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Year 2006 , Volume  38, Issue 2
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLIX. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -XLIX. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 14 species representing 5 genera of the family Zygophyllaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and Scanning Electron Microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar or apolar, 3-polycolporate or pantoporate, prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate or prolate often oblate-spheroidal. Sexine thinner or thicker than nexine. Tectum generally coarsely reticulate rarely rugulate - reticulate or foveolate to reticulate often striate. On the basis of tectum types 4 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Nitrartia retusa, Peganum harmala, Tribulus terrestris and Zygophyllum simplex. Playnological data has been useful at generic and specific level.

225-232 Download
2
GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. (MALVACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. (MALVACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination and viability of Abelmoschus esculentus L., (Malvaceae) upto 48 weeks was examined by "Hanging drop Technique" in different concentration of sucrose and boric acid solutions (10-100%). Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different conditions, like refrigerator, freezer, in vacuum oven silica gel and in organic solvents (Acetone, Benzene and chloroform). Pollen stored at low temperature (-30oC - 200C) showed better germination as compared to pollen stored at +4oC and in the fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60oC) showed the best of germination. Benzene showed more germination than acetone and chloroform.

233-236 Download
3
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON POLLEN VIABILITY OF DIFFERENT CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CULTIVARS AS REFLECTED BY THE FORMATION OF FRUITS AND SEEDS
HUMAIRA GUL AND RAFIQ AHMAD

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON POLLEN VIABILITY OF DIFFERENT CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CULTIVARS AS REFLECTED BY THE FORMATION OF FRUITS AND SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of salinity on pollen viability, germination and yield was investigated on 8 canola cvs. Dunkled, Canola-III, Oscar, Ganyou-5, Ganyou-2, Rainbow, Abasin-95 and Westar. Plants were irrigated with non saline, 0.2% (E.C 2.5 dS.m-1). 0.4% (E.C 4.5 dS.m-1) and 0.6% (6.5 dS.m-1) of sea salt concentrations. Plant growth on vegetative as well as reproductive phases was proportionately inhibited with respect to increasing salinity in irrigation water. Pollen viability and germination was in general adversely affected under saline water irrigation in all cultivars. Two cvs. Oscar and Rainbow exhibited good performance in pollen germination and yield in non saline conditions and show slow reduction in the respective parameters at high salinity level. Hence, these two cultivars could be graded as best cultivars with respect to above mentioned parameters.

237-247 Download
4
GROWTH RESPONSE OF RICE AND WHEAT CROPS DURING RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOILS
M. H. ZIA, A. GHAFOOR, G. MURTAZA, SAIFULLAH AND S.M.A. BASRA*

GROWTH RESPONSE OF RICE AND WHEAT CROPS DURING RECLAMATION OF SALINE-SODIC SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Productivity and internal drainage of saline-sodic soils can be restored by better management practices like combination of physical and chemical treatments. A field experiment was carried out for 3 years at two saline-sodic sites, in Punjab-Pakistan to improve soil physical/chemical properties and increase wheat and rice yields. The site 1 was highly deteriorated (bulk density 1.77-1.86 Mg m-3) followed by site 2 (bulk density 1.6-1.7 Mg m-3). Due to a very low infiltration rate at both sites, vertical drainage through auger holes that extend down to a permeable soil layer was suggested to flush down excess saline water thus minimizing temporary waterlogging and associated hypoxia. Gypsum as a source of calcium was applied @ 3.8-7.2 t ha-1 at site 1 and 3.6-11.4 t ha-1 at site 2, to all vertical drainage treatments to replace excess sodium on soil exchanger and decrease dispersion. Saline-sodic tube well water, used to irrigate rice and wheat crops, also helped attain a significant decrease in soil salinity and sodicity within a reasonable time period. After harvesting the final wheat crop (6th in sequence), non-significant differences were observed between the vertical drainage/gypsum treatments and the control treatments regarding the final electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, and yields of crops. Detailed economic analysis indicated that at site 1, combination of gypsum and vertical drainage technique was the best, with benefit cost ratio of 8.0 while at site 2, the vertical drainage + gypsum treatments did not work. As the study was carried out with farmers' participation approach, there seems a need to educate and train the farmers, as well as supply them with quality inputs, in time and space, to maximize the benefits from the projects dealing with the management of saline-sodic groundwater resources and saline-sodic soils.

