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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 1
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-MALVACEAE-GREWIOIDEAE-LII
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN-MALVACEAE-GREWIOIDEAE-LII
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 12 species distributed in 3 genera viz., Corchorus, Grewia and Triumfetta were examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollen grains generally tricolporate, prolate, sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Exine ornamentation reticulate or rugulate to reticulate often rugulate. On the basis of exine pattern three pollen types are recognized viz.

1-7 Download
2
VIABILITY, GERMINATION AND AMOUNT OF POLLEN IN SELECTED CAPRIFIG TYPES
MURUVVET ILGIN, FUAT ERGENOGLU AND SEMIH CAGLAR

VIABILITY, GERMINATION AND AMOUNT OF POLLEN IN SELECTED CAPRIFIG TYPES
ABSTRACT:
Pollen quality of 5 caprifig genotypes selected in the East Mediterranean Region was determined. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and fluorescent diacetat (FDA) test procedures were used in evaluating pollen viability. Germination of pollen was determined by using various concentrations of sucrose supplemented with H3BO3, KNO3 or GA3 in agar medium. Pollen production status of caprifig flowers was determined. The percentage of viable pollen in caprifig types ranged from 76.04 to 83.34% by TTC test and from 75.60 to 86.73% by FDA test. The germinations were higher on the media containing 20% sucrose and increased up to 74 % with the addition of H3BO3 or KNO3, but not GA3. The number of pollen per flower ranged from 4355 to 7169 grains. The selected caprifigs appeared to be satisfactory pollinators in respect to criteria investigated.

9-14 Download
3
STOMATAL TYPES OF MONOCOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID, SARA SHARMEEN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

STOMATAL TYPES OF MONOCOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Stomatas of 54 monocot species belonging to 42 genera in 10 families were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of stomata viz., tetracytic, paracytic and anomocytic were recognized. In the family Commelinaceae tetracytic type is present and in the family Liliaceae both tetracytic and anomocytic types are found. While,Typhaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Palmae and Juncaceae are characterized by paracytic type. In the remaining three families i.e., Potamogetonaceae, Najadaceae and Hydrocharitaceae stomatas are absent.

15-21 Download
4
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF GLADIOLUS ANATOLICUS (BOISS.) STAPF
YELDA EMEK* AND BENGI ERDAG

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF GLADIOLUS ANATOLICUS (BOISS.) STAPF
ABSTRACT:
An In vitro propagation method was developed for Gladiolus anatolicus (Boiss.) Stapf (Iridaceae ) using corm sections. Calli were obtained from longitudinally shaped corm sections in Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and without growth regulators. The highest rate of callus formation (75 %) occured in MS medium containing 8.5 mg l-1 NAA. Eight weeks after the culture was initiated, calli in 1 cm diameter were taken into regeneration experiments. In these experiments, shoot regeneration was promoted using NAA, BA only, and their combinations. The highest number of shoots per explant was obtained in MS medium containing 0.2 mg l-1 BA and 2 mg l-1 NAA (4.7 shoots per explant). Corm formation in the base of shoots were observed in the medium with 0.1 mg l-1 BA. Additionally, 5-6 cormel per shoot occured during subculturing. Rooting was obtained in the same medium, but rooting rates in shoots were very low (% 20).

23-30 Download
5
EFFECTS OF CULTIVAR AND AGAR CONCENTRATION ON IN VITRO SHOOT ORGANOGENESIS AND HYPERHYDRICITY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
MOHAMMAD ABDOLI*, AHMAD MOIENI AND HAMID DEHGHANI

EFFECTS OF CULTIVAR AND AGAR CONCENTRATION ON IN VITRO SHOOT ORGANOGENESIS AND HYPERHYDRICITY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
This study was aimed a improves in vitro shoot regeneration efficiency without inducing hyperhydricity in sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Cotyledons of sunflower were regenerated on Murashige & Skoog medium (MS) containing 4.4 M of BAP, 5.4 M of NAA and various concentration of agar-agar. The experimental design was factorial on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with two cultivars and three agar concentrations and three replications. Each replication consisted of 10 plastic Petri dishes with four explants. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among cultivars and agar concentrations for percentage of explants forming shoots, the average number of shoots per explant plated, the average number of shoots per regenerant explant and the percentage of hyperhydrated shoots. Increasing the agar concentration affected various organogenesis parameters. The cultivar × agar concentration interaction was significant for all traits 'Gabor' × 0.6% agar interaction showed the highest value for average number of shoots per explant plated and average number of shoots per regenerant explant (7.1 and 19.3, respectively). Increasing the agar concentration from 0.4 to 0.8% in cv. 'Progres' reduced the number of hyperhydrated shoots from 54.7 to 3%. The addition of agar concentration showed to be useful in improving the quality of sunflower regenerated shoots by reducing hyperhydricity.

