulate or rugulate to reticulate often psilate.

195-202 Download
2
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THALICTRUM L., SPECIES (RANUNCULACEAE) IN TURKEY
SEVCAN TATLIDIL, ADEM BICAKCI, HULUSI MALYER AND K.H. CAN BASER*

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THALICTRUM L., SPECIES (RANUNCULACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the pollen morphology of 11 taxa of the Thalictrum L. (Ranunculaceae) viz., T. orientale Boiss., T. aquilegifolium L., T. sultanabadense Stapf.,T. foetidum L., T. isophyroides C.A.Mey., T.minus L., var. minus Boiss., T.minus var. majus (Crantz) Crepin, T. minus L. var. microphyllum Boiss., T.lucidum L., T. flavum L. and T. simplex L., from Turkey was investigated with light microscope and scanning electron microscope. LM observations reveal that pollen grains of the taxa are periporate with operculum, spheroidal, ornamentation microechinate. The numbers of pores are between 6 and 17. This palynological investigation is the first one which has been done on Thalictrum L., distributed in Turkey.

203-212 Download
3
MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ENDEMIC SCUTELLARIA ORIENTALIS L. SUBSP. BICOLOR (HOCHST.) EDMUND AND SUBSP. SANTOLINOIDES (HAUSSKN EX BORNM)
CANAN ÖZDEMIR AND YASIN ALTAN

MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ENDEMIC SCUTELLARIA ORIENTALIS L. SUBSP. BICOLOR (HOCHST.) EDMUND AND SUBSP. SANTOLINOIDES (HAUSSKN EX BORNM)
ABSTRACT:
Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. bicolor (Hochst.) Edmund and subsp. santolinoides (Hausskn ex Bornm) has been described which will help to distinguish them from each other.

213-226 Download
4
CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM TWO COTTON SPECIES (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L., AND G. BARBADENSE L.)
LALE EFE

CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM TWO COTTON SPECIES (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L., AND G. BARBADENSE L.)
ABSTRACT:
In this study carried out during 2000-2001 in Kahramanmaras, 3,9,15 and 21 days old ovules excised from two different cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.) were cultured in MS (Murashige & Skoog

227-236 Download
5
MICROPROPAGATION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CV SWAT-II) THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS
IHSAN ILAHI, SHAZIA BANO, MUSARRAT JABEEN AND FAZAL RAHIM

MICROPROPAGATION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CV SWAT-II) THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
Callus was induced on mature caryopsis of a local variety of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Swat-II). The frequency of callus induction was studied on modified MS medium using a variety of combinations of 2,4-D and Kn. Addition of tryptophan to different combinations of auxins and cytokinins increased the embryogenic callus mass. Calli have been successfully proliferated on MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/l of Kn and 0.5 mg/l of NAA. For regeneration the embryogenic callus was cultured on MS containing different concentrations of NAA and Kn and BAP and IAA. The somatic embryos developed into complete plantlets on regenerative media. The plantlets were then transferred to natural conditions for acclimatization.

237-242 Download
6
MASS PROLIFERATION OF MADONNA LILY (LILIUM CANDIDUM L) UNDER IN VITRO CONDITIONS
KHALID MAHMOOD KHAWAR*, SATI COCU, ISKENDER PARMAKSIZ, ERCUMENT OSMAN SARIHAN, SEBAHATTIN ÖZCAN

MASS PROLIFERATION OF MADONNA LILY (LILIUM CANDIDUM L) UNDER IN VITRO CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Mass proliferation from the lower half bulb scales and adventitious bulb regeneration from in vitro cultured leaf explants of Madonna Lilly (Lilium candidum L.) was achieved using various concentrations of BAP-IBA. Regenerated plantlets were transferred to greenhouse for adaptation where they flowered after two years.

