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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 4
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1
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS PULICARIA GAERTN., (INULEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS PULICARIA GAERTN., (INULEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypsela morphology of 11 species of the genus Pulicaria Gaertn., belonging to the tribe Inuleae of the family Asteraceae was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Cypsela micromorphological characters are found useful to strengthen the specific delimitation of the genus Pulicaria from Pakistan.

991-997 Download
2
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIV. RUBIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIV. RUBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 20 genera of the family Rubiaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate, often oblate-spheroidal -sub-oblate rarely prolate. Aperture colpate to pantocolpate, or 3-10-colporate, sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly spinulose or scabrate–punctate, reticulate or rugulate -reticulate often psilate. On the basis of apertural types and exine ornamentation, 9 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Argostemma sarmentosum-type, Aitchisonia rosea–type Galium elegans -type, Galium tenuissimum-type, Gaillonia macrantha-type, Jaubertia aucheri-type, Oldenlandia nudicaulis–type, Oldenlandia umbellata–type and Pseudogaillonia hymenostenphana-type

999-1015 Download
3
STOMATAL TYPES OF SOME DICOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ANJUM PERVEEN, RUBINA ABID AND RABAB FATIMA

STOMATAL TYPES OF SOME DICOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Stomatal morphology of 69 dicot species distributed in 64 genera and 28 families was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. In all 6 types of stomata i.e., anomocytic, paracytic, diacytic, parallelocytic, cyclocytic and anisocytic were recognized. Within the dicot flora, anomocytic type is most dominant found in 54 taxa, followed by paracytic and diacytic type, represented by 9 and 3 taxa respectively. Whereas, parallelocytic, cyclocytic and anisocytic types are found only in one species each.

1017-1023 Download
4
SEED COAT MACROSCULPTURING IN SOME TURKISH AETHIONEMA R. BR. (BRASSICACEAE)
NUR MÜNEVVER PINAR1, NEZAKET ADIGÜZEL2, FATMAGÜL GEVEN1

SEED COAT MACROSCULPTURING IN SOME TURKISH AETHIONEMA R. BR. (BRASSICACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of 17 species of Aethionema R.Br. (Brassicaceae) from various regions in Turkey were examined with a scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Based on seed features such as shape, colour and surface ornamentation pattern, 4 morphological types were recognized. The different seed types are described, illustrated compared and their taxonomic importance is discussed.

1025-1036 Download
5
MEDICINAL VALUE OF RANUNCULACEAE OF DIR VALLEY
ALI HAZRAT, JEHANDAR SHAH, MUHAMMAD ALI AND ILYAS IQBAL

MEDICINAL VALUE OF RANUNCULACEAE OF DIR VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
Dir valley has diverse habitats for the growth of various medicinal plants. Fifty-one local uses for various ailments were found out for 39 species belonging to 14 genera of the family Ranunculaceae. The local medicinal uses include anticancer, painkiller, diuretic, febrifuges, carminative, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, cardio tonic, tonic, stomachache, dyspepsia, jaundice, leprosy, cough, asthma, ulcers, vomiting etc.

1037-1044 Download
6
BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA (L.) L'HÉR. EX VENT.: AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINT ON THE HIMALAYAN FOOTHILLS VEGETATION
RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK1 AND SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN2

BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA (L.) L'HÉR. EX VENT.: AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINT ON THE HIMALAYAN FOOTHILLS VEGETATION
ABSTRACT:
Biological invasion caused by the non-indigenous plant species have been considered as one of the major threat to the native vegetation and its diversity at local, regional and global level and its effect on native forest ecosystem is regarded as one of the most critical issues confronting environmental conservationists. This study addresses the influence of Broussonetia papyrifera on the native scrub forest at the Himalayan Foothills, Islamabad, Pakistan and its relationship with ecological gradients which are important in terms of its spatial distribution. Floristic species composition and environmental factors were measured from 77 plots from two sites of the scrub forest at the lower elevation of Margalla Hills National Park Islamabad. Agglomerative hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA) was used for species assemblage patterns and ordination analyses such as Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to establish the relationship with the underlying ecological gradients. CA divided the plots into three vegetation zones: a vegetation zone comprised of species of native scrub forest dominated by Acacia modesta; a transition vegetation zone where B. papyrifera was present either in scattered form amongst the scrub forest species or showed patchy distribution and invasive vegetation zone dominated by B. papyrifera. Man Whitney U-test was used to find out if vegetation zones identified by CA could be significantly different from each other based on the measured environmental factors. Factor Analysis (FA)/Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to identify set of environmental factors/predictors, which can best discriminate vegetation zones. FA/PCA (raw varimax rotated) on the environmental factors renders three varifactors with eigenvalues higher than 1.0 accounting for over 72% of total variance. Multivariate analyses indicated that the spatial distribution of B. papyrifera is related to edaphic factors such as the soil texture, organic matter and moisture contents. The distribution was insensitive to the topographic factors. The probable consequences of B. papyrifera invasion for future scrub forest composition and plant species diversity are also discussed. The findings of this research will be used in formulating scientifically sound management and conservation strategy for the forest ecosystems of the Margalla Hills National Park Islamabad.

1045-1053 Download
7
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION OF POACEAE SPECIES GROWING NATURALLY IN ESKIŞEHIR PROVINCE (CENTRAL ANATOLIA–TURKEY)
CENGİZ TÜRE* AND HARUN BÖCÜK

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION OF POACEAE SPECIES GROWING NATURALLY IN ESKIŞEHIR PROVINCE (CENTRAL ANATOLIA–TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
Turkey is located in the region when natural forms of important cultivated plant species show genetic diversity. In the present study, plant distribution and conservation strategies of Poaceae (Gramineae) species distributing naturally on steppe vegetation, getting important contributions to the plant diversity under antropogenic effects were studied. During the study

1055-1070 Download
8
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MARGINAL LAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN*, INAM-UR-RAHIM*, HAQ NAWAZ* AND MUHAMMAD YAQOOB**

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MARGINAL LAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Abstract :A study was conducted in the valley of Chagharzai in Bunair district lying in the north Trans-Himalayan moist zone occupying Malakand Division, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan to determine the nutritive value of locally available marginal land grasses. The study area lies between 34.42 to 34.66o latitude and 72.62 to 72.78o longitude, having a humid subtropical to temperate environment. The annual precipitation varies from 600 to 1000 mm, mainly during summer and spring. Twelve marginal land grasses were identified and analyzed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemi-cellulose, and lignin contents. The mean percentage values for DM, OM, ash, CP, NDF, ADF, hemi-cellulose and lignin at early bloom stage were 30.1±1.08