31-35 Download
6
INHERITANCE OF TRAITS RELATED TO SEEDLING VIGOR AND GRAIN YIELD IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD AKRAM, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL†*AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR*

INHERITANCE OF TRAITS RELATED TO SEEDLING VIGOR AND GRAIN YIELD IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Nature of gene action and inheritance of traits related to seedling vigor and grain yield was determined in F1 generation of a 7 parent diallel cross. Genetic component analysis revealed that rate of germination index and seedling shoot length were influenced by both additive and non-additive gene action, however, the additive component was found to be more pronounced in the inheritance of these two traits.

37-45 Download
7
STUDIES ON COMBINING ABILITY OF CITRUS HYBRIDS WITH INDIGENOUS COMMERCIAL CULTIVARS
WAQAR AHMED, KHURRAM ZIAF, M. AZHER NAWAZ, B.A. SALEEM AND C.M. AYYUB

STUDIES ON COMBINING ABILITY OF CITRUS HYBRIDS WITH INDIGENOUS COMMERCIAL CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted in which introduced citrus hybrids (Orlando tangelo, Minneola tangelo, Saminola tangelo, Honey mandarin, Pixie mandarin and Frost dancy tangerine) were crossed with Mosambi, Kinnow and Duncan grapefruit as male parents. Pollen viability and pollen germination studies were also conducted. Pollen viability was maximum in Pixie mandarin (92.81%) while least in Frost dancy tangerine (FDT) (16.27%). Pollen tube growth studies revealed non-significant difference as pollen tube travelled 9.16, 5.80 and 4.70% of the gynoecia, in tangelos, mandarins and tangerine hybrids respectively. Kinnow generated the best value as the male parent with Honey mandarin and Orlando tangelo, while the performance with other hybrids was inconsistent as for as specific combining ability (SCA) was concerned. Although, Kinnow belongs to mandarins yet, great variability was found with Pixie mandarin for combining ability. Kinnow proved as a better pollinizer for all the experimental hybrids as for as general combining ability (GCA) is concerned. Mosambi as a male parent behaved inconsistently with experimental hybrids for fruit setting.

47-55 Download
8
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF AEGILOPS VARIABILIS (2n=4x=28; UUSS) FOR WHEAT IMPROVEMENT: MORPHO-CYTOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME DERIVED AMPHIPLOIDS AND THEIR PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
A. MUJEEB-KAZI*, ALVINA GUL*, MUHAMMAD FAROOQ, SUMAIRA RIZWAN and JAVED I. MIRZA

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF AEGILOPS VARIABILIS (2n=4x=28; UUSS) FOR WHEAT IMPROVEMENT: MORPHO-CYTOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME DERIVED AMPHIPLOIDS AND THEIR PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
The tertiary gene tetraploid Aegilops variabilis (2n = 4x = 28; UUSS) is an alien germplasm resource that provides much needed genetic diversity for resistance to Cochliobolus sativus (spot blotch) and Tilletia indica (Karnal bunt). This resource has been hybridized with several durum and bread wheat cultivars yielding cytologically normal F1 hybrids (2n = 4x = 28, ABUS or 2n = 5x = 35, ABDUS) from which fertile amphiploid progenies of 56 (2n=8x=56, AABBUUSS) and 70 chromosomes (2n=10x=70, AABBDDUUSS) were derived. The morphology and cytogenetics of these cross combinations plus their amphiploids, screening data for spot blotch and karnal bunt response under field conditions is reported to elucidate some probable strategies that would permit genetic transfers from Ae. variabilis into the recipient durum and bread wheat germplasms.

