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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 3
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIII. VERBENACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIII. VERBENACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 13 species representing 9 genera of the family Verbenaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate or tricolpate, mostly prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate rarely oblate-spheroidal, sexine is much thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum type varies from subpsilate to reticulate, rugulate-reticulate often spinulose-reticulate. On the basis of apertures and exine ornamentation eight distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Caryopteris grata-type, Caryopteris odrata-type, Chascanum marrubifolium-type, Clerodendrum phlomoides - type, Lantana indica–type, Phyla nodiflora–type and Verbena officinalis–type.

663-669 Download
2
MICROMORPHOLOGY OF CYPSELA IN THE TRIBE PLUCHEEAE FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

MICROMORPHOLOGY OF CYPSELA IN THE TRIBE PLUCHEEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Micromorphological characters of 4 genera (Doellia Sch.-Bip., Laggera Sch.-Bip. ex C. Koch, Pluchea Cass. and Pseudoconyza Cuatrec.) and 7 specific and infra specific taxa in the tribe Plucheeae were examined from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscopes. Cypsela characters support the taxonomic decisions, as all the taxa are clearly segregated on the basis of their distinguishable characters except that of the two subspecies of Pluchea arguta.

671-677 Download
3
INDIGENOUS VEGETATION OF SOONE VALLEY: AT THE RISK OF EXTINCTION
KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, MUHAMMAD LUQMAN3, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF4 AND ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1

INDIGENOUS VEGETATION OF SOONE VALLEY: AT THE RISK OF EXTINCTION
ABSTRACT:
This paper reports the results of the survey conducted to investigate the eco-geographic factors for in-situ conservation and description of location of various taxonomic and genetic diversity for the provision of critical assistance in the formulation of effective conservation campaign for target plant species near the point of extinction. A survey of the specific valley in mountaineous, region of Pakistan was performed on ten stuffy sites in the valley, selected on the basis of variation in their ecological parameters. Data were assembled on the leguminous plants, but some non-leguminous species were also included to work out frequency, density and coverage / dominance in particular area and status as well as diversity of leguminous plants was determined based on this information. The results obtained on the eco-geographical attributes were discussed in this study in terms of frequency, density, species dominance/percentage as well as relative frequency, relative density and relative coverage/dominance of the given area. A further correlation study with the various attributes regarding different study sites and distribution of species was also counted in this survey. For the effective planning for conservation of precious plant species, it is very essential to get the set of full information about eco-geographical attributes and threatening factors. Therefore the current research survey was conducted to acquire the informations regarding various parameters and threats and adaptations of present species to their environments. Results showed that most observed plant species in this specific valley may be due to some morphological and anatomical as well as physiological adaptations to this environment which is mainly responsible for their survival and perpetuation in this harsh habitat.

679-690 Download
4
PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF GORAKH HILL (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN

PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF GORAKH HILL (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted for the plant biodiversity and phytosociological attributes of the Gorakh hill. Gorakh hill is located in Dadu district and is about 5,688 ft high above the sea level. The primary goal of this study is to provide comprehensive inventory of the area. The study area was thoroughly surveyed throughout the year from time-to-time in order to study the plant biodiversity. Gorakh hill has never been explored for its plant biodiversity. Plants were collected from the study area, in different parts of the year particularly in winter, summer, and monsoon. Phenological status of each species i.e. flowering and fruiting condition was also observed. Quantitative analyses on species diversity in addition to phytosociological attributes analysis were conducted. Some ecological parameters such as, life forms, species density, species cover, species relative density and frequency were calculated. Within the study area 74 plant species representing 62 genera and 34 families were found.

691-698 Download
5
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON USEFUL TREES AND SHRUBS OF HARAMOSH AND BUGROTE VALLEYS, IN GILGIT NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SHER WALI KHAN AND SURAYYA KHATOON

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON USEFUL TREES AND SHRUBS OF HARAMOSH AND BUGROTE VALLEYS, IN GILGIT NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This paper deals with the ethnobotany of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys in Gilgit of the Northern Areas of Pakistan where 48 species of trees and shrubs are used in every day life such as for medicine, shelter, agricultural tools and fuel. These species dealt with in the paper have seventy such uses. The population of the region primarily depends upon plant resources for their domestic needs. However, some plants are cultivated for these purposes.

