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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 2
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1
EMBRYOLOGICAL STUDIES OF STIPAGROSTIS PLUMOSA (L.) MUNRO EX T. ANDERSON
MOHAMMAD INAMUDDIN, KHALIFA M. MAGHBOUB AND M. SAQUIB*

EMBRYOLOGICAL STUDIES OF STIPAGROSTIS PLUMOSA (L.) MUNRO EX T. ANDERSON
ABSTRACT:
Embryological studies of Stipagrostis plumosa (L.) Munro ex Anderson have been made. The development of anther wall is Monocotyledonous type. The tapetal cell is uni-nucleate and glandular. Middle layer is ephemeral and endothecial cells develop fibrous thickenings. The microspore mother cells undergo successive meiotic divisions and result in the formation of isobilateral microspore tetrads. The pollen grains are triporate and shed at 3-celled stage. The ovule is anatropous and bitegmic. The chalazal megaspore of a linear tetrad develops into Polygonum type of embryosac. Sometimes, the antipodal cells vary from 3-7 in number.

313-317 Download
2
CLIMATIC VARIATION AND GROWTH OF HOLY THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN.)
KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT AND MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN

CLIMATIC VARIATION AND GROWTH OF HOLY THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM GAERTN.)
ABSTRACT:
There is an increasing interest in weed suppression through manipulation of crop density. To test this hypothesis as to how growth of Holy thistle (Silybum marianum) is affected by environmental conditions, experiment was conducted in RCBD with split plot arrangements by sowing four seed rates of wheat (100

319-327 Download
3
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON PLANT RESOURCES OF RANYAL HILLS, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD IBRAR, FARRUKH HUSSAIN AND AMIR SULTAN

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON PLANT RESOURCES OF RANYAL HILLS, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ethobotanical information were collected on 97 plant species from Ranyal Hills District Shangla, Pakistan. These plants were classified for their traditional medicinal and economic uses. Many of these plants have more than one local use. There were 37 fuel species, 37 forage/fodder species, 31 medicinal species

329-337 Download
4
TRADITIONAL RESOURCE EVALUATION OF SOME PLANTS OF MASTUJ, DISTRICT CHITRAL, PAKISTAN
1FARRUKH HUSSAIN

TRADITIONAL RESOURCE EVALUATION OF SOME PLANTS OF MASTUJ, DISTRICT CHITRAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
1S. MUKARAM SHAH AND 2HASAN SHER

339-354 Download
5
MEDICINAL WILD PLANTS FROM LAHORE-ISLAMABAD MOTORWAY (M-2)
*SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD

MEDICINAL WILD PLANTS FROM LAHORE-ISLAMABAD MOTORWAY (M-2)
ABSTRACT:
Wild plant gathering is an ancient tradition that has endured in many rural communities in Pakistan. In order to understand the pattern and uses of medicinal plants available in the first ever constructed motorway of the country, passing through three major geographical patterns of Punjab, Pakistan, this study was undertaken through literature survey and fieldworks. In the recent times, the practice of herbal medicine is diminishing. Thus in the way of revitalization of traditional herbal medicines, it is an effort to record the valuable ethno-botanical and ethno-medicinal knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in order to examine the present use of wild medicinal plants growing in and around Lahore-Islamabad motorway. The research process comprises a total of 81 plants belonging 44 families which have been recorded for their medicinal uses like fever, skin diseases, snakebite, jaundice, dysentery etc. Momordica balsamina, Evalvalvulus alsinoides, Salvadora oleoides are vulnerable plants in the area. Azadirecta indica, Fagonia eritica, Pegonia hermala are recommended for further cultivation and propagation in the surrounding area of motorway.

355-375 Download
6
SPATIO-PERSISTENCE DYNAMICS OF PLANT SPECIES ON METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS AROUND NULLAH LEH OF RAWALPINDI, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
A. RASHID*, J. GUL1, M. ARSHAD2, T. MAHMOOD3, AND M. KHALID4

SPATIO-PERSISTENCE DYNAMICS OF PLANT SPECIES ON METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS AROUND NULLAH LEH OF RAWALPINDI, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The metal contaminants in soil can influence the natural dynamism in plant populations. Different sources of metal contaminants were considered that had raised the soil toxicity level affecting plant distribution on a small scale. The course of natural succession was then monitored based on site specific conditions and comparative account was highlighted to reveal the metal toxicity threshold. It seems that contaminated areas, where regional persistence is governed by the processes of patchy colonization are leading to an ill-defined mosaic of suitable and unsuitable habitat. Overall, species richness is on a decline and spatially extended plant populations are essentially a simple extension of local dynamics occupying a small tract of suitable habitat. Although a range of forms of local spatial dynamics exists, these are qualitatively different from the forms of population structure at regional level. This shows the impact of metal pollutants on landscape, which is in fact a reflection of measurements made of (i) plant diversity across the landscape (including both contaminated and reference sites) and of (ii) spatial heterogeneity. In the present study, an important ecological relevance is structured among influence of heavy metal pollutants on soil system and ecological functioning of plants.