57-66 Download
9
WIDE AND SPECIFIC ADAPTATION OF BREAD WHEAT INBRED LINES FOR YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
A. J. KHAN*, F. AZAM, A. ALI, M. TARIQ, M. AMIN AND T. MUHAMMAD

WIDE AND SPECIFIC ADAPTATION OF BREAD WHEAT INBRED LINES FOR YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Ten elite wheat inbred lines / cultivars were tested for grain yield stability at five different locations under the rainfed conditions in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. These inbred lines were exposed to different soil types, soil fertility, moisture levels and temperatures. GxE interaction mean squares were highly significant for grain yield. The overall mean grain yield performance of genotypes across environments ranged from 2.88 to 3.89 t/ha. The stability parameters indicated regression coefficient (bi) value ranging from 0.87 in NRL-9293 to 1.20 in NRL-0306. Cultivar "Tatara" showed the ideal stable performance with regards to mean grain yield of 3.32 t/ha, regression coefficient value of 1.03 and dispersion value (S2d) of 0.03. Based on bi and S2d values, NRL-0306 was found suitable for favorable environments whereas NRL-9293 can perform well under unfavorable environments.

67-71 Download
10
DETERMINATION OF GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF BORON ON ALLIUM CEPA ROOT MERISTEMATIC CELLS
MUHSIN KONUK, RECEP LIMAN AND I. HAKKI CIGERCI

DETERMINATION OF GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF BORON ON ALLIUM CEPA ROOT MERISTEMATIC CELLS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of boron on the mitotic index of Allium cepa root meristematic cells were investigated. By using the growth inhibition test LD50 value was determined first and then different doses of varied concentrations of boron were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as control. Since Allium cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, application process was carried out at 12

73-79 Download
11
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS SSP. OLEIFERA L.) CULTIVARS BY USING CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS
MURAT TUNÇTÜRK AND VAHDETTIN ÇIFTÇI

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA NAPUS SSP. OLEIFERA L.) CULTIVARS BY USING CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
This research was carried out during 2000

81-84 Download
12
B-CHROMOSOMES IN IRANIAN POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) CULTIVARS
MASOUD SHEIDAI*, MAHMOOD KHANDAN1 AND SHAHRZAD NASRE ESFAHANI1

B-CHROMOSOMES IN IRANIAN POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Programs for screening the genetic and cytogenetic diversity among Punica granatum L., cultivars of Iran are in hand, therefore cytogenetical study of 22 Punica granatum cultivars was carried out for the occurrence and effect of B-chromosomes in genetic recombination of the cultivars possessing them. The study revealed the presence of 0-5 B-chromosomes in 17 cultivars out of 22. These accessory chromosomes were smaller than the A-chromosomes and did not pair with them or among themselves. B-chromosomes could arrange themselves on the equatorial plane and move to the anaphase poles however they lagged in some cases controlling their accumulation in the daughter nuclei. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the mean number of chiasmata when B-chromosomes are present in some of the cultivars leading to a change in genetic recombination.

85-91 Download
13
HIGH YIELDING DESI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) VARIETY "NIFA-2005"
G. S. S. KHATTAK, M. ASHRAF*, ROSHAN ZAMIR AND I. SAEED

HIGH YIELDING DESI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) VARIETY "NIFA-2005"
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of a local chickpea variety Pb-91 were irradiated at 0.30 KGy doses of gamma rays using 60Co gamma cell and raised M1 generation at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) during 1994-95. M2 to M6generations were raised along with parents and standard varieties from 1996 to 2000 and made selections on the basis of more pods and branches per plant, large seed size and good plant type. Performance of the line CMN-257 along with standard varieties was evaluated in various replicated yield trials and screened for diseases from 2000-2004. The proposal of the mutant CMN-257 was submitted for approval as commercial variety for NWFP to the Provincial Seed Council meeting held on 19th September 2005 at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. The Provincial Seed Council approved the mutant CMN-257 as a commercial variety under the name "NIFA-2005" for general cultivation in NWFP.

93-102 Download
14
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL*, MUHAMMAD ANWAR AND A.M. HAQQANI

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK]
ABSTRACT:
Forty diverse mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] genotypes were evaluated for 14 quantitative traits at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during 1999-2000 under rainfed conditions. All the traits were analyzed using multivariate analysis technique (cluster and principal component analyses). The first four PCs with eigenvalues >1 contributed 85.49% of the variability amongst genotypes. Populations with high PC1 values were high yielding and early in maturity. The populations with high PC2 were late in flowering and maturity, and contributed more towards vegetative growth rather than reproductive. The genotypes were categorized in four clusters based on average linkage. Clusters I, II and IV were more clearly separated from cluster III. Cluster analysis revealed that genotypes under investigation displayed a wide range of variation for most of the traits that could be exploited in breeding programme to enrich the mungbean genetic treasure.