699-710 Download
6
THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF ENDEMIC CROCUS LEICHTLINII (D. DEWAR) BOWLES (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
HASAN AKAN1*, İSMAİL EKER2 AND FATİH SATIL3

THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF ENDEMIC CROCUS LEICHTLINII (D. DEWAR) BOWLES (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this investigation, some morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus leichtlinii (D.Dewar) Bowles, an endemic species which has flowering time in early spring, were observed. The specimen was collected from Şanlıurfa, South East Anatolia, within C7 of the grid system; its habitat and population status was also determined. Morphological features of species such as leaf, bracteol, flower, and fruit have been described in detail. The determination of the anatomical characteristics present the first data available in the literature. In anatomical studies, transverse sections of leaf and root have been examined and supported by illustration. Anatomical characters of species were observed to have been similar to usual features of Iridaceae anatomy.

711-718 Download
7
EVALUATION OF MICRO MINERALS COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT GRASSES IN RELATION TO LIVESTOCK REQUIREMENTS
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF**, KAFEEL AHMAD*, IRFAN MUSTAFA* AND MUHAMMAD DANISH***

EVALUATION OF MICRO MINERALS COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT GRASSES IN RELATION TO LIVESTOCK REQUIREMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Four types of forages Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Star grass (Hypoxis hirsute), and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) were collected from the Livestock Experimental Station Rakh Khaire Wala, located in the semi-arid region of central Punjab, Pakistan during two different seasons of 2003. Samples were collected and analyzed for iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc Zn), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se) at eight sample dates after every two weeks during two consecutive seasons. No difference was found between winter and summer for forage Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se. Forage Cu concentrations increased in summer for Bahia grass from 20.3 to 23.1 µg/g. This species had the highest zinc concentrations 90.8 µg/g in winter and had the highest forage Fe and Cu concentrations 130.0 and 23.1 µg/g, respectively in summer. Star grass had the highest Mn concentrations 250.8 µg/g in winter and its Se concentrations increased in summer from 0.033 to 0.042 µg/g. Forage Se had the greatest increase in Guinea grass from 0.028 to 0.049 µg/g in summer. The summer season did not show difference for concentrations of the five micro-nutrients. It is concluded that there is not a significant variation in micro-nutrient status of the forage due to seasonal changes. Only the forage Se concentrations increased in summer. However, the Se level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants; while other four micro-nutrients in these forages were sufficient to meet the requirements.

719-728 Download
8
ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BY PHOSPHORUS APPLIED THROUGH ROOTING MEDIUM: GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS
G. NAHEED1, *M. SHAHBAZ1,C, A. LATIF2 AND E.S. RHA3

ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BY PHOSPHORUS APPLIED THROUGH ROOTING MEDIUM: GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of phosphorus on growth and gas exchange of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under salt stress. Three levels of phosphorus (control, 30 and 60 mg kg-1 of phosphorus) and four treatments of salinity (0

729-737 Download
9
PERFORMANCE OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS
MUHAMMAD TAHIR, ASGHAR ALI, MUHAMMAD ATHER NADEEM, ASIF TANVEER AND Q.M. SABIR

PERFORMANCE OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was carried out to examine the effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of canola in 2005-06. The experiment comprised nine irrigation treatments viz., one irrigation at early vegetative stage (21DAS); one irrigation at flower initiation (56 DAS); one irrigation at seed formation (93 DAS); two irrigations, one at early vegetative and second at mid vegetative stage (21 & 35 DAS); two irrigations, one at early vegetative and second at flower initiation (21 & 56 DAS); two irrigations, one at flower initiation and second at seed formation (56 & 93 DAS); three irrigations, one at early vegetation, second at mid vegetation and third at seed formation (21, 35 & 93 DAS); three irrigations, one at early vegetation, second at flowering and third at seed formation (21, 56 & 93 DAS); three irrigations, one at mid vegetation, second at flowering and third at seed formation (35, 56 & 93 DAS). The results showed that maximum crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, number of seeds per siliqua

739-746 Download
10
ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF TRACE METALS IN COMMONLY EDIBLE VEGETABLES LOCALLY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKETS OF KARACHI CITY
DURDANA RAIS HASHMI, SHAHNAZ ISMAIL* AND G.H. SHAIKH

ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF TRACE METALS IN COMMONLY EDIBLE VEGETABLES LOCALLY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKETS OF KARACHI CITY
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to determine the concentrations of trace metals in common vegetables, which are locally available in the markets of Karachi for consumers. Samples of 18 varieties of vegetables, belonging to malvaceae, solanaceae, cucurbitaceae, crucifeareae, liliaceae, labiate, chenopodeaceae and zingaberaceae families were procured from local markets of different areas of Karachi and analyzed for Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cr by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The data is reputed at 99% (± 2S) confidence level after triplicate measure. Maximum concentration of Fe was found to be 32.3 µg/g in spinach, Zn 8.6 µg/g in ladyfinger, Mn 5.6 µg/g in mint, Cu 3.3 µg/g in mustard and chromium 1.2 µg/g in coriander. The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within the limit laid down for safe human consumption.

