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Year 2007 , Volume  39, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LVI. VALERIANACEAEANJUM
PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LVI. VALERIANACEAEANJUM
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 13 species representing 2 genera of the family Valerianaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly prolate-spheroidal to sub-prolate, often oblate-spheroidal rarely prolate. Tricolpate sexine thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly spinulose rarely scabrate or echinate. On the basis of exine ornamentation 3 distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Valeriana jatamansi-type, Valeriana hardwickii- type, Valerianella dentata-type

1889-1896 Download
2
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS ANAPHALIS DC.(GNAPHALIEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS ANAPHALIS DC.(GNAPHALIEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypsela morphology of 17 taxa of the genus Anaphalis DC., was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of cypsela surface all the taxa are divided into two main groups and most of the species are delimited due to their distinct micromorphological characters of cypsela.

1897-1906 Download
3
HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L.: FRUIT AND SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC PROBLEMS IN TURKEY
ALIYE ARAS1, ÜNAL AKKEMIK2 AND ZAFER KAYA3

HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L.: FRUIT AND SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC PROBLEMS IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Hippophae rhamnoides, which comprises of 9 subspecies, has an extremely wide distribution but fragmentally in Eurasia. H.rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica is the only known species growing in Turkey. In this paper, morphological traits of seed and fruit considered as diagnostic characters of H.rhamnoides L. subsp. caucasica in Turkey (Sivas, Trabzon, Ilgaz, Ürgüp) were analyzed in order to show whether there is taxonomical problems and try to reconstruct the relationship among the taxon of different regions, to test whether there is a significant association between the morphological characters measured and its environ. Photographs, fruit and seed dimension (length and width) and shape are recorded, using performed ANOVA, Duncan test, UPGMA cluster analysis, climatic diagrams. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that subsp. caucasica samples of Trabzon-Ilgaz regions form a branch and Sivas 94-Ürgüp another branch, while Sivas 96 samples form a complete different group. Climatic diagrams for study areas revealed that the differences, variations in the fruit and seed characters were not significantly correlated with ecological conditions. All results of this study imply that another taxon or taxa of H. rhamnoides is likely present in Turkey and also the specimens of these different regions can be differentiated on the basis of these features.

1907-1916 Download
4
MANGLIETIA PUBIPETALA (MAGNOLIACEAE), A NEWSPECIES FROM CHINA
QING-WEN ZENG*, LIN FU AND FU-WU XING

MANGLIETIA PUBIPETALA (MAGNOLIACEAE), A NEWSPECIES FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Manglietia pubipetala Q.W. Zeng, a new species of Manglieta Bl. (Magnoliaceae), from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated, which occurs in the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Maguan (Bazhai), Xichou (Fadou), and Malipo (Jingchang) County, Yunnan Province, China. It is closely related to M. rufibarbata Dandy, M. megaphylla Hu & Cheng and M. moto Dandy, but differs primarily in its glaucous lower surfaces of leaves, pubescent tepals, and villose stamens and gynoecium.

1917-1920 Download
5
EFFECTS OF SIMULATED SO2 POLLUTION ON SUBTROPICAL FOREST SUCCESSION: TOWARD CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE CONCEPT
NAN LIU 1, CHANG-LIAN PENG2*, ZHI-FANG LIN 1, GUI-ZHU LIN 1, XIAO-PING PAN

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED SO2 POLLUTION ON SUBTROPICAL FOREST SUCCESSION: TOWARD CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE CONCEPT
ABSTRACT:
The effects of simulated SO2 treatment (NaHSO3 with different concentrations) on chlorophyll fluorescence in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb, Schima superba Gardn., and Champ, Castanopsis fissa R and W, Acmena acuminatissima Bi.merr., and Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance, were investigated. After the leaf sections were immersed in 0

1921-1935 Download
6
VARIATION IN SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOME DIVERSE LINES OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
EJAZ HUSSAIN SIDDIQI*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM

VARIATION IN SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOME DIVERSE LINES OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Abstract:To assess inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

1937-1944 Download
7
RAPID CLONAL PROPAGATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM THROUGH EMBROYOGENIC CALLUS FORMATION
IHSAN ILAHI, MUSARRAT JABEEN AND S. NAZNEEN SADAF

RAPID CLONAL PROPAGATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM THROUGH EMBROYOGENIC CALLUS FORMATION
ABSTRACT:
Chrysanthemum nodal explants were cultured on ½ X MS medium containing different combinations of growth hormones. A reasonable callus formed on explants when MS contained 0.5 mg. cm-3 each of BAP and NAA after about 3 weeks. Similar results were obtained on MS + 0.5 mg. cm-3 BAP + 0.1 mg. cm-3 NAA or 1.0 mg. cm-3 BAP + 0.1 mg. cm-3 NAA. A maroonish embryogenic callus was formed on MS containing BAP only. This callus, then exhibited various embryonic developmental stages and gave rise to normal seedlings. These were acclimatized and transferred to natural conditions. The plants ultimately flowered exhibiting superior quality and early maturity compared to stock plants.