377-384 Download
7
GENETIC STUDIES IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) I. HETEROTIC EFFECTS
JESÚS RAFAEL MÉNDEZ-NATERA, ABELARDO RONDÓN, JOSÉ HERNÁNDEZ AND JOSE FERNANDO MERAZO-PINTO

GENETIC STUDIES IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) I. HETEROTIC EFFECTS
ABSTRACT:
Heterosis has been observed in many self fertilized species, including the cotton plant and it has been the subject of considerable study as a means of increasing its productivity. The objective of the present work was to determine the extension of heterosis over mid-parent, better parent and best parent for seed cotton yield/ha (SCYH) and other agronomic traits, as well as for fiber characters in 15 hybrids from 6 commercial varieties of cotton via., L1 = ‘Deltapine-16'; L2 = ‘Tamcot-SP-21'; L3 = ‘Cabuyare'; L4 = ‘Stoneville'; L5 = ‘Ospino' and L6 = ‘Acala-90-1'. The used statistical design was randomized complete blocks with 21 treatments (6 varieties and its 15 hybrids, excluding reciprocals) and three replications. Variance analysis were carried out and t-Student test was used to determine the differences among means (a = 0.10). There were no significant differences for better parent (HbBPC) in seed index. Significant HbBPC was found for days to blooming initiation; set flowers (SF); boll set; fruitful branches (FB); boll weight and SCYH. For fiber properties, significant HbBPC was found for fiber percentage; fiber length; fiber fineness and fiber strength. Significant heterosis over best parent (HbBPT) was only found for SF, FB and SCYH. Significant HbBPT was not found for fiber properties. Data are also given for heterosis over midparent values. These results demonstrated the presence of Hb for SCYH and other biometrical characters in cotton and the possibility of the agronomic use of this phenomenon in order to increase the productivity in this crop. On the other hand, these results showed that the Hb was mostly negative for fiber quality and that the hybrid L3xL4 with the biggest Hb for SCYH (58.52 %) and 2348.68 kg/ha had a Hb of -8.97 % for the fiber strength, with the smallest value (71 lb/inch2). Those hybrid combinations that present a positive heterobeltiosis for SCYH and fiber quality be selected.

385-395 Download
8
GENOTYPIC VARIATIONS IN YIELD AND QUALITY OF WHEAT DAMAGED BY SUNN PEST (EURYGASTER SPP.)
ENGIN KINACI AND GULCAN KINACI

GENOTYPIC VARIATIONS IN YIELD AND QUALITY OF WHEAT DAMAGED BY SUNN PEST (EURYGASTER SPP.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of sunn pest damage on thousand grain weight, protein content and sedimentation value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes grown under natural sunn pest infestation during 1993-94

397-403 Download
9
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN SOYBEAN
MUHAMMAD FAISAL ANWAR MALIK1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI3 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR4

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSES FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted at the National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad during summer 2001 on 27 genotypes of soybean to determine the correlation and path analyses of yield and its components. Significant differences among genotypes for characters viz., leaf area, chlorophyll content, first pod height, days to 50% flowering, days to flowering completion, days to pod initiation, days to 50% maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, number of unfilled pods, number of shattered pods

405-413 Download
10
CYTOGENETICS OF SOME TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND T. TURGIDUM × AEGILOPS VARIABILIS INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS AND THEIR DERIVED AMPHIPLOIDS
A. MUJEEB-KAZI, ALVINA GUL, MUHAMMAD FAROOQ1, SUMAIRA RIZWAN2, SOBIA TABASSUM2, HADI BUX2 and M. ASHRAF2

CYTOGENETICS OF SOME TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND T. TURGIDUM × AEGILOPS VARIABILIS INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS AND THEIR DERIVED AMPHIPLOIDS
ABSTRACT:
Amongst alien germplasms that provide much needed genetic diversity for resistance to leaf-blotch (caused by Cochliobolus sativus) and karnal bunt (caused by Tilletia indica) is the tertiary gene pool tetraploid Aegilops variabilis (2n=4x=28; UUSS) resource. In order to exploit this species potential, it is crucial that intergeneric hybrids are first produced from which stable genetic stocks are developed for subsequent agricultural utilization. The hybridization of several durum and bread wheat cultivars with Ae. variabilis is reported herein which have yielded cytologically characterized normal F1 hybrids (2n=4x=28, ABUS or 2n=5x=35, ABDUS). These upon colchicine treatment have generated fertile octoploid and decaploid amphiploids. The amphiploids in all cases possessed aneuploidy that was more pronounced with bread wheat cultivars (2n=10x=70, AABBDDUUSS). Durum amphiploid combinations had more normal 56 chromosome plant types with perfect bivalent meiosis (2n=8x=56, AABBUUSS and 28 bivalents across variable ring and rod associations). Reported here is the cytogenetics of these intergeneric hybrid cross combinations that have enabled the production of a novel genetic resource in the form of fertile amphiploids that hold the potential to address future work on improving wheat cultivars for resistance to C. sativus and T. indica.

