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Year 2006 , Volume  38, Issue 5
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1
PREFACE
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF AND HABIAB-UR-RAHMAN ATHAR

PREFACE
ABSTRACT:
Preface: Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, flooding, extremes of temperatures and nutrient deficiency or toxicity limit crop productivity world-wide. However, this situation becomes more problematic in developing countries, where they cause food insecurity and poverty for large populations, particularly in rural areas. For example, water stress affected more than 70 million hectares of rice-growing land world-wide. While salt stress and nutrient stress render more than one hundred million hectares of agricultural land uncultivable thereby resulting in low outputs, poor human nutrition and reduced educational and employment opportunities. Thus, abiotic stresses are the major factors of poverty for millions. In this scenario, it is urged that strategies should be adopted which may be used to get maximum crop stand and economic returns from stressful environments. New advances in plant sciences are contributing to improve quality of human life. Knowledge in biological sciences is doubling every year. It is imperative to keep updated ourselves with advances in plant abiotic stresses to meet the current scientific challenges, particularly to meeting the growing food demand for world population. To share these experiences, an international symposium “Strategies for crop improvement against abiotic stresses” was organized at the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan during 18-20th September

1357- Download
2
SALINITY PROBLEMS AND CROP PRODUCTION IN COASTAL REGIONS OF BANGLADESH
S. A. HAQUE

SALINITY PROBLEMS AND CROP PRODUCTION IN COASTAL REGIONS OF BANGLADESH
ABSTRACT:
Bangladesh is a deltaic country with total area of 147,570 km2. The major part (80%) of the country consists of alluvial sediments deposited by the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, Tista, Jamuna, Meghna and their tributaries. Terraces with an altitude of 20-30 m cover about 8% of the country, while hilly areas with an altitude of 10-1000 m occur in the southeastern and northeastern part. The coastal region covers almost 29,000 km2 or about 20% of the country. Again, the coastal areas of Bangladesh cover more than 30% of the cultivable lands of the country. About 53% of the coastal areas are affected by salinity. Agricultural land use in these areas is very poor, which is much lower than country’s average cropping intensity. Salinity causes unfavorable environment and hydrological situation that restrict the normal crop production throughout the year. The factors which contribute significantly to the development of saline soil are, tidal flooding during wet season (June-October), direct inundation by saline water, and upward or lateral movement of saline ground water during dry season (November-May). The severity of salinity problem in Bangladesh increases with the desiccation of the soil. It affects crops depending on degree of salinity at the critical stages of growth, which reduces yield and in severe cases total yield is lost. Soil reaction values (pH) in coastal regions range from 6.0-8.4. The organic matter content of the soils is also pretty low (1.0-1.5%). Nutrient deficiencies of N and P are quite dominant in saline soils. Micro-nutrients, such as Cu and Zn are widespread. During the wet monsoon the severity of salt injury is reduced due to dilution of the salt in the root-zone of the standing crop. The dominant crop grown in the saline areas is local transplanted Aman rice crop with low yields. The cropping patterns followed in the coastal areas are mainly Fallow-Fallow-Transplanted Aman rice. Salinity problem received very little attention in the past. It has become imperative to explore the possibilities of increasing potential of these (saline) lands for increased production of crops. Thus is necessary to have an appraisal of the present state of land areas affected by salinity.

1359-1365 Download
3
ALLEVIATION OF SALT-INDUCED SEED DORMANCY IN THE PERENNIAL HALOPHYTE CRITHMUM MARITIMUM L. (APIACEAE)
ABDALLAH ATIA1, AHMED DEBEZ1,2, MOKDED RABHI1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR3, AND CHEDLY ABDELLY1

ALLEVIATION OF SALT-INDUCED SEED DORMANCY IN THE PERENNIAL HALOPHYTE CRITHMUM MARITIMUM L. (APIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae) is a perennial local oilseed halophyte. For a better understanding of the eco-physiology of salt tolerance at the germinative stage of this species, we investigate here the effects of nitrate, thiourea, and priming on its seed germination under saline conditions. Germination was strongly inhibited by increasing salinity. While nitrate supply was effective in alleviating salt-induced seed dormancy under both non- and saline and conditions, thiourea improved germination only at moderate salt concentrations. Priming with both water and NaCl accelerated the germination process on salt free medium, whereas PEG 6000 delayed it in distilled water. The different priming agents used in the present work impaired both germination capacity and germination velocity index at 100 mM NaCl, but seeds remained viable since being able to germinate after their transfer to distilled water.

1367-1372 Download
4
ALLEVIATING ADVERSE EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD OF SORGHUM, MUSTARD AND GROUNDNUT BY POTASSIUM APPLICATION
SHAHID UMAR

ALLEVIATING ADVERSE EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD OF SORGHUM, MUSTARD AND GROUNDNUT BY POTASSIUM APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
The amount of soil moisture available to plants in arid and semi-arid regions is a major limiting factor for crop yield. Under such conditions, potassium fertilization proved helpful in mitigating the adverse effects of water stress. The interaction of plant K status and water stress on yield and water relations of mustard, sorghum and groundnut was studied. Plants were subjected to increased soil water stress conditions, tissue K concentrations analysed at peak growth stage (flowering) and relationships worked out between tissue K concentrations, yield parameters and relative water content. The water content of the leaf tissue was significantly increased by K application and the highest increase in RWC was 14.7 %

1373-1380 Download
5
GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SOME SALT TOLERANT MULTIPURPOSE TREE SPECIES GROWING UNDER SALINE ENVIRONMENT
M.U. SHIRAZI, M.A. KHAN, MUKHTIAR ALI, S. M. MUJTABA, S. MUMTAZ, MUHAMMAD ALI, B. KHANZADA, M.A. HALO, M. RAFIQUE, J. A. SHAH, K.A. JAFRI, AND N. DEPAR

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SOME SALT TOLERANT MULTIPURPOSE TREE SPECIES GROWING UNDER SALINE ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
A field study was conducted at NIA experimental farm, Tandojam to observe the growth and nutrients (macro and micro) content of some salt tolerant multipurpose tree species (Acacia ampliceps, Acacia stenophylla, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Conocarpus lancifolius) under saline environment. The salinity of the soil was varying from medium saline to very highly saline. The growth performances recorded at 3, 6 and 9 months after transplantation showed that overall survival of all the species tested, was good (70 %). The species Acacia ampliceps had maximum survival percentage (98.09%) followed by Conocarpus lancifolius (96.82%), Acacia nilotica (96.19 %), Acacia stenophylla (89.52 %), and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (70.47 %). The plant height at 9 months after transplantation was maximum in Acacia nilotica (200cm), followed by Eucalyptus camaldulensis (190 cm), Acacia ampliceps (127.2 cm), Acacia stenophylla (125.4 cm), and Conocarpus lancifolius (125.1 cm).The leaves samples analyzed for macro & micro-nutrients showed that Acacia nilotica had maximum nitrogen content in leaves, whereas maximum values for Potassium were recorded in Acacia stenophylla. While, phosphorus content was more or less similar in all species tested. The data for micro nutrients contents in leaves also showed that native acacia have the maximum zinc, copper and iron contents. It was also observed that sodium accumulation in plant was negatively related with nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc, manganese and iron. The high nutritive values in foliage of native acacia indicate that Acacia nilotica can play an important role in improving the fertility of the soil and can also give good economic returns from the marginal lands.

1381-1388 Download
6
EFFECT OF LEAD AND CHROMIUM ON GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MASH BEAN [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
MUMTAZ HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD AND ABIDA KAUSAR

EFFECT OF LEAD AND CHROMIUM ON GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MASH BEAN [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of lead and chromium on growth, chlorophyll contents and yield components in two mash bean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] cultivars i.e. Fs-1 and Mash-97. Fourteen-day old plants were exposed to 20 or 40 mg L-1 lead or chromium whereas control plants were treated with distilled water only. Application of both lead and chromium caused a significant reduction in all growth parameters as compared with that of control. The extent of decrease in growth due to chromium compared with lead. Although high concentration of both metals in the rooting media drastically reduced all photosynthetic pigments, chromium application caused more reducing effect as compared to chromium. In addition, all yield attributes of both cultivars of mash bean reduced due to both metals in rooting medium. The sensitivity of mash bean to chromium was greater as compared to lead. In conclusion, mash bean cultivar FS-1 proved to be tolerant as it showed less reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigments and yield as compared to Mash-97.