747-751 Download
11
SALINITY EFFECT ON PLANT GROWTH, PSII PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L.) AND CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA CAPITATA L.)
MUHAMMAD JAMIL1*, SHAFIQ REHMAN2, and E.S. RHA1,*

SALINITY EFFECT ON PLANT GROWTH, PSII PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L.) AND CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA CAPITATA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Seedlings of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata L.) were grown in sand culture at salinities of 0 (control), 50

753-760 Download
12
EFFECTIVENESS OF IAA, GA3 AND KINETIN BLENDED WITH RECYCLED ORGANIC WASTE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ZAHIR A. ZAHIR*, M. IQBAL, M. ARSHAD, M. NAVEED AND M. KHALID

EFFECTIVENESS OF IAA, GA3 AND KINETIN BLENDED WITH RECYCLED ORGANIC WASTE FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Plant hormones play a vital role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant life. They regulate the amount, type and direction of plant growth. Organic waste recycling in the form of compost is an effective way of organic waste management, turning it into a high quality and inexpensive soil amendment. In this study, plant growth regulators like IAA, GA3 and kinetin were blended with composted organic wastes and their bioavailability to affect the growth and yield of wheat was evaluated in a field trial. The compost was prepared from fruit and vegetable waste material and enriched with 25% of full dose of N fertilizer (100 g kg-1 compost). Each of indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin were added @ 1.0 mg kg-1 compost. Effectiveness of IAA/GA3 or kinetin-blended N-enriched compost was compared in the presence of 50% of full dose of N fertilizer for improving growth and yield of wheat. Compost was applied @ 300 kg ha-1 and full P and K fertilizers (@100-60 kg ha-1) were applied as basal dose to all plots. Full dose of N fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) was used for comparison. Results indicated that IAA-blended N-compost with half dose of N fertilizer was comparable with full dose of N fertilizer for improving growth and yield of wheat, saving 25% N fertilizer. However, application of kinetin blended N-enriched compost increased the grain yield (9.1%) and uptake of nutrients i.e. NPK uptake (5.6, 8.6 and 7%, respectively) over full dose of N fertilizer. The findings also proved that exogenously supplied PGRs may undergo several metabolic processes in the soil resulting in loss of their activity and reduced availability to plants. In this study, such type of behavior was only seen with IAA & GA3 but not in case of kinetin as its bioavailability to wheat was not affected when blended with compost resulting in improved growth and yield. This study also demonstrated that huge amount of organic waste could be converted into a value-added product for improving growth, yield and nutrient uptake of wheat.

761-768 Download
13
IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (KOH) UNDER SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD SAEED AKRAM*1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (KOH) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess whether KOH applied as a foliar spray could mitigate the adverse effects of salt stress on plant growth and yield of sunflower plants. For this purpose, KOH @ 0, 0.5

769-776 Download
14
RELATIONSHIP OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AND PROLINE ACCUMULATION WITH THE GROWTH OF DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF TWO POTENTIAL GRASSES (CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L.) TO DROUGHT STRESS
NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

RELATIONSHIP OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AND PROLINE ACCUMULATION WITH THE GROWTH OF DIFFERENTLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF TWO POTENTIAL GRASSES (CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L.) TO DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Response of two populations of each of two grass species viz., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. to drought stress was assessed in a pot experiment. One population of each grass species was collected from the Salt Range which is known for high salt and drought stress. The other population was collected from a frequently irrigated soil in Faisalabad. Eighty eight days old plants of each population were subjected for 30 d to different water stress levels [control (maintained at field capacity), 75 % or 50 % of field capacity). Although growth of both grass species from two different habitats decreased with increase in water deficit conditions, the Salt Range populations of both grass species produced significantly higher shoot biomass than Faisalabad populations. A significant detrimental effect of water deficit conditions was observed on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b ratio, proline contents, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration and also on Ci/Ca ratio, but not on water use efficiency. Although populations of both species from the Salt Range were more drought tolerant as compared to those from Faisalabad, it was not possible to discriminate among the populations on the basis of biochemical and physiological parameters examined in this study.