1071-1082 Download
9
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF SORGHUM IN RESPONSE TO INTEGRATED PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM MANAGEMENT
ABIDA AKRAM1, MUSSARRAT FATIMA1, SAFDAR ALI2, GHULAM JILANI2AND REHANA ASGHAR1,*

GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF SORGHUM IN RESPONSE TO INTEGRATED PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Field experiment was undertaken to establish a balanced nutrients management for improved and economical production of sorghum. It was grown with P2O5 (80 kg ha-1) and K2O (40 kg ha-1) as their sole and combined fertilization along with uniform level of N (120 kg ha-1). Results indicated that P enhanced the crop growth, yield and nutrients uptake more than K and the best results were observed with their combined application. Maximum biological and grain yield were 31.7 and 2.26 t ha-1 under P+K. Uptake of N, P and K was also highest with P+K. Fertilizer use efficiency was highest for K alone (9.65 kg kg-1) followed by P alone (8.45 kg kg-1). Economic analysis showed maximum net return (NR) and relative increase in income (RII) with P+K treatment, while the value cost ratio (VCR) was slightly higher for P alone. Integration of P and K was better than used alone for improved and economical production of sorghum

1083-1087 Download
10
BIOSORPTION OF Hg: I. SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT WITH MARINE GREEN ALGAE IN THE ANATOMY OF HYPOCOTYL OF TRIGONELLA FOENUMGRAECUM UNDER Hg STRESS
SHABANA ASKARI1, FAHIM UDDIN2 AND RAFIA AZMAT*3

BIOSORPTION OF Hg: I. SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT WITH MARINE GREEN ALGAE IN THE ANATOMY OF HYPOCOTYL OF TRIGONELLA FOENUMGRAECUM UNDER Hg STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Biosorption of mercury (Hg) on marine green algae, Codium iyengrii was observed in relation with seed germination, morphology of plant and anatomy of hypocotyls of Trigonella foenumgraecum. Results were compared with plants grown in garden soil as a control plant to that of Hg and seaweeds treated plants. Adverse affect of Hg was observed on root hairs, which was retained in presence of seaweeds too. However a significant improvement in tissue structure of vascular bundles was pragmatic and anatomy of hypocotyls reached to normal plant structure at 10ppm, showing the removal of Hg through biosorption on Codium iyengrii. This indicates that seaweeds correct the soil condition by supplying macro and micronutrients which develop resistance in plants in stress of heavy metal by adsorbing mercury on surface of seaweeds due to metal and ligand interaction.

1089-1096 Download
11
SALINITY-INDUCED CHANGES OF FREE AND BOUND POLYAMINE LEVELS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) ROOTS DIFFERING IN SALT TOLERANCE
FATMA MUTLU* AND SUNA BOZCUK**

SALINITY-INDUCED CHANGES OF FREE AND BOUND POLYAMINE LEVELS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) ROOTS DIFFERING IN SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
The effect of salt stress (50

1097-1102 Download
12
SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF ZINC IN SOIL, DIETARY FACTORS AND GRAZING SHEEP FROM SOUTHWESTERN, PUNJAB, PAKISTA
ZAFAR. I. KHAN1*, M. ASHRAF2, KAFEEL AHMAD1, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3 AND L.R. McDOWELL4

SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF ZINC IN SOIL, DIETARY FACTORS AND GRAZING SHEEP FROM SOUTHWESTERN, PUNJAB, PAKISTA
ABSTRACT:
Abstract:This study has been conducted in a sheep farm to determine the zinc status in a semiarid region of south western Punjab, Pakistan, during two different seasons. The purpose of this was to investigate as function of the season and the sampling period, the transfer of Zn from soils and forages to sheep grazing in this semiarid region in order to evaluate if the Zn requirement of the grazing sheep was met or if Zn deficiency occurred. The final goal was to maximize the production of animals by adopting if necessary, an adequate and balanced Zn supplementation. Soil, forage, water and feed samples as well as blood, urine, milk and faeces from lactating/ non-lactating and male grazing animals have been taken fortnightly, 4 times during summer and 4 times during winter. Zn concentrations of the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Extractable soil Zn concentrations were found adequate for normal plant growth during both seasons. Non-significant effect of season but significant effect of sampling periods was observed on soil zinc level and was slightly higher in winter than that in summer. Forage zinc level was affected both by the season and fortnights and also found above the requirements of the ruminants only in winter. However, the level in summer was considered slightly deficient for growing and lactating animals. No effect of seasons or fortnights was observed on water Zn and that of feed zinc was affected only by the seasonal variation. Zinc content in dietary sources was higher in summer than that in winter. In summer, the plasma contained higher zinc only in non-lactating sheep than that in other two groups. Plasma zinc showed a response to the diet zinc content in summer in non-lactating sheep while the higher zinc concentration in the diet during summer remained ineffective increasing the plasma zinc levels in lactating and male sheep. The milk zinc concentration was higher in early lactation period than late lactation. The levels of faeces and urine zinc were not affected by the seasonal variation. The zinc content of faeces has reflected its pasture levels in all classes of sheep. Only plasma and milk zinc was affected by seasonal changes and urine zinc by the sampling period only in lactating sheep. Relationships between soil, forages and plasma Zn levels and the seasons and period of sampling have been discussed. Based on this study it is concluded that supplementation of grazing sheep should be done on this ranch with a specifically tailored mixture of high bioavailability to maximize the animal potential.

1103-1112 Download
13
TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN THE TRANSFER OF SODIUM FROM SOIL AND DIETARY SOURCES TO GRAZING LIVESTOCK IN A SEMI-ARID RANCH, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR. I. KHAN1*, M. ASHRAF2, M. DANISH3 AND KAFEEL AHMAD1

TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN THE TRANSFER OF SODIUM FROM SOIL AND DIETARY SOURCES TO GRAZING LIVESTOCK IN A SEMI-ARID RANCH, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This investigation was carried out in the semi-arid region of Punjab, Pakistan to determine the sodium status in plant forages and grazing sheep therein, alongwith assessing the soil samples. From the pasture soil, forage, feed, water and animal samples (Blood plasma, milk, faeces, and urine) were collected fortnightly during winter and summer seasons. These samples were analyzed for sodium concentrations in plant forages which were found below those recommended for optimum ruminant production during both seasons of the year. Seasons did not affect soil, forage and plasma Na+ concentrations. These samples were lower than the required range in relation to Na levels for ruminants. The fecal, urine, and milk Na+ losses were found to be responsible for low plasma Na+ status in different goat classes. From these results it is concluded that high levels of this element should be supplied in the feed supplements used at different times of the year to prevent the sodium deficiency in grazing goats in this ranch.