1389-1396 Download
7
WATER RELATIONS, PROLINE ACCUMULATION AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY IN OLIVE TREE (OLEA EUROPAEA L. CV “CHEMLALI”) IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS
BECHIR BEN-ROUINA1, CHEDLIA BEN-AHMED1,2, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR3, AND M. BOUKHRISS2

WATER RELATIONS, PROLINE ACCUMULATION AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY IN OLIVE TREE (OLEA EUROPAEA L. CV “CHEMLALI”) IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salt stress on photosynthetic capacity and proline accumulation in the Chemlali olive cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown under field conditions at Sfax, Tunisia. Twelve year-old- olive trees were subjected to two drip irrigated treatments. The first was fresh water (EC = 1.2 dS m-1, control plants CP) and the second was saline water (EC = 7 dS m-1, Stressed plants SP). Each treatment contained twenty uniform plants. Salt stress adversely affect plant water status, net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of stressed plants. However, the most important reduction of these activities was observed in summer season. Maximum photosynthetic activity was recorded during vegetative growth phase as well in CP as in SP. The severe reduction in photosynthetic performances in CP during summer season was clear evidence that photosynthesis of olive tree is not only related to water quality treatment but is also environmental conditions dependent. Salt stress has also led to the increase of proline content in both leaves and roots of salt stressed plants. Salt stressed olive trees tend to activate osmotic adjustment mechanism by the accumulation of proline, in order to activate water uptake to actively growing tissues to accomplish their photosynthetic activity even in low rates. Likewise, a possible protective role of proline in improving photosynthetic capacity is suggested.

1397-1406 Download
8
INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF FOLIARLY APPLIED ASCORBIC ACID AND SALT STRESS ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AT THE SEEDLING STAGE
AMEER KHAN1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF FOLIARLY APPLIED ASCORBIC ACID AND SALT STRESS ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AT THE SEEDLING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
A hypdoponic experiment was conducted to assess the role of ascorbic acid in alleviation of the adverse effects of salt stress on growth of two wheat cultivars, S-24 (salt tolerant) and MH-97 (moderately salt sensitive). Seven-day old plants were subjected to normal or saline conditions (0 and 150 mM) for four weeks. Ascorbic acid was exogenously applied as foliar spray with varying levels (0, 50

1407-1414 Download
9
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND IONS ACCUMULATION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
A. R. GURMANI1, A. BANO2 AND MUHAMMAD SALIM1

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND IONS ACCUMULATION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted in glass-house to assess the role of Abscisic acid (ABA), Benzyleadenine (BA) and Cycocel (CCC) on growth, yield, ion accumulation and proline production in three rice cultivars viz, Super Basmati, Shaheen Basmati (fine cultivar) and IR-6 (coarse cultivar) differing in yield. Seeds of each cultivar were soaked prior to sowing with ABA and BA each at 10-5 M and CCC 10-6 M for 24h. Salinity of 5dS/m was developed by adding NaCl salt in five equal splits daily to fifteen days old plants of all the cultivars. Plants were harvested two weeks after salt treatment. Shoot and root dry weight decreased at salinity stress as compared to control, however ABA, BA and CCC treatment caused a substantial increase in shoots and root dry weight over that of salt alone. Salt treatment increased the level of Na+ and Cl- but decreased K+ content in flag leaves as well as in roots of three rice cultivars. ABA and CCC treated plants showed significant decrease in Na+ content but increased K+ content in flag leaves of all the cultivars at salt stress. ABA was more effective to increase Ca2+ content in flag leaf as well as in roots of all the cultivars as compared with BA and CCC. The levels of ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) were relatively higher in roots than in flag leaves, however higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ content with lower accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in IR-6. The ranking of growth regulators for their effects on grain yield and 1000-grain weights were ABA>BA>CCC. Higher grain yield and 1000-grain weight was recorded by IR-6. ABA and CCC treatment further augmented the stimulatory effect of salts on proline accumulation. Higher proline accumulation was observed in IR-6 as compared to Shaheen Basmati and Super Basmati. Rice cv. IR-6 performed better. The relatively low accumulation of Na+ and Cl- and less translocation to flag leaf of IR-6 concomitant with high K+ accumulation, better proline content and greater leaf area under salt stress make this variety salt tolerant. These traits are augmented by ABA more effectively than BA.

1415-1424 Download
10
GENOTYPING ANALYSIS OF SIX MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS USING DNA FINGERPRINTING TECHNOLOGY
MUHAMMAD ASIF, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR

GENOTYPING ANALYSIS OF SIX MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HYBRIDS USING DNA FINGERPRINTING TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the present study was to conduct DNA based genotyping analysis for hybrid identification in maize (Zea mays L.) using DNA fingerprinting technology. To achieve this random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was employed. A total of 40 random ten-mer primers were surveyed. Of these, OPR-03, OPR-11 and OPT-06 were polymorphic which not only verified the purity among three lots of the same maize hybrid type, but also distinguished FM2 maize hybrid type from FM3. These three polymorphic primers produced unique banding patterns that clearly detect the purity of the hybrid lots. Our results revealed that RAPD is a powerful tool for purity detection. This assay will allow screening of seed lots for verification of purity and would improve the efficiency of our breeding programmes.

1425-1430 Download
11
STUDIES ON THE GERMINATION OF THREE ENDANGERED CENTUREA SPECIES
SEZGIN CELIK

STUDIES ON THE GERMINATION OF THREE ENDANGERED CENTUREA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Centurea spicata, C. fenzlii and C. kurdica are widely used as ornamental plants in the Mediterranean and East Anatolian regions of Turkey. C. spicata occupies serpentine habitats in the macchia formations whereas C. fenzlii and C. kurdica cover basaltic and dolomitic habitats among the tragacanthic steppe. However, these species are facing a threat of extinction due to overexploitation. As such, an attempt was made to investigate the possibilities for their propagation. For this purpose, the seeds were placed for germination at optimum temperature (25 ± 1 0C) in different concentrations of KNO3, HCl and NaCl. Two different photoperiods (8 hours light-16 hours darkness-I and 16 hours light-8 hours darkness-II) were used to mimic the natural conditions. Studies on the germination of three species undertaken to evaluate the possibilities to cultivate the native populations at a large scale showed that C. spicata did not germinate at 3 % NaCl

1431-1437 Download
12
PHOSPHORUS FERTIGATION AT FIRST IRRIGATION DUE TO ITS UNAVAILABILITY AT SOWING TIME PREVENTS YIELD LOSSES IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.
VISHANDAS1, ZIA-UL-HASSAN2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2 AND AHMAD NAQI SHAH3

PHOSPHORUS FERTIGATION AT FIRST IRRIGATION DUE TO ITS UNAVAILABILITY AT SOWING TIME PREVENTS YIELD LOSSES IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a widespread problem in modern agriculture that is playing havoc with the crop yields. The shortage and black-marketing of P fertilizers at sowing time is a burning issue. P fertigation offers a practical solution of this problem. We conducted this field experiment to compare the efficacy of P fertigation at first irrigation to P broadcasting at sowing time (farmers’ conventional practice). P fertigation at first irrigation proved superior to P broadcast at sowing time, even at 2/3rd recommended rate. Fertigation increased plant height (7.7%), tillers plant-1 (27.7%), spike length (4.6%), grains spike-1 (3.2), grains plant-1 (30.2%), seed index (4.9%), straw yield (5.4%), grain yield (9.3%), P uptake in straw (14.6%), grain (22.8%) and their total (19.8%), P fertilizer efficiency (68.1%), grain:nutrient ratio (54.3) and value:cost ratio (42.4). Wheat grain yield was significantly correlated with all the parameters in order of plant height (0.83*), seed index (0.84*), number of grains plant-1 (0.87*), P uptake in straw (0.87*), P fertilizer efficiency (0.89*) > spike length (0.89**), total P uptake (0.91**), grain P uptake (0.92**) > number of grains spike-1 (0.95***), VCR (0.97***) and GNR (0.98***). Our results conclude that P fertigation at first irrigation is equally significant even at lower P rates and is more advantageous at equal P rates to farmers’ conventional practice of P broadcasting at sowing time.