777-786 Download
15
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES ON KEY GROWTH PARAMETERS AND SOME ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN SALINITY STRESSED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) PLANTS
A. LEVENT TUNA1, CENGIZ KAYA2*, MURAT DIKILITAS3, İBRAHIM YOKAS4, BETÜL BURUN1 AND HAKAN ALTUNLU4

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SALICYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES ON KEY GROWTH PARAMETERS AND SOME ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN SALINITY STRESSED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Salicylic acid, 5-Sulfo Salicylic acid and Acetylsalicylic acid are Salicylic acid derivatives. They differ in their substitution on the benzene ring and may have different effects on plant membranes. The effects of the derivatives of various Salicylic Acid [Salicylic acid (SA), 5-Sulfo Salicylic Acid (SSA) and Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA)] on antioxidant enzyme activities, mineral element uptake, growth and some stress related parameters of maize (Zea mays L. cv. DK 684) plant grown in containers under salinity stress were investigated. Salicylic acid were applied by foliar treatments at five days interval. Treatments were: 1-) control

787-798 Download
16
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND AMINO ACIDS ON ARTEMISININ PRODUCTION IN THE CALLUS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM
MUHAMMAD ZIA, ABDUL-MANNAN AND M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY*

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND AMINO ACIDS ON ARTEMISININ PRODUCTION IN THE CALLUS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted on the effect of amino acids and growth regulators on the production of artemisinin, an antimalarial compound, in the callus of Artemisia absinthium. Callus was initiated on solid MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA from leaf explant. For the production of artemisinin, the callus was proliferated on sterile filter paper bridge in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators and amino acids. Estimation of artemisinin contents showed that leaves contained 223 μg/g artemisinin while no artemisinin was observed in the stem extract. Callus culture initiated from leaf explant on MS medium without any growth regulator, failed to show the presence of artemisinin. The amount of artemisinin in the callus culture was influenced with the addition of different growth regulators and amino acids to the medium; 3.1 μg/g artemisinin was present in the callus cultured on MS medium to which valine (12.5 mg/l) was added. Addition of cystine (12.5 mg/l) to the medium resulted in 2.8 μg/g artemisinin production. The amount of artemisinin in the callus cultures was 3.05μg/g and 1.95 μg/g when BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (2 mg/l), respectively were present in the medium. Addition of other growth regulators and amino acids resulted in nominal or no artemisinin production. Present study suggest that artimisinin production can be enhanced with the manipulation of medium by different hormones and amino acids in the callus cultured on sterile filter paper bridge.

799-805 Download
17
DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON FORAGE QUALITY, YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN OF RANGELANDS
TAHİR POLAT1, BEKİR BÜKÜN2* AND MUSTAFA OKANT1

DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON FORAGE QUALITY, YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN OF RANGELANDS
ABSTRACT:
A two-year experiment was conducted in Karacadağ rangeland, Şanlıurfa, Turkey to evaluate Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) fertilization on forage quality and plant species composition and to determine their economic impact on animal production. Treatments were 0, 50

807-816 Download
18
THE POTENTIAL OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS EFFLUENT AS A LIQUID FERTILIZER
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN AND M. ALTAF KHAN

THE POTENTIAL OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS EFFLUENT AS A LIQUID FERTILIZER
ABSTRACT:
This research investigation was aimed at demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) under the climatic conditions of a subtropical region. A pilot plant was designed and constructed at the Karachi University Campus (KUC) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. An intensive analytical programme was followed for 24 months to evaluate the performance of ponding system. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system performed satisfactorily and achieved total BOD5 removal upto 80 - 82%, COD 69-74%, NH3-N 9-52%, Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) 38-47% and PO4-P ranging between 34 to 38 % in the secondary pond (P-4) at very high organic loadings of 500 and 1168 kg/ha.d. The maximum efficiency for the removal of coliforms was 99%. The study demonstrated that high BOD5 loadings at 500 and 1168 kg/ha.d were possible without deteriorating the performance of WSP. The research investigation practically demonstrated that WSP treatment technology is economically viable, as the effluent has been shown to be useful as a liquid fertilizer being rich in plant nutrients (N, K, P). An economic analysis of the treatment of 1000,000 gallons of wastewater indicated a net profit of Rs 7673 in addition to social and environmental benefits. At the same time this approach could conserve equivalent quantity of potable water, which is always, in short supply in mega cities like Karachi.