1113-1121 Download
14
ARE CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY POTENTIAL PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*, SHAMYLA NAWAZISH1 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2

ARE CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY POTENTIAL PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
In order to assess as to whether traits related to plant photosynthetic capacity such as chlorophyll fluorescence and net CO2 assimilation rate could be used as indicators for drought tolerance in maize, 5 synthetic and 2 hybrids were subjected to PEG-induced water stress for 3 weeks. Although the growth of all maize cultivars was significantly reduced by PEG-induced water stress, they differed significantly in producing shoot biomass under water stress conditions. However, cv. Sahiwal-2002 was higher in growth under water stress conditions. The photosynthetic capacity (A) of all maize cultivars was also reduced under water deficit conditions. Since, there was a positive correlation between biomass production and net CO2 assimilation rate so photosynthetic capacity could be used as a potential selection criterion for drought tolerance in maize. In contrast no such relationship of drought tolerance of the cultivars with photosystem-II efficiency measured as Fv/Fm. Thus, it did not prove to be a viable criterion for drought tolerance in maize.

1123-1131 Download
15
EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED PROLINE AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES ENHANCES GROWTH OF TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS
QASIM ALI1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1 AND HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR2

EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED PROLINE AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES ENHANCES GROWTH OF TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Exogenous application of potential osmoprotectants such as proline is an important shotgun approach to alleviate adverse effects of abiotic stresses on plants. However, information about the effects of exogenously applied proline in counteracting the adverse effects of water stress on crops is scanty. An experiment was therefore conducted to assess the ameliorative effect of exogenously applied proline on growth and photosynthetic capacity of two maize cultivars grown under water deficit conditions. Four-week old plants of 2 maize cultivars, viz., EV-1098 and AGAITI 2002 were subjected to water stress by maintaining moisture content equivalent to 60% field capacity. Different concentrations of proline applied as a foliar spray at the seedling, vegetative and seedling+vegetative stages were: no spray, 0.1% Tween-20 solution, 30 and 60 mM proline in 0.1% Tween 20 solution. Water stress reduced growth and photosynthetic capacity of both maize cultivars. However, exogenous application of proline counteracted the adverse effects of water stress on growth of both maize cultivars. Although proline induced improvement in growth of water stressed maize plants was almost similar at all growth stages, application of 30 mM proline proved to be more effective in inducing water stress tolerance as compared to the other level. Photosynthetic rate of water stressed plants of both maize cultivars was also enhanced due to foliar applied proline which was positively associated with sub-stomatal CO2 (Ci,) and stomatal conductance (gs) as well as photosynthetic pigments. Overall, foliar applied proline ameliorated the adverse effects of water stress on growth and photosynthetic capacity of two maize cultivars.

1133-1144 Download
16
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF SENNA (CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL.) ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING CHARACTERS OF SOME MAJOR CEREAL CROPS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED GRASSY WEEDS
SAJJAD HUSSAIN, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI, SHAHIDA KHALID, ATIF JAMAL, ABDUL QAYYUM AND ZAHOOR AHMAD

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF SENNA (CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL.) ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING CHARACTERS OF SOME MAJOR CEREAL CROPS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED GRASSY WEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) locally known as Sana Makki , an important medicinal plant, was investigated for its allelopathic potential against four major cereal crops i.e., maize, rice, sorghum and wheat as well as their associated grassy weeds viz., Avena fatua, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Echinocloa colona, Phalaris minor and Sorghum halepense. Senna was employed as plant extract, mulch and soil incorporation along with control. Data on germination percentage (%), shoot length (mm), root length (mm), shoot fresh weight (g), root fresh weight (g), shoot dry weight (g), root dry weight (g) and number of leaves was recorded as measures of its allelopathic potential on these crops and their associated weeds. All senna treatments invariably affected germination and seedling growth characters of all crops and weed species under test. However, a remarkably pronounced effect was observed in senna-Avena fatua and senna-wheat interactions in which mulching of senna drastically reduced the germination of Avena fatua to 11% over control alongwith promoting all seedling growth characters of wheat crop. Hence, allelopathic potential of senna can be successfully employed to combat an invasive weed of wheat while at the same time mitigating the ill-effects of herbicidal use on economy, health and environment.

1145-1153 Download
17
PRIMING MECHANISM: SOIL AMENDED WITH CROP RESIDUE
S. MUHAMMAD1, R.G. JOERGENSEN2, T. MUELLER2 AND T.S. MUHAMMAD3

PRIMING MECHANISM: SOIL AMENDED WITH CROP RESIDUE
ABSTRACT:
Priming effect is an extra decomposition of organic C after addition of easily-decomposable organic substance to the soil. Moreover, priming effects are strong short term changes in the turnover of soil organic matter caused by comparatively moderate treatments of the soil. The priming effect arises either immediately or very shortly after the addition of a specific substance to the soil. Priming affects in soils rich in C and N are larger than those in poor soils. The size of priming effects increases with the amount of the added organic substances or mineral fertilizers. An opinion expressed in literature says that not only microorganisms alone contribute to priming effects. Interactions between soil microorganisms, soil fauna and plants are regarded as one of the keys for understanding priming effects. Substances released by soil fauna can cause priming effects by stimulating microbial activity. However, more prevalent in the literature are descriptions of the faunal grazing on soil microflora (predation). The effects induced by predation as fallow: increased CO2 release, increase N and P mineralization and release of nutrients immobilized in microorganisms, increased N up take of plant, and intensified plant growth ultimately. Similar trend was observed in our study regarding the nutrients mobilization which can be termed as priming effects. In this study extra mineralization of 400 µg g-1 soil CO2–C production resulted in priming effect of the added alfalfa residue.