1439-1447 Download
13
GLYCINEBETAINE ACCUMULATION AND ITS RELATION TO YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN COTTON GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITION
M. KASHIF SHAHZAD SARWAR1, IHSAN ULLAH1, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN1, M.YASIN ASHRAF2 AND YUSUF ZAFAR1

GLYCINEBETAINE ACCUMULATION AND ITS RELATION TO YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN COTTON GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to investigate the genotypic variability and relationship between accumulation of glycinebetaine and productivity traits under field induced water stress at the flowering and boll maturation stage. Twenty cultivars/genotypes were evaluated for seed cotton yield (SCY), number of bolls per plant (BN), boll weight (BW) and glycinebetaine (GB) content under well watered (W1) and water limited regimes (W2) during the cropping season 2006. Glycinebetaine level in 20 genotypes / cultivars under water stress conditions ranged from 9 to 21 µmol g-1 FW while in well watered conditions, this ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 µmol g-1 FW. Genotypes BH-160, FH-87, MNH-552, CIM-1100, FH-901 and NIAB-Karishma had the higher concentration of GB during water stress as compared to other genotypes, whereas RH-510, NIBGE-160 and FH-1000 had relatively lower concentration of GB. Genotypes with low accumulation and better yielder under water stress may be attributed to their long root system and short life cycle of these genotypes. GB was positively and significantly correlated with seed cotton yield and boll number, while a positive and non-significant correlation was also recorded for GB with the boll weight (BW) under stress condition. Highly significant correlation was observed between BN and SCY. Significant differences in reduction of SCY, BN and BW were observed in W2. Genotypes with high GB level showed a significant increase in SCY, BN and BW under water-limited regime (W2). Results indicated that selection for higher glycinebetaine has the potential to speed up breeding for drought tolerance in cotton.

1449-1456 Download
14
TIME COURSE CHANGES IN IONIC COMPOSITION AND TOTAL SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TWO BARLEY CULTIVARS AT SEEDLING STAGE UNDER SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD, QASIM ALI, ROHINA BASHIR, FARRUKH JAVED AND AMBREEN KHADIJA ALVI

TIME COURSE CHANGES IN IONIC COMPOSITION AND TOTAL SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TWO BARLEY CULTIVARS AT SEEDLING STAGE UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of two barley cultivars (i.e. Jou-87 and B-00047) were exposed to two levels of NaCl (150 mol m-3 and 300 mol m-3) along with control in petridishes. Salt stress severely affected germination rate and percentage. Early growth parameters including plumule and radical length as well as fresh and dry weights of plumules and radicals were severely reduced by increasing salinity level in the growth medium. Total soluble carbohydrates increased in the plumule however, the reverse was true for radicle. Na+ content increased whereas K+ and Ca2+ content decreased in both plumule and radicle. It was observed that with the passage of time, there was a sharp decline in relative increase in the plumule and radical length. In addition, Na+ content increased in both plumule and radicle, whereas K+ content increased only in plumule. In contrast Ca2+ contents were not much affected with time in both plumule and radicle.

1457-1466 Download
15
CHLOROPLAST rps8 GENE OF COTTON REVEALS THE CONSERVED NATURE THROUGH OUT PLANT TAXA
TAYYABA SHAHEEN, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR

CHLOROPLAST rps8 GENE OF COTTON REVEALS THE CONSERVED NATURE THROUGH OUT PLANT TAXA
ABSTRACT:
Chloroplast genome sequences have been utilized extensively for studying evolutionary dynamics, indicating a very low rate of base substitutions among different plant taxa. An initiative has been taken to reveal phylogenetic relationship using rps8 gene derived from chloroplast genome of Gossypium arboreum L. (A genome species) and also to validate the authenticity of A genome as a mother parent in the present day cotton species Gossypium hirsutum L. The rps8 gene sequence derived from G. arboreum was aligned with the DNA sequences of the corresponding rps8 genes of 34 diverse angiosperms. Differences in rps8 gene of G. arboreum with the corresponding gene sequences were in the range of 0% for G. hirsutum to 17.41% for Epiphagus virginiana. The average nucleotide differences among all the rps8 genes were 12.5%. Cluster analysis grouped all the members into three major clusters and one small cluster. Most of the plant species belonging to the same family grouped in one cluster. It has been demonstrated that the A genome is the mother parent in the evolution of G. hirsutum, and the gene is relatively conserved across the different plant taxa.

1467-1476 Download
16
OLIVE TREE (OLEA EUROPAEA L. cv. “CHEMLALI”) UNDER SALT STRESS: WATER RELATIONS AND IONS CONTENT
CHEDLIA BEN-AHMED1

OLIVE TREE (OLEA EUROPAEA L. cv. “CHEMLALI”) UNDER SALT STRESS: WATER RELATIONS AND IONS CONTENT
ABSTRACT:
2, B. BEN-ROUINA2, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR3, M. BOUKHRISS1

1477-1484 Download
17
CANOPY CONDUCTANCE AND WATER USE IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS
JIM MORRIS1, JOHN COLLOPY1 AND KHALID MAHMOOD2

CANOPY CONDUCTANCE AND WATER USE IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Previous studies have shown leaf water efficiency (transpiration per unit of leaf area) to be similar among trees and stands of different Eucalyptus species in similar soil and climatic conditions. On the other hand, leaf water efficiency may vary widely among stands in different regions. The present study compares young plantations of a single species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn.) on two sites with contrasting conditions in Australia and Pakistan, to examine the nature of differences in leaf water efficiency and the factors that cause it. Tree water use was measured on up to 28 trees per site over 12 months using heat pulse equipment with a 30 minute sampling interval and logging period of 3-4 weeks per tree. Observations of climate and soil parameters were also recorded automatically at 30 minute intervals. Water use over a 12 month period was 1160 mm at Pacca Anna (Pakistan) and 310 mm at Girgarre (Australia). This is predominantly a result of higher sap flux density (and hence leaf water efficiency) at Pacca Anna. Sap flux density at Girgarre reached its maximum value at a daily mean vapour pressure deficit of approximately 1.2 kPa, but at Pacca Anna sap flux density continued to increase at daily mean vapour pressure deficit of up to 6 kPa. Greater hydraulic conductivity of the sandy soil at Pacca Anna, or higher rhizospheric conductance into a more extensive root system, also do not account for the observed differences in the vapour pressure deficit at which transpiration is a maximum. The results imply that the slope of the decline in stomatal conductance with increasing vapour pressure deficit differs between sites, although maximum stomatal conductance is the same. Variations in leaf water efficiency between sites may arise from the influence of environmental factors such as air or soil temperature on stomatal functions, possibly mediated by hormonal responses.

1485-1490 Download
18
1 - AMINOCYLOPROPANE - 1 - CARBOXYLATE (ACC) - DEAMINASE RHIZOBACTERIA EXTENUATES ACC-INDUCED CLASSICAL TRIPLE RESPONSE IN ETIOLATED PEA SEEDLINGS
B. SHAHAROONA, RIFFAT BIBI, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, ZAHIR AHMED ZAHIR, AND ZIA-UL-HASSAN

1 - AMINOCYLOPROPANE - 1 - CARBOXYLATE (ACC) - DEAMINASE RHIZOBACTERIA EXTENUATES ACC-INDUCED CLASSICAL TRIPLE RESPONSE IN ETIOLATED PEA SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Ethylene is well thought-out stress hormone because its synthesis is induced by a variety of stresses. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) is the immediate precursor of ethylene in higher plants. Some rhizobacteria can hydrolyze ACC into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate because of their ACC-deaminase activity. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of ACC-deaminase rhizobacteria on the ACC-induced classical “triple” response in etiolated pea seedlings. Etiolated pea seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of ACC (0