415-420 Download
11
GIEMSA N- BANDING PATTERN IN SOME WILD DIPLOID SPECIES OF HORDEUM
BUSHREEN JAHAN AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY*

GIEMSA N- BANDING PATTERN IN SOME WILD DIPLOID SPECIES OF HORDEUM
ABSTRACT:
Distribution pattern of constitutive heterochromatin in some wild diploid Hordeum species was studied by Giemsa N-banding technique. It was possible to discriminate between the species by the number and morphology of the nucleolar chromosomes and the presence or absence of certain characteristic N-bands on chromosomes. An ideogram was developed for each studied species/taxa of Hordeum for the description of individual N-bands. The banding patterns, especially the finer intercalary and distal bands were more easily observed and reliably scored in late prophase and early metaphases when the chromosomes are at the right stage of contraction. N-banding procedure indicated that a clearly detectable mass of constitutive heterochromatin was located at the centromeric and interstitial regions of most chromosomes; however a wide variation in the intensities of bands, number of bands and their position in the chromosomes were observed. Among a mean number of bands 0.63 centromeric, 0.17 telomeric, 0.50 intercalary and 0.14 were found on satellites of diploid Hordeum species.

421-429 Download
12
PERFORMANCE OF FORAGE SORGHUM INTERCROPPED WITH FORAGE LEGUMES UNDER DIFFERENT PLANTING PATTERNS
AZRAF-UL-HAQ AHMAD, RIAZ AHMAD, NAEEM MAHMOOD AND A. TANVEER

PERFORMANCE OF FORAGE SORGHUM INTERCROPPED WITH FORAGE LEGUMES UNDER DIFFERENT PLANTING PATTERNS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to study the feasibility of forage legume intercropping in forage-sorghum based intercropping system at 30 cm spaced single rows, 30 × 30 cm cross planting with intercrop, 45 cm spaced two-row strips (15/45 cm) and 75 cm spaced four-row strips. The results displayed that the highest forage yield (46.1 t ha-1) was obtained from sorghum grown alone in 45 cm spaced paired rows compared to the minimum of 36.0 t ha-1 from sorghum intercropped with clusterbean under the pattern of 75 cm spaced four-row strips. The data exhibited that planting geometry of 45 cm spaced double-row strips produced the highest forage sorghum yield during both the years while in intercropping systems, sorghum alone produced significantly the maximum green forage yield in 30 cm spaced single rows. Legume associations decrease the forage sorghum yield than pure stand of sorghum. However, intercropping of forage sorghum with legumes in the pattern of 45 cm spaced double-row strips appeared to be more productive and profitable than the monocropped sorghum. It would suggest that for the purpose of getting higher yield of palatable, nutritious and high quality sorghum fodder, farmers should adopt the practice of intercropping forage sorghum with forage legumes, preferably cowpea and sesbania, under the planting pattern of 45-cm spaced two-row strips with 15 cm space between the rows in a strip (15/45).

431-439 Download
13
IMPACT OF INTEGRATION OF CROP MANURING AND NITROGEN APPLICATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPRING PLANTED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
MUHAMMAD AZHAR MUNIR1, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR MALIK2, MUHAMMAD FARRUKH SALEEM3

IMPACT OF INTEGRATION OF CROP MANURING AND NITROGEN APPLICATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPRING PLANTED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out during 2004 and 2005 to assess the comparative productivity of sunflower to integration of crop manuring and nitrogen application. Integration of organic and inorganic fertilizers comprised of treatments control (no fertilizer), farm yard manure at 20 t ha-1, poultry manure at 8 t ha-1

441-449 Download
14
TOXIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS ON EARLY GROWTH AND TOLERANCE OF CEREAL CROPS
TARIQ MAHMOOD1*, K.R. ISLAM2 AND S. MUHAMMAD3

TOXIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS ON EARLY GROWTH AND TOLERANCE OF CEREAL CROPS
ABSTRACT:
Metals have strong influence on development and growth of crops. To simulate how cereal crops are affected and/or tolerated from heavy metal contamination by disposal of unregulated wastes as soil amendments, the nutrient culture experiment was conducted with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at control (0)

