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Year 2005 , Volume  37, Issue 3
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLV. RUTACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLV. RUTACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 7 species of the family Rutaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar 3-5 colporate, prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate or prolate often oblate-spheroidal. Sexine thinner or thicker than nexine. Tectum striate-reticulate or reticulate-rugulate often striate-foveolate. On the basis of tectum types three distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Haplophyllum dubium - type and Limonia acidissima - type and Murraya paniculata - type. Playnological data has been useful at generic and specific level.

495-501 Download
2
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF EUSTACHYS TENERA (CHLORIDOIDEAE, GRAMINEAE)
QING LIU*, NANXIAN ZHAO AND GANG HAO

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF EUSTACHYS TENERA (CHLORIDOIDEAE, GRAMINEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of Eustachys tenera has been examined by light, scanning and transmission electron microscope. Pollen grain are generally oblate spheroidal, a single annulate aperature with an operculum, brevicerebro ornate exine ornamentation. This pollen type has not been reported in Poaceae.

503-506 Download
3
ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN FALL IN CANAKKALE, TURKEY
A. GUVENSEN, I. UYSAL1, A. CELIK2 AND M. OZTURK*

ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN FALL IN CANAKKALE, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Airborne pollen in the State of Canakkale was determined during 2000-2001 using two Durham samplers. The samplers were placed 15 m above the ground on the rooftops of the city hospital and of the meteorological station situated alongside the straits of Dardanelle. By the end of the year averages of pollen counts from the 2 samplers were calculated. In total 4095 pollen belonging to 39 taxa were counted. Out of these, 3548 belonged to the arboreal species (86.65%), 483 to non-arboreal taxa (11.78%) and 64 to the unidentified group (1.57%). The highest number of pollen of the arboreal taxa were in the following order: Pinaceae, Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/ Taxodiaceae and Olea europaea. In the non-arboreal group the order was Chenopodiaceae/ Amaranthaceae, Poaceae, Xanthium strumarium and Plantago sp. Maximum pollen was recorded during the spring season and minimum during winter. During our study period the number of allergic patients who were treated in the hospital was 534. There was an apparent increase in the number of patients during May-June that decreased in July. However, in August the number went up again. Such an increase in patients probably is the result from an increase in the airborne content of pollen of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Poaceae and Xanthium.

507-518 Download
4
DIFFERENCES IN CONCENTRATIONS OF ALLERGENIC POLLENS AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS IN DENIZLI, TURKEY
A. CELIK, A. GUVENSEN1, I. UYSAL2 AND M. OZTURK1*

DIFFERENCES IN CONCENTRATIONS OF ALLERGENIC POLLENS AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS IN DENIZLI, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
An investigation was carried out on the airborne pollen fall in the State of Denizli during the year 2000. Two Durham samplers were placed at different heights above the ground. The averages of pollen counts from 2 samplers were calculated at the end of year. The pollen from 34 flowering plant taxa (20 arboreal +14 non-arboreal) with a total average of 6856 grains/cm2 dominated the atmosphere in this State. Out of these 83.9 % belonged to the arboreal

519-530 Download
5
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THYMUS MIGRICUS KLOKOV & DES.-SHOST AND T. FEDTSCHENKOI RONNIGER VAR. HANDELII (RONNIGER) JALAS GROWN IN EAST ANATOLIA
FATIH SATIL*, AYLA KAYA1, ADEM BIÇAKCI2, SIBEL ÖZATLI AND GÜLENDAM TÜMEN

COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THYMUS MIGRICUS KLOKOV & DES.-SHOST AND T. FEDTSCHENKOI RONNIGER VAR. HANDELII (RONNIGER) JALAS GROWN IN EAST ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost., and T. fedtschenkoi Ronniger var. handelii (Ronniger) Jalas are growing in Eastern Anatolia. Thymus fedtschenkoi var. handelii is an endemic species as the other is Iran-Turan element. Both the species have similar morphological, anatomical and palynological features. However, some differences have been determined in between species. T. migricus is similar to T. fedtschenkoi var. handelii but bigger in all its parts. Their leaves dimensions, lateral veins, hairs of outer calyx surface and nutlets shape are morphological different. Exine sculpturing is microreticulate in T. migricus while it is suprareticulate in T. fedtschenkoi.var. handelii in pollen morphology.