1491-1499 Download
19
CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE: A POTENTIAL INDICATOR FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ROUBINA KAUSER1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2, AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE: A POTENTIAL INDICATOR FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess the differential morpho-physiological responses to simulated water stress of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in hydroponic culture. Seeds of two canola cultivars (Cyclone and Dunkeld) were germinated and allowed to grow for three weeks. Three week-old canola plants were grown at 0 MPa (control) or -0.6 MPa (PEG 18.2%) in nutrient solution for further three weeks. Water stress strongly reduced the growth of both canola cultivars. However, cultivar Dunkeld proved to be more drought tolerant as it was higher almost in all growth attributes under water stress conditions, particularly in shoot and root biomass and leaf area. Furthermore, growth of Dunkeld was also higher than that in Cyclone. Leaf chlorophyll ‘a’, carotenoids and quantum yield of PSII was also reduced due to water deficit conditions, but all these were less affected in drought tolerant Dunkeld. Although leaf osmotic potential was lower in water stressed plants of both cultivars, water stress induced reduction in leaf osmotic potential was less in cv. Dunkeld. However, there was no relationship between growth and osmotic adjustment in canola cultivars examined in the present study. Water deficit caused a substantial decrease in photosynthetic rate in both canola cultivars but canola cultivars did not differ significantly in net CO2 assimilation rate under water stress conditions. Furthermore, parallels between A, and leaf chlorophyll ‘a’ or Fv/Fm of both cultivars can not be drawn under water stress conditions. Thus, the differential drought tolerance in canola cultivars was related to leaf area and root growth. There was no relationship between growth and osmotic adjustment in canola cultivars examined here. Overall, quantum yield of PSII and leaf chlorophyll ‘a’ can be referred as a potential selection criterion for drought tolerance in canola cultivars examined in the present study.

1501-1509 Download
20
EFFECT OF ABSCISIC ACID AND CHLOROCHOLINE CHLORIDE ON NODULATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF VIGNA RADIATA L. UNDER WATER STRESS
UZMA FAROOQ AND ASGHARI BANO

EFFECT OF ABSCISIC ACID AND CHLOROCHOLINE CHLORIDE ON NODULATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF VIGNA RADIATA L. UNDER WATER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and chlorocholine chloride (CCC) on growth, nodulation and changes in endogenous level of plant hormones indole acetic acid (IAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) of mung bean grown under normal or water stress conditions. Two varieties (cv.NM 98 and cv.HCM 209) of mung bean were soaked in 10-6 M ABA or in chlorocholine chloride and grown for five weeks under non-stress conditions after which water stress was imposed at 50% flowering (37 days after sowing). Drought stress reduced fresh and dry weight of root and shoot,decreased the diameter of pink bacteroid tissue and number of root nodules. However, ABA and CCC pre-soaking treatments partially alleviated the inhibitory effect of drought. Pre-soaking with ABA or CCC in non-stressed or stressed plants caused increase in proline, protein, sugar and chlorophyll content and peroxidase activity of leaves. However, ABA treatment caused a maximal increase in proline accumulation while maximal increase in peroxidase activity was observed in plants raised from seeds treated with CCC. Likewise, endogenous levels of phytohormones GA and IAA were also increased following ABA application.whereas, CCC increased IAA. Maintenance of water budget by increase in relative water content of leaves,geater increase in proline production,higer activity of antioxidant enzyme, peroxidae and better survival of Rhizobium in soil following ABA and CCC application appears to be the mechanism for providing mung bean tolerance to water stress. The effects of CCC was similar to ABA under water stress and may be implicated to combat water stress on farmers level because of better cost benefit ratio as compared to ABA.

1511-1518 Download
21
USE OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. AS A BIOMONITOR OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION
RUYA YILMAZ1, SERDAL SAKCALI2, CELAL YARCI2, AHMET AKSOY3 AND MUNIR OZTURK4

USE OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. AS A BIOMONITOR OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION
ABSTRACT:
Aesculus hippocastanum was studied as a possible biomonitor of the heavy metal pollution in the region of Thrace situated in the European part of Turkey. The urban roadside, city centre, and suburban sites were investigated. The Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations varied between 0.020-0.051; 0.001-0.002; 0.391-0.594; 0.256-0.387 µg g-1 dry weight in the washed leaves, between 0.023-0.119; 0.002-0.068; 0.374-0.532; 0.322-0.466 µg g-1 dry weight in the unwashed leaves, between 0.063-0.628; 0.005- 0.006; 0.406-0.660; 0.345-1.026 µg g-1 dry weight in the bark respectively. In the soils supporting these plants the values of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu varied between 0.812-6.745; 0.002-0.006; 2.196-4.598; 0.517-1.117 µgg-1 dry weight respectively. When we compare the concentrations of the heavy metals in the leaves, bark and soils, we can see that the values in the urban roadside are higher than other sites. According to these results concentration of heavy metals in A. hippocastanum did not exceed the upper limit. A highly linear regression was obtained for Pb, Zn and Cu between concentrations of the element in surface soil and in the washed leaves of plant but the correlation in the case of Cd was insignificant.

1519-1527 Download
22
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY SIX BRASSICA CULTIVARS (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.) FROM TRI-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE; A RELATIVELY INSOLUBLE P COMPOUND
TARIQ AZIZ1, RAHMATULLAH2, MUHAMMAD AAMER MAQSOOD2, MUKKRAM. A. TAHIR2, IFTIKHAR AHMAD3 AND MUMTAZ A. CHEEMA4

PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY SIX BRASSICA CULTIVARS (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.) FROM TRI-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE; A RELATIVELY INSOLUBLE P COMPOUND
ABSTRACT:
Phosphorus deficiency is a serious concern for agriculture productivity around the globe. It readily forms insoluble compounds by reacting with calcium after addition to calcareous soils. We evaluated six Brassica cultivars for P utilization from mono-ammonium phosphate (a soluble source) and a relatively insoluble P compound (Tri-calcium phosphate). Plants were germinated in sand and transplanted in a P-free Johnson’s nutrient solution contained in two iron tubs. Phosphorus (@ 0.2 mM P) was applied in each tub using both sources. Cultivars differed significantly for their biomass grown with either source of P. Biomass was significantly (p<0.05) lower in plants grown with TCP than those grown with MAP. Relative shoot dry matter of plants grown with TCP compared to those grown with MAP varied from 45% in BARD-1 to 96% in 19-H. However 19-H exhibited lowest dry matter with both P sources indicating its inefficiency. Root:shoot ratio differed significantly among cultivars, however it was not much affected by P source. Cultivars RL-18, Raya Anmol, and KS-74 produced maximum shoot dry matter grown with TCP, however in plants grown with MAP, Poorbi Raya produced maximum dry matter indicating its high responsiveness but lower P solublization. Phosphorus uptake in both shoots and roots of plants grown with MAP was significantly more than those in TCP. Total P uptake in plants grown with TCP varied between 8.56 mg/plant in 19-H to 22.86 mg/plant in Poorbi Raya. However, relative P uptake was highest in 19-H indicating that its poor performance in MAP treatment was not because of lower P availability in growth medium but it was due to its lower P utilization efficiency. Phosphorus utilization efficiency was maximum in Poorbi Raya, RL-18 and BARD-1 when grown with MAP, while in plants grown with TCP, Raya Anmol and RL-18 exhibited maximum P use efficiency. However, P efficiency mechanisms of these cultivars must be studied in further physiological and morphological studies.