103-113 Download
15
GENETIC MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SALT TOLERANCE IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. SEEDLINGS
F. M. AZHAR, A. A. KHAN and N. SALEEM

GENETIC MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SALT TOLERANCE IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Inheritance of salt tolerance at the seedling stage was studied in 5 varieties/lines (both local and exotic) of Gossypium hirsutum L. The five parents were crossed in all possible combinations. The 20 F1 hybrids and their parents were grown in a mixture of sand and soil in 2:1 ratio, following completely randomised design with three replications. The response of the growing seedlings was examined to salinized (250 mM NaCl) and non-salinized (control) conditions. After three weeks, the longest roots of 25 families were measured under the two conditions. Indices of salt tolerance (relative root length) were used for genetic analysis following Hayman-Jinks approach. The regression coefficient (b = 0.566 0.161), and analysis of variance of (Wr+Vr) and (Wr-Vr) showed that the data were fit for genetic analysis. It was revealed that genes acted both additively and non-additively for controlling root length in salinized conditions and estimate of h2ns was 0.37. These results suggest that salt tolerance in the species may be improved further by selecting the plants having longer roots from the segregating generations in salinized media.

115-121 Download
16
EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON GROWTH, DEVELOMPENT, RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUCINE CORACANA)
MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD AND *S.N. AZAM ALI

EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON GROWTH, DEVELOMPENT, RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUCINE CORACANA)
ABSTRACT:
Two finger millet landraces were grown in glasshouses under two moisture regimes (fully irrigated and subjected to drought) to investigate the effects of environmental stress on the growth, development, radiation use efficiency and yield of finger millet (Eleucine coracana), in two landraces viz., TZA-01 and TZM-01. The drought treatment was imposed at 28 DAS beyond which no irrigation was applied to the droughted treatment. Growth and development were monitored between 21 DAS and 105 DAS. Soil moisture had an effect on the growth of both the landraces. Drought reduced leaf area, dry matter accumulation, seed weight, radiation use efficiency and yield of finger millet. Drought significantly reduced the number of leaves per plant, leaf area per plant from 42 DAS to 105 DAS. Drought had significant (p<0.009) effect on grain yield of two finger millet landraces. The maximum grain yield (4.88 t ha-1) was recorded under irrigated TZA-01 followed by irrigated TZM-01, where (3.22 t ha-1) grain yield was recorded. The minimum grain yield (1.92 t ha-1) was recorded in droughted TZM-01. Biomass was affected significantly (p<0.028) by drought. Maximum radiation use efficiency was recorded as 3.11g MJ-1 of the accumulated intercepted radiation.

123-134 Download
17
ROLE OF MERCURY AND EXOGENOUS IAA ON XYLEM VESSELS AND SIEVE ELEMENTS IN CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.
NAJMA YAQUB CHAUDHRY1* AND AISHA SALEEM KHAN

ROLE OF MERCURY AND EXOGENOUS IAA ON XYLEM VESSELS AND SIEVE ELEMENTS IN CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.
ABSTRACT:
High concentration of Hg i.e., 50 ppm and 100 ppm HgCl2 was used to find the deleterious effects in internode of Cucumis sativus L. Xylem vessels and sieve tube members showed inhibition with mercury in both transverse and longitudinal planes. All data was compared with control plants grown under same conditions. When Hg was applied with IAA, there was less inhibition in growth as compared to plants treated with Hg alone, revealing the dominant role of IAA. Therefore, IAA can be beneficial in reducing the inhibition caused by mercury stress. The arrangement of vascular tissues within the bundle is bicollateral and hence the development of phloem region on both sides was studied. Xylem vessels and phloem cells showed more inhibition with Hg in large inner vascular cylinder (IVC) as compared with cells in smaller outer vascular cylinder (OVC).

135-140 Download
18
EFFECT OF ABSCISIC ACID AND BENZYLADENINE ON GROWTH AND ION ACCUMULATION OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS
A.R. GURMANI, A. BANO* AND M. SALIM