451-462 Download
15
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS ON GROWTH, RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUCINE CORACANA)
MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD1* AND S.N. AZAM ALI2

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS ON GROWTH, RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUCINE CORACANA)
ABSTRACT:
Finger millet landraces viz., TZA-01 and TZM-01 were grown in glasshouses under two moisture regimes (fully irrigated and after drought) to investigate the effects of environmental stress on the growth, SPAD measurement, radiation use efficiency and yield of finger millet (Eleucine coracana). The drought treatment was imposed at 28 DAS beyond which no irrigation was applied to the droughted treatment. Growth and development were monitored between 21 DAS and 105 DAS. Soil moisture had an effect on the growth of both the landraces. Drought reduced leaf area, dry matter accumulation, seed weight, radiation use efficiency and yield of finger millet. LAI increased significantly in all the treatment between 28 DAS and 84 DAS, thereafter there was a sharp decline in LAI for TZM-01 under both irrigation and drought. Maximum LAI values

463-474 Download
16
EVALUATION OF SEED PHYSICAL TRAITS IN RELATION TO HEAT TOLERANCE IN UPLAND COTTON
HAFEEZ-UR-RAHMAN*1, SAEED AHMAD MALIK 2, MUHAMMAD SALEEM3 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN4

EVALUATION OF SEED PHYSICAL TRAITS IN RELATION TO HEAT TOLERANCE IN UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Studies was carried out to study the effect of high temperature regimes on the phenotypic expression of physical seed traits in relation to heat tolerance in upland cotton and to determine their relationship with seed cotton yield in the presence and absence of heat stress. There was differential response of cultivars in the expression of these traits across temperature regimes which suggested that the expression of these traits in the presence of heat-stress could be useful in differentiating relatively heat tolerant and sensitive cultivars in upland cotton.

475-483 Download
17
DYNAMICS OF FLOWER APPEARANCE, FLOWERING, POD AND SEED SETTING PERFORMANCE AND THEIR RELATIONS TO SEED YIELD IN COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)
ERKUT PEKŞEN

DYNAMICS OF FLOWER APPEARANCE, FLOWERING, POD AND SEED SETTING PERFORMANCE AND THEIR RELATIONS TO SEED YIELD IN COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The subject of this study was to determine the temporal distribution of the flowering, pod number and seed per plant, pod and seed setting performance and their relationships to seed yield in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Field trials were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications and carried out at the University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Agriculture, during 2002 and 2003 in Samsun, Turkey. Means of studied variables over two years in six common bean genotypes ranged from 37.01 - 60.05 flowers plant-1 (NFP), 8.28 - 13.96 pods plant-1 (NPP)

485-496 Download
18
EFFECT OF RATE AND TIME OF CALCIUM CARBIDE APPLICATION ON NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF APPLIED UREA AND GROWTH OF WHEAT
RASHID MAHMOOD, MUHAMMAD YASEEN AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

EFFECT OF RATE AND TIME OF CALCIUM CARBIDE APPLICATION ON NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF APPLIED UREA AND GROWTH OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Different doses of Calcium carbide (CaC2) were tested at various growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with and without nitrogen fertilizer (urea) in a pot experiment. CaC2 was applied @ 15, 30, and 45 mg kg-1 soil with N fertilizer @ 60 mg kg-1 soil at sowing, one, two and four weeks after sowing. Number of tillers, grain yield and N uptake were significantly improved by the application of CaC2 plus NPK compared to fertilizer alone and control. Reduction in plant height while increased tillering were observed as inhibitory and stimulatory effects of Calcium carbide. Maximum number of tillers, grain yield and N uptake were observed by the application of 30 mg CaC2 kg-1 soil with N fertilizer. Results indicated that application of 30 mg kg-1 among doses of CaC2 while two weeks after sowing among time of application of CaC2 were found better than all other treatments.

497-502 Download
19
ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY EFFECTS BY SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON SEED GERMINATION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII
M. AJMAL KHAN AND SABAHAT ZIA

ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY EFFECTS BY SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON SEED GERMINATION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII
ABSTRACT:
This research presents the role of Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in alleviation of salinity effects on the germination of Limonium stocksii seeds. Seeds were either pre-treated with Sodium hypochlorite or it was added to a medium with and without salinity (0-400 mM NaCl) at various temperature regimes (10-20