1529-1538 Download
23
BREEDING FOR HEAT TOLERANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK, IQBAL SAEED AND TILA MUHAMMAD

BREEDING FOR HEAT TOLERANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
14 commercial mungbean varieties and 24 advanced genotypes developed through hybridization were evaluated for maximum flowers’ retention capability under high temperature (above 40°C) and agronomic traits at NIFA, Peshawar during summer (15th March - June) 2005. Similarly 77 mutants derived from NM 92 and 51 recombinants selected from three crosses i.e. VC1560D x NM92, VC1482C x NM92 and NM98 x VC3902A were evaluated for maximum flowers’ retention capability under high temperature and agronomic traits at NIFA, Peshawar during summer 2006. Almost all of the commercial varieties and advanced genotypes showed moderate tolerance to flowers’ shedding under high temperature except NM 92 which showed susceptibility to flowers’ shedding under high temperature. The mutants derived from NM92 and recombinants selected from the three crosses showed moderate tolerance to flowers’ shedding under high temperature. The commercial varieties and advanced genotypes differed significantly for days to50% flowering, days to 90% pods maturity, plant height

1539-1550 Download
24
PHYTOEXTRACTION OF LEAD (Pb) BY EDTA APPLICATION THROUGH SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVATION: SEEDLING GROWTH STUDIES
NAZILA AZHAR1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, M. HUSSAIN1 AND F. HUSSAIN2

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF LEAD (Pb) BY EDTA APPLICATION THROUGH SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVATION: SEEDLING GROWTH STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
A series of lab experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of lead (Pb) and its phyto- extraction through sunflower cultivation. Seedling growth as shoot length, root length and dry matter stress tolerance indices were reduced with increasing concentration of lead (Pb) or EDTA. Very severe effect of Pb and EDTA was noted in case of root length stress tolerance index however, Pb affected root length stress tolerance index more adversely than that of EDTA. The toxicity of Pb for sunflower plants was reduced when applied in combination with EDTA at 1.0-1.0 and 2-1.5 Pb-EDTA levels. Lead @ 3.5 mM and EDTA @ 3 mM in the growth medium showed 50% reduction in shoot length when applied separately. EDTA also reduced shoot, root length and dry matter stress tolerance indices and the effect was more pronounced at higher levels of EDTA. Root length and dry matter stress tolerance index increased when Pb was applied in combination of EDTA. The results showed that addition of EDTA was effective in enhancing the uptake of Pb in sunflower plants.

1551-1560 Download
25
FOUR FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF GLYCINEBETAINE DID NOT ALLEVIATE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM, AMBREEN ANJUM, NABEELA KHALIQ, MUHAMMAD IQBAL AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR

FOUR FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF GLYCINEBETAINE DID NOT ALLEVIATE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
In response to salt stress, plants have evolved some adaptations such as osmotic adjustment to acclimatize salt stress. Glycinebetaine (GB) is known to have a role in osmotic adjustment. The present investigation was focused to understand the role of fortnightly exogenous foliar application of GB in inducing salt tolerance in sunflower through osmotic adjustment or by modulating plant water relations. Three levels of GB solutions (0, 0.1% Tween 20 solution; 50 and 100 mM GB in 0.1% Tween 20 solution) were foliarly applied to three-week old plants of sunflower grown at 0, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. Salt stress reduced the growth of sunflower plants. However, four foliar applications of 50 mM GB on weekly basis improved the growth of sunflower plants at intermediate level of salt stress, whereas higher level of GB did not improve the growth or even reduced the growth. Although exogenously applied GB reduced the leaf water potential and osmotic potential that resulted in enhanced leaf turgor potential, it did not improve the growth. Salt induced reduction in photosynthetic rate was partially improved by four applications of GB at intermediate level of salt stress. Furthermore, changes in photosynthetic capacity mainly occurred due to stomatal limitations. Finally, it was concluded that four applications of GB partially alleviated adverse effects of salt stress, which was associated with stomatal factors.

1561-1570 Download
26
ASSESSMENT OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN DIFFERENT MAIZE ACCESSIONS AT GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH STAGE
MUHAMMAD ASLAM, IFTIKHAR A. KHAN, MUHAMMAD SALEEM AND ZULFIQAR ALI

ASSESSMENT OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN DIFFERENT MAIZE ACCESSIONS AT GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH STAGE
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to screen 60 maize accessions for water stress tolerance. In preliminary experiment, 60 maize accessions were grown at four moisture levels (100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of field capacity) and evaluated on the basis of survival rate. About 10 maize accessions namely NC-9, M-14, B-42, NC-3, N18, W187R, NC-42, NC-8 and A50-2 with highest survival rate at low moisture level (40% of FC) were selected as water stress tolerant and other 10 maize accessions namely T-7, WFTMS, B-34, NC-7, N48-1, OH54-3A, T-5, UMZ, NC-4 and USSR with lowest survival rate at mild stress (moisture level 80% of FC) were selected as susceptible to water stress. In the 2nd experiment, these selected maize accessions were further evaluated on the basis of survival rate, relative cell membrane injury (RCI %age), and stomatal conductance. Broad sense heritability for these traits was also estimated and it was found that RCI% could be used as main selection criterion for drought tolerance in maize. Furthermore, on the basis of this selection criterion, NC-9 was found as highly water stress tolerant, while T-7 recognized as drought susceptible.

1571-1579 Download
27
MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TWO DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. TO SALT STRESS
NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2, AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TWO DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Two populations each of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. collected from the Salt Range and Faisalabad were grown under control or saline (150 mM NaCl) conditions. Imposition of salt stress for 30 d decreased shoot and root biomass. However, salt induced reduction was less in the Salt Range populations of each grass species. Better adaptability of the Salt Range populations to salt stress was due to some heritable variation associated with their growth. Although photosynthetic rate along with stomatal conductance and sub-stomatal CO2 were higher in the salt-stressed plants of the Salt Range population of C. dactylon, there was no difference between both populations of C. ciliaris. Similarly, leaf proline was also higher in the Salt Range population of C. dactylon, while there was no difference between both populations of C. ciliaris for proline content. It is suggested that the Salt Range population of C. dactylon was better adapted to salt stress due to high accumulation of proline, which might have protected photosynthetic tissue from salt-induced damage because higher photosynthetic rate was recorded in plants with high proline accumulation. However, high salt tolerance of the Salt Range population of C. ciliaris might be due to factors other than those examined in the present study.

1581-1588 Download
28
SCREENING OF DIFFERENT ACCESSIONS OF THREE POTENTIAL GRASS SPECIES FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT FOR SALT TOLERANCE
M. YASIN ASHRAF1, KALSOOM AKHTER2, F. HUSSAIN1 AND JAVED IQBAL2

SCREENING OF DIFFERENT ACCESSIONS OF THREE POTENTIAL GRASS SPECIES FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT FOR SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Experiments for evaluation of 22 accessions of three grass species (Panicum antidotale, Cenchrus ciliaris and Sporobolus iocladus) from Cholistan for salinity tolerance were conducted in a growth chamber under controlled environmental conditions at NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Germination stress tolerance index (GSTI), plant height and dry matter stress tolerance indices (PHSTI, DMSTI), cell membrane stability (% injury) and relative saturation deficits (RSD) of the germinating seeds were measured in all accessions under 0 or 1.5 % NaCl level. The results indicated that the accessions with high GSTI, cell membrane stability (less % injury), PHSTI, DMSTI and low RSD were more salt tolerant than the others thus seem promising for getting good productivity in salt-affected areas. These protocols are low cost, rapid and reliable for screening the germplasm of grasses against salinity.

1589-1597 Download
29
DNA-BASED GENOTYPING OF SORGHUM HYBRIDS
NABILA TABBASAM, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR

DNA-BASED GENOTYPING OF SORGHUM HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
Over the last two decades, DNA fingerprinting have been increasingly used to characterize germplasm of different organisms including crop plants, which was otherwise difficult with morphological and or isozyme markers because of paucity of genetic information at phenotypic level. In the present study, two hybrid samples of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) received from Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department (FSC&RD), Islamabad Pakistan for DNA-based typing to prove their identity. A DNA fingerprinting technique, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to find DNA polymorphisms using 20 different 10-mer primers. Out of these, 8 (40%) primers detected polymorphism between the hybrids. However, rest of the primers produced monomorphic pattern. Out of the 121 amplified loci, 33% were polymorphic. These polymorphic primers distinguished the sorghum hybrids. Our results revealed that RAPD is a useful tool in the identification of hybrids. In future, it can be utilized to estimate the extent of genetic diversity and warranting genome mapping studies in sorghum.