1155-1160 Download
18
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING DATES ON THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT SALINITY LEVELS
HUMAIRA GUL AND RAFIQ AHMAD

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING DATES ON THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT SALINITY LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of sowing date was investigated on the growth of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv. Oscar and Rainbow under saline water irrigation of different sea salt concentrations. Plants were sown at different dates and subjected to control (non-saline), 0.4% (EC 4.5 dS.m-1) and 0.6% (EC 6.5 dS.m-1) of sea salt concentrations. Vegetative growth was recorded in terms of plant height, fresh and dry shoot biomass per plant, while reproductive growth was noted in terms of number of flowers and siliquae seed number and weight per plant. Plant growth on vegetative as well as reproductive phases was found proportionately inhibited with respect of increasing salinity in irrigation water. As far as proper sowing time of Canola in Sind is concerned, the cv. Oscar sown from mid September to late October gave equally good yield in terms of seed weight per plant under non-saline conditions whereas yield in cv. Rainbow sown early (2nd week of September) was much reduced and the seeds sown during late September till early October gave comparatively better yield. Both of these cultivars when sown on above-mentioned dates and irrigated with different sea salt dilutions showed more or less same pattern of comparative yield as that of good quality water irrigation, though the amount of seed formation per plant was reduced according to the degree of salinization. The yield obtained from the seeds sown in the month of November was considerably reduced in both the cultivars. Maximum temperature has been 36 0C, minimum 24 0C and relative humidity 46% during the month of October which appears to be best season for growing Canola.

1161-1172 Download
19
DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES IN PLANTS OF QUETTA-BALOCHISTAN
SAFDAR ALI KAYANI, AYEESHA MASOOD, ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI AND SHAHLA ANBREEN

DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES IN PLANTS OF QUETTA-BALOCHISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present study

1173-1179 Download
20
ESTIMATION OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF CARTHAMUS OXYACANTHA, ERUCA SATIVA AND PLANTAGO OVATA
ELLAHI BUKHSH1, SALMAN AKBAR MALIK1 AND SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD2*

ESTIMATION OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF CARTHAMUS OXYACANTHA, ERUCA SATIVA AND PLANTAGO OVATA
ABSTRACT:
Carthamus oxyacantha, Eruca sativa and Plantago ovata of the families Asteraceae, Cruciferrae and Plantaginaceae respectively are used by the local Tabibs (physicians) as medicinal plants to cure different diseases. In our present studies these plants were found to possess some medicinal properties including antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antinephrolithiatic and hepatoprotective. In the present study estimation of nutritional value and trace element content of these plants were investigated. Different known standard techniques (Kjeldhal method, Lowery s, method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer) were used to estimate the nutritional value and trace element content. Results showed that crude proteins, total proteins in seeds and total carbohydrates in leaves are significantly higher in E. sativa as compared to C. oxyacantha and P. ovata. The amount of total fats is significantly higher in seeds of C. oxyacantha as compared to E. sativa and P. ovata. While the concentration of crude fiber is significantly higher in seeds of P. ovata as compared to the seeds and leaves of both E. sativa and C. oxyacantha. Major trace elements include Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Mo, P, K, Na and Ca.

1181-1187 Download
21
EFFECT OF PLANTING GEOMETRY AND MULCHING ON MOISTURE CONSERVATION, WEED CONTROL ANDWHEAT GROWTH UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ZAMMURAD IQBAL AHMED, MUHAMMAD ANSAR, MUHAMMAD IQBAL AND NASIR M. MINHAS

EFFECT OF PLANTING GEOMETRY AND MULCHING ON MOISTURE CONSERVATION, WEED CONTROL ANDWHEAT GROWTH UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The investigation to evaluate the effect of planting geometry and mulching on soil moisture, weed control and growth parameters of wheat under rainfed conditions was carried out at the University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi during rabi 2001-2002. The experiment comprised of three types of planting geometries i.e.

1189-1195 Download
22
DIFFERENCE IN COMPETENCE FOR IN VITRO PROLIFERATION AND EX VITRO GROWTH OF GENETICALLY IDENTICAL MATURE AND JUVENILE CLONES OF APOMICTIC MALUS SPECIES
HAFEEZ-UR-RAHMAN, D. J. JAMES*, P.D.S. CALIGARI** AND A. WETTEN**

DIFFERENCE IN COMPETENCE FOR IN VITRO PROLIFERATION AND EX VITRO GROWTH OF GENETICALLY IDENTICAL MATURE AND JUVENILE CLONES OF APOMICTIC MALUS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The apomictic system in Malus was used as a model to examine rejuvenation by generating genetically identical tissue culture lines that had two entirely different developmental origins: either embryo-derived tissues (juvenile clones) or somatic tissue from the adult/mature tree (mature clones). These two lines were then subsequently used to examine in vitro difference between mature (M) and juvenile (J) tissues in potential for shoot, root proliferation and ex vitro (glasshouse) growth. The M clones of M. hupehensis and M. toringoides in vitro had significantly fewer total shoots and shoot more than 2 cm in length per proliferating explant than the J clones and also rooted less efficiently. Ex vitro (glasshouse) juvenile clones had shorter internodes, a greater number of leaves and more dry weight compared to their mature counterparts.

1197-1206 Download
23
AEGILOPS TAUSCHII, AS A SPOT BLOTCH (COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS) RESISTANCE SOURCE FOR BREAD WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
A. MUJEEB-KAZI 1, ALVINA GUL1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD 2, MOHAMMAD FAROOQ2, SUMAIRA RIZWAN3, HADI BUX3, SHAMIM IFTIKHAR2, SHAHZAD ASAD2 AND ROMAN DELGADO4

AEGILOPS TAUSCHII, AS A SPOT BLOTCH (COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS) RESISTANCE SOURCE FOR BREAD WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Cochliobolus sativus the cause of Spot blotch, affects wheat crops across several environments globally with Bangladesh being represented as a major disease location. Accessional diversity in conventional germplasm was limited until the mid-eightees with BH-1146 being most popular. With the novel usage of exotic germplasm emerging in that decade, wide cross programs got popularity and the release of the intergeneric cross product “Mayoor” initiated additional efforts around this new genetic diversity resource of the wheat family Triticeae. Derivatives of Mayoor known as Chirya added another dimension and then on the scene came the D genome contribution of the diploid progenitor Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14). Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SH) derived from crosses between Triticum turgidum x Ae. tauschii (2n=6x=42; AABBDD) became a popular germplasm source for tests against various wheat production constraints around biotic and abiotic stresses and these provided superior resistance to C. sativus either alone or also in SH x SH combinations due to gene pyramiding. From the earlier resistance scores of 9-5 vs 9-9 for susceptibility the SH germplasm was from 9-2 or 9-3 to pyramided lines with 2-2 or 3-2. The latter translated to the same 2-2 or 3-2 levels when these superior SH’s were crossed onto elite bread wheat cultivars susceptible to C. sativus. Further, the resistant stocks derived from both the intergeneric and interspecific avenues gave seed finish readings of 1 or 2 vs the 4 or 5 susceptible germplasm scores. This paper elucidates data of the above three categories of C. sativus tests done under stringent field conditions over several years of evaluations.