817-829 Download
19
A HIGH THROUGHPUT, NON-ORGANIC METHOD FOR PLANT GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION
ATA-UR-REHMAN*, BEN STODART AND HARSH RAMAN

A HIGH THROUGHPUT, NON-ORGANIC METHOD FOR PLANT GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION
ABSTRACT:
A simple and reliable method for extracting genomic DNA from leaf and seed of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and ascomycete fungal mycelium is described. The method requires only 50mg of sample and yields approximately 10µg of high quality DNA. It involves inexpensive, non-organic constituents and can reliably be used for the parallel isolation of 384 DNA samples suitable for PCR based marker analysis. The yield and high quality of extracted DNA from different species, combined with the use of inexpensive, non-hazardous reagents, provides a cost-effective method compatible with a 96 well format. The resultant DNA is suitable for PCR and subsequent fragment analysis using capillary electrophoresis.

831-840 Download
20
PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–I: GRAIN MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND ITS DISTRIBUTION
SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI*, TOSHIHIRO KUMAMARU AND HIKARU SATOH

PAKISTAN RICE GENETIC RESOURCES–I: GRAIN MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND ITS DISTRIBUTION
ABSTRACT:
In order to ascertain the diversity for its possible utilization in rice grain quality improvement in Pakistan, local rice genetic resources (475 accessions) collected from 3-rice cultivation zones and other parts of the country were investigated for the seed characters. The distribution patterns of some interesting observations were also carried out. A wide variation was found in grain size and shape. Pakistan rice cultivars were dominated by long grain type while the short grains were absent, according to the measured length. However, based on grain length/width ratio

841-848 Download
21
INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC SEEDS IN DAUCUS CAROTA
ZAKIA LATIF1, IDREES, A. NASIR2 AND S. RIAZUDDIN3

INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC SEEDS IN DAUCUS CAROTA
ABSTRACT:
Embryogenic callus culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was induced from the hypocotyl explants in MS medium supplemented with Casein hydrolysate

849-855 Download
22
EFFECT OF VARIETY AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS PROLIFERATION AND REGENERATION RESPONSE OF THREE TOMATO CULTIVARS (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY, AMBER AFROZ AND HAMID RASHID*

EFFECT OF VARIETY AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS PROLIFERATION AND REGENERATION RESPONSE OF THREE TOMATO CULTIVARS (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to optimize a reproducible protocol for callus induction and regeneration of three tomato cultivars and also to select the cultivar which better perform under In vitro conditions for further experimentation. For callus induction hypocotyls and leaf discs were used as explant source. Explants of the tomato seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different plant growth regulators (PGRS) for callus proliferation. Callus induction values were significantly influenced by the variety and explant source. In all three tested cultivars maximum callus induction frequency was observed on CIM6 (MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA+2mg/l 2ip). There was also a positive correlation between the treatment and explant source. Here at T6 (2ip 2mg/l, IAA0.5 mg/l) hypocotyls gave its maximum value of (81.8%), followed by theT4 (IAA 1mg/l+kinetin 0.5 mg/l) for hypocotyls (79.48%). To observe the regeneration capacity of three tomato cultivars

857-869 Download
23
SCOPE OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE AGAINST TROGODERMA GRANARIUM EVERTS LARVAE
MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AHMEDANI1 ABDUL KHALIQ1 AND M.I. HAQUE*2

SCOPE OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE AGAINST TROGODERMA GRANARIUM EVERTS LARVAE
ABSTRACT:
Phasing out of ozone depleting pesticides like Methyl bromide has opened a new window for searching alternative pesticides to control insect and other pests of agriculture storage sector. Besides, concern has also been expressed by small farmers of the developing world that conventional chemical insecticides may occasionally result in poisoning of humans and livestock. Fortunately, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has expressed very low mammalian toxicity and is considered as a valuable safe insecticide option for farmers. Different strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to produce a number of insect toxins, which have shown effectiveness against different insect species belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera. Due to the high activity, specificity to target pest species, and non-toxicity to human, strains of Bt form the basis for a number of commercial products to be used as pest control agents. The present investigations focus on use of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis as an alternative to methyl bromide for combating T. granarium infestation in stored wheat. The results have revealed that liquid formulations yielded better results as compared to the dry formulations. Maximum mortality of the larvae was observed in Ecotech Pro treated grains followed by Dipel ES, whereas, Bactospeine had not provided promising results. Inferences were therefore drawn that insect mortality depended upon ingestion of the Bt spores and toxins. It was also concluded that liquid formulations not only enhanced the moisture contents but also made the grain more palatable for T. granarium larvae resulting in more mortality as compared to the dry formulations.