249-266 Download
5
COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SA CONCENTRATIONS ON SENESCENCE IN EXCISED ROCKET (ERUCA SATIVA L.) COTYLEDONS
GÜL CEVAHIR*, SERAP ÇAĞ, SEMAHAT YENTÜR, MUAMMER ÜNAL, ELIF AYTAMKA, AND ÇIGDEM SELÇUKCAN*

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SA CONCENTRATIONS ON SENESCENCE IN EXCISED ROCKET (ERUCA SATIVA L.) COTYLEDONS
ABSTRACT:
Senescence, accepted as the last phase of growth in plants, is characterized by a series of degenerative events that decrease the metabolic activity and eventually cause the death of cells, tissues and organs. In the present studies the effect of salicylic acid, a phenolic substance that recently came to be defined as plant growth regulator, especially increasing immunity of plants against infections, regulating thermogenesis in Arum flowers, inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis and germination, reversing the effects of abscisic acid and blocking the wound-induced response on the senescence of excised cotyledons of cultivated Eruca sativa L., (Rocket) was examined. Cotyledons of ten-day-seedlings of E. sativa were cut apart from the petiole and used as experiment materials. The fresh weight of cut cotyledons were measured and they were then incubated in 3 ml of salicylic acid at 10-3

267-274 Download
6
EFFECT OF CHLOROCHOLINE CHLORIDE, SUCROSE AND BAP ON IN VITRO TUBERIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV.CARDINAL)
IQBAL HUSSAIN, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY, AISH MUHAMMAD, REHANA ASGHAR*, S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI* AND HAMID RASHID**

EFFECT OF CHLOROCHOLINE CHLORIDE, SUCROSE AND BAP ON IN VITRO TUBERIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV.CARDINAL)
ABSTRACT:
Protocols for in vitro tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variety Cardinal were studied. Virus free cultures were multiplied on Murashige & Skoog (1962) medium containing 1.0 mg/l GA3. When the number of shoots was maximum the cultures were shifted on tuber induction medium. In vitro tuberization media consisted of MS along with different concentrations of CCC, BAP and Sucrose. It was observed that 200 mg/l of CCC or 90g/l sucrose in the mediums resulted in maximum tuber induction (16.5 and 15.6 tubers/flask respectively) followed by BAP @ 4.0mg/l producing 9.0 tubers/flask. It was also observed that complete darkness was essential for tuber induction.

275-282 Download
7
VARIATION IN PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME CULTIVARS OF SWEET POTATO
SURAYIA ZAKIR, MOHAMMAD SARWAR, JONATHAN ALLEN* , MUHAMMAD NISAR KHAN*** AND MASOOD SADIQ BUTT**

VARIATION IN PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME CULTIVARS OF SWEET POTATO
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to provide proximate analysis and identification of acidic glycoprotein from sweet potato cultivars. For this purpose, two sweet potato cultivars via., White star (Pakistan) and Bearuegard (US) were analysed through BCA protein assay and electophoresis to determine true protien and identify protein banding pattern, respectively. When the sweet potatoes were fed to diabetic persons, the mean value of two hours postprandial blood glucose level were 296 mg/dl ± 111.34 in the control, glucose declined to 246 mg/dl ± 87.07 in White Star and marginally increased to 301 mg/dl ± 113.91 in Glucose + Caiapo treatment; substantially decreased to 216.29 ± 93.16 in White Star (Skin) despite fasting glucose level at 253 mg/dl and decreased to 257 mg/dl ± 98.90 in Beauregard treatment. The average value of two hours insulin varied from 5.21 µlŲ/mL ± 2.84 to 12.85 µlŲ/mL ± 6.35. The preliminary results supported the earlier studies that sweet potato has a blood glucose lowering effect on the person with diabetes and Caiapo showed the same results in normal subjects. White star and its skin showed better results than Beauregard as depicted by the postprandial glucose level and insulin response. These findings present a significant opportunity for the North Carolina, US and Pakistan farming community/ industry to consider developing new markets for sweet potato products that offer anti-diabetic health benefits.

