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Year 2006 , Volume  38, Issue 1
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLVIII. UMBELLIFERAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLVIII. UMBELLIFERAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 27 genera of the family Umbelliferae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Umbelliferae is a stenopalynous family. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate to per-prolate, tricolporate, colpi generally with costae, colpal membrane psilate to sparsely or densely granulated, ora la-longate, sexine as thick as nexine, or slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface commonly striate-rugulate or rugulate-striate rarely simply striate. On the basis of exine pattern 3 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Bupleurum gilessii-type, Pleurospermum hookeri-type, Trachyspermum ammi-type.

1-14 Download
2
A PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME CULTIVATED TREES FROM KARACHI
RUKHSHINDA AFTAB AND ANJUM PERVEEN

A PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME CULTIVATED TREES FROM KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
The pollen morphology of 25 species belonging to 23 genera distributed in 13 families have been examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscope. Generally pollen grains occur singly and rarely in polyads. Pollen grains generally 3-colporate in families viz., Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Mimosaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Caricaceae, Moringaceae, Rhamnaceae and Sapotaceae. However, in Bignoniaceae and Myrtaceae both colporate and colpate types of pollen grains are found. In the family Malvaceae pantoporate pollen grains are found. The shapes of pollen grains are also different. Generally pollen grains are sub-prolate, prolate and prolate-spheroidal, rarely oblate and spheroidal. Tectum generally reticulate or rugulate in addition to this scabrate and echinate.

15-28 Download
3
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM SPECIES (COMPOSITAE-ANTHEMIDEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
AKBAR ALI MEO AND MIR AJAB KHAN*

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM SPECIES (COMPOSITAE-ANTHEMIDEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 7 species of Chrysanthemum has been examined from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains in all the species are trizonocolporate. Pollen shape in polar view is circular, inter-semi-angular and semi-circular to angular. Pollen is spheroidal, sub-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal and prolate-spheroidal in equatorial view. Taxa of Chrysanthemum species can be distinguished by pollen size, exine thickness, spine length and number of spine rows between colpi. Chrysanthemum indicum has characteristic spines having a broad flattened base with grooves. C.stoliczkai has the small spine length (3.3 m) while C. indicum can be characterized by long spine length (5.9 m) and C. tibeticum can be distinguished due to lowest number of spine rows between colpi (3-4). Chrysanthemum stoliczkai and C. parthenium are determined by long exine thickness (7.9 m) and (9.5 m) within the genus. This study demonstrates the potential of pollen studies in distinguishing some taxonomic groups in Anthemideae. There is great range of variation in exine thickness which has proved useful at specific level. On the basis of exine thickness, 4 groups viz., Group I: C. tibeticum, Group II: C. indicum, C. segatum, Group III: C. leucanthemum, C. murifolium and Group IV: C. stoliczkai, C. parthenium are recognized.

29-41 Download
4
TWO NEW SPECIES OF GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
S. I. ALI

TWO NEW SPECIES OF GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Two new species viz., Gagea bashoensis Ali and G. rubinae Ali are being described from Pakistan.

43-46 Download
5
FOUR NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAS AND THE ADJOINING REGIONS
IGOR G. LEVICHEV*

FOUR NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAS AND THE ADJOINING REGIONS
ABSTRACT:
The importance of various characters for the taxonomic discrimination of taxa in the genus Gagea is discussed. Four new species of the genus Gagea from Western Himalayas and the adjoining regions are described. Two species, G. alii Levichev and G. utriculosa Levichev belong to section Plectostigma whereas G. bowes-lyonii Levichev and G. spumosa Levichev are attributed to section Stipitatae.

47-54 Download
6
SEVEN NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAS AND ADJOINING REGIONS
I. G. LEVICHEV* AND S. I. ALI**

SEVEN NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS GAGEA SALISB. (LILIACEAE) FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAS AND ADJOINING REGIONS
ABSTRACT:
Seven new species of the genus Gagea are described from Western Himalayas and adjoining regions. Four species (G. punjabica Levichev & Ali, G. quettica Levichev & Ali, G. wallichii Levichev & Ali, G. baluchistanica Levichev & Ali) belong to the section Platyspermum; two species (G. rawalpindica Levichev & Ali and G. pakistanica Levichev & Ali belong to section Graminifoliae and G. drummondii Levichev & Ali belongs to section Plecostigma.