1207-1216 Download
24
CYTOGENETICS OF INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS BETWEEN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM TURGIDUM L.) WITH THINOPYRUM INTERMEDIUM AND SUB-SPECIES ACUTUM, GLAUCUM, PULCHERRIMUM, TRICHOPHORUM, VARNENSE
A. MUJEEB-KAZI1, ALVINA GUL1, SUMAIRA RIZWAN2, MUHAMMAD FAROOQ2, HADI BUX2, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2, ROMAN DELGADO3, VICTOR ROSAS3 AND ALEJANDRO CORTES3

CYTOGENETICS OF INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS BETWEEN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM TURGIDUM L.) WITH THINOPYRUM INTERMEDIUM AND SUB-SPECIES ACUTUM, GLAUCUM, PULCHERRIMUM, TRICHOPHORUM, VARNENSE
ABSTRACT:
Towards diversifying the germplasm base available for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) the production and morpho-cytogenetic categorization of F1 hybrid combinations between durum wheat cultivars and Thinopyrum intermedium and its sub-species (acutum, glaucum, pulcherrimum, trichophorum, varnense) are reported. All F1 hybrids were mitotically stable with 2n=5x=35 chromosomes, expressed a co-dominant phenotype and exhibited mean meiotic metaphase I chromosomal associations, that in general, do not support alien genetic introgression into the A and / or B genomes of durum wheat via recombinational exchange. This F1 perennial germplasm has formed the basis to generate backcross derivatives, amphiploids, and shall enable the application of genetic manipulation strategies for transferring useful genes from select combinations for durum wheat improvement. Backcross 1 derivatives (F1 / durum wheat) were cytologically stable with 2n=7x=49 but exhibited poor self-fertility hampering their maintenance as genetic stocks. Amphiploids however had good stability at the C-0 stage with 2n=10x=70 chromosomes, were self-fertile and set healthy seed progeny. Subsequent generations derived from C-0 seed gave derivatives that were closely true to the C-0 type in composition, as well as combinations that indicated genomic loss where all combinations possessed 56 chromosomal progeny. Aneuploidy, both hyper- and hypo-ploidy, was rampant across both the 56 and 70 chromosome progenies.

1217-1227 Download
25
GENETIC IMPLICATION OF YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
SAIF ULLAH AJMAL1*, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR2 AND MUHAMMAD ANWAR2

GENETIC IMPLICATION OF YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
ABSTRACT:
Gene action and genetic parameters for yield and its components were studied in an 8 parent diallel cross of mungbean. The estimates of components of genetic variation showed that additive genetic effects appeared to be important for pod length and 100 seed weight. The non-additive effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain yield per plant. Directional dominance was observed for pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain yield per plant. The parental lines contained equal number of dominant and recessive genes for all the characters except 100 seed weight for which the genes were distributed asymmetrically among the parents. The graphic analysis revealed partial dominance for all the characters studied. Pod length and 100 seed weight being controlled by additive genetic effects with partial dominance will certainly provide the basis for selection in early segregating generations for improvement in these parameters.

1229-1236 Download
26
MODE OF INHERITANCE AND GENETIC VARIABILITYOF SOME OF THE TRAITS IN MUNGBEANVIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2*, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2AND MUHAMMAD ANWAR1

MODE OF INHERITANCE AND GENETIC VARIABILITYOF SOME OF THE TRAITS IN MUNGBEANVIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability analysis was carried out in an 8x8 parent complete diallel of mungbean. Significant differences were observed for GCA and SCA among parents and hybrids for all the traits under study. Estimates of variances due to GCA and SCA suggested predominance of additive gene action for plant height, days to maturity, pod length and 100 seed weight. High SCA variance for pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain yield per plant showed the importance of non-additive gene action for these traits. For the improvement of grain yield in mungbean, crosses involving the parents, NM 121-25, NM 51, VC 3902 and VC 4152, need special consideration. The cross combination, NM 121-25 x VC 4152, was the best for high grain yield on the basis of SCA. The specific crosses, NM 51 x VC 4982, NM 20-21 x VC 1163 and NM 51 x VC 3902, revealed high number of pods coupled with high grain yield.

1237-1244 Download
27
IDENTIFYING GENETIC VARIATION IN GOSSYPIUM BASED ONSINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM
SAGHIR AHMAD1, TIANZHEN ZHANG3, NOOR-UL-ISLAM4, TAYYABA SHAHEEN5 AND MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN5

IDENTIFYING GENETIC VARIATION IN GOSSYPIUM BASED ONSINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM
ABSTRACT:
Various molecular markers such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, SSR and EST-SSR are being employed to detect genetic diversity and for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton. But little information is available regarding the use of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in this crop. In the present study, polymorphism in the FIF1 gene, important in regulating cotton fiber development in Gossypium barbadense L., was studied among G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124. FIF1 genes from G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124 were cloned on the basis of its reported sequence in G. arboreum L. Three bases substitutions were detected at the 188-

1245-1250 Download
28
IN VITRO REGENERATION OF BRASSICA NAPUS L., CULTIVARS (STAR, CYCLONE AND WESTAR) FROM HYPOCOTYLS AND COTYLEDONARY LEAVES
HAZRAT ALI1, ZAHIR ALI2, HAIDAR ALI3, SULTAN MEHMOOD2 AND WIQAR ALI2

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF BRASSICA NAPUS L., CULTIVARS (STAR, CYCLONE AND WESTAR) FROM HYPOCOTYLS AND COTYLEDONARY LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Regeneration protocols were established for Brassica napus L., cultivars viz., Star, Cyclon and Westar. The conditions were optimized for callus induction, shoot and root regeneration. Seeds were surface sterilized using 70% alcohol, 0.01% HgCl2 and few drops of Tween20 for ten minutes. Which reduced seed borne contamination. Callus induction ability was evaluated by using different concentration of 2, 4-D in combination with 0.5mg/L BAP and 0.5mg/L Silver nitrate, which was used for the first time in MS medium and efficient callus was produced using 0.5mg/L 2, 4-D. Silver nitrate in callus induction media resulted in green callus. Shoots were regenerated on callus using different concentrations of NAA with 2mg/L BAP and 5mg/L Silver nitrate in MS medium. 67-82% shoots were regenerated on media having 0.1mg/L NAA. The shoots were then rooted and best results were obtained on media having 0.3mg/L IBA in half strength MS medium.