531-549 Download
6
DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF INULA L. (S.STR.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
M. QAISER AND RUBINA ABID

DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF INULA L. (S.STR.) AND ITS ALLIED GENERA FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Distribution pattern and ecology of 22 taxa belonging to Inula L. (s.str.) and its allied genera viz., Pentanema Cass., Duhaldea DC., Dittrichia Greuter and Iphiona Cass., has been analyzed from Pakistan and Kashmir. Five species of Inula and 2 species of Pentanema are typically Irano-Turanian element, P. indicum is Indian element, both the species of Iphiona are Saharo-Sindian elements, while Inula racemosa and 3 species of Duhaldea are Sino-Japanese elements. I. acuminata and I. obtusifolia are distributed in transitional zone between Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. Three species of Inula are classified as biregional elements, from which I. clarkei and I. orientalis equally distributed in Irano Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions, whereas I. britannica is distributed in Euro-Siberian and Irano-Turanian regions. P. divaricatum and P. vestitum are also biregional elements, former species found in Saharo-Sindian and Irano-Turanian regions and latter species extends to Saharo-Sindian and Indian region. However, Dittrichia graveolens is also considered as a biregional element distributed in Irano-Turanian and Mediterranian regions.

551-558 Download
7
MICHELIA RUBRIFLORA, A NEW SPECIES OF MAGNOLIACEAE FROM HAINAN ISLAND, CHINA
WANG FAGUO, ZENG QINGWEN, ZHOU RENZHANG AND XING FUWU*

MICHELIA RUBRIFLORA, A NEW SPECIES OF MAGNOLIACEAE FROM HAINAN ISLAND, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Michelia rubriflora sp. nov., from Hainan Island, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles M. mediocris Dandy, but can be easily recognised by its ovate-elliptic leaves

559-562 Download
8
A NEW SPECIES OF CENTAUREA L. (COMPOSITAE) FROM TURKEY
ZEKI AYTAÇ AND HAYRÍ DUMAN

A NEW SPECIES OF CENTAUREA L. (COMPOSITAE) FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
A new species of the genus Centaurea L. (Asteraceae) from Turkey, C. goeksunense Aytaç & H. Duman (sect. Psephelloideae (Boiss.) Sosn., is described and illustrated. The systematic position and distribution of this new species is presented and discussed.

563-566 Download
9
SELECTION STUDIES ON FIG IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY
A. AYTEKIN POLAT* AND MELISA ÖZKAYA**

SELECTION STUDIES ON FIG IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Turkey has great variations in distributions of wild fig forms as well as fig cultivars. Antakya province has a special importance in fig production. This study was carried out in Antakya province, which is located in the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Forty different fig types were characterized in this selection work. The tree and leaf characteristics of the selected types were investigated. The pomological analyses of the fruits of the selected types were also performed along with fruit bearing dates of the selected types. According to the results of all observations, analysis and weighted ranked method, the 31-IN-01, 31-IN -08, 31-IN-10, 31-IN-11, 31-IN-12, 31-IM-13 types were classified as table type; 31-IN-13, 31-IN-21, 31-IN-24 as dried type and 31-IN-19, 31-IN-20, 31-1M-04 for canning and jam type. 31-IN-01 type was found to be parthenocarpic in reproduction.