243-248 Download
7
RAPD CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMACLONAL VARIATION IN INDICA BASMATI RICE
SULTANA RASHEED*, TAHIRA FATIMA, TAYYAB HUSNAIN, KHURRAM BASHIR AND SHIEKH RIAZUDDIN

RAPD CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMACLONAL VARIATION IN INDICA BASMATI RICE
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of three cultivars of indica basmati rice viz., B-370, B-2000 and Super basmati were sterilized and incubated for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks on callus induction medium. Fifteen interested regenerates were selected on the basis of variation in important morphological characteristics. DNAs from leaves of regenerated plants along with parental controls were isolated and analyzed through PCR using 8 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Primers. Four primers viz., S-13, S-19, R-17 and OPX-11 produced detectable range of amplification products and 7 interesting clones with different banding patterns were obtained. Index of genetic variation was calculated and dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA method. Genetic variation up to 45.2, 32.3, 32.4 & 35.3% was recorded after 8 weeks of incubation with primers S-13, S-19, R-17 and OPX-11 respectively. Our study indicates that tissue culture generates a wide range of variation, which is related with incubation time and is cultivar specific. Moreover, RAPDs can successfully be used to explore such polymorphism within and among different cultivars of basmati rice.

249-262 Download
8
USE OF SDS-PAGE MARKERS FOR DETERMINING QUANTITATIVE TRAITS LOCI IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] GERMPLASM
ABDUL GHAFOOR*, ZAHOOR AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD AFZAL

USE OF SDS-PAGE MARKERS FOR DETERMINING QUANTITATIVE TRAITS LOCI IN BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
One hundred and five genotypes of blackgram from diverse origin were evaluated for agronomic traits for 2 years and seed proteins were analyzed using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) through vertical slab type unit. Screening analysis for markers to quantitative traits revealed its significance in determining quantitative trait loci (QTL) in blackgram through SDS-PAGE markers. The factors affecting quantitative traits may occur as individual genes or gene clusters scattered throughout the genome, therefore, quantitative traits were expected differently at several loci. Variation in seven quantitative traits out of ten was significantly associated with 9 protein sub-units, however, the actual number of QTLs might be fewer because several of these traits were correlated. Variation at protein peptides in the vicinity of QTL in blackgram may be an indication of genetic variation potentially available to breeding programmes. Expansion of genetic base for blackgram breeding might be accomplished by systematic use of germplasm that differ from common banding pattern and known to be associated with variation in quantitative traits.

263-269 Download
9
DNA FINGERPRINTING STUDIES OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
MUHAMMAD ASIF, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR*

DNA FINGERPRINTING STUDIES OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was employed to estimate genetic diversity/genetic similarity among nine wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. Out of 25 random 10-mer primers surveyed

271-277 Download
10
EVALUATION OF HIGH YIELDING MUTANTS OF BRASSICA JUNCEA CV. S-9 DEVELOPED THROUGH GAMMA RAYS AND EMS
ABDULLAH KHATRI, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, MUHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI, SABOOHI RAZA AND GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI

EVALUATION OF HIGH YIELDING MUTANTS OF BRASSICA JUNCEA CV. S-9 DEVELOPED THROUGH GAMMA RAYS AND EMS
ABSTRACT:
Homogeneous seeds of Brassica juncea L. cv. S-9 were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750 and 1000 Gy) and EMS (0.75% and 1.0%) to induce genetic variability for the selection of genotypes with improved quantitative and quality traits. After passing through different stages of selection

279-284 Download
11
GENETIC VARIABILITY INDUCED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION AND ITS MODULATION WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID IN M2 GENERATION OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
MUHAMMAD R. KHAN, *AFSARI S. QURESHI,1SYED A. HUSSAIN AND 1MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM

GENETIC VARIABILITY INDUCED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION AND ITS MODULATION WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID IN M2 GENERATION OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of three chickpea genotypes viz., Noor 91 (white), Punjab 91 (brown) and C 141 (black) were treated at 40, 50 and 60 Kr separately and post mutagenically with gibberellic acid (GA3). Plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain yield in M2 generation were significantly effected due to genotypes, treatments and also by their interaction. Plant height decreased nonsignificantly with both treatments except at 50 Kr of gamma irradiation. Primary branches increased significantly with gamma irradiation as compared to control. Post mutagenic application of GA3 significantly decreased the number of primary branches at 50 and 60 Kr to that of gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation significantly decreased number of secondary branches as compared to control. Post mutagenic application of GA3 stimulated the secondary branches at 40 and 50 Kr as compared to irradiated population. Pods per plant significantly increased with gamma irradiation as compared to control. GA3 application significantly decreased the pods per plant at 40 and 60 Kr which increased at 50 Kr to that of while gamma irradiation. Seeds per pod remained unchanged with gamma irradiation as compared to control while it increased significantly with GA3. Gamma irradiation which increased the grain yield significantly as compared to control. Combined treatment stimulated the grain yield at 50 and 60 Kr to that of irradiated population.