283-291 Download
8
EFFECT OF SOIL pH IN ROOTING AND GROWTH OF TEA CUTTINGS (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) AT NURSERY LEVEL
F.S. HAMID, TAHIRA AHMAD, *B.M. KHAN, A. WAHEED AND NASEER AHMED

EFFECT OF SOIL pH IN ROOTING AND GROWTH OF TEA CUTTINGS (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) AT NURSERY LEVEL
ABSTRACT:
Single nodal tea cuttings were obtained from the healthy bushes and raised in different soil media during the year 1999

293-300 Download
9
A NEW HIGH YIELDING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) VARIETY "RAMZAN" FOR THE AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
G. S. S. KHATTAK*, M. ASHRAF**, I. SAEED AND B. ALAM

A NEW HIGH YIELDING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) VARIETY "RAMZAN" FOR THE AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
ABSTRACT:
An exotic genotype VC 1482C and a local mungbean genotype NM 92 were hybridized at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during kharif (July-October) 1998. Selection of the high yielding recombinant NFM-12-12 from segregating populations, and evaluation in various replicated yield trials for yield potential and stability test were carried out from 1999 to 2004. The proposal of the recombinant NFM-12-12 was submitted for approval as commercial variety for NWFP to the Provincial Seed Council meeting held on 19th September 2005 at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. The Provincial Seed Council approved the recombinant NFM12-12 as a commercial variety under the name "Ramzan" for general cultivation in NWFP. The major improvement in NFM-12-12 is manifested in the form of increase in seed size, decrease in plant height, stiff stem and earliness in maturity by a margin of 10 days as compared to standard variety NM 98. The large seed size of NFM-12-12 is the main contributing factor towards the increase in seed yield compared to NM 98. The high harvest index of NFM-12-12 invokes its greater physiological efficiency in partitioning the photosynthates towards grain formation leading to marked increase in grain yield. Short stature and stiff stem of NFM-12-12 helps in showing resistance to lodging. Clusters per plant, pods per plant, branches per plant, pod length, seeds per pod and protein contents of NFM-12-12 also compare favorably with parent NM 92 and standard NM 98. NFM-12-12 has 28-36% high seed yield potential compared to the standard variety NM 98 and parent NM 92. An average experimental seed yield of Ramzan was 1962 kg ha-1 at NIFA, Peshawar.

301-310 Download
10
MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THREE POTENTIAL CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS
MUHAMMAD JAFAR JASKANI*, HAIDER ABBAS*, M.M. KHAN, UMBREEN SHAHZAD AND ZAHOOR HUSSAIN

MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THREE POTENTIAL CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS
ABSTRACT:
Morphological studies showed that tree shape in Bitter sweet orange and Yuma citrange was spheroid with spreading growth habit and wide branch angle. Leaves were simple with dark green color, medium size and brevipetiolate in Sour orange while Yuma citrange had trifoliate leaves with medium and green color. Bitter sweet orange had the highest leaf lamina length (10.4 mm) than other rootstocks. These rootstock leaves had lanceolate shape with sinuate margins. Bitter sweet orange yielded the maximum fruit weight (195.9 g) while Yuma citrange and Sour orange had small and medium sized fruits, respectively. Fruit skin was rough and yellow in all rootstocks but bitter sweet orange and Sour orange showed white albedo with medium-strong adherence. Bitter sweet orange and Sour orange fruit had strong attachment to stalk. Number of segments/fruit was low in Bitter sweet orange as compared to the other rootstocks. Seeds represented clavate shape in Bitter sweet orange and Sour orange. The highest number of seeds was found in Bitter sweet orange (27.9) followed by Sour orange (14.8). Seed of Bitter sweet orange and Sour orange was polyembryonic while monoembryonic in Yuma citrange.