1251-1256 Download
29
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CROTON (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM)
ASMA NASIB*, KASHIF ALI AND SAIFULLAH KHAN

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CROTON (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM)
ABSTRACT:
Croton (Codiaeum variegatum) with its amazing colors and leathery leaves is regarded as a beautiful foliage plant. The plant is native of South East Asia. Generally crotons are multiplied vegetatively by means of cuttings and air layering. This process is slow in response and need to maintain large number of mother plants stock. Micropropagation is an alternative mean of propagation that can meet its high demand in relatively shorter time. An improved and enhanced method was established for the In vitro propagation of croton. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of BAP (6-benzyl amino purine) was the best medium for shoot induction). The effect of the selected media was further enhanced by adding adjuvants like malt extract and peptone. The MS basal salt mixtures with BAP (0.5 mg/L) and 25 mg/L of malt extract alongwith 25 mg/L of peptone effectively enhanced the shoot formation. The In vitro roots were efficiently induced by using MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of IBA (Indole 3- butyric acid). The sufficiently rooted plants were then transferred to the green house for hardening and 80% sand and 20% farm yard manure as a potting mix was best suited for the acclimatization of plantlets.

1257-1262 Download
30
CALLUS INDUCTION, PLANT REGENERATION ANDACCLIMATIZATION OF AFRICAN VIOLET (SAINTPAULIA IONANTHA) USING LEAVES AS EXPLANTS
SAIFULLAH KHAN*, SAIMA NASEEB AND KASHIF ALI

CALLUS INDUCTION, PLANT REGENERATION ANDACCLIMATIZATION OF AFRICAN VIOLET (SAINTPAULIA IONANTHA) USING LEAVES AS EXPLANTS
ABSTRACT:
African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) is a very famous ornamental plant due to its various colors and shapes. The present study was conducted to investigate the callus induction and plant regeneration efficiency of African violet and subsequent acclimatization of the regenerated plants. Callus induction efficiency was high with 1.0 mg/L of NAA with MS medium and cotton as a supporting material. Shoot regeneration and multiplication was maximum on full strength MS medium with 3.0 mg/L of BAP and 1.0 mg/L of NAA. Simple MS medium was found effective for the induction of roots in the in vitro grown plantlets. Among the different potting mixes used for the acclimatization of rooted plantlets

1263-1268 Download
31
COMPARISON OF SUCROSE AND SORBITOL AS MAIN CARBON ENERGY SOURCES IN MICROPROPAGATION OF PEACH ROOTSTOCK GF-677
TOUQEER AHMAD, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ AND ANSAR ALI

COMPARISON OF SUCROSE AND SORBITOL AS MAIN CARBON ENERGY SOURCES IN MICROPROPAGATION OF PEACH ROOTSTOCK GF-677
ABSTRACT:
The influence of two carbon sources, sorbitol and sucrose on In vitro shoot proliferation and rooting of peach rootstock GF 677 was compared at 15, 30, 45 and 60 g l-1 concentrations. The highest number of shoots per proliferated explant, usable shoots and shoots having maximum fresh weight were obtained on sorbitol at 30 g l-1. GF 677 does not seem to be an efficient utilizer of sucrose for In vitro shoot proliferation. Similarly best root development in terms of rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant and roots > 1.5 cm in length was also found on sorbitol at 30 g l-1. Sorbitol is therefore better carbon source than sucrose for the development of In vitro shoot proliferation and rooting of peach rootstock GF 677.

1269-1275 Download
32
IMPROVEMENT OF BASMATI RICE AGAINST FUNGAL INFECTION THROUGH GENE TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
AYESHA ASGHAR1, HAMID RASHID2, M. ASHRAF1, M. HAROON KHAN2 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2

IMPROVEMENT OF BASMATI RICE AGAINST FUNGAL INFECTION THROUGH GENE TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, gene for fungal resistance (RCC2) has been introduced into Basmati 385 by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Maximum callus induction (88%) was achieved on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Different combinations and concentration of growth regulators (NAA and BAP) were used to develop an efficient culture environment for higher regeneration frequencies. Maximum plant regeneration (80%) from calli was achieved on RM5 (NAA 1.0 mg/l+ BAP 5.0 mg/l). Hygromycin was used as selectable agent and at concentration of 50 mg/l proved to be lethal for scutellum derived calli. Calli of more than 5 mm in size were infected with Agrobacterium strain EHA101. Rice chitinase gene-RCC2 with vector pB1333-EN4 was introduced under the control of enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Transformation efficiency proved to be highest when 21-24 days old calli were used with co-cultivation period of 2-3 days. Selection of the calli was carried out with hygromycin (50 mg/l) in addition to cefotaxime (1000 mg/l). After two weeks of selection, calli were transferred to RM5 containing hygromycin 50 mg/l + cefatoxime 1000 mg/l. A significant regeneration frequency of transformed plants was attained which was 10-11%.

1277-1283 Download
33
AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION TO BUILD RESISTANCE AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN RICE
MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1, HAMID RASHID1*, ZAHOOR A. SWATI3 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2

AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION TO BUILD RESISTANCE AGAINST BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
Agrobacterium mediated transformation and regeneration efficiency of rice cultivar IR-6 was studied. Various concentrations and combinations of growth regulators were used to establish efficient culture environment for enhanced regeneration efficiency. Maximum (70.96%) callus induction was achieved on MS medium containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with concentration of 2 mg/l. Maximum regeneration frequency (80%) was observed on regeneration media containing NAA 1.0 mg/l and BAP 5.0 mg/l. Calli of more than 5 mm size were infected with Agrobacterium containing the binary vector pTCL5. Age of the calli was also found to be a limiting factor in transformation efficiency. Older calli of over four weeks were less efficient in transformation whereas 22-25 days old calli were found to be highly efficient in transformation. Selection of the calli was carried out with Hygromycin (50 mg/l) in addition to Cefatoxime (500 mg/l) in combination with Carbenicillin (500 mg/l). Transgenic plants regeneration frequency was observed as 2.26%.