EFFECT OF ABSCISIC ACID AND BENZYLADENINE ON GROWTH AND ION ACCUMULATION OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A glass-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) and Benzyladenine (BA) on growth and ion accumulation of two spring wheat cultivars viz., cv. Inqulab-91 and cv. SAARC-1 under salinity stress. Seeds of both cultivars were treated prior to sowing with ABA and BA each at 10-5 M for 24h. Three weeks old plants of both the cultivars were exposed to 0 and 100 mol m-3 NaCl. Plants were harvested three weeks after salt treatment. Fresh and dry weight of shoot and root decreased with salt treatment, whereas ABA and BA treatments caused a significant ameliorative effect on both the cultivars. Under salt stress, plant height was more adversely affected in Inqulab-91 than in SAARC-1. Salt treatment increased the concentration of Na+ and Cl- in flag leaf of both the cultivars. Both ABA and BA treated plants showed significant decrease in Na+ content but increased K+ content in flag leaf of both the cultivars. ABA and BA treatment decreased plant height but increased number of grains per spike and grain yield. ABA and BA treatments further augmented the stimulatory effect of salt on proline accumulation. Higher proline accumulation was observed in SAARC-1 than in Inqulab-91 with ABA and BA treatment. Under salt stress the hormone mediated osmoregulation by increased proline production and the selectivity in uptake and accumulation of toxic ions like Na+ and Cl- has been discussed. BA was more effective to increase chlorophyll "a" & "b, flag leaf area, number of grains per spike and grain yield, under salt stress as well as in non saline soil than ABA.

141-149 Download
19
DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON FORAGE QUALITY, YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN OF RANGELANDS
TAHIR POLAT, BEKIR BÜKÜN1* AND MUSTAFA OKANT

DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON FORAGE QUALITY, YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN OF RANGELANDS
ABSTRACT:
A two-year experiment was conducted in Karacadag rangeland, Sanliurfa, Turkey to evaluate Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) fertilization on forage quality and plant species composition and to determine their economic impact on animal production. Treatments were 0, 50

151-160 Download
20
DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRITIONAL CONSTRAINTS OF AZOLLA SPP. TO ENHANCE THEIR GROWTH UNDER FLOODED CONDITIONS OF SALT AFFECTED SOILS
NAIMA HAMID, SIKANDER ALI, KAUSER A. MALIK AND FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ

DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRITIONAL CONSTRAINTS OF AZOLLA SPP. TO ENHANCE THEIR GROWTH UNDER FLOODED CONDITIONS OF SALT AFFECTED SOILS
ABSTRACT:
A green house experiment was conducted to know the nutritional constraints of Azolla for enhancing its growth under flooded conditions and select the best ones for its use as biofertilizer in rice-wheat cropping system. Among the tested nutrients viz; phosphorus, iron and zinc, phosphorus was found to be the major limiting nutrient for plant growth. A. pinnata var. pinnata and hybrid Azolla Rong Ping gave better growth, hence can be used as biofertilizer in rice-wheat cropping system.

161-167 Download
21
COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF SALVIA ARAMIENSIS RECH. FIL. AND SALVIA CYANESCENS BOISS. BAL.
SENGÜL KARAMAN*, AHMET ILCIM AND NAZAN ÇÖMLEKÇIOGLU

COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF SALVIA ARAMIENSIS RECH. FIL. AND SALVIA CYANESCENS BOISS. BAL.
ABSTRACT:
The chemical composition of the essential oils from flowering parts of Salvia aramiensis Rech. Fil. and Salvia cyanescens Boiss & Bal. (endemic) from Turkey was determined by GC/MS. The main constituents of the essential oils were obtained as 1,8-cineole (60%) in S. aramiensis and spathulenol (32,5%) in S. cyanescens.

169-172 Download
22
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WEED CONTROL PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON THE WEEDS AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT
MUHAMMAD ATHER NADEEM, ASGHAR ALI AND ASIF TANVEER

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WEED CONTROL PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON THE WEEDS AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different weed control practices and fertilizer levels on weeds and grain yield of wheat in winter 2002-03 and 2003-04. The experiment comprised of four weed control practices of viz., weedy check, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin, post-emergence application of isoproturon + carfentrazone ethyl and manual weed control (two hoeings) and three fertilizer levels viz., 0+ 0, 75 + 50 and 150 + 100 kg N + P2O5 ha-1. Manual hoeing resulted in minimum weed density and dry weight in both the years. The maximum grain yield (5816 and 5071 kg ha-1) was recorded in manual hoeing in 2002-03 and 2003-04 respectively mainly due to more number of fertile tillers, number of grains per spike and 100-grain weight. Weed density 40 days after sowing and weed dry weight increased significantly with each increased fertilizer level. The maximum grain yield was recorded with 150 + 100 kg N + P2O5 ha-1. Manual weed control and application of 150 + 100 kg N + P2O5 ha-1 was found to be the best combination for obtaining higher grain yield of wheat.