567-574 Download
10
YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES AS AFFECTED BY SOWING DATES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS
MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, M. AFZAL ARAIN, SHAMADAD KHANZADA MAZHAR H. NAQVI, M. UMAR DAHOT1 AND NISAR A. NIZAMANI

YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF WHEAT GENOTYPES AS AFFECTED BY SOWING DATES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Twelve wheat genotypes bred at this Institute were assessed for yield and quality parameters at two levels of sowing dates i.e., normal (18th November) and late sowing (11th December). The normal temperature persisted from December to February after which there was consistent rise in the temperature with heat shocks of 35oC in the end of March. With delayed planting, the development of plant organs and transfer from source to sink were remarkably affected, which was reflected by overall shortening of plant height, reduction in number of internodes, days to heading, days to maturity and grain filling period and ultimately in the reduction of yield and yield components. The protein content of the genotypes was higher in late condition, possibly due to low grain weight. Genotypic responses were almost similar and in the same direction, however, the intensity varied.

575-584 Download
11
GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG RICE GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN THROUGH RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
MUHAMMAD ARIF, SAMINA KOUSAR*, M. ASGHAR BAJWA*, ANJUMAN ARIF AND YUSUF ZAFAR

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG RICE GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN THROUGH RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity assessment among the 19 rice genotypes of Pakistan including 3 commercial Basmati cultivars viz., Basmati 370, Basmati 385 and Super Basmati was done using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Out of 40 random decamer primers

585-592 Download
12
RESPONSE OF TOMATO AND CORN PLANTS TO INCREASING Cd LEVELS IN NUTRIENT CULTURE
*NESRIN YILDIZ

RESPONSE OF TOMATO AND CORN PLANTS TO INCREASING Cd LEVELS IN NUTRIENT CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing Cd levels (0, 0.05, 0.1

593-599 Download
13
DEVIATIONS OF SOME NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF SAFFLOWER CULTIVARS DURING GROWTH STAGES
IBRAHIM ERDAL* AND HASAN BAYDAR**

DEVIATIONS OF SOME NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF SAFFLOWER CULTIVARS DURING GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this research was to examine the concentrations of P, K, Fe, Zn and Mn during growth and development in different parts of 4 safflower varieties. The nutrient concentrations of safflower showed variations depending on the varieties and plant parts at different stages of growth and development. Both phosphorus and potassium concentrations in all plant parts (except P concentration in head) decreased from shooting to maturity. Phosphorus concentrations in heads were higher than other parts at every stage of the growth and development in all varieties. Iron concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves showed quite deviations during the periods. Zinc levels in all parts of varieties showed the similar tendency without big deviations until the first blooming. After this stage concentration of Zn showed irregular increases and decreased at harvest again (except root zinc concentration). Mn levels of the root, stem and head in all varieties decreased through the end of the period. But in leaf, Mn concentrations increased through the harvest generally.

601-611 Download
14
ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD INFLUENCING TRAITS IN AROMATIC AND NON AROMATIC RICE
ZIA-UL-QAMAR, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, MUHAMMAD RASHID AND GHULAM RASUL TAHIR

ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD INFLUENCING TRAITS IN AROMATIC AND NON AROMATIC RICE
ABSTRACT:
Studies on path coefficient analysis for yield and yield components in rice, involving nine genotypes of aromatic group and eight genotypes of non-aromatic group were conducted separately. The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad during 2001-02. Thirty days old seedlings were transplanted by maintaining 20 cm plant-to-plant and row-to-row spacing. Analysis of variance reflected significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits studied in both the groups. Broad sense heritability estimates for various traits ranged from 56-89% in the non-aromatic group and 46-99% in the aromatic group. In both the groups, the phenotypic coefficients of variability were higher than their respective genotypic coefficients of variability for all the traits, indicating the effect of the environment on character association. In the non-aromatic group, productive tillers per hill showed highly significant positive association with grain yield per plant. Whereas in the aromatic group days-to-50% flowering and days-to-maturity exhibited highly significant negative genetic association with grain yield per plant. Association and path analysis suggested that productive tillers per hill, days to maturity and days to 50% flowering may be considered important for the improvement of grain yield in the non-aromatic group whereas productive tillers per hill, spikelets per panicle, fertility %age and plant height may be considered as the selection criteria for the direct improvement of grain yield in the aromatic group.