503-511 Download
20
INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF BRASSINOSTEROID ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF BRASSINOSTEROID ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a novel group of plant growth regulators which regulate growth and development of plants. BRs application is also effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of abiotic stresses including salt stress. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the influence of exogenous application of BRs as a foliar spray on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and pattern of nutrient accumulation under control or saline conditions. 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) was foliarly applied @ 0 (water spray), 0.0125, 0.025, and 0.0375 mg L-1 on two wheat cultivars viz., S-24 and MH-97. Two salinity treatments 0 (control) and 150 mmol L-1 of NaCl were also applied in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Exogenous application of 24-epiBL increased plant biomass under both saline and non-saline conditions, but it had a non-significant effect on leaf Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- contents or K+/Na+ ratios while in roots a similar pattern was observed but only for root K+ and K+/Na+ ratios. Overall, exogenous application of BRs as foliar spray improved growth of wheat plants under saline and non-saline conditions, but it did not have any prominent effect on accumulation of different mineral nutrients in the two cultivars examined.

513-522 Download
21
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT POTASH LEVELS ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENTS OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ASGHAR ALI, M. ATHER NADEEM, ASIF TANVEER M. TAHIR AND MUMTAZ HUSSAIN*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT POTASH LEVELS ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENTS OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of varying levels of potash (0

523-527 Download
22
POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) IN RELATION TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE IN ARIDISOLS
H. PERVEZ1*, M. ASHRAF2, M.I. MAKHDUM3 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD3

POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) IN RELATION TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE IN ARIDISOLS
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted using four cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (CIM-448, CIM-1100, NIAB-Karishma, S-12), four rates of potassium (0, 62.5

529-539 Download
23
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) TO NITROGEN AND L-TRYPTOPHAN ENRICHED COMPOST
RIZWAN AHMAD, SHER M. SHAHZAD, AZEEM KHALID, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD* AND MUHAMMAD H. MAHMOOD

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) TO NITROGEN AND L-TRYPTOPHAN ENRICHED COMPOST
ABSTRACT:
Composting is an effective approach for recycling of the organic wastes for agriculture uses. Organic waste material of fruits and vegetables was collected and subjected to composting in a locally fabricated mechanical unit. The compost material was enriched with 25 or 50% of recommended dose of N-fertilizer and L-tryptophan (L-TRP) @ 5 mg kg-1 compost. Enriched compost was tested alone as well as in combination with 25 and 50% of an additional dose of N-fertilizer. P and K fertilizers at recommended rates were applied in all the treatments. Results of pot experiments conducted in the net house revealed that application of enriched compost significantly promoted growth and yield of both wheat and maize crops; however, application of enriched compost with 50% N was the most effective in improving grain yield and yield contributing parameters compared with control. Similarly, N, P & K contents of the wheat and maize plants were significantly improved upon application of enriched compost plus N fertilizer. Comparison of enriched compost with chemical N fertilizer indicated the superiority in terms of yield of combined application of enriched compost and N fertilizer over the chemical fertilizer alone. The findings imply that a combined use of compost and chemical fertilizer could be more effective and economical to increase the yield of crop plants on sustainable basis than the chemical fertilizer alone.

541-549 Download
24
THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SALICYLIC ACID
GHULAM MURTAZA*, REHANA ASGHAR1, SHAHBAZ AHMAD2

THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SALICYLIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
AND SYED ABDUL MAJID

551-559 Download
25
GENUS AMPHISOLENIA STEIN FROM NORTH-WEST ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
SADAF GUL AND S. M. SAIFULLAH

GENUS AMPHISOLENIA STEIN FROM NORTH-WEST ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper describes 18 species of the dinoflagellate genus Amphisolenia Stein from the northwest Arabian Sea bordering Pakistan, including two new species Amphisolenia acuta sp. nov., and Amphisolenia deltiana sp. nov., and four new records Amphisolenia brevicauda, Amphisolenia globifera, Amphisolenia schauinslandi and Amphisolenia sp., from the area. Most species were rare except Amphisolenia bidentata which was most common. The description of the species is supplemented by illustrations and a key to facilitate their identification. Most species were neritic or neritic-oceanic and tropical or sub-tropical in nature which is indicative of the area of study. The species diversity was higher on the Indus Delta shelf area than on Balochistan shelf. Most species occurred in the transition period and less in cold northeast monsoon season. The individuals of a given species varied significantly among each other with respect to their sizes and dimensions.