311-317 Download
11
GENETIC VARIABILITY TO ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION IN FOUR CITRUS FRUIT SPECIES
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD, SALIM-UR-REHMAN, ZAFAR IQBAL*, FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM AND JAVAID IQBAL SULTAN**

GENETIC VARIABILITY TO ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION IN FOUR CITRUS FRUIT SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Essential oils from the peels of Malta (C. sinensis), Mousami (C. sinensis), Grapefruit (C. paradisi) and Eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted through cold pressing method. Highest oil yield (1.21%) was obtained from Malta peel followed by Eureka lemon (1.12%), Mousami (0.98%) and Grapefruit (0.73%). The extracted oils so obtained were investigated for composition by GC/FID on Carbowax 20 M packed glass column. Main constituents separated in Malta peel oil were limonene (61.08%), athujene (0.11%), a-pinene (0.84%), camphene (0.32%), citronellol (4.18%), citral (7.74%), capraldehyde (5.62%), caprinaldehyde (2.10%), borneol (7.63%), a-terpinolene (2.06%), linalool (1.28%) and citranelyl acetate (0.22%). In Mousami, the principal compounds were limonene (76.28%),a-pinene (1.26%), b-pinene (5.45%), a-terpinolene (1.56%), citral (1.74%), capraldehyde (0.35%)

319-324 Download
12
INDUCTION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN CHICKPEA BY USING SIMPLE AND SAFE CHEMICALS
NIGHAT SARWAR, SUMAIRA YOUSAF AND FARHAT F. JAMIL

INDUCTION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN CHICKPEA BY USING SIMPLE AND SAFE CHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a common problem in Pakistan, which causes poor development of crops. Studies were conducted to make possible use of waste saline land by treating the seeds with some simple chemicals. Experiments were conducted under controlled and field conditions. Chickpea seeds of variety CM88 were surface sterilized and soaked in water, mannitol (2% & 4%), K2HPO4 (0.5% & 0.8%) and KNO3 (0.5%

325-329 Download
13
EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL BANGULZAI

EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment for two consecutive growing years (i.e.

331-340 Download
14
INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED GLYCINEBETAINE ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF TWO DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED WHEAT CULTIVARS UNDER SALT STRESS
SYED HAMMAD RAZA, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR** AND M. ASHRAF*

INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED GLYCINEBETAINE ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF TWO DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED WHEAT CULTIVARS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Ameliorative effect of exogenously applied glycinebetaine (GB) on photosynthetic capacity of two wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance grown under salt stress was assessed. Plants were grown under field conditions at 2.84

341-351 Download
15
HISTO-ARCHITECTURE OF THE PERICARP AND SEED LIBERATION IN THE SCHIZOCARPIC FRUIT OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L. (MALVACEAE)
T. V. RAMANA RAO* AND YASH DAVE

HISTO-ARCHITECTURE OF THE PERICARP AND SEED LIBERATION IN THE SCHIZOCARPIC FRUIT OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA L. (MALVACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The schizocarpic fruit of Sida rhombifolia has been examined for its histo-architectural features and their functional relationship with the dehiscence of the fruit. The multicarpellary syncarpous ovary grows into a schizocarpic fruit. The outer epidermis, mesoderm and inner epidermis of the ovary wall differentiate into the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp respectively. The cells of mature epicarp become elongated and vacuolated and their outer tangential walls possess thick and corrugated cuticle. The growth of the parenchymatous mesocarp is due to the increment in the volume of its constituent mesodermal cells. The tangentially elongated cells of inner epidermis of the ovary wall under go periclinal divisions and constitute four to five layered thick endocarp. The thick walled cells of mature endocarp resemble more or less narrowly elongated fibers. Due to the disorganization and decay of the cells situated in the lateral walls and in the central axis, the ripe mericarps with awn-like apices become free and depart from the central axis. The scattered dry mericarps later dehisce marginicidally.