871-880 Download
24
MYCOFLORA OF SENESCING LEAVES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. I. NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON SOME MONOCOTS FOR PAKISTAN
ERUM MUKTAR LODHI, A.N.KHALID AND A.R.NIAZI

MYCOFLORA OF SENESCING LEAVES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. I. NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON SOME MONOCOTS FOR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Senescing leaves of some ornamental monocots belonging to Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae were found infected with Aristatoma oeconomicum, Cephalosporium coremioides, Gloeosporium nervisequum, Hyalodendron pirinum, Kutilakesopsis macalpineae. These fungal taxa are an addition to the fungal flora of Pakistan.

881-885 Download
25
DETECTION OF YEAST MYCOFLORA FROM BUTTER
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, FAIZA-IFTIKHAR* AND SHARFUN-NAHAR**

DETECTION OF YEAST MYCOFLORA FROM BUTTER
ABSTRACT:
Thirteen genera and 28 yeast species belonging to teleomorphic and anamorphic, ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts were isolated from samples of butter, and identified on the basis of morphological and physiological/biochemical characteristics. All yeast species appear to be newly reported from butter in Pakistan. The predominant yeast species in the samples of butter were Debaryomyces vanrijii, Pichia lynferdii and P. anomala.

887-896 Download
26
GENETIC VARIATION AMONG PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS (TOMATO BLIGHT) ISOLATES FROM WESTERN TURKEY REVEALED BY INTER SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
NECIP TOSUN1 ARZU YILDIRIM2, HUSEYIN TURKUSAY1 AND BAHATTIN TANYOLAC2

GENETIC VARIATION AMONG PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS (TOMATO BLIGHT) ISOLATES FROM WESTERN TURKEY REVEALED BY INTER SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Severe late blight disease epidemics in western Turkey during the 1997 tomato growing season prompted an investigation into the genotypes and mating types of Phytophthora infestans populations. A western Turkey-wide survey was conducted from 1999 to 2000 in which isolates were collected from 25 different fields. Twenty-five isolates were amplified with 21 RAPD and 18 ISSR primers. The isolates were analyzed for mating type. Genetic variation ranged between 0.002 (M. Kemalpasa

897-902 Download
27
MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH LENTIL (LENS ESCULENTA MOENCH) SEEDS FROM FIVE LOCALITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD HUSSAIN1, TARIQ MUKHTAR2*, M. IRFAN UL-HAQUE2 AND MUHAMMAD ZAMEER KAYANI3

MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH LENTIL (LENS ESCULENTA MOENCH) SEEDS FROM FIVE LOCALITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Twenty five samples of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench) seed collected from the markets of Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur, Jampur and Rojhan were analyzed for externally and internally seed-borne fungi. The infestation of untreated seed samples varied from 43.3 to 51.4% with an average of 46.96%, while the seeds treated with 2% Mercuric chloride solution showed the infestation from 18.0 to 22.4% with an average of 20.4% on blotter paper. On PDA the infestation of untreated seed samples were from 48.2 to 58.8% with an average of 52.52%, while the seeds treated with 2% Mercuric chloride solution, showed an infestation of 18.8 to 23.6% with an average of 20.87%.The fungi isolated from treated seeds were Fusarium moniliforme, Alternaria alternata, Mucor hiemalis, Chaetomium spp., Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A .terreus and Nigrospora spp., F. moniliforme, A. alternata, M. hiemalis, Chaetomium spp., and A. niger were common in all samples while P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. terreus and Nigrospora spp., were only isolated from untreated seed.

903-906 Download
28
KINETICS OF INVERTASE PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN BATCH CULTURE
IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND SIKANDER ALI

KINETICS OF INVERTASE PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN BATCH CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the improved invertase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on kinetic basis. The wild-culture (IIB-1) and putative mutant (NA6) of S. cerevisiae were compared on time course basis when grown in batch culture. The values for Yx/s, Yp/s and Yp/x with urea were significantly improved (p≤0.05) over the control (peptone+yeast extract) as well as peptone supplementation. The maximum growth in terms of volumetric rate for cell mass formation (Qx), 48 h after the incubation was only marginally different from control. The values of both Km and Vmax of the invertase from mutant culture were significantly improved, as were the specificity constant and kcat for the enzyme. The activation energy and substrate binding for sucrose fermenting were found to be highly significant for yeast culturing.