1945-1952 Download
8
COMPARATIVE USE OF ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS IN GROWING MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) FOR MAINTAINING SOIL FERTILITY IN RAINFED AREA OF PAKISTAN
SHER MUHAMMAD1* AND T.S. MUHAMMAD2

COMPARATIVE USE OF ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS IN GROWING MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) FOR MAINTAINING SOIL FERTILITY IN RAINFED AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
At present Pakistan has 22 m ha of arable land out of which 4.59 million hectares are rainfed. About 1.8 million hectares of Pothowar Plateau comprises of Fatehjang¸ Murree¸ Attock and Jehlum. The topography of this region is uneven and sloppy lands are confronted with loss of fertility due to erosion problem. The rainfed area contributes about 24% in total crop yield of Pakistan. The fertility status of these soils ranges from low to very low. So, it is very important to adopt management strategies for nutrients replenishment in this area. Effects of mineral fertilizers, leguminous straw (chickpea) and leaf litter incorporated in an alkaline soil from Pakistan (0.80% Corg, 3.94 µg g-1 soil, NaHCO3 extractable P 2.32 µg g-1 NO3-N, pH 8.2, ECe 0.56 dS cm-1

1953-1959 Download
9
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS AND MEDIA COMPOSITIONS FOR EFFICIENT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN SUGARCANE (SACCAHARUM OFFICINARUM)
AAMIR ALI, *SHAGUFTA NAZ AND JAVED IQBAL

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS AND MEDIA COMPOSITIONS FOR EFFICIENT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN SUGARCANE (SACCAHARUM OFFICINARUM)
ABSTRACT:
An efficient embryogenic response (both direct and indirect) of two different varieties of sugarcane (CP 77,400 and BL-4) was obtained in this study. The results demonstrates that fresh inner whorl of leaves and shoot apical meristem of sugarcane were highly amenable to in vitro somatic embryogenesis (both direct and indirect). A combination of 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.25 mg/l BAP was more potent for direct embryo induction and growth in both the varieties of sugarcane. For indirect somatic embryogenesis the combination of 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.25 mg/l BAP showed best results in CP 77,400 while in BL-4 it was 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.5 mg/l BAP. The optimum temperature for callus induction and proliferation was found to be 27 ± 1°C. In CP 77,400, best shoot regeneration response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP. while in BL-4, MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l Kinetin showed best organogenic response.

1961-1977 Download
10
IN VITRO INDUCED MUTATION FOR SCREENING OF RED ROT (COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM) RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM)
AAMIR ALI1*, SHAGUFTA NAZ2, S. SARWAR ALAM3 AND JAVED IQBAL4

IN VITRO INDUCED MUTATION FOR SCREENING OF RED ROT (COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM) RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM)
ABSTRACT:
Explants from leaf, shoot apical meristem and parenchymatous pith were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D either alone or in combination with BAP. MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D exhibited maximum callus induction. Seven week old well developed calli were either treated with different concentrations of sodium azide ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/l or irradiated with 10 Gy

1979-1994 Download
11
SEASONAL FLUX IN WATER POTENTIAL, CHLOROPHYLL AND PROLINE CONTENT IN PLANTS AT ZIARAT VALLEY BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
IRFAN AZIZ

SEASONAL FLUX IN WATER POTENTIAL, CHLOROPHYLL AND PROLINE CONTENT IN PLANTS AT ZIARAT VALLEY BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seasonal changes in water relations and accumulation of proline during drought stress were assessed in different plant species viz., Artemisia scopria, Juniperus exceltata, Onobrychis cornuta and Sophora alopecuroides growing under arid region of Ziarat valley. Water status of the plants was evaluated by measuring pre-dawn water potential and water use efficiency of plants. All the plant species showed higher values for both parameters during the wet period of April when soil moisture and organic matter was abundant. In general, Onobrychis cornuta and Artemisia scoparia had more negative water potential than Juniperus exceltata and Sophora alopecuroides over all seasons. A substantial decrease in water potential and water use efficiency was observed during dry period (October and January). Proline concentration peaked with a decrease in chlorophyll content during January in all species. The maximum proline concentration was observed in O. cornuta followed by A. scoparia. As soon as drought stress was released following the melting of snow and spring showers in April, an increase in chlorophyll content with corresponding decrease in proline was observed.