285-292 Download
12
CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT STUDIES IN INDUCED MUTANTS OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
MAHMUDUL HASSAN, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ, HINA SYED AND S. SARWAR ALAM

CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT STUDIES IN INDUCED MUTANTS OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Correlation and path coefficient analysis study was accomplished on 21 diverse true breeding mutant lines of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were found between yield and yield components. Path coefficient analysis showed maximum direct and positive influence of number of grains per plant on yield per plant (1.0365) followed by 100-grain weight (0.7859). Both the traits may be good selection criteria for yield. The indirect influence of other yield components is also presented.

293-298 Download
13
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIHYDROPYRIMIDINASE FROM ALBIZZIA JULIBRISSIN
Y. TURAN AND O. SINAN

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIHYDROPYRIMIDINASE FROM ALBIZZIA JULIBRISSIN
ABSTRACT:
Dihydropyrimidinase (DHPase) was purified 74-fold over the initial Albizzia extract using heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-200 column chromatography. Its molecular mass, determined by SDS-PAGE, was approximately 56 kDa. The optimum temperatures of DHPase were 60oC and 55oC for dihydrouracil (DHU) and dihydrothymine (DHT), respectively. Optimum pH value of DHPase for two substrates was found to be 9.5. The stability of DHPase was determined both in crude enzyme extract and in the sample obtained from ammonium sulphate precipitation. The effect of some metal ions on this enzyme was also examined. Km values of the enzyme for DHU and DHT were 0.33 mM and 0.37 mM, respectively. Vmax values were found as 0.15 U/mL min-1 and 0.092 U/mL min-1 for DHU and DHT, respectively.

299-306 Download
14
CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF KALIDIOPSIS WAGENITZII AELLEN
AYSE NIHAL GÖMÜRGEN, HASIM ALTINÖZLÜ

CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF KALIDIOPSIS WAGENITZII AELLEN
ABSTRACT:
The endemic halophyte plant Kalidiopsis wagenitzii Aellen is the only species of Kalidiopsis genus of Turkey. The diploid chromosome number of K. wagenitzii was determined as 2n=18. Mitotic chromosomes from root tips of K. wagenitzii were analyzed cytologically. Nine pairs of chromosomes were numbered from 1 to 9 on the basis of their descending order of length. The average length of metaphase chromosomes was 3.202 m, varying from 2.653 m to 3.866 m. Total chromosome length was 31.786 m. There were no satellite chromosomes. The arm ratio ranged from 0.609 to 0.825 m. Eight of nine chromosome pairs had median chromosomes while only one (the third) had submedian chromosome.

307-311 Download
15
KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF EIGHT TURKISH VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS
CAFER SIRRI SEVIMAY, DERYA GULOGLU AND *KHALID MAHMOOD KHAWAR

KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS OF EIGHT TURKISH VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Mitotic chromosomes of 8 Turkish cultivars of Vicia sativa L. were subjected to karyotype analysis using squash method. They were analysed cytologically by conventional feulgen staining to identify variation in the morphology of indvidual chromosomes and relationship between them. The results showed that the chromosome numbers of Vicia sativa L with 2n=12 were metacentric with submedian orientation. Karyotypes of the studied cultivars had small variations and divergence in positions of short and long arms, which showed that they have considerable potential for use in breeding programmes.