907-912 Download
29
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND CORIANDRUM SATIVUM AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS
SABAHAT SAEED* AND PERWEEN TARIQ

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND CORIANDRUM SATIVUM AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA AND CANDIDA ALBICANS
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation focused on antimicrobial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 186 bacterial isolates belonging to 10 different genera of G +ve bacterial population and 2 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from urine specimens. The well diffusion technique was employed. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (80), S. haemolyticus

913-917 Download
30
NODULATION OF SESBANIA SPP., BY INTRODUCED RHIZOBIA IN COMPETITION WITH NATURALIZED STRAINS IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES
FAUZIA Y. HAFEEZ*, **FARRUKH NAEEM**, NAZIA SHAHEEN AND KAUSAR A. MALIK

NODULATION OF SESBANIA SPP., BY INTRODUCED RHIZOBIA IN COMPETITION WITH NATURALIZED STRAINS IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES
ABSTRACT:
Seven rhizobial strains were isolated from Sesbania aculeata and three from Sesbania grandifolia from three different soil types. These strains were characterized for their morphology and carbon source utilization. The affectivity of these strains was confirmed by re inoculating the host and were effective on both Sesbania spp. The strains Sa1 and Sa2, however found to be more effective having nitrogenase activity ranging from 3.7-85.2 and from 4.8-77.7 m moles of C2H4 produced h-1 g-1 nodule dry weight respectively. The consortium of Sa1, Sa2, Sg1 and Sg2 was also found to be highly effective in both Sesbania spp. In competition with the indigenous population, the strains Sa1 and Sa2 were found to be most competitive among the others. Fluorescent antibody studies showed the nodule occupancy ranged from 30-100% by Sa1 and Sa2 in both species. Response of inoculum was better in soils 1 & 2 which were low in nutrient level than in soil 3.

919-929 Download
31
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PROTEIN OF SEAWEED, SOLIERIA ROBUSTA (GREVILLE) KYLIN FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
AMINA KABIR KHANZADA, WAZIR SHAIKH, T.G. KAZI*, SAMINA KABIR AND SHAHZADI SOOFIA

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PROTEIN OF SEAWEED, SOLIERIA ROBUSTA (GREVILLE) KYLIN FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Various fractions of ethanolic extract of Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin (Rhodophyta) were screened for antifungal activity against 5 fruit spoiling fungi isolated from fruits. All fractions were able to inhibit fungal growth. Aqueous fraction showed maximum inhibition ratios followed by methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol. Elemental analysis was carried out for 11 elements viz., Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Accumulation of Cd was the lowest in S. robusta, while Mg was present with highest accumulation. Total protein of S. robusta was 25 to 32%.

931-937 Download
32
PATHOGENIC VARIATION IN PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ASSOCIATED WITH BLIGHT OF SESAME
SAMINA BASHIR, M. IRFAN UL-HAQUE, TARIQ MUKHTAR*, GULSHAN IRSHAD AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD HUSSAIN1

PATHOGENIC VARIATION IN PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ASSOCIATED WITH BLIGHT OF SESAME
ABSTRACT:
The role of Pseudomonas syringae pv. sesami and Xanthomonas campestris pv. sesami, alone and combination, was studied in symptoms development of bacterial blight in sesame. Highest leaf infection of 80.6 % occurred in plants inoculated with both the pathogens together as compared to individual inoculations (P. syringae sesami 75.6%) and (X. campestris pv sesami 50%). The control plants remained asymptomatic and continued to grow healthier. Significant variability among the two pathogens was noted on defoliation (5%) and stem infection (47.16%) respectively, in case of combined inoculation as against 38 % and 36.66 % in individual inoculations. Responses in stem infection were similar, although in some cases stem tended to be more susceptible. Highest stem infection (47.16%) was observed for P+X, followed by X. campestris and P. syringae inoculations showing 43.16 and 26.66% infections respectively. Disease progress was initially slow and the plants treated with P. syringae and X. campestris developed small chlorotic and necrotic areas, but it was severe after two weeks when mixture of P+X was used as inoculum. Initially necrotic spots produced by P. syringae were small in size (1-3 mm in length) as compared to by X. campestris (2-4mm in length) but after 4 weeks of inoculation, the necrotic spots coalesced and caused defoliation in both cases.