613-627 Download
15
EFFECT OF SOIL APPLIED ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD YASEEN, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD AND ABDUL RAHIM

EFFECT OF SOIL APPLIED ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Poor N fertilizer use efficiency by rice is caused by losses of N through volatilization as its oxides. Use of nitrification inhibitor like calcium carbide (CaC2) may reduce N losses. Calcium carbide releases acetylene gas which acts as a inhibitor of nitrification. A fraction of acetylene is microbially reduced to ethylene which is a potent plant hormone. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of encapsulated CaC2on growth and chemical composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results revealed that encapsulated CaC2 applied alone or along with chemical fertilizer significantly increased early emergence of panicle, number of tillers and paddy yield. Soil amended with encapsulated CaC2 resulted in 20% increase in paddy yield over NPK fertilizer alone. Plant analysis also indicated that encapsulated CaC2 promoted N concentration and uptake by plant which is supported by the reduced oxidation of applied fertilizer NH4+ to NO3- in the presence of encapsulated CaC2. It is plausible likely that CaC2 might have affected growth and chemical composition of rice by acting as nitrification inhibitor and/ or as a source of plant hormone ethylene.

629-634 Download
16
EFFECT OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON POTENTIAL FRUITING POSITIONS IN FIELD GROWN COTTON
M. I. MAKHDUM*, M ASHRAF** AND H. PERVEZ*

EFFECT OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON POTENTIAL FRUITING POSITIONS IN FIELD GROWN COTTON
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of fruiting positions along sympodia under varying levels and sources of potassium fertilizer on field grown cotton under an arid environment. The treatments consisted of four rates of potassium (0, 62.5

635-649 Download
17
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON SEED GERMINATION OF SEVEN CALLIGONUM SPECIES
JUN REN*, JIN ZIXUE **, LING TAO*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON SEED GERMINATION OF SEVEN CALLIGONUM SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature on the seed germination of 7 Calligonum species, dominant shrubs in shifting sand dunes and stabilized sand fields in the northern desert of China. In August 1998, seeds of Calligonum were collected and exposed to different temperatures. The results suggested that there is no relationship between the temperature treatment and germination rate. Optimum germination occurred at 20°C. Minimum germination time of 3-4 days was recorded for C. junceum, C. leucocladum, C. gobicum and C. mongolicum at 22°C; approximately 3 days for C. arborescens and C. caput-medusae and 6 days for C. rubicundum. The 12°C treatment significantly increased the minimum germination time from those recorded at 20°C and 22°C by about 4-9 days for all seven species. Calligonum species germinated readily between 18-22°C. Maximum germination occurred at 20°C in C. gobicum and C. arborescens and at 22°C in C. junceum, C. leucocladum, C. rubicundum, C. mongolicum and C. caput-medusae. Seeds germinated faster at higher constant temperatures.

651-660 Download
18
EFFECT OF SOIL INCORPORATED HERBICIDES ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
A. TANVEER, M. AYUB, A. ALI AND M.A. NADEEM

EFFECT OF SOIL INCORPORATED HERBICIDES ON WEEDS AND YIELD OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The effect of two soil incorporated herbicides viz., trifluralin @ 0.90,1.20,1.50 kg a.i. ha-1 and acetochlor @ 0.094, 0.124 and 0.312 kg a.i. ha-1 on weeds and yield of canola was evaluated in a field trial at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Trifluralin @ 1.50 kg a.i. ha-1 was very effective in controlling the weeds and reducing their fresh and dry weight. Application of trifluralin @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 reduced the weed density (7.00m-2) significantly as compared to control (32.67m-2) reducing the weed dry weight from 8.1 gm-2 to 1.7 gm-2. Trifluralin @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 showed maximum increase (34%) in canola seed yield by increasing the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight.