1995-2002 Download
12
THE SEEDLESS TRAIT IN KINNOW FRUIT
NAFEES ALTAF AND ABDUL REHMAN KHAN

THE SEEDLESS TRAIT IN KINNOW FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
The seedless trait in Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is desirable because of natural factors like ovule, pollen and pollen self incompatibility. Various degrees of ovule sterility are present in Kinnow plants. The collapse of the developed ovules as rudiments of seeds in fruits is because of embryo abortion. The In vitro pollen germination on agar medium is around 18% in selected low seeded plants. Some plants have pollen self incompatibility. The fruit-set in start of May was 23, 9 and 43 percent in self pollination (SP) with Gibberellic Acid (GA) spray, SP without GA spray and in open pollination (OP) respectively. The fruit set in end of July was reduced to 8

2003-2008 Download
13
GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER(HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) HYBRIDS
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, M. KASHIF ILYAS AND M. AYUB KHAN

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER(HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty sunflower hybrids were evaluated for various parameters under field conditions to estimate genetic parameters, correlation coefficient, path analysis and linkage distance. Analysis of variance and mean performance for yield and its components revealed significant differences among all the genotypes for all the characters. Results revealed highly significant differences among all the hybrids. Days to maturity had positive correlation with head diameter but negative association with seed yield. However, seed yield had highly positive genotypic correlation with oil contents but non significant with 100 seed weight. Oil contents had negative association with days to flower initiation, completion and plant height but significantly positive correlation with seed yield. The direct effects of days to flower initiation, plant height and head diameter were positive while remaining characters exhibited negative direct effects. The highest direct effect was exhibited by days to flower initiation and plant height. Head diameter had also positive direct effect on seed yield. Cluster diagram using Ward’s method revealed three clusters at 50% linkage distance. Results revealed that the hybrids in cluster II, were short duration, high yielding more 100 seed weight and oil contents percentage. Therefore, it is suggested that these hybrids could be exploited under wide range of environments for better out come.

2009-2015 Download
14
DETERMINATION OF THE YIELD PERFORMANCE AND HARVESTING PERIODS OF FIFTEEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS SOWN IN AUTUMN AND SPRING
HATICE BOZOGLU*, ERKUT PEKSEN, AYSUN PEKSEN AND ALI GULUMSER

DETERMINATION OF THE YIELD PERFORMANCE AND HARVESTING PERIODS OF FIFTEEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) CULTIVARS SOWN IN AUTUMN AND SPRING
ABSTRACT:
This research was conducted in Samsun, Turkey during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 to determine the performance of 15 pea cultivars sown in autumn and spring. The study was designed with split plot in randomised complete blocks design with 3 replications. The two sowing times were allocated to main plots and 15 cultivars to subplots. The combined years showed that sowing time was statistically significant for all the observed characteristics (plant height, pods per plant, seeds per pod

2017-2025 Download
15
YIELD AND N-UPTAKE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS AND CROP SEQUENCE
A.M. KUMBHAR, U.A. BURIRO, F.C. OAD, Q.I. CHACHAR, M.B. KUMHAR AND G.H. JAMRO

YIELD AND N-UPTAKE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS AND CROP SEQUENCE
ABSTRACT:
The investigations were carried through a series of experiments in two years to confirm the results of two cropping sequences with application of three fertilizer levels. Wheat planted after soybean produced better biological yield (6470.33 kg ha-1), maximum harvest index (42.14%), satisfactory grain yield (2763.33 kg ha-1) and higher N-uptake (119.26 kg ha-1). The increased levels of nitrogen and phosphorus at 150-50 NP kg ha-1 respectively increased biological yield (7235.50 kg ha-1), harvest index (44.18%), grain yield (3198.19 kg ha-1) and N-uptake (114.01 kg ha-1). The better yield and soil fertility could be obtained by the inclusion of leguminous crop at least once in a two year cropping sequence, because leguminous crops enrich soil fertility by fixing environmental nitrogen in their root nodules, which in turn supply residual food nutrients to the succeeding crop.

2027-2034 Download
16
LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS IN BASMATI RICE
MUHAMMAD RASHID*, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS IN BASMATI RICE
ABSTRACT:
2 line x 3 tester mating design along with 5 rice genotypes and 6 F1s were used of line, tester was higher than that of interaction of line x tester for all the characters. The predictability ratio indicated the predominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of all these characters. The highest significant heterosis (61.9) was observed in the cross Super Basmati/DM-107-4 for yield/plant. The female Super Basmati, male DM-25 and DM-107-4 were observed to be good general combiners for most of the characters studied. The crosses between Basmati-370/DM-25 and Super Basmati/DM-107-4 were observed good specific combiners for yield/plant. However, the cross combination Basmati-370/EL.-30-2-1 was identified as the promising specific combiner for further improvement in rice.

2035-2042 Download
17
CLUSTERING OF BASMATI RICE MUTANTS BY METROGLYPH ANALYSIS
MUHAMMAD RASHID*, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

CLUSTERING OF BASMATI RICE MUTANTS BY METROGLYPH ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Deviations observed by Metroglyph method regarding the number of clusters formed, number of genotypes in each cluster and superimposition of the genotypes within the cluster pointed out the precision and refinement of the technique in studying the germplasm collection. It is noted that through induced mutation genetic improvement for yield and yield components is possible. Metroglyph scatter diagram provided the possibility of 11 clusters of rice genotypes. Cluster-I and cluster-II possessed the highest index scores i.e., 66 and 56 respectively on morphological basis. On the basis of this clustering, it can be interpreted that mutants between cluster-I and cluster-II is expected to give better types after hybridization

2043-2049 Download
18
IDENTIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) INBRED LINES / MUTANTS
ABDUL JABBAR KHAN*, AKHTAR ALI, FAROOQ-I-AZAM AND AURANG ZEB

IDENTIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) INBRED LINES / MUTANTS
ABSTRACT:
Research studies were carried out for identification and isolation of low phytate bread wheat mutants / cultivars in Pakistan. Sixty six mutants / cultivars collected from different parts of the country were assayed for phytic acid contents. The phytic acid contents ranged from 0.98% (Parvaz-94) to 2.17 % (NRL-0443). The frequency distribution curve showed that most of the genotypes had seed phytic acid contents in the range of 1.28 - 1.72%. Pooled analysis of revealed that seed phytic acid contents have significant correlations with seed width (p<0.001), seed thickness (p<0.01) and seed volume (p<0.05). Seven genotypes viz., Bakhtawar-92, Parwaz-94, NRL-0406, NRL-0416, NRL0431, NRL-0439 and NRL-0441 were identified as having low phytic acid contents. The selected lines were grown at 5 locations differed for soil types and environmental condition to determine G x E interaction on phytic acid contents. Cultivar Parvaz-94 gave consistently low and mutant NRL-0431 gave the highest concentration of phytic acid across the location. The effects of genotypes, environments (locations) and their interactions on phytic acid content were all highly significant, with the location having the largest effect. The highly significant interaction between genotype and environment suggests that the correct evaluation of wheat germplasm by phytic acid content should be conducted in multi-environments.

2051-2058 Download
19
BIOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATIONS OF SEA BUCKTHORN (HYPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SPP. TURKESTANICA) FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN
ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH1, DILNAWAZ AHMED2, MUBASHER SABIR2, SHAZIA ARIF2, ISHTIAQUE KHALIQ1 AND FARHAT BATOOL3*

BIOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATIONS OF SEA BUCKTHORN (HYPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SPP. TURKESTANICA) FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Sea buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy shrub belonging to the family Elaeagnaceae. It bears yellow to orange berries, which have been used for centuries in Europe and Asia for beneficial purposes. It has attracted considerable attraction in the world mainly for its nutritional and medicinal value. Currently it has been cultivated in the various parts of the world. The abundant naturally growing Sea buckthorn ecotypes are of diverse genetic make up with diverse biochemical and nutritional expressions. To study the biochemical and nutritional values in 10 selected Sea buckthorn ecotypes from variable locations in northern areas, a research was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture Rawalakot Azad Kashmir Pakistan. In the present study ascorbic acid was determined by indo phenol dye method and oil contents from the berries were analyzed by using diethyl ether as solvent in Soxhlet apparatus for 6 hours at 30-40oC. The minerals iron and phosphorus were estimated using spectrophotometer. Comparison on the basis of biochemical analysis provided data that vitamin C had the range (191-295.6mg/100g). The high content of Vitamin C reflects the significance of Sea buckthorn in northern areas. Results have shown the values of oil content in the range of 18.2-43.5% and 7.03-12.86% in Sea buckthorn berry pulp and seeds respectively. The huge difference in the range of oil content is due to altitude variations and genetics make of Sea buckthorn ecotypes as well. The minerals, iron and phosphates were in the range of 2.6-7 and 34.3-466.6 mg/100g respectively which again reflects the variations among the ecotypes. The study provides the evidence of the presence of genetically diverse ecotypes of Sea buckthorn in northern areas with tremendous biochemical and nutritional values.

2059-2065 Download
20
MULTIPLE SHOOT FORMATION FROM DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OF CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
SHAGUFTA NAZ, AAMIR ALI, FAYYAZ AHMAD SIDDIQUE AND JAVED IQBAL

MULTIPLE SHOOT FORMATION FROM DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OF CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The direct regeneration ability in different explants i.e., shoot and nodal explants of Cicer arietinum was investigated on M.S. basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of Benzyl amino purine (BAP). Rapid and early shoot initiation was observed in lower concentration of BAP. Higher concentrations delayed shoot initiation in both explants. The number of shoots per explant increased with BAP concentration while shoot length decreased with increasing BAP concentration. The overall response of nodal explant was better than shoot apex. The regeneration shoots were further multiplied by sub culturing on fresh medium. The multiple shoots were shifted to full and half strength M.S. medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and IBA for induction of roots while the half strength media with 1.0 uM NAA gave excellent response of root induction.

2067-2073 Download
21
INTER-ACCESSIONAL VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) AT GERMINATION AND SCREENING STAGE
ZAHRA NOREEN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1 AND MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN2

INTER-ACCESSIONAL VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) AT GERMINATION AND SCREENING STAGE
ABSTRACT:
In order to improve salt tolerance, it is important to explore inter-cultivar genetic variation for salt tolerance, so a greenhouse experiment was conducted to screen 11 local accessions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the germination and seedling stages. Seeds of 11 local pea accessions were grown at five different levels of salinity (0, 60

2075-2085 Download
22
EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT ON COASTAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN THE NORTHEASTERN MEDITERRANEANSEVİM POLAT
The response of coastal phytoplankton community to increased nutrient concentrations was examined over a period of 20 days in the summer period on the NE Mediterranean coast. Two different nutrient enrichments were performed. The enrichment treatments rec

EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT ON COASTAL PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN THE NORTHEASTERN MEDITERRANEANSEVİM POLAT
ABSTRACT:
Faculty of Fisheries, University of Çukurova, Balcalı, 01330 Adana, Turkey

2087-2095 Download
23
EPIPHYTIC ALGAL BIOMASS ON PNEUMATOPHORES OF MANGROVES OF KARACHI, INDUS DELTA
S.M. SAIFULLAH1 AND WAQAR AHMED2

EPIPHYTIC ALGAL BIOMASS ON PNEUMATOPHORES OF MANGROVES OF KARACHI, INDUS DELTA
ABSTRACT:
The epiphytic algal biomass on pneumatophores of the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., was estimated for the first time from the Indus Delta region during the northeast monsoon season. Its average value was 8.38±0.27mg DW cm-2 of pneumatophores surface area and 132.84±7.79 gm DW m-2 of mud surface comparable to some other areas in the world. The algae formed a thick felt-like covering on the entire length of the pneumatophores except for a small portion at the tip. Vaucheria karachiensis was the most prominent and dominant alga. The algae were more common in shaded areas and also during colder months.

2097-2102 Download
24
EVALUATION OF URDBEAN GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS
M. ASHFAQ1

EVALUATION OF URDBEAN GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
2,*, M. ASLAM KHAN1, S. M. MUGHAL 2, N. JAVED 1,

2103-2111 Download
25
ENHANCEMENT OF BIOCONTROL POTENTIAL OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT ROT OF MUNGBEAN BY A MEDICINAL PLANT LAUNAEA NUDICAULIS L.
FARRUKH MANSOOR1, VIQAR SULTANA2 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE3

ENHANCEMENT OF BIOCONTROL POTENTIAL OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT ROT OF MUNGBEAN BY A MEDICINAL PLANT LAUNAEA NUDICAULIS L.
ABSTRACT:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cyst nematodes inhibited the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum in dual culture plate assay. Application of P. aeruginosa with a medicinal plant Launaea nudicaulis @ 0.5% as soil amendment resulted in maximum reduction in M. phaseolina infection on mungbean roots in screenhouse experiments. Launaea nudicaulis @ 0.5 and 1% w/w also significantly suppressed infection by M. phaseolina. Use of P. aeruginosa alone or with L. nudicaulis @ 0.1% resulted in complete control of Rhizoctonia solani infection. Significant control of F. solani was also achieved by the application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus alone and by the combined use of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus with different dosages of L. nudicaulis. Greater plant height resulted when P. lilacinus was used alone followed by P. aeruginosa used with L. nudicaulis @ 0.1%. Significant increase in fresh shoot weight resulted when P. lilacinus and P. aeruginosa were used alone or P. aeruginosa used with L. nudicaulis @ 0.1%

2113-2119 Download
26
SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN.)
NASREEN SULTANA AND A. GHAFFAR

SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN.)
ABSTRACT:
Using ISTA techniques, the seed borne fungi of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) was studied. A total of 15 genera and 29 species of fungi were isolated, of which 25 have not hitherto been recorded from seeds of bitter gourd in Pakistan. The blotter method was found to be most suitable technique for detection of fungi in bitter gourd. Deep-freezing method was preferable for the detection of Fusarium spp., Myrothecium spp. and Penicillium purpurogenum.

2121-2125 Download
27
ASSESSMENT OF YIELD LOSSES CAUSED BY PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS TRIGGERING STRIPE RUST IN THE MOST COMMON WHEAT VARIETIES
SYED NADEEM AFZAL1, M.I. HAQUE*1, M.S. AHMEDANI2, SAMINA BASHIR1 AND ATIQ UR RAHMAN RATTU3

ASSESSMENT OF YIELD LOSSES CAUSED BY PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS TRIGGERING STRIPE RUST IN THE MOST COMMON WHEAT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to assess wheat yield losses inflicted by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. Investigations revealed that there exists a direct linkage between the disease level and the yield loss in the most common commercially adopted wheat varieties in Pakistan. The yield was significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of leaf area affected by stripe rust. The correlation coefficient (-0.67805) depicted highly significant effect of stripe rust in lowering wheat yield. There was varying resistance level among different wheat varieties. The extensively cultivated wheat variety, Inquilab-91 was found to be most resistant with minimum yield loss of 5.77% followed by Wafaq-2001 and Bakhtawar with yield loss of 6.63% and 14.90%, respectively. Whereas Morocco, proved to be the most susceptible wheat variety with maximum yield deficit to the tune of 39.79%. Evaluation of disease resistance revealed that Inquilab-91, Bakhtawar and Wafaq-2001 exhibited 2.24

2127-2134 Download
28
DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ON LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM L., AND SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L., LEAVESa
SYEDA SADDIQA FIRDOUS1*, REHANA ASHGAR1, M.I. HAQUE2 AND SYED NADEEM AFZAL2

DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI ON LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM L., AND SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L., LEAVESa
ABSTRACT:
Xanthomonas campestris pv. sesami (Xcs), causes bacterial blight disease which can significantly reduce the production of sesame. Previously collected isolate of Xcs differed in their ability to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) on tomato and potato. Tomato was most sensitive to HR induction by Xcs. Isolate Xcs caused an HR on tested plants. The minimal concentration of Xcs needed to induce HR was approximately 1x109CFU (Colony Forming Unit) mL-1. It was found that different temperatures and light treatments did not affect HR development, except that the HR did not develop in plants maintained continuously at 0°C. When plants were placed under natural light the tissues showed strong chlorosis within 2 days after infiltration. High relative humidity affected the development of HR, in the absence or relative low humidity HR did not develop.