55-62 Download
7
HYBRIDIZATION IN ACACIA NILOTICA COMPLEX IN INDO-PAKISTAN SUBCONTINENT: CYTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
S. KHATOON AND S.I. ALI

HYBRIDIZATION IN ACACIA NILOTICA COMPLEX IN INDO-PAKISTAN SUBCONTINENT: CYTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
ABSTRACT:
Acacia nilotica complex comprises 9 subspecies of which 5 occur in Pakistan. Hybridization among subspecies is reported in some previous works on the basis of morphological and chemical data. The present work provides the first cytological evidence (disturbed meiosis) for hybridization between subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan and subsp. hemispherica Ali & Faruqi. The frequent abnormalities found in pollen mother cells meiosis of putative hybrids were pairing disturbance and precocity at metaphase-I; and lagging chromosomes at anaphase-I.

63-66 Download
8
A MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON SILENE L., (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) SPECIES DISTRIBUTED IN WEST ANATOLIA AND NORTH CYPRUS
KEMAL YILDIZ*

A MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON SILENE L., (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) SPECIES DISTRIBUTED IN WEST ANATOLIA AND NORTH CYPRUS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the morphology of Silene sipylea (L.) O. Schwarz, S. fabaria (L.) Sibth. & Sm., S. tenuiflora Guss., S. lydia Boiss. distributed in West Anatolia (B1, C1, C2) and S. discolor Sibth.& Sm., S. colorata Poir. var. colorata, S. apetala Willd. var. grandiflora distributed in North Cyprus was investigated. Making use of fresh specimens collected from both geographical regions, drawings of the general view and parts of the plant such as the flower, parts of the flower (sepal, petal), fruit were made, and micrographs of the seeds taken by stereo light microscopy. Significant morphological and seed characters related to the species are presented. Longest calyx was encountered in S. sipylea and the shortest in S. apetala var. grandiflora while S. lydia, S. discolor, S. colorata var. colorata and S. apetala var. grandiflora had puberulent calyx, S. sipylea, S. fabaria and S. tenuiflora had a glabrous calyx. S. fabaria, S. tenuiflora and S. apetala var. grandiflora were found to have 10 anastomotic veins in the calyx, whereas S. discolor, S. colorata var. colorata and S. sipylea had 10, and S. lydia 25-30 in the calyx. Ligula were observed in the basal petal blades of all the species. Ligula of S. sipylea and S. lydia are quite small. The anthophore in S. lydia is approximately 1 mm and as long as 25-30 mm in S. sipylea The seeds of S. colorata var. colorata and S. apetala var. grandiflora are distinct from those of the other species, they are reniform shaped, round, winged and wrinkled. The largest seeds were observed in S. tenuiflora and the smallest in S. discolor. The tubercles are quite distinct in S. lydia and S. tenuiflora has an elongated conical shape.

67-83 Download
9
UPTAKE OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM ION BY CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF VIGNA RADIATA
SAADIA AFZAL, MUHAMMAD ZIA AND *M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY

UPTAKE OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM ION BY CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF VIGNA RADIATA
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to examine the effect of pH on the uptake of NH4+ and NO3- by the cell suspension culture of Vigna radiata. Uptake of NH4+ was faster than NO3- under all conditions of the medium whereas uptake of NH4+ and NO3- both were affected by the pH of the medium. Maximum uptake of NH4+ was observed on pH 4.5. Uptake of NO3- was faster in the culture having pH 7.0. It is therefore concluded that pH of the medium influence the uptake of both NH4+ and NO3- in the cell suspension culture of Vigna radiata.

85-88 Download
10
SEED TREATMENTS AND ORIENTATION AFFECTS GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE IN TETRAPLOID WATERMELON
MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI1*, SUNG W. KWON1, D.H. KIM1 AND HAIDER ABBAS2