353-359 Download
16
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF HIMALAYAN FORESTS FROM DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED

PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF HIMALAYAN FORESTS FROM DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
1TARIQ HUSAIN, A.H. SHEIKH

361-383 Download
17
EFFECT OF DIVERSE HORMONAL REGIMES ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF GRAPE GERMPLASM
GHULAM MUSTAFA SAJID*, MUHAMMAD KASHIF ILYAS AND RASHID ANWAR

EFFECT OF DIVERSE HORMONAL REGIMES ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF GRAPE GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Two accessions of grape germplasm were tested on Murashige-Skoog media containing varying levels of BAP either or not containing IAA and NAA for in vitro growth parameters. It was observed that shoot number and shoot mass increased when the concentration of BAP was increased in a linear fashion. The shoot length of both the accessions showed a downward trend when the concentration of BAP was increased. The presence of IAA or NAA in the media, however, had a positive effect on the shoot length even in the presence of BAP (0.2 mg/l). It was possible to induce root induction on hormone free media for both the accessions used but the presence of NAA or IAA in the media had a profound effect on root induction of both the accessions. NAA was found to be more effective in root induction than IAA. Increased levels of BAP were found to inhibit root mass accumulation in both the accessions but the degree of inhibition was found to be accession specific.

385-391 Download
18
A SIMPLIFIED AND EFFECTIVE PROTOCOL FOR PRODUCTION OF BREAD WHEAT HAPLOIDS (n = 3x = 21, ABD) WITH SOME APPLICATION AREAS IN WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
A. MUJEEB-KAZI, A. GUL, J. AHMED* AND J. I. MIRZA

A SIMPLIFIED AND EFFECTIVE PROTOCOL FOR PRODUCTION OF BREAD WHEAT HAPLOIDS (n = 3x = 21, ABD) WITH SOME APPLICATION AREAS IN WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Somaclonal variation, aneuploidy, and genotypic specificity are major limitations of anther culture and bread wheat x Hordeum bulbosum crosses for producing haploids (n=3x=21, ABD). Sexual combinations of wheat x Zea mays have since emerged as an alternate and significant procedure as wheat genotypic specificity does not exist. This procedure has been refined and simplified over the last decade. It is in extensive use in wheat breeding, cytogenetics, genetics, wide crosses, genetic transformation and molecular mapping. Described here is this simplified wheat x maize haploid production protocol that is 100% effective across all bread wheat cultivars, generating data means of 25% for embryo excision, 90 to 95% for plantlet regeneration and between 95 to 100% for doubled haploid (2n=6x=42, AABBDD) outputs. Simplification steps that enhance efficiency involve hot water emasculation on detached tillers, bud-pollination, elimination of the use of several exogenous chemicals between post-pollination and embryo rescue with no cold shock given to the plated embryos; thus making the product costs significantly competitive and economical.

393-406 Download
19
HAPLOID PRODUCTION VARIATION IN SEVERAL DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID DERIVATIVES
A. MUJEEB-KAZI, J. AHMED*, A. GUL AND J. I. MIRZA

HAPLOID PRODUCTION VARIATION IN SEVERAL DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID DERIVATIVES
ABSTRACT:
Bread wheat haploids are being routinely produced by the sexual wheat/maize crossing protocol with perfect outputs across all its genotypes. A similar success however, has not been achieved for durum wheat cultivars. We evaluated 44 elite durum (Triticum turgidum L; 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) high yielding, widely adapted cultivars for their ability to generate haploids (n = 2x = 14, AB) when crossed by Zea mays (2n = 2x = 20). This gave a range from 0% to 12.3% across the 44 genotypes. Synthetic hexaploid (SH's) wheats derived from each of the 44 cultivars x Aegilops tauschii accessions gave a haploid frequency range from 2.5 to 42.6% providing unequivocal evidence that the D genome of Ae. tauschii significantly influenced haploid production efficiency in SH wheats. Durum cultivars amenable to haploidy induction are good candidates for molecular studies and gene transfer programs where doubled haploids have a distinct advantage.