173-182 Download
23
THE APPEARANCE OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE COMPONENTS IN SA-TREATED OR NATURALLY INFECTED VITIS PLANTS BY UNCINULA NECATOR
LALE YILDIZ AKTAS* AND AVNI GUVEN

THE APPEARANCE OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE COMPONENTS IN SA-TREATED OR NATURALLY INFECTED VITIS PLANTS BY UNCINULA NECATOR
ABSTRACT:
In the present study salicylic acid (SA) treatment and challenge by Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burr., significantly induced the systemic acquired resistance components in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sultana). Chitinase (CHV, EC 3.2.1.14) and ß1,3-glucanase (Laminarinase, EC 3.2.1.39) activities increased in SA-treated (100

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24
EFFECT OF WASTEWATER IRRIGATION ON SOIL ALONG WITH ITS MICRO AND MACRO FLORA
RANI FARYAL*, FAHEEM TAHIR** AND ABDUL HAMEED***

EFFECT OF WASTEWATER IRRIGATION ON SOIL ALONG WITH ITS MICRO AND MACRO FLORA
ABSTRACT:
Agricultural irrigation with wastewater is common in arid areas but has possible public health and environmental side effects, as effluent may contain pathogens, high level of salts, detergents and toxic metals. In order to ascertain effects of a local textile mill's wastewater irrigation on soil and subsequently the micro and macroflora, a series of analysis were conducted on soil collected from different sites with regard to pH, EC, organic matter, SO4-2, NO3-1 and exchangeable cations. Soil samples were also determined for total and bio-available metal ions such as Cr+6, Zn+2, Cu+2 and Ni+2. Macroflora of the mill contained high concentration of metal ions. Microbial community identified in the soil samples was different from reference soil. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) population associated with Zea mays irrigated by effluent contained 3 ecotypes of VAM, viz., Glomus mossea, Glomus spp., and Acualospora spp. Out of 34 bacterial strains isolated and characterized, dominant genera were Bacillus, Micrococcus and Listeria. Endurance of Cr+6 by Bacillus fumus RH109 was recorded upto 1000 mg/L, Zn+2 upto 325 mg/L by Pseudomonas stutzeri RH71 and Alcaligenes spp. RH88, while Agrobacterium spp., RH102, Bacillus subtilis RH 96, Bacillus pumilus RH84 and Lactobacillus spp. RH66 tolerated 150 mg/L Ni+2 and 18 bacterial isolates were able to grow un upto 100 mg/L Cu2+. The findings suggest that irrigation with local textile wastewater not only alters the soil chemistry, but also changes bacterial and VAM population in addition to enhancing the intrinsic endurance of these microbes to different metal ions present in their microenvironment. In view of these findings, we recommend monitoring of toxic effects of wastewaters and conclude that such irrigation practices should be carried out only after treatment of wastewater.

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25
INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN LEAF CHARACTERS OF SOME SUMMER VEGETABLES WITH INCIDENCE OF PREDATORY MITES OF THE FAMILY CUNAXIDAE
MUHAMMAD AFZAL* AND MUHAMMAD HAMID BASHIR

INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN LEAF CHARACTERS OF SOME SUMMER VEGETABLES WITH INCIDENCE OF PREDATORY MITES OF THE FAMILY CUNAXIDAE
ABSTRACT:
Influence of morphological plant characters such as leaf hairiness, length of hairs, leaf area and surface waxes of the leaves were studied against the abundance of cunaxid mites in some summer vegetables viz., brinjal, tomato, pumpkin and cucumber in four different localities of Punjab. Hairiness, hair length, leaf area and surface waxes of leaves had negative effect on the cunaxid population. Maximum population was recorded from brinjal (2.77) followed by tomato (2.55), pumpkin (1.1) and cucumber (0.91) respectively.

205-209 Download
26
SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ISOLATION OF ANTIFUNGAL PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES
*AMER JAMIL, MUHAMMAD SHAHID

SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ISOLATION OF ANTIFUNGAL PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES
ABSTRACT:
1M. MASUD-UL-HAQ KHAN AND 2MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

211-221 Download
27
SONICATION ASSISTED AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION (SAAT): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR COTTON TRANSFORMATION
SYED SARFRAZ HUSSAIN*, TAYYAB HUSNAIN1 AND S. RIAZUDDIN1

SONICATION ASSISTED AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION (SAAT): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR COTTON TRANSFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
We report here a new procedure for cotton transformation based on cavitations caused by sonication which results in thousands of micro wounds on and below the surface of plant tissue and allow Agrobacterium to travel deeper and completely throughout the tissue. This wounding fashion increases the probability of infecting plant cells lying deeper in tissue. Many parameters were optimized for the enhancement of GUS transient expression in cotton using mature embryos as explant. GUS was first detected 24h following incubation of the explants and by 48h, GUS expression was very intense which served as a useful indicator of successful transformation of the cotton explant following sonication assisted Agrobacterium mediated transformation (SAAT) procedure. The study also showed the competitive advantage of this procedure over other transformation procedures being routinely used.