1599-1604 Download
30
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NaCl AND SEASALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF COASTAL HALOPHYTES
ABDUL HAMEED, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMED AND MUHAMMAD AJMAL KHAN

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NaCl AND SEASALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF COASTAL HALOPHYTES
ABSTRACT:
The coastal and near coastal habitats of Karachi, Pakistan are characterized by dominant stands of perennial halophytes like Aeluropus lagopoides, Desmostachya bipinnata, Haloxylon stocksii and Suaeda fruticosa. Experiments were carried out to investigate comparative effects of NaCl and seasalt salinity on both rate and final seed germination of these species. Salinity tolerance range of halophytes varied among species and also between salt types. Seed germination of all test species decreased with increase in salinity of both salt types. Aeluropus lagopoides was the most tolerant at 50 dS m-1 whereas, S. fruticosa the least salt tolerant at 30 dS m-1, although the tolerance range was in following sequence: A. lagopoides > D. bipinnata > H. stocksii > S. fruticosa. While rate of germination showed a different pattern D. bipinnata > A. lagopoides = H. stocksii > S. fruticosa. Seasalt affected seed germination as well as rate of germination of A. lagopoides, D. bipinnata and S. fruticosa more adversely than NaCl especially at higher concentration. However, in H. stocksii seed germination was not significantly different in either salt type. Rate of germination also followed same pattern

1605-1612 Download
31
GENETIC LINKAGE STUDIES OF DROUGHT TOLERANT AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN COTTON
TANWIR AHMAD MALIK1, SANA-ULLAH1, AND SAMINA MALIK2

GENETIC LINKAGE STUDIES OF DROUGHT TOLERANT AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Genetic linkage among drought tolerant (relative water content, excised leaf water loss, stomatal size and stomatal frequency) and agronomic traits (fiber fineness, fibre strength, fiber length, number of bolls per plant, bolls weight, ginning out-turn, number of monopodial branches per plant and number of sympodial branches per plant) in upland cotton was studied by calculating the correlation matrix of a population of four parents and their F1 hybrids. Relative water content (RWC) positively correlated with boll weight but negatively correlated with fiber length. Stomatal size had negative correlation with ginning out-turn (GOT). The stomatal frequency and excised leaf water loss revealed non-significant relationship with all the characters under study. The RWC and stomatal size had also non-significant relationship with number of bolls per plant, number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, fiber fineness and fiber length. Negative correlation of RWC with fibre length showed linkage of genes for lower fibre length with the genes responsible for maintaining high RWC. However, negative correlation of stomatal size with GOT is favourable. The genotypes with lower stomatal size would help reduce transpiration rate and hence would show improved drought resistance as well as would yield high GOT.

1613-1619 Download
32
INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED BRASSINOSTEROIDS ON THE MINERAL NUTRIENT STATUS OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
QASIM ALI1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED BRASSINOSTEROIDS ON THE MINERAL NUTRIENT STATUS OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess the influence of exogenous application of varying concentrations of brassinosterioids as a foliar spray in inducing salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a seedling experiment was conducted in small plastic pots. A salt tolerant S-24 and a moderately salt sensitive MH-97 were grown under normal or saline conditions (150 mM NaCl) for two weeks. Varying concentrations of 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) were foliarly applied @ 0 (water spray), 0.001, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.10, 0.125, 0.150, 0.175, and 0.20 mg L-1 on two wheat cultivars, S-24 and MH-97. Salt stress reduced the growth of both cultivars. However, this inhibitory effect of salt stress was less on S-24. Foliar application of brassinosteroids improved the growth. However, a maximum increase in growth of both cultivars was observed at 0.125 mg/L of BRs. Furthermore, higher concentration of brassinosteroids did not improve the growth of both wheat cultivars under normal or saline conditions. Foliar spray of brassinosteriods reduced leaf Na+, and enhanced leaf K+, leaf Ca2+, and K+/Na+ ratios, while Cl- was inconsistently increased or decreased with increasing level of brassinosteriods. Overall, salt-induced reduction in growth of wheat cultivars was alleviated by foliarly applied brassinosteriods. However, the effectiveness of brassinosteroids in ameliorating the adverse effects of salt stress depends upon the concentration applied. Brassinosteroids improved Ca2+/Na+ and K+/Na+ ratio of wheat cultivars by enhancing uptake of Ca2+ and K+ and reducing that of Na+, which might have contributed to the salt tolerance of both wheat cultivars.

1621-1632 Download
33
COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOME WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWING UNDER SALINE WATER
M. A. KHAN 1, M.U. SHIRAZI1, MUKHTIAR ALI1, S. MUMTAZ1, A. SHERIN1, AND M. Y. ASHRAF2

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOME WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWING UNDER SALINE WATER
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance of sixteen wheat genotypes was studied using gravel culture technique in lysimeters. One week old wheat seedlings were exposed to salinity created with NaCl. Four salinity levels, i.e. control (1.5 dS m-1), low saline (6.0 dS m-1), medium saline (9.0 dS m-1) and highly saline (12.0 dS m-1) and three replications were maintained. Irrigation was applied as and when required with 1/4th Hoagland nutrient solution of respective concentrations. Salinity level of each treatment was regularly monitored and maintained through out the growing period. Yield and yield components were recorded at the time of crop maturity. On the basis of less than 50% reduction in different growth variables, five genotypes viz. LU-26s, HT-45, ESW-9525, V-8319, Sarsabz were found tolerant, whereas Bhittai. Marvi, Chakwal-86, DS-17, Sussi (SD-66), Zardana were found medium tolerant, SD1200/51, Khirman, V-7012 medium sensitive and RWM-9313, SH-43 sensitive. Tolerant wheat genotypes were successful in maintaining low Na and high K uptake and high K/Na ratio.

1633-1639 Download
34
DOES SEED TREATMENT WITH GLYCINEBETAINE IMPROVE GERMINATION RATE AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS
NAEEM IQBAL1 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2

DOES SEED TREATMENT WITH GLYCINEBETAINE IMPROVE GERMINATION RATE AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv Suncross and Gulshan-98 achenes were germinated in Petri-plates containing filer papers moistened with solution of polyethylene glycol, PEG-8000 (control and osmotic potential -0.6, -1.2 MPa) with and without glycinebetain (GB) application (0

1641-1648 Download
35
PHYSIOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENTS FOR ALLEVIATION OF SALT STRESS IN WHEAT
IRFAN AFZAL1, SHAHZAD MAQSOOD AHMAD BASRA1, AMJAD HAMEED2 AND MUHAMMAD FAROOQ1

PHYSIOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENTS FOR ALLEVIATION OF SALT STRESS IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Increased salinity is a severe problem to crop production while pre-sowing seed treatments can effectively induce salt tolerance in plants. The effect of different pre-sowing seed treatments (hydropriming, halopriming (50 mM CaCl2.2H2O), ascorbate priming (50 mg L-1) and pre-sowing chilling treatment (-19oC) on seed germination, vigor, antioxidants and total soluble protein content was investigated in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Auqab-2000 (salt tolerant) and MH-97 (salt sensitive) under saline (15 dS m-1) or non-saline (4 dS m-1) conditions. Of all the seed pretreatments, halopriming followed by hydropriming was the most effective in alleviating the adverse effect of salinity by improving germination and seedling growth of both cultivars. In addition, the effect of ascorbate priming was more pronounced in salt tolerant cultivar as revealed from curtailed mean germination time, improved seedling vigor and enhanced ascorbate contents and catalase (CAT) activity. Salinity significantly increased leaf protein content in both cultivars but the magnitude of increase in protein content was higher in Auqab-2000 as compared to that in MH-97. All pre-sowing seed treatments significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in MH-97 while priming with CaCl2.2H2O and ascorbate were very effective in Auqab-2000 during stress conditions. The salt-tolerant cultivar Auqab-2000 had a better protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) as shown by increased SOD amd CAT activities under salt stress. In conclusion, halopriming and hydropriming successfully improved the seed performance in both cultivars whereas priming with ascorbate was only effective in salt tolerant cultivar under saline conditions. This benefit was attributed to early and synchronized germination, vigorous stand establishment, and decreased oxidative damage due to enhanced antioxidant system.