2135-2139 Download
29
ASSOCIATION OF FUNGI, BACTERIA AND ACTINOMYCETES WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSTS
RABIA ASHRAF, FAIZA SHAHID AND TASNEEM ADAM ALI

ASSOCIATION OF FUNGI, BACTERIA AND ACTINOMYCETES WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSTS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study the agricultural and kitchen wastes viz., potato peels, sugar cane waste, tree bark, used microbiological media, news paper, saw dust, fruit peels, grass, leaves, guar, used tea, spinach twigs, wood chips, fruit and vegetable wastes were used alone and in combinations as compost feed-stocks. Microorganisms isolated and characterized from the above composts include the species of fungi viz., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Monilia, Helminthosporium, Coccidioides, Scedosporium, actinomycete viz., Nocardia and bacteria viz., Bacillus, Lactobacilli, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Clostridium. Of these isolates, members of the genus Aspergillus were most prevalent (38%) followed by Bacillus comprising of 20% of the total microbial isolates. The study supports the idea that composting can be useful to treat wide range of organic materials such as yard trimmings, kitchen wastes and food processing discards. In addition, the knowledge regarding species composition of the microorganisms of different composts can help to optimize compost quality standards.

2141-2151 Download
30
IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPLASMA FROM MANGOTREES SHOWING SUDDEN DEATH PHENOMENONTHROUGH MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES
MUNAWAR RAZA KAZMI, SAIMA IRAM FAROOQ, FAISAL SOHAIL FATEH, SHAHID HAMEED, FAUQIA FAHMEED, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF AND IFTIKHAR AHMED

IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPLASMA FROM MANGOTREES SHOWING SUDDEN DEATH PHENOMENONTHROUGH MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is susceptible to a number of diseases. One of the important diseases is sudden death phenomenon which is a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. Several fungi have been isolated from mango tree showing sudden death. But some of its symptoms resemble with those caused by Phytoplasma. This study has been made for the detection of phytoplasma from trees showing sudden death. The detection process involved PCR and fluorescent microscopy of samples collected from various locations in Punjab. Out of 90 samples only one sample showed the presence of Phytoplasma. This shows that phytoplasma is not directly involved in the disease development and may be contributing as a predisposing factor.

2153-2157 Download
31
ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF BACTERIAL INOCULUM MULTIPLIED ON RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA LAMK., IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MASH BEAN AND OKRA
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, FATIMA S. MEHDI AND M. JAVED ZAKI

ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF BACTERIAL INOCULUM MULTIPLIED ON RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA LAMK., IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON MASH BEAN AND OKRA
ABSTRACT:
Microbial antagonists viz., Bacillus subtilis, B. thuringiensis, B. cereus and Rhizobium meliloti multiplied on dry powder of leaves and stem of R. mucronata were used in the control of root infecting fungi on mash bean and okra. Good growth of microbial antagonists was observed on all plant parts. Population increased with the increase in time. Highest population of R. meliloti, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis was obtained on stem whereas B. cereus on leaves powder of R. mucronata. Of the four antagonists used R. meliloti showed highest population on R. mucronata plant parts. Germination of seeds, shoot length, shoot weight, root length and root weight in okra and mung bean showed promising results when bacterial antagonists viz., B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, B. cereus and R. meliloti after multiplication on mangrove plant parts was used @ 1% w/w. Infection of R. solani was significantly inhibited on okra when R. meliloti multiplied on leaves powder of R. mucronata was used @ 1 % w/w whereas all biocontrol bacteria viz., B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis B. cereus and R. meliloti completely suppressed the infection of R. solani and M. phaseolina on mung bean when used after multiplication on leaves and stem powder of R. mucronata.

2159-2165 Download
32
EFFECTS OF HYGROMYCIN ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIDOPSIS SEEDLING ROOTS
HONGYING DUAN* AND XIAOSHENG DING

EFFECTS OF HYGROMYCIN ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIDOPSIS SEEDLING ROOTS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, it was found that growth and development of Arabidopsis seedling main root and lateral root were affected by Hygromycin. Compared to the controls, main roots of Arabidopsis seedlings cultured on MS medium with Hygromycin were very short, and lateral roots were not formed. In addition, cells in the meristematic zone of root tip exhibited abnormal array, weak division ability, evident differentiation and large intercellular space. Accordingly, it is presumed that Hygromycin might influence growth of main root and formation of lateral root of Arabidopsis seedlings by restraining synthesis of some proteins.