223-230 Download
28
ABILITY OF LOOFA SPONGE-IMMOBILIZED FUNGAL BIOMASS TO REMOVE LEAD IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
MUHAMMAD IQBAL* AND R.G.J. EDYVEAN**

ABILITY OF LOOFA SPONGE-IMMOBILIZED FUNGAL BIOMASS TO REMOVE LEAD IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
ABSTRACT:
A new biosorbent was developed by immobilizing a white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium within low cost and easily available matrix of loofa sponge. Fungal biomass immobilized on loofa sponge (FBILS) adsorbed Pb(II) very efficiently from aqueous solution and biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1 h. No loss to biosorption capacity of FBILS was found due to the presence of loofa sponge, indeed as compared to free fungal biomass (FFB) an increase of 24.27% was noted in the biosorption capacity of FBILS. Maximum biosorption capacities for FBILS and FFB were found as 136.75 and 110.04 mg Pb(II) g-1 biomass, respectively. Pb(II)-laden FBILS was regenerated using 50 mM HCl, with up to 99% recovery and reused in seven biosorption-desorption cycles without any significant loss in biosorption capacity. FBILS were found to very strong, both physically and chemically, and can resist a wide variation in pH, temperature and agitation without any visible change in shape, structure or texture. This study for the first time reports that FBILS have a high biosorption capacity to Pb(II) and can be used as an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) or other heavy metals from industrial wastewater.

231-238 Download
29
DNA MARKER FOR LEAF RUST DISEASE IN WHEAT
TANWIR AHMAD MALIK, AZHAR IQBAL, MUHAMMAD ASLAM CHOWDHRY, MUHAMMAD KASHIF AND SAJID-UR-RAHMAN

DNA MARKER FOR LEAF RUST DISEASE IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Leaf (Brown) rust is major disease of wheat in Pakistan as well as in other countries. The objective of the study was to find DNA marker(s) linked to leaf rust resistance trait for use in tailoring disease resistant wheat cultivar. PCR technique and bulked segregant analysis was used to identify DNA marker linked to leaf rust resistant gene in F2 segregating population. The F2 population derived from the cross involving leaf rust susceptible, SK-7 and resistant parent, PBG-8881 with Lr29 resistant gene was scored for disease resistance. The F2 population segregated into resistant and susceptible plants in a ratio of 3:1 showing monogenic inheritance. The primer 60-5 amplified a polymorphic molecules of 1100 base pairs from the genomic DNA of resistant plant. This DNA molecule can be used as DNA marker to identify leaf rust resistant plants in a breeding programme for developing rust resistant wheat cultivars.

239-243 Download
30
PLANT ROOT ASSOCIATED BACTERIA FOR ZINC MOBILIZATION IN RICE
MUHAMMAD TARIQ, SOHAIL HAMEED, KAUSER A. MALIK AND *FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ

PLANT ROOT ASSOCIATED BACTERIA FOR ZINC MOBILIZATION IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
The activity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) to mobilize indigenous soil zinc (Zn) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) rhizosphere was observed in a net house micro plot experiment and compared with available form of chemical Zn source as Zn-EDTA. The PGPR application alleviated the deficiency symptoms of Zn and invariably increased the total biomass (23%), grain yield (65%) and harvest index as well as Zn concentration in the grain. The inoculation had a positive impact on root length (54%), root weight (74%), root volume (62%), root area (75%), shoot weight (23%), panicle emergence index (96%) and showed the highest Zn mobilization efficiency as compared with the un-inoculated control. The PGPR colonized rice plants were more efficient in acquiring Zn from either added or indigenous source, than non-colonized plants. Zinc mobilization by PGPR was also confirmed in liquid culture medium. It was concluded that, selected PGPR strains can serve as efficient solubilizer of Zn, allowing farmers to avoid the use of costly chemical Zn fertilizer in rice crop.