1285-1292 Download
34
STUDIES ON BREVICIN AF01: A BACTERIOCIN LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCE ACTIVE AGAINST METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
FIRDOUS FAHEEM, SADIA SAEED AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL*

STUDIES ON BREVICIN AF01: A BACTERIOCIN LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCE ACTIVE AGAINST METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus brevis AF01, isolated from wheat field, has been found to produce proteinaceous antibacterial substance Brevicin AF01. The inhibitory activity could not be related to bacteriophages. It has a narrow spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacterial strains only. Brevicin AF01 revealed bactericidal effect against Staphylococccus aureus FS10. It was also found to be active against several strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Its production was started in the early stationary phase and continued till late stationary phase. Maximum production of Brevicin AF01 was observed when the producer strain was grown in BHI broth without NaCl supplement, at neutral pH and at 37°C. It remained stable at 60°C and 80°C for 30 minutes. The activity decreased at 100°C and was completely lost by autoclaving (121°C

1293-1302 Download
35
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACITRACIN PRODUCED BY BACILLUS SP.
MUHAMMAD AWAIS, AAMER ALI SHAH, ABDUL HAMEED AND FARIHA HASAN*

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACITRACIN PRODUCED BY BACILLUS SP.
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus were isolated from soil and screened for the production of antibiotics by plate assay and then cultured in shake flask fermentation at 30oC for further studies. Identification of antibiotics was done by paper chromatography. Bacitracin was found to be produced by both the strains against Micrococcus luteus (ATCC# 10240), whereas; Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC# 6538) proved to be resistant to Bacitracin produced by Bacillus pumilus. The maximum production of Bacitracin from B. subtilis and B. pumilus against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus at different pH (6-9), incubation time (0-144 hours) and glucose concentration (1-5%) was checked by agar diffusion assay as detected by the size of zones of inhibition. Maximum zones of inhibition were observed at pH 8, 5% glucose and after 24 hours of incubation at 30oC against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus.

1303-1312 Download
36
DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT DECLINE DISORDERS IN MANGO ORCHARDS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL1, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM2*, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ3, KAFEEL AHMAD4, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN4, M. TARIQ MALIK5 AND MUHAMMAD DANISH6

DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT DECLINE DISORDERS IN MANGO ORCHARDS OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A planned study was conducted to assess the prevalence incidence and intensity of different decline disorders prevailing in mango growing areas of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sixteen locations were visited in four districts of the Punjab with the objective to confirm the status and update the existing statistics for future management and planning. Four disorders viz. twig blight, tip dieback, gummosis and bark cracking/ splitting were noted with 55.0, 50.0

1313-1318 Download
37
INCIDENCE OF CITRUS CANKER DISEASE CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DOWS ON KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA) AND ITS CHEMOTHERAPY
SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1, M. USMAN GHAZANFAR1, M. AFZAL2, ABDUL RASHED1 AND AMIR HABIB1

INCIDENCE OF CITRUS CANKER DISEASE CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DOWS ON KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA) AND ITS CHEMOTHERAPY
ABSTRACT:
Incidence of citrus canker disease revealed 7.5% in three Tehsils Kalurkot, Darya Khan and Bhakkar of the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Among the various toxicants viz., Agrimycin–100, Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Vitavax, Daconil, Antracol, Benlate and Nimrod tested at 1% concentration against multiplication of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. Agrimycin –100, Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax proved more effective as compared to other toxicants In vitro. All the toxicants @ 1, 0.1 and 0.01% concentrations inhibited the multiplication of the bacterium however, Agrimycin-100 was found to be most effective while Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M–45 and Vitavax in that order, were effective against the multiplication of bacterium at 0.01, 0.1 and 1% concentration. Agrimycin–100, Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax at 0.2% concentration were sprayed on the field grown citrus plants and then inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri for the control of citrus canker disease. Agrimycin–100, Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45 and Vitavax in the order proved effective also in reducing the disease intensity as compared to inoculated control.

1319-1327 Download
38
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF POTATO CULTIVARS TO SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU, SHAHZAD ASAD AND KHURSHID BURNEY

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF POTATO CULTIVARS TO SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Spongospora subterranea f. sp. Subterranean, the causal organism of powdery scab of potato is a severe problem in many areas of the world where potato crop is grown. Due to seed and soil borne nature of the pathogen, it is difficult to manage using a single method of control. Therefore, growers are heading towards an integrated management approach for effective control of powdery scab. The most cost-effective, long term and environment friendly way of controlling the disease is to identify the cultivars resistant to the disease. During the current study, 6 potato varieties viz., Sante, Diamant, Cardinal, Desiree, Faisalabad white and Faisalabad red were screened against S. subterranea in a naturally infested field at Sharan in Kaghan valley. All six varieties showed different levels of susceptibility to S. subterranea. Desiree cultivar showed lowest percent incidence of disease with low severity. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in weight and number of tubers in Diamant, Faisalabad white and Faisalabad red but this has no correlation with the disease incidence and severity.