407-415 Download
20
PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
MEHMET AYCICEK AND TELAT YILDIRIM*

PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
With the trials conducted across two locations and over two years, the correlation coefficients and path analysis were calculated between grain yield and yield components of 20 bread wheat genotypes. Positive and significant correlation was found between yield and plant density, plant height, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000 kernels weight. Grain yield was negatively and significantly correlated with time to heading. Positive direct effect of plant height and grain weight spike-1 and negative direct effect of time to heading associated with significant correlation with grain yield suggested that these yield components may be a good selection criteria to improve yield of wheat genotypes.

417-424 Download
21
TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE GENUS ZYGNEMA FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL**

TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE GENUS ZYGNEMA FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ten species of Zygnema C. A. Agardh (Zygnemophyceae, Chlorophyta) were collected during December 2003-December 2004 from different freshwater habitats of Gujranwala, Kasur, Lahore, Sheikhupura, Sialkot and Pasrur districts of the Punjab, Attock and Swat in N.W. F. P. of Pakistan and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir. They were taxonomically determined and have been described for the first time from these areas. Their reproduction was observed to occur mostly in winter and spring. They were usually found abundant in permanent water habitats.

425-433 Download
22
TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON NAVICULA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
SYED TARIQ-ALI, A. ZARINA, MASUD-UL-HASAN* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL**

TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON NAVICULA (BACILLARIOPHYTA) FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Nine species of the diatom genus Navicula Bory de Saint-Vincent (Naviculaceae, Bacillariales, Bacillariophyceae) were collected from various freshwater habitats at Gujranwala, Kasur, Lahore and Sheikhupura districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan during April and December 2004. They were taxonomically determined and have been described for the first time from these areas.

435-441 Download
23
EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF GLUCOSE, DI-AMMONIUM TARTRATE AND CARROT EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF ASPERGILLUS VARIECOLOR
NASEEM F. USMANI, TOOBA HAQ AND FATIMA BI

EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF GLUCOSE, DI-AMMONIUM TARTRATE AND CARROT EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF ASPERGILLUS VARIECOLOR
ABSTRACT:
The effect of varying concentrations of glucose, di-ammonium tartrate and carrot extract on the growth and yield of metabolic products of Aspergillus variecolor has been examined. Media containing 10% glucose, 0.43% di-ammonium tartrate and 400g carrot extract per liter broth increased the mycelial growth by 50% which further resulted in an increase in by 36.8% yield of crude xanthone and 29.5% manitol the metabolic products of Aspergillus variecolor.

443-448 Download
24
EVALUATION OF MUNGBEAN GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST MUNGBEAN YELLOW MOSAIC BEGOMOVIRUS
NADEEM SHAD, S.M. MUGHAL, KHALID FAROOQ AND M. BASHIR*

EVALUATION OF MUNGBEAN GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST MUNGBEAN YELLOW MOSAIC BEGOMOVIRUS
ABSTRACT:
Mungbean (Vigna radiata) germplasm consisting of 254 lines was evaluated against mungbean yellow mosaic begomovirus (MYMV) under natural field conditions conducive for the development of disease and whitefly virus vector population. Majority of the lines were infected within 2-3 weeks and the disease increments monitored over a period of six weeks were 2.36

449-457 Download
25
EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AND PHOSPHORUS ON GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) AND SURVIVAL OF RHIZOBIUM AND P SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA
*ZARRIN FATIMA, MUHAMMAD ZIA AND **M FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY

EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AND PHOSPHORUS ON GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) AND SURVIVAL OF RHIZOBIUM AND P SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains (TAL-377, TAL-379 and TAL-102) alone and in combination with Phosphorus on soybean. The parameters studied were survival of Rhizobium at pod filling stage and after harvesting, and root/ shoot dry and fresh weight of soybean under natural condition. Surface stererilized soybean seeds var. NARC-4 were sown in earthen pots filled with soil and sand 1:3. Phosphorus (P) was applied as single super phosphate (SSP) at the time of sowing in the soil. Soybean seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium strains as seed coating just before sowing. The effect of growth was highly significant (a 0.05) with an increase in root/shoot dry and fresh weight in plants with mixture of Rhizobium inoculums with phosphorus on soybean. Among three strains TAL-102 performed well as compared to TAL-377 and 379 Rhizobium strains. The CFU count of Rhizobium and P solubilizing bacteria was found maximum both at pod filling and after harvesting stage when Rhizobium strains and P was applied in mixed culture. A mixture of effective strains with phosphorus is a promising way for enhancing the growth of legume crops.

459-464 Download
26
EFFICACY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI WITH NURSERY FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN AND OKRA PLANTS
LUBNA IRSHAD SHEIKH, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, M.J. ZAKI AND A. GHAFFAR

EFFICACY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI WITH NURSERY FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN AND OKRA PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt10) and Rhizobium meliloti (R5) with and without locally available nursery fertilizers viz., flourish, frutan, NPK, urea and fish meal were used to study their effect on the growth and suppression of soil borne root infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp., on mung bean and okra plants. Nursery fertilizers were applied in the soil @ 0.01% w/w whereas fish meal @ 0.1% v/w. B. thuringiensis and R. meliloti applied as seed dressing and soil drenching after 1 week of amendment showed a significant increase in seed germination, shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight and root nodulation providing better plant growth with a significant decrease in infection by root infecting fungi. Use of NPK was found to increase the efficacy of B. thuringiensis and R. meliloti in the control of root infecting fungi and growth of mung bean and okra plants.

465-473 Download
27
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN CURVULARIA LUNATA ASSOCIATED WITH RICE-WHEAT CROPPING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
IFTIKHAR AHMAD, SHAZIA IRAM AND JOHN CULLUM*

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN CURVULARIA LUNATA ASSOCIATED WITH RICE-WHEAT CROPPING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Curvularia lunata isolated from root and soil of both wheat and rice crops were identified and their aggressiveness was studied using aggressiveness analysis. Isolates of Curvularia lunata were genetically characterized using RAPD's. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat and one survey of rice. In root aggressiveness analysis Curvularia lunata isolates were aggressive for rice than wheat. In foliar aggressiveness test the overall number of aggressive isolates was high on wheat. Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) was used to study the polymorphism and genetic variation within the population of fungi to establish correlation between aggressiveness, taxonomical and genetical characters of fungi. With RAPD analysis four groups were recognized and isolates were placed in different groups according to their banding pattern and aggressiveness behaviour. This study highlighted the correlation between aggressiveness, morphological and genetic variations of Curvularia lunata.

475-485 Download
28
PATHOGENECITY AND TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF SEED-BORNE FUSARIUM SPECIES (SEC. LISEOLA AND SPOROTRICHIELLA) IN SUNFLOWER
SHARFUN-NAHAR AND MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ*

PATHOGENECITY AND TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF SEED-BORNE FUSARIUM SPECIES (SEC. LISEOLA AND SPOROTRICHIELLA) IN SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Pathogenicity of 6 Fusarium spp. viz., F. anthophilum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans (from section Liseola) and F. chlamydosporum and F. sporotrichioides (from section Sporotrichiella) were tested on sunflower plants. Symptoms produced by Fusarium spp., were wilting, collar-, stem- and seedling rots, damping-off, stunting, yellowing, tip burning and reduction in growth. Wilting and seedling rot were found to be the most prominent symptoms produced by all Fusarium spp. Highest wilting was observed in plants inoculated by F. chlamydosporum and F. subglutinans whereas highest seedling rot was observed by F. sporotrichioides. In transmission studies, F. anthophilum and F. subglutinans were found to be internally seed-borne pathogens of sunflower.

487-492 Download
29
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
NASREEN KHALID THEBO, HIDAYATULLAH ABRO, ABDUL QAYOOM SOOMRO, *JAWED ANWER AND MUHAMMAD SUHAIL

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During a clinical survey

493-495 Download
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