661-665 Download
19
WEED FLORA CHANGES IN COTTON GROWING AREAS DURING THE LAST DECADE AFTER IRRIGATION OF HARRAN PLAIN IN ŞANLIURFA, TURKEY
BEKİR BÜKÜN*

WEED FLORA CHANGES IN COTTON GROWING AREAS DURING THE LAST DECADE AFTER IRRIGATION OF HARRAN PLAIN IN ŞANLIURFA, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In order to determine changes in weed flora due to continuous cotton production related to irrigation, the results of surveys performed in 1995-1996 and was recently performed at the end of July 2004, were compared. Based on the results of first surveys (1995-1996), 36 weed species belonging to 14 botanical families were identified and in the second surveys (2004)

667-672 Download
20
HIGH FREQUENCY REGENERATION FROM SCUTELLUM DERIVED CALLI OF BASMATI RICE cv. BASMATI 385 AND SUPER BASMATI
AMNA NOOR, HAMID RASHID, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY AND BUSHRA MIRZA*

HIGH FREQUENCY REGENERATION FROM SCUTELLUM DERIVED CALLI OF BASMATI RICE cv. BASMATI 385 AND SUPER BASMATI
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to obtain a high frequency regeneration from Basmati 385 and Super Basmati, which is a pre-requisite for transformation protocol. Seed was the explant source used in this study. Callus induction was obtained from N6 media with 2 mg l-1 2,4-D. Super Basmati exhibited high callus induction efficiency (93.3%) followed by Basmati 385 (90.2 %). Twenty one days old maintained calli when transferred on MS medium with different combinations of auxin-cytokinin for regeneration showed 90% frequency of plant regeneration for Super Basmati with NAA 1mg l-1 and BAP 2.5 mg l-1 and 83% for Basmati 385 on MS medium supplemented with NAA 1 mg l-1 and BAP 5 mg l-1.

673-684 Download
21
FLOW CYTOMETRY OF DNA CONTENTS OF COLCHICINE TREATED WATERMELON AS A PLOIDY SCREENING METHOD AT M1 STAGE
MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI*, SUNG W. KWON AND DAE, H. KIN

FLOW CYTOMETRY OF DNA CONTENTS OF COLCHICINE TREATED WATERMELON AS A PLOIDY SCREENING METHOD AT M1 STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in watermelon was conducted to identify tetraploids among colchicine treated seedlings and to compare flow cytometry with other methods of ploidy screening such as chloroplast number in stomata guard cells, chromosome counts, leaf area, flower size, pollen colpi and seed characteristics. Flow cytometric analysis proved rapid and convenient to detect tetraploids compared with chloroplast counts. DNA index and chloroplast number were highly correlated. Number of chloroplasts in guard cells ranged from 5-7 and 10-12 in diploids and tetraploids, respectively but it was impossible to differentiate chimeras by chloroplast counts. Chromosome counts were tedious while other methods needed more time to identify tetraploids. Higher leaf area and larger flower size, and 4 colpi in pollen of tetraploid plants against 3 colpi in pollen of diploid were observed. Tetraploid seed showed larger size and thicker seedcoat and partially filled seed cavity due to less developed cotyledons as compared to diploids.

685-696 Download
22
TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES OF PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL.) BOISS., AND ITS QUANTITATIVE VEGETATIONAL DESCRIPTION FROM HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED AND SYED HUMAIR NAQVI

TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES OF PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL.) BOISS., AND ITS QUANTITATIVE VEGETATIONAL DESCRIPTION FROM HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Modern Dendrochronological techniques were used in 5 stands of moist temperate and dry temperate areas in Pakistan. Out of 91 cores from 60 trees of Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., sampled where cross dating was possible among 48 cores. Dated chronologies from 1422 to 1987 AD were obtained. However, common period of all chronologies 1770 to 1850 A.D. is presented. Chronologies and sample statistics are described. These chronologies show from 17% to 33% variance ("Y" in ANOVA) due to climate. Dry temperate sites show low autocorrelation as compared to moist temperate sites. Due to small sample size, no statistical correlation was observed between community and dendrochronological attributes. However, community attributes gave some idea to select better sites for dendrochronological investigations. It is suggested that despite difference in climatic zones and chronologies, trees show some similar pattern of ring-width. Hence, Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., could be used for dendroclimatological investigations. It is also suggested that detailed sampling is required to present strong database.