SEED TREATMENTS AND ORIENTATION AFFECTS GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE IN TETRAPLOID WATERMELON
ABSTRACT:
Polyploid watermelon has poor germination and low seedling vigor mainly due to thick seedcoat and seedcoat adherence to emerged cotyledons. Seed treatments nicking at radicle end and soaking in distilled water, hydrogen peroxide (1 or 2%), gibberellic acid (0.5 or 5 mM), benzyladenine (0.5 or 5 mM) and potassium nitrate (3%) were applied to seeds of SS-8 and SS-11 lines of tetraploid watermelon. Seeds were soaked for 4 hours followed by drying for 5 days at 20 °C with 40% relative humidity and germinated in Petri plates at 30°C. Seed treatments, nicking, presoaking in distilled water or H2O2 enhanced the germination of tetraploid seeds but showed genotypic variation. Early seedling emergence after 4 days occurred in line SS-8 with nicking, GA3 (5mM) and H2O2 (2%) treatment but line SS-11 acquired comparatively more time for seedling emergence. Seed planting orientation affected both seedling emergence rate and seedcoat adherence. Seed positioned with radicle up reduced the seedcoat adherence to cotyledons. A genotypic variation was observed regarding growth characteristics; however

89-98 Download
11
EVALUATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF MEDICINAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS SOLANUM AND CAPSICUM BASED ON POLY ACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF, SHAHID MASOOD 1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI 1, MIR AJAB KHAN AND ASHIQ RABANI1

EVALUATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF MEDICINAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS SOLANUM AND CAPSICUM BASED ON POLY ACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
ABSTRACT:
Seed protein profiles of 54 accessions belonging to 11 species of 2 different genera (Solanum and Capsicum) of the family Solanaceae were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Intra and inter specific relationship was estimated using Jaccard's similarity index. A dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed the generic status of Solanum and Capsicum. S. surattense with white flowers showed variation from the S. surattense with purple flowers not only morphologically but also based on protein profiles. However the high similarity index (82%) between them indicates that S. surattense (W) should be separated from S. surattense (P) as variety nova. S. nigrum and S. americanum are two distinct species, whereas S. villosum is the subspecies of S. nigrum. Similarity index of S. villosum and S. americanum was 53 % whereas it has similarity of 78% with S. nigrum. Similarity was 41% between S. nigrum and S. americanum. Based on the total seed protein profile, the genus Solanum can be divided into two sub genera. The distribution of species in these two subgenera is contrary to conventional classification. The present study provides useful information for the identification of the taxa, their relationship and the delimitation of their taxonomic status.

99-106 Download
12
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIX ISOENZYME SYSTEMS IN SOME SPECIES OF HYOSCYAMUS L., FROM IRAN
SHIDEH MONTASSER KOUHSARI, GOLANDAM SHARIFI*, HASSAN EBRAHIMZADEH AND MAHBOOBEH KHATAMSAZ1

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIX ISOENZYME SYSTEMS IN SOME SPECIES OF HYOSCYAMUS L., FROM IRAN
ABSTRACT:
The electrophoretic patterns of 6 enzyme systems viz., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (PRX) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) obtained from 15 seed samples (OTUs) belonging to 7 species of Hyoscyamus L., from Iran were compared in order to clarify taxonomic relationships within the genus. Results show that the species. H. tenuicaulis is completely distinct from the other species. Among the others H. arachnoideus and H. niger are very heterogenous. H. kurdicus shows a close relationship to H. niger and H. turcomanicus is very close to H. arachnoideus.

107-119 Download
13
CHARACTER CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT IN SOYBEAN GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD*1, NAAZAR ALI* AND ABDUL GHAFOOR**

CHARACTER CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT IN SOYBEAN GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL
ABSTRACT:
Thirty-three soybean genotypes were evaluated for days to flowering, days to maturity, pod length, number of branches, number of unfilled, filled pods and total pods

121-130 Download
14
ATTENUATION OF STRESS-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL DEFICITS BY AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM): ROLE OF SEROTONIN
NOREEN SAMAD*, TAHIRA PARVEEN, SAIDA HAIDER AND DARAKHSHAN JABEEN HALEEM

ATTENUATION OF STRESS-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL DEFICITS BY AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM): ROLE OF SEROTONIN
ABSTRACT:
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Azadirechta indica (Neem) leaf extract on restraint-induced behavioral deficits and changes in serotonin metabolism in rats. Exposure to a single stress decreased food intake, growth rate and elicited anxiogenic-like behavior on an elevated plus maze. Prior administration of neem leaf extract @ 1 ml/kg for 5 days attenuated stress induced behavioral deficits of food intake, growth rate and anxiogenic behavior but the level of anxiety in unrestrained animals was not altered. Restraint-stress did not alter brain tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration increased in saline but not in neem injected rats. Administration of neem leaf extract increased brain tryptophan and decreased brain 5-HT concentration in unrestrained animals. The present study showed that neem extract could attenuate anxiogenic and appetite suppressant effects of stress by decreasing brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentartion.