2167-2173 Download
33
ROLE OF N, P & K CONTENTS IN RESISTANCE AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1*, M. USMAN GHAZANFAR1, M. AFZAL2 AMER HABIB1 AND M.B. ILYAS1

ROLE OF N, P & K CONTENTS IN RESISTANCE AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
ABSTRACT:
Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of un-inoculated plants of lentil lines included in susceptible group were higher than those of the resistant one whereas, potassium, contents were more in the un-inoculated lines of resistant as compared with the susceptible group. Upon inoculation with Ascochyta lentis, the nitrogen and potassium contents, increased invariably in both the resistant and susceptible group of lentil lines. On the other hand, phosphorus contents increased in inoculated lentil lines of the susceptible group but decreased in those of the resistant group. In general, it was found that the plants lower in nitrogen and phosphorus were resistant to lentil blight while those with higher nitrogen and phosphorus were susceptible to lentil blight disease caused by Ascochyta lentis.

2175-2181 Download
34
PASTURE CONCENTRATION OF MINERALS IN RELATION TO THE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF FARM LIVESTOCK
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3 KAFEEL AHMAD1 AND MUHAMMAD DANISH4

PASTURE CONCENTRATION OF MINERALS IN RELATION TO THE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF FARM LIVESTOCK
ABSTRACT:
Mineral composition (Ca, Na, Cu, and Zn) of different forages and soils in five agricultural local pastures in the Punjab, Pakistan were studied. They were designated as pastures, feeding sites and situated at a distance of 5 km, exhibiting varied vegetation. Grazing animals were followed, and forages corresponding to those consumed by them, and the corresponding soil samples were collected during the winter and summer seasons and analyzed for mineral composition. Most forage samples as well as their corresponding soil samples were not sufficient for most minerals. Some low levels in soil Zn were found in two pastures during summer and winter seasons. Winter season soil Ca and Cu concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) than summer season; perhaps owing to leaching in all five pastures in summer. Most forage samples had very marginal mineral concentrations, below the critical levels known to be adequate for normal ruminant requirements. Forage levels of Ca, Na, Cu, and Zn were found to be significantly increased (p<0.05), generally, with plant maturity from summer to winter. Grazing ruminants in the pastures might possibly be deficient in most minerals and these grazing pastures are not providing adequate levels of the minerals to the livestock grazing therein. Supplementation is the urgent need for grazing livestock to prevent deficiency diseases due to mineral imbalances.

2183-2191 Download
35
GEASTRUM SESSILE AND G. VULGATUM NEW RECORDS FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

GEASTRUM SESSILE AND G. VULGATUM NEW RECORDS FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Geastrum sessile and G. vulgatum are being reported for the first time from Gilgit valley, Pakistan. These species are characterized by the production of pointed starfish-like rays on fruiting body. Spores are sub-spherical, very finely spiny and warty.During the study on Macrofungi of Gilgit valley, Pakistan in summer 2004, the specimens were collected from Nulter, District Gilgit (alt 2915m, N = 36 o 08, E =74 o 11), growing on groups on soil under broad-leaved and conifer trees. On the basis of microscopic examination, these were identified as Geastrum sessile and G. vulgatum ( Fig. 1 & 2) after reference to Ahmed (1997), Demoulin & Marriot (1981), Surcek (1988), Ahmed (1972), Ainsworth (1987), Alexopoulos (1996), Buczacki (1989) and Hawksworth et al., (1995).

2193-2194 Download
36
ROOT-INDUCED CHANGES IN SOME BIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL SOWN TO WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
S. GILL, F. AZAM AND A. KHARRAL1

ROOT-INDUCED CHANGES IN SOME BIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL SOWN TO WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
In a greenhouse experiment, wheat and chickpea were compared for root-induced changes in bacterial/fungal population of rhizospheric soil, microbial biomass, immobilization/loss of N applied as NH4+ and NO3-, dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase (NRA) and potential nitrification activity (PNA). Unplanted soil was used as a control for changes due to plant growth. Four varieties each of wheat and chickpea were grown in a greenhouse. Dry weight and % dry matter content of root and shoot portions were significantly different for the two crop types. On an average, varieties of chickpea gathered ca 2 times greater biomass pot-1 as compared to wheat. Both wheat and chickpea varieties had a significantly positive effect on dehydrogenase activity (DA) of the soil, the effect being significantly greater for the latter. Microbial biomass N content of planted soil that accounted for 2.7% - 3.5% of total N was significantly (P = 0.05) higher as compared to that of unplanted soil, was higher in chickpea than wheat rhizosphere, and was significantly correlated (P = 0.05; r = 0.092) with DA. On an average, the wheat varieties had an inhibitory effect on potential nitrification activity (PNA), while the chickpea varieties caused a significant (P = 0.05) increase over unplanted soil. With reference to unplanted soil, a significant (P = 0.05) inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in wheat rhizosphere (>63%) and significant enhancement (16 folds) in chickpea rhizosphere was observed. Microbial biomass N content of unplanted soil was13.9 μg g-1 soil compared to18.5 and 22.1 μg g-1 soil planted to wheat and chickpea, respectively. It accounted for 2.7 – 3.5% of the total N under different crop varieties and was significantly correlated with DA (r = 0.92; n = 9; P = 0.05). Immobilization of labeled NH4+ was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of wheat than chickpea. A higher percentage of NO3--N than NH4+-N was immobilized in the rhizosphere soil of wheat compared to chickpea (30.2 vs 22.7 % of the applied), while more NO3--N was unaccounted in the rhizosphere soil of chickpea than wheat (37.3 vs 16.8%).