1649-1659 Download
36
ION UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION IN PANICUM ANTIDOTALE RETZ. UNDER SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD SAEED AKRAM1, QASIM ALI1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2 AND AHMED SAEED BHATTI3, 4

ION UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION IN PANICUM ANTIDOTALE RETZ. UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
In the present project, distribution of K+, Na+, Mg2+ Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate between the leaves of different age of Panicum antidotale was determined. The plant exposed to high level of salinity experiences a severe reduction in shoot fresh and dry matter yield. Accumulation of Na+ in leaves increased with decrease in potassium. However, this antagonistic relationship between Na and K was more in older leaves. Hence lowest K+/Na+ ratio in the oldest lamina and highest was observed in youngest. As Na+ is translocated mainly through xylem and K+ through phloem, the younger leaves close to shoot apex would derive their mineral requirements initially from Phloem. Inflorescence accumulated low Na+ and high K+ resulting in highest K+/Na+ ratio under both non-saline and saline conditions. This could be one of adaptive features for acclimatizing salt stress. Accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ also decreased in older leaves particularly under saline conditions. However, accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ was higher in older leaves indicating both elements were phloem-immobile. Concentration of phosphate increased with the decreasing age both in the lamina and leaf sheath. Inorganic phosphate was phloem mobile, higher external salinity led to lower phosphate concentration. Overall, the degree of salt-induced inhibition in leaf growth of varying ages, or inflorescence of Panicurn antidotale has been correlated with pattern ion distribution, and maintenance of K+/Na+ ratio in plant parts. Thus, nutritional distribution in leaves of various ages under salt stress is closely linked with their growth.

1661-1669 Download
37
GENETIC VARIABILITY OF DIFFERENT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES/CULTIVARS UNDER INDUCED WATER STRESS
SULMAN SHAFEEQ, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR

GENETIC VARIABILITY OF DIFFERENT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES/CULTIVARS UNDER INDUCED WATER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Drought significantly depresses yield of many crop plants including wheat in the world. Identification of wheat genotypes that can tolerate limited water condition is vital to boost the wheat production. Under drought, cell membrane stability (CMS) and its relationship with different agronomic traits has been thoroughly described as an important screening trait to breed for drought tolerant wheat genotypes. In Pakistan, we first time extensively screened a large collection of wheat gene pool using the CMS as a screening tool. In the present study, 50 wheat cultivars/genotypes were screened for CMS by exposing the flag leaf discs with instant drought using PEG (6000). Significant differences were found among the wheat genotypes for CMS, number of tillers and 100 seed weight. Interaction between water regimes and genotypes was also significant which showed the genetic variation among the 50 cultivars/genotypes. Correlation between CMS and number of tillers was significant, while it was non significant with 100 seed weight. The association between the number of tillers and 100 seed weight was non significant. Among these parameters, CMS was found the most reliable screening parameter for characterization of cultivars/genotypes for drought. This study will be helpful in warranting wheat genome mapping studies.

1671-1678 Download
38
GENOTYPIC VARIATION FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.): SEED COTTON YIELD RESPONSES
IHSAN ULLAH, MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN AND YUSUF ZAFAR

GENOTYPIC VARIATION FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.): SEED COTTON YIELD RESPONSES
ABSTRACT:
Instability of cotton yield is partly caused by drought susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to assess genotypic variation for drought tolerance in a set of cotton germplasm using geometric mean (GM) and drought susceptibility index (DSI) as selection criteria and to determine association of these measures with some productivity and physiological attributes. Thirty-two cotton cultivars were evaluated under well-watered (W1) and water-limited (W2) regimes in the field during 2003 and 2004. Drought stress determined by the drought intensity index was more sever in 2004 (0.43) as compared to 2003 (0.21). Genotypic variation was detected for both indices in both the years. Significant negative association of DSI with seed cotton yield, boll number and certain physiological attributes conferring drought tolerance in W2 (P<0.01) suggested DSI as a useful predictor of drought tolerance in cotton. However, selection based solely on DSI may be misleading as it does not differentiate between potentially drought-tolerant genotypes and those that possessed low overall yield. Substantial variation in GM ranging from 28.9 to 63.9 and 20.7 to 66.7 g was found among the cotton cultivars in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Significant correlation between GM and physio-economic traits under water stress provides support for using GM as a stress tolerance predictor. Non association between DSI and GM suggested that each index is a potential indicator of different biological responses to drought and selection for genotypes with low to moderate DSI and high GM will resulted in combing different traits associated with each index and thus helping to improve tolerance against drought in cotton.

1679-1687 Download
39
EXPLOITING GENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG FIFTEEN MAIZE GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN FOR POTASSIUM UPTAKE AND USE EFFICIENCY IN SOLUTION CULTURE
ISMAT NAWAZ, ZIA-UL-HASSAN, ATTA MUHAMMAD RANJHA AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

EXPLOITING GENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG FIFTEEN MAIZE GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN FOR POTASSIUM UPTAKE AND USE EFFICIENCY IN SOLUTION CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Potassium (K) status of Pakistani soils is rapidly decreasing at an alarming rate. Thus, the exploitation of genotypic variation among the major crops of Pakistan could be helpful for future breeding of K-efficient genotypes. Fifteen maize genotypes were grown under K adequate (AK) and deficient (DK) conditions in hydroponics. Substantial variation was observed in the biomass accumulation, allocation and K uptake and use efficiency among genotypes at two contrasting levels of K. K deficiency decreased the biomass and increased the RSR of the maize genotypes. K uptake was highly correlated with shoot dry weight (SDW) production at DK and hence could be utilized as a selection criterion for K-efficient genotypes.

1689-1696 Download
40
PHYSIO-MORPHIC RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
MUNIR AHMAD, ZAHID AKRAM, MUHAMMAD MUNIR AND MUHAMMAD RAUF

PHYSIO-MORPHIC RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Fifteen wheat genotypes were evaluated in the experimental area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, during Rabi season 2004-2005. There were highly significant variations among the genotypes for number of tillers per plant, stomatal size, leaf venation, days to heading, days to maturity, spike length

1697-1702 Download
41
ION TRANSPORT IN FOUR CANOLA CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY SALT STRESS
QASIM ALI1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

ION TRANSPORT IN FOUR CANOLA CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess relationship between ion transport and variation in growth responses of four canola cultivars under salt stress, four canola cultivars were grown at 0 and 150 mM NaCl for six weeks in hydroponics. Salt stress reduced the shoot and root fresh and dry weights of all canola cultivars. Maximum shoot fresh and dry weights were recorded in Dunkeld under both non-saline and saline conditions, while cv. Cyclone had the minimum shoot and root fresh and dry weights of all cultivars examined under both stress and non-stress conditions. On the basis of growth of canola cultivars under salt stress Dunkeld was found to be salt tolerant, CON-III and Rainbow intermediate and Cyclone as salt sensitive cultivar. Transport of Na+ and Cl- were increased due to salt stress with a decrease in K+ and Ca2+ transport in all canola cultivars but transport of cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+) decreased consistently over time. Furthermore, salt tolerant Dunkeld had the highest K+ and Ca2+ transports with a minimum Na+ transport to the leaves under saline conditions. Cl- transport remained almost unchanged over time under both non-saline and saline conditions. These results suggested that salt tolerant Dunkeld might have a key mechanism of ion exclusion and/or transport-restriction between the shoot and root to depress the transport of Na+ and Cl- to the upper plant parts, enabling a higher tolerance to NaCl.

1703-1708 Download
42
COMPARATIVE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PEG- OR NaCl-INDUCED OSMOTIC STRESS ON GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA
S. F. AFZALI1, M. A. HAJABBASI1, H. SHARIATMADARI1, K. RAZMJOO2 , AND A. H. KHOSHGOFTARMANESH1

COMPARATIVE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PEG- OR NaCl-INDUCED OSMOTIC STRESS ON GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF A POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA
ABSTRACT:
The adverse effects of salinity and PEG-induced water stress on growth of Matricaria chamomilla were assessed at the germination stage using osmotic solution of NaCl (0, -0.175, -0.358, -0.541, -0.716 MPa), and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) (0, -0.05, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3 MPa), respectively. Effect of NaCl salinity stress (0, 40, 80

1709-1714 Download
43
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SILICON IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINITY STRESS
MUKKRAM ALI TAHIR1, RAHMATULLAH1, TARIQ AZIZ2, M. ASHRAF, SHAMSA KANWAL1 & MUHAMMAD AAMER MAQSOOD