313-317 Download
16
RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD
RASHID A. KHAN, JUNAID A. KHAN, F. F. JAMIL AND M. HAMED

RESISTANCE OF DIFFERENT BASMATI RICE VARIETIES TO STEM BORERS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL TACTICS OF IPM AND EVALUATION OF YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted using five Basmati rice varieties to evaluate the chemical, biological control of rice stem borers and their infestation under natural conditions. The results revealed that rice stem borer infestation varied significantly among different Basmati varieties under chemical, biological and natural environmental conditions. In chemical control trial two chemicals viz., Lorsban 40 EC and Karate 2.5 EC were used at vegetative and panicle formation stage respectively in recommended doses. Results revealed that among varieties Basmati Super showed minimum infestation and Basmati 370 showed maximum infestation under chemical control. Biological control trial showed that Basmati Super had minimum infestation whereas other varieties showed same level of infestation. Yield analysis showed significant yield increase under chemical control over biological control. The varieties under natural conditions were ranked as Basmati Super > Basmati 2000 > Basmati 385 > Basmati Pak > Basmati 370. These results emphasized the need to carefully integrate the chemical and biological control tactics of IPM for rice

319-324 Download
17
DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKPEA BLIGHT RESISTANT VARIETY (DASHT) USING COMBINATION OF BULK POPULATION AND PEDIGREE BREEDING METHOD
AHMAD BAKHSH, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD* AND S. M. IQBAL

DEVELOPMENT OF CHICKPEA BLIGHT RESISTANT VARIETY (DASHT) USING COMBINATION OF BULK POPULATION AND PEDIGREE BREEDING METHOD
ABSTRACT:
"Dasht" is a blight resistant variety of Desi chickpea with intermediate growth habit. It was released in the year 2002 for Potowar and rice based areas. Dasht originated from a cross between C 44 and ICC 7770. C 44 is a local genotype well adapted to chickpea growing area of Punjab, whereas ICC 7770 is an Ascochyta blight resistant line obtained from ICRISAT, India. F1 to F6, progenies of this cross were advanced by modified bulk method, negative selection/eradication of undesirable plants. Single plant selection was made from F6 generation and subsequently, their progenies were evaluated, using an approach based on bulk population and pedigree breeding methods. Resistance against Ascochyta blight (blight score 3 - 5) and high yield potential (2400 kg ha-1) are the major attributes of Dasht that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Dasht is more cold tolerant and more efficient in iron uptake than C 44 and CM 98. The hundred seed weight of this variety is 24 gm and seeds are round in shape having 23% protein, 50% carbohydrates, 5.5% fats and 9.5% crude fiber. Plant type of Dasht is semi erect with plant height 50 - 80cm and 1.5-2.7 inter-nodal lengths. Pods are ovate with little depression on dorsal side and contain 1 - 2 seeds. Number of leaflets vary from 13-19, flowers are pink with 15-18 mm long pedicle and 2-6 mm long bracts and 7-9 mm long keel. The cooking time of Dasht is 8 minutes less than those of C 44 and Paidar 91. Dasht performs better in Potowar when planted in 2nd fortnight of October, keeping 20-25 kg acre-1 seed rate and 30 cm row spacing.

325-335 Download
18
EFFECTS OF HARVEST TIME AND GROWTH CONDITIONS ON STORAGE AND POST-STORAGE QUALITY OF FRESH PEPPERS (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
MUHAMMAD BANARAS, P.W. BOSLAND* AND N. K. LOWNDS*

EFFECTS OF HARVEST TIME AND GROWTH CONDITIONS ON STORAGE AND POST-STORAGE QUALITY OF FRESH PEPPERS (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to see the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on extending postharvest longevity of mid-season, late-season and greenhouse grown pepper fruits stored at 8 and 20ºC. Also, effects of MAP on post-storage quality of peppers stored at 20ºC were determined. Significant varietal differences in water loss and turgidity were observed in ambient atmosphere at each storage temperature. 'Keystone' (bell pepper) fruits had the lowest weight and turgidity loss followed by 'NuMex R Naky' (long green) and 'Santa Fe Grande' (yellow wax). Storage life for late-season field harvested peppers placed in ambient atmosphere was 10 to 14 days at 8ºC, whereas it was less than 7 days at 20ºC. Late-season field harvested peppers lost their quality at 8ºC primarily due to disease (fungal decay) and at 20ºC due to wilting and disease. Greenhouse grown peppers lost their quality after approximately 10 days at 8ºC and 5 days at 20ºC due to high water loss. MAP reduced postharvest water loss, maintained turgidity of fruits and delayed red colour development and disease. Compared to non-packaged fruits MAP extended postharvest life for another 7 days at 8ºC and 10 days at 20ºC as compared to non- packaged fruits held at these temperatures. Postharvest water loss and turgidity were similar for fruits stored in packages with and without 26-guage holes at 8 and 20ºC. Packaging was successful in extending the postharvest storage life of both mid-season field picked and greenhouse grown peppers. Packaging did not affect post-storage quality of fresh peppers as after removal of packaging fruits started dehydrating like the ones kept in open trays.