561-576 Download
26
DISPERSAL AND ESTABLISHMENT OF MANGROVE PROPAGULES IN AN EXPOSED COASTAL HABITAT OF INDUS DELTA
S.M. SAIFULLAH1, F. CHAGHTAI2 AND S. AKHTAR1

DISPERSAL AND ESTABLISHMENT OF MANGROVE PROPAGULES IN AN EXPOSED COASTAL HABITAT OF INDUS DELTA
ABSTRACT:
Dispersal and establishment of propagules and seedlings of the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., were studied in a small exposed coastal area of the Indus Delta near Karachi. The propagules appeared on the shore in early August 1999. They were recruited into the area from neighboring mangrove inhabited islands and were concentrated in depressions, among rocks and already existing young mangroves. They increased in numbers until late September and later declined and disappeared by the end of October. Their average fresh weight and length increased continuously but gradually showing little difference between the initial and final values. The seedlings appeared about two months later with decline in numbers of the propagules and increased sharply to a peak density in the last week of October and later gradually declined in numbers until they disappeared by the end of December. The mortality of both propagules and seedlings may possibly be attributed to several environmental vicissitudes including exposed nature of the habitat, hyper salinity, grazing by herbivores, etc.

577-582 Download
27
EVALUATION OF CHICKPEA GERMPLASM FOR WILT RESISTANCE
AHMAD BAKHSH, SHEIKH MUHAMMAD IQBAL AND IKRAM-UL- HAQUE*

EVALUATION OF CHICKPEA GERMPLASM FOR WILT RESISTANCE
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri is a devastating disease of chickpea in Pakistan. In the present study one hundred and fifty eight genotypes of recent origin were evaluated under artificial disease condition to identify genetic sources of resistance against this disease. The experiment was planted in an augmented design with single replication. Disease observations were recorded at seedling and reproductive stages. There was a considerable variation between genotypes with respect to their disease reaction at both stages of evaluation. At seedling stage the disease incidence ranged from 0% to 57.2% and at reproductive stage it varied from 0% to 100%. At seedling stage

583-593 Download
28
NEW SOURCES OF WHEAT YELLOW RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F. TRITICI) SEEDLING RESISTANCE
SUMAIRA RIZWAN1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2, MOHAMMAD ASHRAF1, GHULAM MUSTAFA SAHI2, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTO2 AND ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI3

NEW SOURCES OF WHEAT YELLOW RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F. TRITICI) SEEDLING RESISTANCE
ABSTRACT:
Wild relatives of wheat as new sources of genetic diversity are a potent resource for addressing biotic and abiotic stress constraints that limit wheat productivity. These are distributed in the three gene pools of the Triticeae and over the last two decades are being extensively utilized in breeding programmes globally. In this study

595-602 Download
29
INHERITANCE STUDIES OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE RESISTANCE GENES IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
SAJJAD HAIDAR*, IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN** SHAHID MANSOOR*** AND YUSUF ZAFAR***

INHERITANCE STUDIES OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE RESISTANCE GENES IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Two bacterial blight resistant varieties/strains of cotton viz., C2 (67) 577 and C2 (69) 1455 both of each used as male and female parents were crossed with the susceptible variety DPL-7344-424, to study the inheritance response of resistance genes for bacterial blight. The cross C2 (67) 577 x DPL-7340-424 (resistant x susceptible) indicated a single gene difference with complete dominance for resistance to the race-18 in the resistant parent C2 (67) 577. Single gene inheritance of resistance to the race-18 was also indicated in C2 (67) 577 when crossed as male with susceptible DPL-7340-424. Both seedling and adult plant growth stages, F2 and back cross disease grade distributions clearly indicated a monogenic type of inheritance of resistance in resistant x susceptible and susceptible x resistant crosses. The monogenic inheritance of resistance indicates that pedigree breeding would be adequate for transferring the resistance in the susceptible genotypes. All the plants were resistant in F1, F2 and back cross progenies in cross between resistant x resistant showings that the gene for resistance is the same in both the parents. Seedling and adult disease grade in the present study were positively correlated as monogenic inheritance was observed in both seedling and in the adult stage of growth. These results support the concept of common basic mechanism controlling the resistance in the two different stages of plant growth and suggest that selection for resistance can be accomplished in either growth stage.

603-608 Download
30
ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE) AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI
NAZIA MASOOD AHMED CHAUDHRY, SABAHAT SAEED AND PERWEEN TARIQ

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE) AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI
ABSTRACT:
The oil, aqueous infusion and decoction of oregano (Origanum vulgare), of the family Limiaceae, were asessed for antibacterial activity against 11 different genera of Gram–ve bacilli viz., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenese, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Klebsiella ozaenae, K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi B, Serratia marcescens and Shigella dysenteriae, by disc diffusion method. Oregano oil exhibited the highest activity against Citrobacter species with mean zone of inhibition of 24.0 mm ± 0.5. The aqueous infusion also showed significant inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.1 mm ± 6.1 SD), Klebsiella ozaenae (19.5 mm ± 0.5 SD) and Enterobacter aerogenes (18.0 mm). Besides, all isolates were found resistant to the aqueous decoction of oregano seeds.