2195-2207 Download
37
USE OF EUCALYPTUS SP., IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SUMAIRA M. YOUNUS AND M. JAVED ZAKI

USE OF EUCALYPTUS SP., IN THE CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ROOT KNOT NEMATODE
ABSTRACT:
Different parts of Eucalyptus sp., viz., leaves, stem, bark and fruit used as aqueous and ethanol extracts showed nematicidal effect against Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode, reduced hatching of eggs, increased mortality of juveniles with an increase in exposure of time and showed efficiency in the control of Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode on mung bean and chick-pea plants. Significant increase in shoot length, shoot weight, root length and root weight was observed where soil was amended with leaves, stem, bark and fruit of Eucalyptus sp., used @ 0.1

2209-2214 Download
38
SOIL SOLARIZATION: A MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR MYCOTOXINS IN CORN
YASMIN AHMAD AND A. GHAFFAR*

SOIL SOLARIZATION: A MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR MYCOTOXINS IN CORN
ABSTRACT:
Strategies for the management of mycotoxins in corn using soil solarization alone and in combination with soil amendments (farm yard manure, chicken farm yard manure, neem leaves and biokhad) were developed at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Experiments with soil solarization showed a pronounced reduction in weed population soon after removal of the transparent polyethylene sheets. Solarization controlled weeds (98.5%), increased soil temperature by 11.5oC over non-solarized soil at 10 cm depth, reduced soil-borne pests, reduced ear rot diseases (72.5%), conserved moisture, increased the availability of essential nutrients in the soil and hence enhanced the growth of corn plants. Soil solarization was found an effective method in controlling ear rots. In treated plots, grain yield was more than double due to pathogen control, enhanced available nutrients in the soil as well as no competition with weeds. Soil solarization applied with transparent polyethylene film was found the most effective in reducing the incidence of corn ear rots and consequently reduced mycotoxins (fumonisins and aflatoxins) in fields and stored corn. We can avoid the hazardous/ poisonous effects of different chemicals on plant and animal life and thus, soil solarization technology could be used for the management of mycotoxins in food grains in future.

2215-2223 Download
39
PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IN BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA ISOLATES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT WHEAT GROWING AREAS OF THE PUNJAB AND NWFP OF PAKISTAN
SHAHZAD ASAD, SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, ANJUM MUNIR, IFTIKHAR AHMAD* AND NAJMA AYUB**

PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IN BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA ISOLATES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT WHEAT GROWING AREAS OF THE PUNJAB AND NWFP OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf blight of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus) is a world wide economically important foliar disease. It mainly occurs in warm, humid wheat growing areas. In Pakistan Helminthosporium leaf blight (spot blotch) has been noted in southern province of Sindh, where winter temperatures are warmer. During a survey conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan from 2004 to 2005, Bipolaris sorokiniana was found to be a predominant pathogen. Eighty-seven isolates of B. sorokinaina isolated from 6 different zones were tested for their aggressiveness on cv. Inqliab-91, Wafaq-2001 and Bhakhar-2001. The majority of the isolates were found more aggressive on cv. Wafaq-2001 than Inqliab-91 and Bhakkar-2001 whereas, two isolates were categorized as least aggressive, 57 slightly aggressive and 27 were moderately aggressive while one isolate P2 9 collected from Khanewal (zone 5) exhibited most aggressive reaction.

2225-2231 Download
40
BIODIVERSITY OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATEDFROM CALOTROPIS PROCERA (AIT.) R. BR.
REZWANA KHAN1,3, SALEEM SHAHZAD2, M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY3, SHAKEEL A. KHAN1 AND AQEEL AHMAD1*

BIODIVERSITY OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATEDFROM CALOTROPIS PROCERA (AIT.) R. BR.
ABSTRACT:
Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br., a widely used medicinal plant in Indian sub-continent, was investigated for endophytic mycoflora as a possible source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Four hundred seventy three segments from 9 plants of Calotropis procera, collected from different locations of Karachi University campus during 2003-2005, were processed for the presence of endophytic fungi. A total of 8 fungal species viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sublateritium, Phoma chrysanthemicola, P. hedericola, Phoma sp., and Candida albicans were isolated. Among the endophytic flora, Phoma was the most prominent genus. Interestingly, no endophyte was isolated from 118 leaves samples and overall colonization frequency from surface sterilized stem was 8.86%.

2233-2239 Download
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