337-344 Download
19
STABILITY OF COTTON CULTIVARS FOR EARLY CROP MATURITY ACROSS VARIABLE PLANT SPACING AND SOWING TIMES
M. KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH*, SAEED A. MALIK**, MUHAMMAD SALEEM

STABILITY OF COTTON CULTIVARS FOR EARLY CROP MATURITY ACROSS VARIABLE PLANT SPACING AND SOWING TIMES
ABSTRACT:
Earliness of crop maturity being a complex trait in cotton is significantly altered by a number of agronomic practices including inter plant spacing and sowing time thus making identification of true early maturing cultivars a difficult task under field conditions. In this study, cotton cultivars were subjected to twelve environments provided through three plant spacings, two sowing dates over two years to assess phenotypic stability for earliness index. The stability parameters were calculated following Eberhart & Russell. Stability analysis revealed presence of genetic differences among cultivars for earliness index. Significant cultivar X environment (linear) indicated differential response of cultivars to various environments for earliness index. Cotton cultivars 15/2S and Krishna showing near unity (<1.0) regression coefficient (b) were regarded as above average stable which can mature early under all environments. CIM-448, despite showing higher mean value, had b value significantly distant from unity, hence regarded as unstable for earliness over variable growing conditions. CIM-448, under May sowing and CIM-1100 under June sowing, can be utilized as substitutes in the absence of true early maturing cultivars. Cultivars Krishna and 15/2S were found to be stable for earliness of crop maturity over a range of environments and can safely be utilized as early maturing parents in any cotton crop maturity improvement programme.

345-353 Download
20
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI, MUHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI, SABOOHI RAZA AND NAZIR A. DAHAR
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI, MUHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI, SABOOHI RAZA AND NAZIR A. DAHAR

IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI, MUHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI, SABOOHI RAZA AND NAZIR A. DAHAR
ABSTRACT:
A new sugarcane clone AEC86-347, was obtained from seed (fuzz), of a cross combination of NCo 310 x CP57-614, imported from ARS, USDA, Canal Point, Florida, USA. The genotype was evaluated for the response to NPK fertilizers for two consecutive years. Significant (P 0.05) differences were observed among the fertilizer treatments. Treatment 3 (200 N kg/ha:120 P2O5 kg/ha:150 K2O kg/ha) showed the best results as compared to the other fertilizer treatments. Six characters i.e., cane yield, plant height, weight/stool, stalks/stool, commercial cane sugar and sugar yield were examined under different fertilizer doses. As per cost: benefit ratio, it was observed that treatment 3 was the suitable fertilizer treatment for clone AEC86-347 to obtain higher cane and sugar yield.

355-360 Download
21
SOME ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE ACORNS OF TURKISH QUERCUS L. (FAGACEAE) TAXA
TAMER ÖZCAN AND GÜLRIZ BAYÇU