609-613 Download
31
BIOSORPTION OF LEAD BY INDIGENOUS FUNGAL STRAINS
RANI FARYAL1, AMBREEN SULTAN2, FAHEEM TAHIR3, SAFIA AHMED2 AND ABDUL HAMEED2

BIOSORPTION OF LEAD BY INDIGENOUS FUNGAL STRAINS
ABSTRACT:
Industrial effluent is a major environmental threat in Pakistan due to contaminant loads, especially of heavy metals. Bioremediation is a process that is in use to remediate effluents and is ecologically sound. In the present study, fungal strains isolated from effluent and adjacent contaminated soil of Koh-i-noor Textile Mills, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, were explored for the potential to remove lead from aqueous solution. A. niger RH 17 and A. niger RH 18 strains were tested for metal resistance on Pb-amended plates, which showed maximum resistance up to 6000 and 7000 mg/L, respectively. In media containing 1000 mg/L Pb, maximum lead removal exhibited by A. niger RH 17 was 92.04% and that by A. niger RH 18 was 93.09%, after three days incubation. The optimum pH for Pb detoxification was 9.0 and 9.5 for A. niger RH 17 and A. niger RH 18 respectively, with respective removal percentage being recorded as 93.8% and 94.2%. Pb biosorption was also assessed at different temperatures, in media having 1000 mg/L Pb at pH 9.0 and 9.5, for both strains. Maximum removal for both strains was seen at 28˚C. A. niger RH18 biosorbed 209.33 mg Pb per gram of the fungal biomass at pH 9.5. These newly isolated fungal strains offer the potential of being used as an effective biosorbent of Pb and bringing about its removal from industrial wastewaters.

615-622 Download
32
TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF 3,4 DIHYDROXY PHENYL L-ALANINE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE
SIKANDER ALI AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF 3,4 DIHYDROXY PHENYL L-ALANINE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, mould mycelium of Aspergillus oryzae was used for biochemical conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA because tyrosinase is an intracellular enzyme. The mutant Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 was found to yield 3.72 fold higher production of L-DOPA than the parental strain. The comparison of kinetic parameters was also done which showed the greater ability of mutant to yield L-DOPA. When cultures grown on various incubation periods, were monitored for Qp, Qs and qp, there was significant enhancement (p<0.0025–0.005) in these variables by mutant strain of A. oryzae IIB-2 over GCB-47 on all the rates.

623-627 Download
33
EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY AND MUNG BEANS SEED GERMINATION
RABIA ASHRAF AND TASNEEM ADAM ALI

EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY AND MUNG BEANS SEED GERMINATION
ABSTRACT:
Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals has caught our attention in finding new ways to sustain, restore and manage the environment. In this context, the study was carried out to assess and determine the cumulative effect of heavy metals on soil microorganisms and seed germination, which ultimately contribute serious threats to the ecosystem. We attempted to isolate stress tolerant bacteria and fungi from the soil amended with varying concentrations of heavy metal salts including silver (Ag), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb). The procedure describes the selection of heavy metal salts, characterization of soil, simulated pollution of soil, isolation, identification, characterization, screening and assessment of heavy metal tolerance by bacteria and fungi. Effects of varying concentrations of heavy metals on the germination of seeds (bioassay) were also taken into consideration. The data suggested that lead and silver were found to be toxic for the growth of microorganisms. The amendment of zinc in the soil up to 50mM concentration facilitated the growth of bacteria and fungi. An overall change in the microbial communities was observed in comparision with the control. Germination of seeds was favoured with increasing concentrations of zinc (50mM), which indicated the essentiality of zinc to plants. More deleterious effects on the germination of Vigna radiata (mung beans) were observed in case of silver, while moderate toxicity was observed in case of lead. Silver was found to be extremely toxic since the minimum concentration (10mM) resulted in the complete inhibition of seed germination. The seed germination in the presence of 10 and 25 mM concentration of silver was delayed for a period of 10 days but subsequent exposure to same concentration for 15 days resulted in the germination of seeds.

629-636 Download
34
SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CHICKPEA IN PAKISTAN
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, FARZANA SYED AND A. GHAFFAR

SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CHICKPEA IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Using blotter, agar plate and deep freezing methods as recommended by ISTA, the seed-borne mycoflora of 14 chickpea seed samples collected from different areas of Pakistan was examined. A total number of 21 species belonging to 13 genera of fungi were isolated. Of these 4 species viz., Absidia glauca, Rhizoctonia solani, Syncephalastrum sp., and Trichoderma harzianum are new reports from Pakistan. Pathogenic fungi viz., Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, and saprophytic fungi like Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were pre-dominant. Component plating of chickpea seeds showed that seed coat and cotyledons were infected by greater number of fungi followed by axis (radicle+plumule). M. phaseolina and R. solani were also isolated from seed coat, cotyledons and axis of seed. The fungal species were reduced in surface sterilized seeds which indicate that most of fungi were located on seed coat. Blotter method showed greater incidence of fungi on different parts of seeds followed by agar plate and deep-freezing method.