131-138 Download
15
CONTROL OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L., BY AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALLELOPATHIC GRASSES
ARSHAD JAVAID* AND TEHMINA ANJUM

CONTROL OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L., BY AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALLELOPATHIC GRASSES
ABSTRACT:
Both the root and shoot extracts of the three allelopathic grasses viz., Dicanthium annulatum Stapf., Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochest and Sorghum halepense Pers., reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of exotic weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. Aqueous extracts of D. annulatum and C. pennisetiformis were more inhibitory than extracts of S. halepense. The highest suppressive ability was exhibited by extracts of C. pennisetiformis where 20% shoot and 25% root extract completely inhibited the germination of P. hysterophorus. In general shoot extracts were more inhibitory than the root extracts.

139-145 Download
16
AN ADDITION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF CODIUM STACKH., FROM PAKISTAN
SADAF GUL, S. M. SAIFULLAH AND M. NIZAMUDDIN

AN ADDITION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF CODIUM STACKH., FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Codium repens Vickers is reported herewith for the first time from Pakistan. It is very rare in occurrence and prostrate in habit.

147-149 Download
17
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE CLASS SIPHONOCLADOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL**

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE CLASS SIPHONOCLADOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eight species of the coenocytic green algae belonging to the genera Cladophora, Pithophora, Rhizoclonium and Sphaeroplea were collected from various freshwater habitats in Kasur, Lahore, Sheikhupura and Sialkot districts of the Punjab, Attock (NWFP) and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir during January 2004 - April 2005. They were taxonomically determined and found to belong to the orders Cladophorales and Sphaeropleales. They have been described for the first time from these areas.

151-159 Download
18
TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON CYMBELLA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM PUNJAB AND AZAD KASHMIR
SYED TARIQ-ALI, A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON CYMBELLA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM PUNJAB AND AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Ten species of the diatom genus Cymbella C. A. Agardh (Cymbellaceae, Bacillariales, Bacillariophyceae) were collected from various freshwater habitats at Kasur, Lahore and Sialkot districts of the Punjab (Pakistan), Chenari and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir during April 2003 to December 2004. They were taxonomically determined and are described for the first time from these areas.

161-167 Download
19
ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM CASSIA AGAINST DIVERSE MICROBIAL FLORA WITH ITS NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL IMPACTS
NAZIA MASOOD AHMED CHAUDHRY AND PERWEEN TARIQ

ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM CASSIA AGAINST DIVERSE MICROBIAL FLORA WITH ITS NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL IMPACTS
ABSTRACT:
Using standard disk diffusion method the antibacterial activity of aqueous infusion, decoction and essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon bark) were investigated against 178 bacterial strains belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 250 specimens of apparently healthy individuals aged between 2-85 years. Overall, the oil of Cinnamomum cassia inhibited all type of tested bacterial strains except Salmonella para typhi B exhibiting 99.4% antibacterial effect as compared to aqueous decoction (70.2%) and aqueous infusion (52.2%).

169-174 Download
20
EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CICER ARIETINUM L.
RUKHSANA BAJWA, *TEHMINA ANJUM, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CICER ARIETINUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The allelopathic potential of aerial parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was investigated in vitro for their antifungal properties as natural alternatives of plant disease control. Drechslera tetramera (Mikinney) Subram. & Jain., and Drechslera hawaiiensis (M.B. Ellis) when tested against different concentrations of aqueous extracts of aerial parts of C. arietinum in liquid malt extract medium, the crude water extract showed most significant antifungal activity even at lower concentration of 5%. In case of extraction in Dichloromethane fraction, the inhibitory effect was found to be proportional with the applied concentration. Cicer arietinum was found to contain antimicrobial compound(s) for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

175-184 Download
21
SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF WHEAT, SORGHUM AND BARLEY
FAKHRUNNISA, M.H. HASHMI* AND A. GHAFFAR*

SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF WHEAT, SORGHUM AND BARLEY
ABSTRACT:
Standard blotter and Deep Freezing methods were used to study the seed-borne mycoflora of 19 samples of wheat

185-192 Download
22
EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE OF RICE VARIETIES AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE.
AMNA NOOR, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY, HAMID RASHID AND BUSHRA MIRZA*

EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE OF RICE VARIETIES AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE.
ABSTRACT:
Eight different isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) procured from International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Manila, Philippine were subjected to pathogencity test to check virulence on three basmati rice varieties in order to find out the source of resistance against Bacterial blight and to pick the most resistant and susceptible varieties. Rice nursery was grown in the glass house and pathogenicity of each strain was tested on 4 week, 8 week and 12-week-old rice plants by using clipping method of artificial inoculation, in which five plants successively inoculated, after dipping the scissors in the bacterial suspension. A control of each variety was also maintained, for this, scissors dipped in sterile water was used for clipping off leaves. The symptom development was rated by counted lesion number, size and progress of blightening, which indicated the resistance of particular variety against particular strain. It was evident from the results that all the three rice varieties were susceptible to Xoo but Super basmati was highly susceptible to all the exotic strains of Xoo with maximum percentage disease incidence (89.5%) for PXO 340 at the seedling stage (4 week), with 84.54% at maximum tillering stage and with 56.21% for PXO 61 at leaf flag stage. On the other hand Basmati 2000 was most resistant variety at all the two growth stages and susceptible at maximum tillering stage for PXO 280, with maximum percentage disease incidence (75.96%) and PXO 340 with 71.53%. The reaction of eight different strains of Xoo was variable against the Basmati 385. At seedling stage, it showed susceptibility against PXO 61 with maximum percentage disease incidence 65.33%, for PXO 339 with 58.18% at maximum tillering stage and with highest rate of maximum percentage disease incidence i.e. 75.68% for PXO 341 at leaf flag stage. The reaction of a bacterial strain was variable to different rice varieties, the reaction of different bacterial strains was also found variable against the same rice varieties.

193-203 Download
23
PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOLIAR BLIGHT PATHOGENS OF WHEAT IN DIFFERENT AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IPOLARIS SOROKINIANA
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ANJUM MUNIR, IFTIKHAR AHMAD AND AMIR SULTAN

PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOLIAR BLIGHT PATHOGENS OF WHEAT IN DIFFERENT AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IPOLARIS SOROKINIANA
ABSTRACT:
During previous years blight diseases of wheat were considered to be of minor importance in Pakistan. However in Southern province of Sindh, where winter temperatures are warmer, Helminthosporium leaf spots (spot blotch) has been noted. During this study, surveys were conducted at seedling and booting stage of wheat during cropping season of 2004 to assess the foliar spot diseases in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan including 55 locations (zone 6, 7, 9 & 10) at seedling stage and 101 locations (zone 5, 6, 7, 9

205-210 Download
24
FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA
AZHAR HUSSAIN, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL* NAJMA AYUB AND M. ASHRAF ZAHID*

FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted during the winter season of 2003 to assess the effect of factors like inoculum potential, age of the seedling and soil type on the incidence of collar rot disease in chickpea caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. An increase in the inoculum load of the pathogen enhanced the disease incidence. Among the techniques used for pathogenicity, use of inoculum in the form of wheat grains fully impregnated with mycelium of the pathogen was found to be simple, feasible and highly effective. In case of the soil textures, the mortality of seedling was higher in clayey soil. Younger seedlings were more susceptible and the susceptibility decreased with the increase in age of seedlings.

211-216 Download
25
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF NURSERY FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF OKRA AND MUNG BEAN
LUBNA IRSHAD, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND M.JAVED ZAKI

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF NURSERY FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF OKRA AND MUNG BEAN
ABSTRACT:
The potential impact of different dosages of widely used locally available nursery fertilizers viz., flourish, frutan, NPK, urea and fishmeal were used to examine their effect in the suppression of root infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp., on okra and mung bean plants. Nursery fertilizers were applied in soil @ 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1% w/w whereas fish meal @ 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% v/w.Highest shoot length and shoot weight of okra and mung bean were observed when fish meal @ 0.5% v/w and NPK @ 0.1% w/w were used. Infection of Fusarium spp., significantly reduced in okra and mung bean plants where soil was treated with urea @0.01% and 0.001%. Frutan and fishmeal @ 0.1% showed inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani. Frutan at all doses and urea @0.001 and 0.1% suppressed M. phaseolina infection on mung bean whereas flourish @0.1% and urea @ 0.1% significantly reduced M. phaseolina infection on okra plants. The shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight were significantly increased in both okra and mung bean plants. Maximum plant height was achieved where fish meal @ 0.5% and NPK @ 0.1% were used.

217-223 Download
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