939-943 Download
33
SCREENING OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES FOR TOLERANCE TO FUNGICIDES
MUHAMMAD OMER KHAN AND SALEEM SHAHZAD*

SCREENING OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES FOR TOLERANCE TO FUNGICIDES
ABSTRACT:
Fungicides viz., Benomyl, Topsin- M, Carbendazim and Cuprocaffro were used at different concentrations i.e., 0

945-951 Download
34
EVIDENCE OF ISOLATE-SPECIFICITY IN NON-HYPERSENSITIVE RESISTANCE IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) TO WHEAT LEAF RUST
MAQSOOD QAMAR* AND R.E. NIKS**

EVIDENCE OF ISOLATE-SPECIFICITY IN NON-HYPERSENSITIVE RESISTANCE IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) TO WHEAT LEAF RUST
ABSTRACT:
Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of Puccinia triticina in 26 spring wheat cultivars/lines. Small but significant cultivar x isolate interactions were observed for LP and IF in seedlings of host genotypes. Isolate specific effect for LP at seedling stage was consistent and reproduced in a repeated experiment; however, the interaction for IF was inconsistent and was not reproducible. The inconsistency in cultivar x isolate interaction may be due to some non-genetic origin. The result suggested that a gene-for-gene relationship could exist between non-hypersensitive resistance genes in the host and genes in pathogen.

953-959 Download
35
CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST DECAY OF KINNOW MANDARIN AND LEMON CAUSED BY PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM SACC.
M.B. ILYAS, T. NAVEED, *M. INAM-UL-HAQ, N. JAVED AND S.M. MUGHAL

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST DECAY OF KINNOW MANDARIN AND LEMON CAUSED BY PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM SACC.
ABSTRACT:
In an In vitro evaluation Daconil was found to be the most effective fungicide in inhibiting mycelial growth of Penicillium digitatum followed by Antracol, Rubigon, Calixin, Thiahendazole, Calixin M., Tilt and Nimrod. Though Tilt as dip treatment was the most effective in controlling post harvest decay of lemon fruit but it was comparatively less so in controlling decay of Kinnow fruit. Tilt, Thiabendazole and Daconil + Rubigon (1:1) were statistically equally effective in controlling decay of Kinnow fruits. There was an increased reduction in percent fruit decay with an increase in Tilt concentration. Tilt also caused reduction in lesion size of the decaying fruits. Lower concentration of Tilt which were ineffective for Kinnow fruit, were quite effective for controlling decay of lemon fruits.

961-965 Download
36
PATHOGENICITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE VAR. ACRIDUM STRAINS ON PINK HIBISCUS MEALY BUG (MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS) AFFECTING COTTON CROP
AZIZ AHMED UJJAN AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

PATHOGENICITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE VAR. ACRIDUM STRAINS ON PINK HIBISCUS MEALY BUG (MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS) AFFECTING COTTON CROP
ABSTRACT:
Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strains Ma1912, Ma1729 and Ma3605 were found to be pathogenic to the pink hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) affecting cotton crop. Effects of these strains on survival of adults, instars and egg hatching were assessed. The strains were able to infect adults within 2 days after inoculation and showed 90% mortality by 8th day, whereas

967-973 Download
37
USE OF EUCALYPTUS SP., IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN AND CHICK-PEA
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SUMAIRA M. YOUNUS, MARIUM TARIQ AND M. JAVED ZAKI

USE OF EUCALYPTUS SP., IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN AND CHICK-PEA
ABSTRACT:
Use of aqueous extract of leaves, stem, bark and fruit Eucalyptus sp., in the control of root rot fungi viz., Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina by paper disc and well methods were examined. R. solani was less susceptible than Fusarium sp., and M. phaseolina. Aqueous extract of leaves, stem, bark and fruit of Eucalyptus sp., was more effective @ 5% w/v against M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium sp. Soil amendment with leaves, stem, bark and fruit of Eucalyptus sp., @ 5% w/w showed significant increase in germination, shoot length, shoot weight, root length and root weight of chick-pea and mung bean plants. Besides this, the infection by Fusarium sp., M. phaseolina, R. solani was also reduced. All parts of Eucalyptus sp., were equally effective in the control of root infecting fungi.

975-979 Download
38
ASPERGILLUS MYCOFLORA ISOLATED FROM SOIL OF KOTRI BARRAGE SINDH, PAKISTAN
M. SUHAIL, FOZIA IRUM, T. JATT, FARZANA KOREJO AND H. ABRO

ASPERGILLUS MYCOFLORA ISOLATED FROM SOIL OF KOTRI BARRAGE SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Mycoflora from the soil of Kotri barrage at down stream was investigated at three locations viz., Right Bank, Centre and Left Bank from July 2005 to May 2006. Thirty samples were collected from surface

981-984 Download
39
THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA: A POTENTIAL THREAT TO AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS*, MUBASHIR NIAZ* AND ABDUL GHAFFAR**

THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA: A POTENTIAL THREAT TO AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thielaviopsis basicola, the cause of black root rot disease in various plants of economic importance is for the first time reported from the roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.), from Karachi, Pakistan.

985-990 Download
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