637-643 Download
35
PATHOGENIC EFFECTS AND TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF SEED-BORNE FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SUNFLOWER
SHARFUN-NAHAR AND MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ

PATHOGENIC EFFECTS AND TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF SEED-BORNE FUSARIUM SPECIES IN SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Pathogenic effects of 6 Fusarium spp., viz., F. equiseti, F. longipes, F. scirpi (Section Gibbosum), F. oxysporum (Section Elegans), F. pallidoroseum (Section Arthrosporiella) and F. solani (Section Martiella) were studied on sunflower plants. Symptoms produced by Fusarium spp., were root-, collar-, stem- and seedling rots, damping-off, stunting, wilting, tip burning and reduction in growth. Wilting and seedling rot were found to be the most prominent symptoms produced by all Fusarium spp. Highest wilting was observed in plants inoculated by F. equiseti, F. scirpi and F. solani, whereas, highest seedling rot was observed by F. solani.

645-649 Download
36
HYMENOMYCETES FROM MULTAN DISTRICT
KISHWAR SULTANA, MISBAH GUL*, SYEDA SIDDIQA FIRDOUS* AND REHANA ASGHAR*

HYMENOMYCETES FROM MULTAN DISTRICT
ABSTRACT:
Twenty samples of mushroom and toadstools (Hymenomycetes) were collected from Multan district during July-October 2003. Twelve species belonging to 8 genera of class Basidiomycetes were recorded for the 1st time from Multan: Albatrellus caeruleoporus (Peck.) Pauzar, Agaricus arvensis Sch., Agaricus semotus Fr., Agaricus silvaticus Schaef., Coprinus comatus (Muell. ex. Fr.), S.F. Gray, Hypholoma marginatum (Pers.) Schroet., Hypholoma radicosum Lange., Marasmiellus omphaloides (Berk.) Singer, Panaeolus fimicola (Pers. ex. Fr.) Quel., Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire, Psathyrella artemisiae (Pass.) K. M. and Podaxis pistilaris (L. ex. Pers.) Fr. Seven of these species are edible or of medicinal value.

651-657 Download
37
A NEW REPORT OF SEPTORIA HELIANTHI LEAF SPOT OF SUNFLOWER FROM SINDH
MARIA HAMID AND M. JALALUDDIN*

A NEW REPORT OF SEPTORIA HELIANTHI LEAF SPOT OF SUNFLOWER FROM SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Of the non-traditional sources of edible oil, sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) is grown on a large scale for increasing its yield due to higher economic return. During a survey work, sunflower plants var. Hysun 33 growing at the campus of Karachi University and in the suburb of Karachi (Malir) during Rabi season (Nov. 2006 – March 2007) showed small irregular spots on lower leaves which gradually spread to upper leaves. On an average 5-8% plants showed leaf spot symptoms. Initially leaf spots were of pinhead size but gradually increased to 10-15 mm in diam., scattered all over but mostly at margins on the upper part of leaf blade. The well developed spots were delimited by leaf veins giving angular to an irregularly polygonal shape to the spots. The spots mostly starting from the margins of leaves coalesced resulting in the development of yellow to dark brown irregular blotches (Fig. 1). Later many pycnidia became visible giving a black appearance to the necrotic spots. The pycnidia were found to be dark with hyaline areas at the margin (Fig. 2). Pycnidia brown to dark-brown, spherical to sub-globose measuring 100-150 µ in diam. with protruding beak and ostiole 30-30 µ (Fig. 3). Conidiphore hyaline clavate originating from the inner-basal lining of the pycnidium. Conidia were seen coming out from the ostiole of pycnidia (Fig. 4). Conidia filiform, hyaline with 3-5 septa, straight to slightly curved, tapering towards the apex, truncated at the base measuring 50 to 70 µ (Fig. 5). The aforesaid characteristic features of the disease caused by the pathogen as seen with the naked eye and observed under microscope supported by photographic plates was in conformity with the descriptions given by Fraudsen (1948), Saharan & Singh (1976), Kubenkova (1980), Middleton (1971), Hoes (1962) and Beach (1919) and was therefore identified as Septoria helianthi Ellis & Kellerman. The septoria leaf spot on sunflower was first observed by Henry & Gilbert (1924) and subsequently reported from many countries of the world including India and from Islamabad, Pakistan, situated 1300 Km away from Karachi with a different climatic zone by Siddique & Yasmeen (1982). Septoria helianthi Ell. & Kell., leaf spot of sunflower is a new report from Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

659-660 Download
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