SOME ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE ACORNS OF TURKISH QUERCUS L. (FAGACEAE) TAXA
ABSTRACT:
Quercus acorns from 16 taxa grown naturally in different regions of Turkey were studied to detect some elemental concentrations in order to observe different accumulation levels. Total concentrations of K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co in the acorns were determined in acid digests by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. No significant differences in section level were observed, but differences at specific and infraspecific levels were significant (P<0.001) for all examined elements. Fe concentrations were positively correlated with Zn and Cu (P<0.02) in Section Quercus, but only with Zn (P<0.05) in Section Cerris. Remarkable distinctions of Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni concentrations in spesific and subspesific levels were observed. Fe and Zn concentrations were detected high in the acorns of Q. robur subsp. robur, Q. petraea subsp. petraea, Q. infectoria subsp. boissieri and Q. cerris var. cerris. In general, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co concentrations were low, but the concentrations of Cu in Q. petraea subsp. petraea and Q. libani; Ni in Q. pubescens, Q. cerris var. austriaca and Q. ilex; Co in Q. frainetto and Q. coccifera and Cr in Q. robur subsp. robur, Q. frainetto, Q. vulcanica were found in higher levels. Considerably different concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu especially in the related taxa may be evaluated for the taxonomic delimitation additionally as a characteristic tool reflecting the constant genetical tolerance of accumulation.

361-371 Download
22
EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS GCBM-25
IKRAM-UL-HAQ, NADIA SHAMIM, HAMAD ASHRAF, SIKANDER ALI AND M.A. QADEER

EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS GCBM-25
ABSTRACT:
The present study was concerned with the selection of suitable surfactant for the production of alpha amylase by Bacillus subtilis GCBM-25 in 250 ml shake flask containing 50 ml of fermentation medium. Different surfactants (laundry soap, detergent powder, sulphonic acid, acyle benzene sulphonic acid, liquid soap, Tween 80, sodium silicate, bath soap, sodium tri-polyphosphate, sodium lauryl ether sulphate or sodium lauryl sulphate) @ 2.0 % (w/v) were tested for enzyme production. Of all the surfactants, laundry soap gave better production of alpha amylase (605 U/ml/min) 44 h after inoculation (4.0 % inoculum size). The production of enzyme was found to be optimum (857 U/ml/min) when Millon soap @ 3.2 % (w/v) was added to the medium. The thermostability of the enzyme was decreased from 70 to 50oC as the surfactant was added to the fermentation medium.

373-379 Download
23
CHLORPYRIFOS RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM PAKISTANI SOILS: ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, RESISTANCE PROFILE AND GROWTH KINETICS
MUNAZZA AJAZ, NUSRAT JABEEN*, SHAHIDA AKHTAR** AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL*

CHLORPYRIFOS RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM PAKISTANI SOILS: ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, RESISTANCE PROFILE AND GROWTH KINETICS
ABSTRACT:
Haphazard use of pesticides has been a potential source of ecological imbalance in addition to their genetic activity. The soil microflora (under persistence pesticide stress) are able to detoxify/degrade these toxic compounds into non toxic products. Chlorpyrifos (a trichloropyridinyl phosphothioate) is one of the most widely used pesticides that exert broad based toxic effects. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and characterize the chlorpyrifos resistant bacteria from cotton cultivated soil of NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan (using conventional and API kit methods). Out of 20 isolates 3 chlorpyrifos hyper resistant bacteria were finally selected for follow up studies. The screening was performed by replica device. Three isolates viz., Ps. putida, Aeromonas sp., and Klebsiella sp., were found resistant to 2mg/mL, 4mg/mL and 8mg/mL of chlorpyrifos while Ps. putida and Aeromonas sp., also resisted the 10mg/mL and 20mg/mL doses. Growth kinetic studies revealed that under highly stressed conditions of chlorpyrifos, the generation time was extended compared to shorter generation time in plain liquid medium. Further studies (including analysis of the chlorpyrifos degraded products) are in progress.

381-388 Download
24
COMPARISON OF PURIFICATION METHODS EMPLOYED FOR PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
TAHIRA YASMIN, HUSSAIN SHAH AND SAIF KHALID

COMPARISON OF PURIFICATION METHODS EMPLOYED FOR PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) particles were purified employing various purification methods. Substantial amount of virus particles were obtained using tangential flow filters of millipore sizes of 10 and 0.16µm and 100KDa/100mwco sequentially. The method was most successful and gave high virus yield (75µg/ml) devoid of most host macromolecules. Under electron microscopy (EM) isometric virus particles of 18-20 nm in diameter were observed. The purified virus was used to raise polyclonal antiserum against local isolate of BBTV giving an antibody titre of 1:6000 higher than other methods. Later Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also standardized for BBTV indexing.