1329-1333 Download
39
ANASTOMOSIS GROUPS OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KÜHN ISOLATES FROM POTATO IN PAKISTAN
C.A. RAUF, I. AHMAD* AND M. ASHRAF**

ANASTOMOSIS GROUPS OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KÜHN ISOLATES FROM POTATO IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Black scurf of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., caused by the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani is present in all the eight potato producing agro-ecological zones of Pakistan and R.solani anastomosis group (AG) 3 is the major cause of this disease in potato. The present investigations were conducted to study the occurrence of R. solani anastomosis groups (AGs) on this crop. During investigations

1335-1340 Download
40
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BLACK SCURF OF POTATO IN PAKISTAN
C.A. RAUF, M. ASHRAF* AND I. AHMAD**

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BLACK SCURF OF POTATO IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During field survey, 525 potato tuber samples weighing 2-5 kg were taken and found that black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani was a common fungal disease in all the eight potato production agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. The highest mean disease prevalence, incidence and severity of 99.50%, 65.55% and 2.95 rating, respectively, was found in zone 2, comprising of the Punjab province. The lowest mean disease prevalence 59.19%, incidence 12.81% and severity 1.19 rating was found in zone 7 comprising of Northern Areas of Pakistan. Hundred percent locations surveyed in the remaining six zones were found having this disease. Ten locations in zone 7 namely Booni, Mastuj, Laspur, Shahidaas, Chinar, Garam Chasma, Roi, Norcoraite, Kajal and Murdan were found disease free. These locations could be used for disease free potato seed production. The results of this survey indicate that zone 2, a major potato production area of Pakistan, is heavily affected by black scurf. Moreover, this is the zone which out flows tubers for seed purpose to the remaining potato growing areas of the country. This alarming situation of black scurf at zone 2 demands some emergent multi-dimentional measures instantly be taken with respect to disease management, seed certification, farmers motivation with respect to avoid potato mono-culture and vigilant export of healthy seed tubers to other parts of the country.

1341-1352 Download
41
MANAGEMENT OF BLACK SCURF DISEASE OF POTATO
C.A. RAUF, M. ASHRAF* AND I. AHMAD**

MANAGEMENT OF BLACK SCURF DISEASE OF POTATO
ABSTRACT:
Management of black scurf (Rhizoctoni solani) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through determining level of susceptibility in various breeding lines/cultivars of potato and tuber treatment with various fungicides was investigated by using R. solani AG-3 isolate CL-58 (a known aggressive). Greenhouse screening of fifteen potato breeding lines and cultivars for host plant resistance to isolate CL-58 by soil inoculation revealed potato cvs. Cardinal and Desiree, resistant and susceptible, respectively. Management of disease by using susceptible cv. Desiree through potato tuber treatment with fungicides viz., Dithane M-45, Monceren and Benlate and then sowing them in potting mixture previously inoculated with inoculum of the fungus revealed Dithane M-45, a promising fungicide for management of this disease. It significantly checked eyes germination inhibition and decreased sprout killing, stem girdling, stem canker, black scurf incidence and severity over non-treated inoculated control. Based upon the results achieved, it is necessary to adopt this practice as seed treatment of chemicals is not a regular exercise in Pakistan. This in-turn will protect potato crop from seed-borne infection and will ultimately lead to better and healthy crop stand

1353-1357 Download
42
USE OF SEA WEED AND BACTERIA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF MASH BEAN AND SUNFLOWER
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SADIA ARJUMUND, MARIUM TARIQ AND M.J. ZAKI

USE OF SEA WEED AND BACTERIA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF MASH BEAN AND SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
A significant increase in growth parameters in terms of shoot length, shoot weight and a significant reduction in infection of Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina was observed where Rhizobium meliloti treated seeds of mash bean and sunflower were used in Melanothanus afaqhusainii amended soil. Combined use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with sea weeds viz., Melanothanus afaqhusainii, Padina tetrastromatica, Cystoclonium purpuraeum and Hypnea valentiae significantly reduced the infection of M. phaseolina and R. solani on mash bean and sunflower followed by R. meliloti and B. subtilis in combination with C. purpuraeum and M.afaqhusainii respectively on mash bean and sunflower. Seed treatment was found more effective method in controlling the root infecting fungi as compared to soil treatment.

1359-1366 Download
43
BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF HIBISCUS R OSA-SINENSIS AND IXORA COCCINEA FLOWERS
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, AYESHA-JAMAL*, AND SHARFUN-NAHAR**

BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF HIBISCUS R OSA-SINENSIS AND IXORA COCCINEA FLOWERS
ABSTRACT:
A total of 17 species belonging to 10 genera were isolated from 11 samples of nectar of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and 10 species belonging to 7 genera from 5 samples of nectar of Ixora coccinea flowers. The isolated yeast species were identified on the basis of morphological and physiological/biochemical characters. Bullera pyricola was predominantly isolated from nectar of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

1367-1376 Download
44
KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI FROM THE SOIL OF DISTRICT, JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
FOZIA IRUM, M. SUHAIL AND H. ABRO

KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI FROM THE SOIL OF DISTRICT, JAMSHORO, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Soil is well known to support the ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential sources of infection for humans and animals. Keratinophilic fungi from the soil of District Jamshoro, Sindh were investigated at five sites viz., LMUHS, Super highway, near pitaro, Phulalli head, and Kotri station from June 2005 to May 2006. Forty soil samples were collected from surface

1377-1382 Download
45
PROPAGATION OF PLEUROTUS SAJOR-CAJU (OYSTER MUSHROOM) THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE
REHANA ASGHAR1, MUHAMMAD TARIQ1 AND TAHIR REHMAN2

PROPAGATION OF PLEUROTUS SAJOR-CAJU (OYSTER MUSHROOM) THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Mushrooms have been recorded as a source of vegetable and medicines for human beings throughout the world. The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) is edible and an important ingredient of pizza and many other popular bakery dishes. Oyster mushroom is cultivated on different agricultural wastes due to its compatibility and produce high yield in diversified climate. Studies revealed that the joint portion of cap and stipe produced vigorous mycelium growth in minimum time, The average maximum growth was obtained on Malt Extract Agar (MEA) than on Potato Dextrose agar (PDA) medium at 25 ºC under humid (65 – 80 RH) conditions. For the substrate, out of three types of grains viz., wheat, sorghum and oat; sorghum was found to be best for mycelium propagation and the time period for optimum growth was 7 days.

1383-1386 Download
46
FIRST REPORT OF DILOPHOSPORA LEAF SPOT (TWIST) DISEASE OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
SHAHZAD ASAD, AMIR SULTAN, SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, ANJUM MUNIR, IFTIKHAR AHMAD AND *NAJMA AYUB

FIRST REPORT OF DILOPHOSPORA LEAF SPOT (TWIST) DISEASE OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Dilophospora alopecuri (Fr.) Fr. (syns D. graminis Desm., Dilophia graminis Fuckel) is reported for the first time from Gulmit Gojal, Hunza valley in Northern Areas of Pakistan. D. alopecuri was identified after visual and microscopic examination and characterized by the production of cylindrical to ellipsoid spores (8-15 x 1.5 µm) with distinctive claw-shaped appendages and In vitro pathogenicity.

1387-1389 Download
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