697-707 Download
23
WEED COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT CROP UNDER DIVERSE EDAPHOGROPGHY OF DISTRICT KHAIRPUR, PAKISTAN
GHULAM SARWER JAKHAR, SAEED AKHTER ABRO, A.Q MAHER AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*

WEED COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT CROP UNDER DIVERSE EDAPHOGROPGHY OF DISTRICT KHAIRPUR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The wheat crop of Pakka, Kacha and Saline soils were surveyed during 1999-2000 for weed analysis. The soils of these three groups were mean of pH 7.2, EC 1.7 dS/m-1 with clay loam texture at Pakka (Camborthids) soil; pH 7.20, EC 1.63 dS/m-1 with silt loam texture under Torrifluvents (Kacha) soils; while pH 10.6, EC 6.17 dS/m-1 with clay loam texture was under Solarthids (Saline) soil. A total of 35 weed species belonging to 30 genera and 15 angiospermic families were recorded during 1999-2000. There were 25 weed species under Camborthids followed by 23 species under Torrifluvents and 16 species under Solarthids soils. Three weed communities viz. 1) Melilotus-Lathyrus-Polypogon in Pakka soil series

709-714 Download
24
OCCURRENCE OF CODIUM PROSTRATUM LEVERING
1938 (NON- P. C. SILVA

OCCURRENCE OF CODIUM PROSTRATUM LEVERING
ABSTRACT:
1959) FROM NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA COAST (PAKISTAN)

725-727 Download
25
IMPACT OF CARBON-STARVED PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAIN IE-6S+ ON THE DIVERSITY OF CULTURABLE FUNGI IN THE RHIZOSPHERE AND WITHIN ROOTS OF MUNGBEAN
SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT, IMRAN ALI SIDDIQUI AND IMTIAZ HUSAIN SHEIKH*

IMPACT OF CARBON-STARVED PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAIN IE-6S+ ON THE DIVERSITY OF CULTURABLE FUNGI IN THE RHIZOSPHERE AND WITHIN ROOTS OF MUNGBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Mungbean was grown repeatedly in sandy loam soil which was either left untreated (control) or was treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IE-6S+ or its carbon-starved derivatives. Bacterial inoculants were applied to the soil at the start of each 52-day-long mungbean growth cycle and their effect on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of cultureable fungi was assessed at the end of the first and fourth cycles. A total of 23 fungal species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from the rhizosphere of mungbean. There was a marked difference among the growth cycles with respect to fungal community composition; only slight differences occurred across the bacterial treatments. At fourth growth cycle, general diversity and equitability were lower in soils treated with wild type IE-6S+ while higher in those treated with IE-6S+ PBK1 or IE-6S+ KUC2. Following IE-6S+ KUC2 treatment, fungal abundance pattern was described by geometric series while those following treatment with IE-6S+ or IE-6S+ PBK1 were found to conform to MacArthur's broken-stick model at first growth cycle. Nine fungal species comprising 7 genera were found to colonize mungbean root tissues. Roots grown in untreated soils gave high colony forming units of the parasitic fungi while those treated with bacterial treatments harboured mostly saprotrophic fungi. When compared to the controls, general diversity, equitability and species richness of the culturable endophytic fungi were slightly higher in mungbean roots treated with the bacterial inoculants. Abundance patterns of root-fungi in the controls and following bacterial treatments could be described by both geometric and broken-stick models.