389-398 Download
25
RFLP-BASED RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS WITH SOUTH PACIFIC VIRUS GROUP
TAHIRA YASMIN, S.M. SAQLAIN NAQVI*, HUSSAIN SHAH AND SAIF KHALID

RFLP-BASED RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF BANANA BUNCHY TOP VIRUS WITH SOUTH PACIFIC VIRUS GROUP
ABSTRACT:
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique was employed to investigate the relationship of Pakistani isolates of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) with Asia and South Pacific strains. The PCR amplified product of BBTV DNA component I was digested with nine different restriction endonucleases (Bam HI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HaeIII, HincII, HindIII, PstI, RsaI and SmaI) and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. HaeIII resulted in three DNA fragments of 505

399-406 Download
26
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ARIF, ATTIQUE AHMAD, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM AND SHER HASSAN

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess the occurrence and distribution of citrus virus and virus-like diseases, extensive surveys were conducted in citrus growing area of NWFP during 2001-03. Based on characteristic symptoms expression and serological indexing, the major virus, viroid and prokaryotic diseases commonly observed in citrus orchards and nurseries were citrus tristeza, citrus variegation, citrus exocortis, citrus cachexia (-xyloprosis), citrus greening and stubborn. Average incidence of citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) was 27%, citrus variegation ilarvirus (CVV) 31%, citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) 16%, citrus cachexia viroid (CCVd) 4%, citrus greening (Liberobacter sp) 4% and stubborn (Spiroplasma citri) 2%, respectively. High incidence of these devastating pathogens has caused the severe citrus decline syndrome and drastic yield and quality losses in citrus fruits in the region. The field isolates of CTV and CVV were reproduced on diagnostic hosts through graft and mechnical transmission. CTV produced vein clearing and chlorosis on young leaves of Citrus aurantium, C. lemon cv. Eureka, C. sinensis. Field isolates of CVV was readily sap transmitted on young seedlings of C. sinensis, C. aurantium and C. lemon cv. Eureka and produced severe variegation and crinkling symptoms on C. sinensis and leaf cupping, variegation and crinkling symptoms on C. aurantium. CVV also produced local chlorotic lesions on Vigna ungiculata and V. sinensis and systemic chlorosis, mottling, vein banding and distortion on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney and Bountiful. The virus produced leaf thickening, vein banding and mottling in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley and Samson NN and Petunia hybrida. The status of virus and viruslike diseases have been reported in 10 major citrus growing districts of NWFP. Futhermore, recommendations have been made to manage the citrus fruits through integrated disease management approaches.

407-421 Download
27
ELIMINATION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS FROM CITRUS BUD-WOOD THROUGH THERMOTHERAPY
MUHAMMAD ARIF*, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM, ATTIQUE AHMAD AND SHER HASSAN

ELIMINATION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS FROM CITRUS BUD-WOOD THROUGH THERMOTHERAPY
ABSTRACT:
Citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) was eliminated from citrus bud-wood through thermotherapy in temperature controlled chamber (TCC). Three citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), sour orange (C. aurantium) and Eureka lemon were mechanically and graft inoculated with CTV. The inoculated plants were indexed by double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) to ensure the infection of the test plants. CTV was successfully eliminated from citrus bud-wood by incubating citrus germplasm at 35/30°C (day/night) for two weeks, followed by 40/35°C for another one week in preconditioning and then same germplasm was incubated at higher temperature 50/40°C for one week in TCC. CTV was not detected by DAS-ELISA or back inoculation of leaf extracts and graft inoculation on diagnostic plant species 3-4 months after inoculation. However, at higher temperature (50/40°C) treatment in TCC, 50% of plants were lost during one week of incubation. The plants kept at 50/40°C without preconditioning (35/30°C for two weeks, followed by 40/35°C for another one week) did not survive at higher temperature in TCC. CTV was completely eliminated from citrus plants after a week incubation period at 50/40°C.