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SILICON IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
We evaluated growth performance of two wheat genotypes (Auqab-2000 & SARC-5) differing in salinity tolerance to applied silicon under saline conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with normal (EC=1.16 dSm-1) and saline soil (developed EC=10 dSm-1). Silicon was applied @ 0, 50 and 130 µg Si/g soil using calcium silicate. Plants were harvested at maturity and different physical and chemical parameters were recorded. Salinity stress significantly (p<0.01) reduced dry matter production and grain yield of both wheat genotypes; however reduction was lower in SARC-5 than in Auqab-2000. Silicon application in growth medium significantly (p<0.01) improved dry matter and grain yield of both genotypes grown either in normal and/or in saline conditions. Potassium concentration was significantly increased in plants grown with Si in saline soil. Potassium concentration was lower in plants grown with salinity than those grown in normal soil only in –Si plants. Sodium uptake was higher in plants grown under salinity, however Si application significantly reduced Na uptake, resulting in a significant increase in K:Na ratio in shoots. Sodium concentration in shoots had a significant negative correlation (r>0.81, p<0.01) with shoot dry matter in both genotypes, however, reduction in SDM was more in Auqab-2000. Percent increase in Na concentration due to salinity was significantly reduced in plants receiving Si in root environment. Shoot Si concentration significantly correlated with shoot K concentration (r=0.83, p<0.01) and negatively with shoot Na concentration (r=0.57, p<0.05). Increased K concentration and reduced Na uptake or translocation may be one of the possible mechanisms of increased salinity tolerance by Si application in wheat.

1715-1722 Download
44
LEAF ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN AGAINST DROUGHT STRESS
SHAMYLA NAWAZISH, MANSOOR HAMEED AND SHAISTA NAURIN

LEAF ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN AGAINST DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Drought is one of the most serious environmental hazards that Pakistan is facing at present. It is even more severe to the agricultural crops and only for that single reason vast arid lands remain uncultivated each year. Precipitation ratio, in general, too very low in most of parts of Pakistan, and there is a crying need to hunt suitable germplasm, both from cultivated crops and forages, but also from natural adaptive species. For this purpose the Salt Range can be of inimitable value as native flora seems to be well adaptive to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Biodiversity of the Salt range is of specific importance because many endemic species are adapted to various environmental stresses. .Ecotype of potential drought resistant grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. was collected from the drought-hit habitat of the Salt Range, Pakistan. Ecotype of this species was also collected from normally irrigated soils of Faisalabad for comparison. The plants were subjected to three moisture regimes, viz. 100% FC (control), 75 % FC and 50% FC. Cenchrus ciliaris from the Salt Range adapted better to moderate and high drought levels. Grass species from the Salt Range showed some specific adaptation against severe drought condition. Increased succulence (leaf thickness), cuticle deposition under adverse climates accompanied by thick epidermal layer was crucially important for maintaining leaf moisture and preventing water loss through leaf surface. Reduced metaxylem area under drought stress was responsible for efficient water transport during adverse climatic conditions. Prevention of water loss under drought stress by highly developed bulliform tissue and reduced stomatal size on adaxial leaf surface make this ecotype excellent selection for arid and semi-arid regions.

1723-1730 Download
45
DISCRIMINATING UPLAND AND LOWLAND RICE GENOTYPES THROUGH PROTEOMIC APPROACH
FARAH NAZ, SHAFQAT FAROOQ, RUBINA ARSHAD, MUHAMMAD AFZAAL AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM

DISCRIMINATING UPLAND AND LOWLAND RICE GENOTYPES THROUGH PROTEOMIC APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
Most of the crop plants respond to growth limiting heat shock or other stresses by inducing or enhancing the expression of a number of specific stress proteins called heat shock proteins. These proteins act as important constituents of molecular mechanisms for tolerance. Rice is one of such crops that grow during very hot season, and any deficiency of water can subject rice plant (especially the lowland cultivars) to heat stress. The present study was therefore, conducted to discriminate upland and lowland rice genotypes on the basis of their tolerance to environmental stresses such as heat (high temperature). The objectives were to see differences i) in heat tolerance level of upland and lowland rice genotypes to water deficiency ii) in quality and quantity of heat shock proteins in tolerant and sensitive genotypes and iii) possible role of heat shock proteins in the tolerance of lowland rice genotypes. For this purpose, one weak old seedlings comprising 5 upland and lowland rice genotypes and their inter-generic hybrids were exposed to heat stress of 45-55 °C for 16-18 h. Proteins were extracted from leaf sheaths. Variations in heat shock proteins, thus detected, are being discussed with special reference to tolerance for heat and water deficiency in rice.

1731-1738 Download
46
CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD AKRAM, SHAFQAT FAROOQ, MUHAMMAD AFZAAL, FARAH NAZ, AND RUBINA ARSHAD

CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
To assess the genotypic variation for efficiency of photo-system-II (Fv/Fm) in wheat genotypes containing introgression from chromosomes 1D, 3D and 5D of Aegilops tauschii and whether it could be used as a selection criteria for salt tolerance, 32 wheat genotypes were grown under field conditions and subjected to varying levels of salinity stress (10

1739-1743 Download
47
DIFFERENCES IN AGRONOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD AFZAAL, SHAFQAT FAROOQ, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, FARAH. NAZ, RUBINA ARSHAD AND ASGHARI BANO1

DIFFERENCES IN AGRONOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Nine wheat genotypes having introgression from chromosome 1D of Aegilops tauschii were studied under control (non-stress) and salt stress conditions. The objective was to detect variation in wheat genotypes against salt stress using physiological parameters such as transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, net CO2 assimilation rate, grain yield plant-1 and green biomass production and CO2 fixation. Wheat Introgression Line (WIL) 1 and 2 showed highly significant correlation between stomatal conductance and transpiration rate as compared to all other genotypes in control and salinity. Genotype 2 and 4 showed significant correlation between transpiration rate and net photosynthesis in plants growing under controlled condition. Similarly yield and biomass production are strongly correlated in control and treated conditions in WILs 5, 6, 7. It is inferred that the tested genotypes had significant differences regarding the above mentioned parameters. It appeared that stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis and transpiration are directly and indirectly correlated with grain yield and biomass. The introgression lines tested in the present study showed plants with different segments of ID chromosome that promote these parameters differentially under saline conditions and can help identify chromosomal segments that can be used for improvement of wheat plants particularly for these parameters.

1745-1750 Download
48
RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIAL DIVERSITY: IS IT PARTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR WATER DEFICIENCY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT?
RUBINA ARSHAD, SHAFQAT FAROOQ AND FAROOQ-E-AZAM

RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIAL DIVERSITY: IS IT PARTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR WATER DEFICIENCY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT?
ABSTRACT:
Bacterial diversity plays a key role in agricultural environments and is promising for its potential use in sustainable agriculture. The present study was conducted to assess the influence of moisture stress on bacterial diversity in the rhizoplane of wheat line WL-1076. Healthy seeds were grown in potted soil maintained at moisture contents equivalent to 133% (L1)

1751-1758 Download
49
MORPHOBIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SALINITY STRESS RESPONSE OF WHEAT
SHAMAILA RAFIQ, TAHIRA IQBAL, AMJAD HAMEED, ZULFIQAR ALI RAFIQI AND NAILA RAFIQ

MORPHOBIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SALINITY STRESS RESPONSE OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The experiments were planned to investigate the effect of salt stress on morphobiochemical response of wheat cv. Uqab-2000. Seeds were given different priming treatments like hydro priming, chilling, kinetin, CaCl2.2H2O and controlled (with no treatment). After priming treatments the seedlings were grown under normal and salt stress (NaCl 125 mM) for 8-days in petridishes at 25 ±1°C in an incubator. Various morphological parameters for seedlings and biochemical parameters (catalase activity and ascorbic acid contents) for roots were determined. The results revealed that generally all treatments except hydropriming increased the morphological growth of the seedlings, particularly chilling, kinetin, and calcium chloride showed a significant difference compared to control. An overall increasing trend in the catalase activity (units/ mg fresh weight) was observed except kinetin treatment in normal and chilling in saline conditions. The profound increase in activity of catalase was observed after chilling and hydro priming in normal and saline, respectively. However, all seed priming treatments decreased the ascorbic acid concentration under salinity, while reverse was true for normal conditions. Application of salt stress have overall substantial negative affect on all the visual growth and biochemical parameters, However seed priming treatments tend to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity.

1759-1767 Download
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