729-737 Download
26
SCREENING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGAL CELLULASES ISOLATED FROM THE NATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE
SADAF JAHANGEER, NAZIA KHAN*, SAMAN JAHANGEER*, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL*, SALEEM SHAHZAD**, AQEEL AHMAD2* AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

SCREENING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGAL CELLULASES ISOLATED FROM THE NATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE
ABSTRACT:
Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the most abundant organic polymer i.e. cellulose to smaller sugar components including glucose subunits. Cellulases have enormous potential in industries and are used in food, beverages, textile, laundry, paper and pulp industries etc. This study was aimed to screen the cellulytic ability of fungi from native environmental source. Furthermore, optimal condition for enzyme activity and induction of enzyme synthesis were also determined. Out of 115 fungal cultures isolated from environmental sources including soil, air and infected plant, 78 (67.83%) were found to possess cellulose degrading ability. Cellulytic fungi belonged to Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. Cellulase production by fungi was measured by using enzyme assays. Highest yield of enzyme was noted at 37°C while maximum activity in the range of pH 4 - 4.8. Kinetics of enzyme production was also studied on selected Aspergillus isolates and mostly high enzyme production was observed after 7 days. Cellulase synthesis increased by ~10 folds in the presence of cellulose while it repressed in the presence of glucose.

739-748 Download
27
INVERTASE PRODUCTION FROM A HYPERPRODUCING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAIN ISOLATED FROM DATES
IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND SIKANDER ALI

INVERTASE PRODUCTION FROM A HYPERPRODUCING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAIN ISOLATED FROM DATES
ABSTRACT:
Invertase production by wild cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from dates available in local market is reported. Five hyperproducing yeast strains (>100 fold higher invertase activity) were kinetically analyzed for invertase production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GCA-II was found to be a better invertase yielding strain among all other isolates. The values of Qp and Yp/s for GCA-II were highly significant as compared to other Saccharomyces cultures. The effect of sucrose concentration, rate of invertase synthesis, initial pH of fermentation medium and different organic nitrogen sources on the production of invertase under submerged culture conditions was investigated. Optimum concentrations of sucrose, urea and pH were 3 %, 0.2 % (w/v), and 6.0 respectively. The increase in the enzyme yield obtained after optimization of the cultural conditions was 47.7 %.

749-759 Download
28
REACTION OF CHICKPEA VARIETIES TO MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA AND THEIR EFFECT ON PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY
MOHD. SHAIKHUL ASHRAF, TABREIZ AHMAD KHAN* AND SABIHA HASAN

REACTION OF CHICKPEA VARIETIES TO MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA AND THEIR EFFECT ON PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
Out of 56 chickpea varieties screened for their resistance against Macrophomina phaseolina, only one variety (BGD -98) was found resistant. Three varieties viz., BG-1108, BGD-117 and RSG-143 were moderately resistant and six varieties viz., BG-390, BG-1095, Biogreen, GPF-2, ICCV-92337 and SBD-77 were tolerant. Rest of the varieties were either susceptible or highly susceptible to M. phaseolina. A positive correlation was found between peroxidase activity and resistance to the varieties.

749-759 Download
29
NEW RECORDS OF THE MACROFUNGI FROM TURKEY
GIYASETTIN KAŞIK, HASAN HÜSEYIN DOĞAN, CELÂLEDDIN ÖZTÜRK, SINAN AKTAŞ AND ŞÜKRÜ SABAHLAR

NEW RECORDS OF THE MACROFUNGI FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Several macrofungi specimens collected from Bozkir in Konya district

769-777 Download
30
PYTHIUM ULTIMUM VAR. ULTIMUM, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
A. MUBEEN LODHI, A. QAYOOM, S. SHAHZAD AND A. GHAFFAR

PYTHIUM ULTIMUM VAR. ULTIMUM, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A Pythium species without sporangia and zoospores, having terminal as well as intercalary oogonia with a few papilla, monoclinous but occasionally diclinous antheridia and aplerotic oospores was isolated from the rhizosphere of date palm. This species is identified as P. ultimum var. ultimum Trow and appears to be a new record from Pakistan.

779-782 Download
31
LYCOPERDON MOLL, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHSHZAD

LYCOPERDON MOLL, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lycoperdon moll is characterized by the production of fruiting body with variable shape

783-784 Download
32
LYCOPERDON MOLL, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHSHZAD

LYCOPERDON MOLL, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lycoperdon moll is characterized by the production of fruiting body with variable shape

783-784 Download
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