423-430 Download
28
EVALUATION OF CICER SPECIES FOR RESISTANCE TO ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, MAHMUD UL HASSAN, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, SYED SARWAR ALAM AND HINA ALI

EVALUATION OF CICER SPECIES FOR RESISTANCE TO ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
A collection of 64 wild Cicer accessions from seven different species (C. bijugum K.H. Rech., C. cuneatum A. Rich., C. echinospermum Davis, C. judaicum Boiss., C. pinnatifidum Jaub. & Spach, C. reticulatum Ladiz., and C. yamashitae Kitamura) were screened for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab) by creating artificial epiphytotic conditions in the field. Resistance was identified in accessions from six wild Cicer species. Variation for resistance within accessions of C. bijugum, C. echinospermum, C. judaicum, C. pinnatifidum, C. reticulatum and C. yamashitae was recorded. All the accessions of C. cuneatum were highly susceptible to Ascochyta blight. Resistant accessions of C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum belong to primary gene pool of Cicer species and can be crossed easily with Cicer arietinum and fertile hybrids can be obtained.

431-438 Download
29
YEAST MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SLIME FLUXES OF TREES
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, SHARFUN-NAHAR* AND M.H. HASHMI***

YEAST MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SLIME FLUXES OF TREES
ABSTRACT:
A total of 15 yeast species belonging to 9 genera were isolated from 40 slime flux samples collected from Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbeck and Aralia cachemirica trees and identified on the basis of their morphological and physiological/biochemical characters. The isolated yeast species belonged to teleomorphic and anamorphic ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi and appeared to be new records from Pakistan. Fibulobasidium inconspicuum and Pichia anomala were predominant and commonly isolated from slime fluxes of all the three trees.

439-450 Download
30
SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
SHARFUN-NAHAR*, MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ** AND M.H. HASHMI***

SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Using standard blotter and deep-freezing techniques, seed-borne mycoflora of 35 samples of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were studied. Acremonium fusidioides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Aspergillus ochraceus, Bipolaris bisepta, Cephaliophora tropica, Chaetomium spinosum, Cladobotryum varium, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Emericella nidulans, Gonatobotrys simplex, Humicola grisea, Memnoniella echinata, Mucor mucedo, Myrothecium verrucaria, Phialophora verrucosa and Syncephalastrum racemosum were found to be new seed-borne fungal species on sunflower. Absidia corymbifera, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, Chaetomium bostrychodes, C. globosum, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium pallidoroseum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer were predominantly isolated by both techniques. During seed component plating, Aspergillus awamori, A. ustus and Exerohilum halodes were found to be new reported species. Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma harzianum were isolated from all component parts, whereas, Fusarium solani was isolated only from cotyledons and axis.

451-457 Download
31
A CHECKLIST OF APHYLLOPHORALES OF TURKEY
HASAN HÜSEYIN DOGAN, CELÂLEDDIN ÖZTÜRK, GIYASETTIN KASIK AND SINAN AKTAS

A CHECKLIST OF APHYLLOPHORALES OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
A complete list of 246 species belonging to 23 families of the order Aphyllophorales members which were identified by the authors and other scientists since 1932 in Turkey are presented of the 82 species identified by the authors

459-485 Download
32
A NEW REPORT OF PYTHIUM OLIGANDRUM FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND ABDUL GHAFFAR

A NEW REPORT OF PYTHIUM OLIGANDRUM FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pythium oligandrum a well known mycoparasite of pathogenic Oomycetes and other fungal plant pathogens has been isolated for the first time from Pakistan. P. oligandrum is characterized by haustoria or hook shaped hyphae, toruloid or sub-globose sporangial structures, intercalary ornamented or spiny oogonia, aplerotic oospores and persistent antheridia.

487-491 Download
33
RAMARIA AUREA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

RAMARIA AUREA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ramaria aurea (Schaeff. ex Fr.) Quél. (Gomphaceae, Basidiomycota) is reported for the first time from Gilgit Valley, Pakistan. This species is characterized by the production of sub-cylindrical spores that are 8-15x3-6 µm in size.

493-494 Download
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