245-253 Download
31
INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AND P ON SOYBEAN YIELD, NITROGEN FIXATION AND SOIL FERTILITY
ZARRIN FATIMA, MUHAMMAD ZIA AND *M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF RHIZOBIUM STRAINS AND P ON SOYBEAN YIELD, NITROGEN FIXATION AND SOIL FERTILITY
ABSTRACT:
Pot studies under natural conditions were undertaken to determine the effect of various exotic Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains viz., TAL 377, 379

255-264 Download
32
USE OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON OKRA AND MASH BEAN
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, FATIMA SULTANA MEHDI AND M. JAVED ZAKI

USE OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON OKRA AND MASH BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves and stem of Rhizophora mucronata plant were tested for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode. Results showed that R. mucronata exerted more lethal effect in mortality of juveniles as compared to hatching of juveniles. Of the different plant parts used, stem showed more nematicidal effect as compared to leaves in aqueous extract as well as in ethanol extract except that in mortality leaves showed more nematicidal effect in ethanol extract. Soil amendment @ 0.1

265-270 Download
33
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOSTING AND ITS ASSESSMENT FOR REUSE IN PLANT PRODUCTION
SEEMA JILANI

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOSTING AND ITS ASSESSMENT FOR REUSE IN PLANT PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source separated organic matter of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in low, middle and high income areas of Karachi city with a population over 14 million. Results of MSW analysis indicate the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter (71-74%), acceptable moisture content (40-50%) and C/N ratio (38-40:1). On windrow composting, not only the volume of waste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling soil-like, compost material. All quality parameters in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH ranged between 6.8-8.1, soluble salts 3.90-5.10 mS/cm, organic matter 45-60% and have an acceptable amount of plant nutrients (Nitrogen 0.91-1.35%, Phosphorus 0.42-0.85%, Potassium 1.00-1.80%). The compost quality could further be improved by adding cow manure, poultry manure or yard waste etc. Its use in plant production or land reclamation may be helpful to maintain soil fertility and improve moisture holding capacity. MSW composting could be adapted country wide to recycle/reuse the organic residues as solid waste management option.

271-277 Download
34
ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES ASSOCIATED WITH ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AGAINST TOMATO WILT CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP., LYCOPERSICI UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
M. INAM-UL-HAQ*, S.R. GOWEN, N. JAVED

ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES ASSOCIATED WITH ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AGAINST TOMATO WILT CAUSED BY FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP., LYCOPERSICI UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
1F. SHAHINA,2M. IZHAR-UL-HAQ, N. HUMAYOON AND B. PEMBROKE

279-283 Download
35
EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND NEEM SEED POWDER TO CONTROL SEED BORNE PATHOGENS OF MAIZE
UZMA SITARA AND SHAHIDA AKHTER

EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND NEEM SEED POWDER TO CONTROL SEED BORNE PATHOGENS OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Using standard blotter and deep freezing techniques, 7 genera and 11 species of fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. wentii, Chaetomium sp., Drechslera sp., Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. semitectum, F. nivale, Nigrospora sp., Phoma sp. and Rhizopus sp. were isolated from maize seeds. Seed treatment with fungicides viz., Antracol (70% WP), Aliette (80% w/ w), Ridomyl Gold (MZ 68% WP), Neem seed powder @ 0.1%, 0.2% & 0.3% and Sodium hypochlorite @ 10% were used. No adverse effects were observed on the germination of seeds in blotter method whereas the germination was reduced due to dead/frozen embryo in deep-freezing method. Ridomyl Gold was found to be effective against seed borne mycoflora of maize followed by Aliette, Neem seed powder, Antracol and Sodium hypochlorite.

285-292 Download
36
MACROFUNGI DISTRIBUTION OF MUT PROVINCE IN TURKEY
HASAN HÜSEYIN DOGAN*, CELÂLEDDIN ÖZTÜRK, GIYASETTIN KASIK AND SINAN AKTAS

MACROFUNGI DISTRIBUTION OF MUT PROVINCE IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Macrofungi samples collected from different localities of Mut province in 1999-2001, particularly in the months of autumn and spring showed the occurrence of 95 species belonging to 46 genera and 28 families. Of these

293-308 Download
37
AGARICUS SILVICOLA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

AGARICUS SILVICOLA, A NEW RECORD FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Agaricus silvicola is being reported for the first time from Gilgit valley, Pakistan. This edible species is characterized by the production of scales on fruiting body. Spores are 6-8x4-5 m, ellipsoid and smooth.

309-310 Download
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