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Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 1
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1
CONTRIBUTION TO THE FAMILY APONOGETONACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
S. I. ALI

CONTRIBUTION TO THE FAMILY APONOGETONACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This article contains No Abstract

1-3 Download
2
A NEW SPECIES OF HIERACIUM L. (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
SULTANUL ABEDIN AND ZAMARRUD

A NEW SPECIES OF HIERACIUM L. (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A new species Hieracium sherwalii (Asteraceae) S.Abedin & Zamarrud is described from Pakistan.

5-8 Download
3
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LVI. CUCURBITACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LVI. CUCURBITACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 10 species representing 7 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal rarely sub-prolate or sub-oblate. Sexine slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum mostly coarsely reticulate or reticulate-rugulate rarely verrucate-scabrate. On the basis of exine pattern and apertural types three distinct pollen types are recognized viz., Cucumis melo-type, Momordica charantia-type and Solena amplexicaulis-type.

9-16 Download
4
PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DUREJI (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
ANJUM PERVEEN, GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR AND ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN

PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DUREJI (KHIRTHAR RANGE)
ABSTRACT:
An Inventory of plant species of Dureji game reserve was prepared on the basis of field trips conducted in different parts of the year particularly in winter, summer and monsoon. A total of 79 plants species were collected belonging to 66 genera under 32 families. Three rare species were found from the study area. Phenological status of each species i.e. flowering and fruiting condition was also observed. Quantitative analysis on species diversity in addition to phytosociological attributes analysis was conducted. Some ecological parameters such as lifeforms, density, relative density, cover, relative cover frequency and relative frequency were investigated. Vegetation cover varies from place to place depending upon the texture and structure of the soil. Vegetation structure and density is greatly influenced by the rainfall. One of the main threats to the vegetation of the study area is grazing. The current work provides floristic and ecological data for these threatened habitats of Dureji Game Reserve and documents the structure and composition of vegetation.

17-24 Download
5
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF GNAPHALIUM L. AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (GNAPHALIEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF GNAPHALIUM L. AND ITS ALLIED GENERA (GNAPHALIEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypsela morphology of 8 taxa of the genera Gamochaeta Wedd., Gnaphalium L., Homognaphalium Kirp., and Pseudognaphalium Kirp., was examined from Pakistan using light and scanning electron microscopy. The cypsela characters are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa except that of the genera Gnaphalium and Pseudognaphalium as they share common cypsela features and both are placed in one cypsela type.

25-31 Download
6
ANTHER TYPES OF DICOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
M. SAAD UL ISLAM, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

ANTHER TYPES OF DICOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present studies of anther types (based on their mode of dehiscence) accounted for 206 angiospermic species belonging to 140 genera of 45 families. Two main types of anther dehiscence were observed viz., longitudinal and poricidal. Among the subtypes of longitudinal dehiscence, latrorse type is most common found in 114 species, followed by extrorse and introrse types in 49 and 28 taxa respectively. There are only 15 species which dehisce their anthers by apical pores. The families Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae and Compositae have introrse anther dehiscence, whereas, poricidal type is specific for the genera Cassia, Pedalium, Polygala, Senna and Solanum.

33-41 Download
7
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME USEFUL HERBS OF HARAMOSH AND BUGROTE VALLEYS IN GILGIT, NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SHER WALI KHAN AND SURAYYA KHATOON

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME USEFUL HERBS OF HARAMOSH AND BUGROTE VALLEYS IN GILGIT, NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Field studies were made on the herbaceous medicinal plants of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys. Folk medicinal uses of herbs in these valleys have helped people prevent and cure various diseases such as rheumatism, asthma, diabetes, blood pressure, stomach problems, abdominal problems etc. The most common medicinal herbs found in the region belong to the families Labiatae, Compositae, Ranunculaceae, Umbelliferae and Gentianaceae. In the present paper 98 herbaceous plant species are reported on the basis of information gathered from local peoples of both valleys. Out of 98 plants 21 are cultivated and 77 are wild.

43-58 Download
8
MORPHOPALYNOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON FAN FERN SCHIZAEA DICHOTOMA (L.) SMITH FROM NEELUM VALLEY, AZAD KASHMIR
GHULAM MURTAZA*, REHANA ASGHAR1, SYED ABDUL MAJID AND ZAHID HUSSAIN MALIK

MORPHOPALYNOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON FAN FERN SCHIZAEA DICHOTOMA (L.) SMITH FROM NEELUM VALLEY, AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The specimens of Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Smith were collected from Neelum Valley to investigate its morphology, anatomy and spore morphology. The rachis was observed as triangular and dichotomized stele was protostele and “Y” shaped. The sporangium was stalked and annulus consisted of 16-19 cells containing 256 spores. The spores were convex-plane with exine of 0.5 mm. All these characters suggested that Schizaea dichotoma is more primitive than the Lygodium japonicum.

59-63 Download
9
CHECK LIST OF THE WEEDS FOUND IN COTTON CROPS, CULTIVATED IN TALUKA UBAURO, DISTRICT SUKKUR, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT, SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR, BASIR AHMED AND MUHAMMAD ASLAM ARAIN

CHECK LIST OF THE WEEDS FOUND IN COTTON CROPS, CULTIVATED IN TALUKA UBAURO, DISTRICT SUKKUR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The weeds in the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in the fields of Taluka Ubauro District Sukkur, Pakistan, were identified. Seventy six weed species belonging to 21 families were identified from 10 different cotton fields. A maximum of 22 weed species are recorded in the family Poaceae. Information on rare and common weed species is also provided.

65-70 Download
10
THE INDUSIUM STRUCTURE IN DAMPIERA SPECIES (GOODENIACEAE)
MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT AND SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR

THE INDUSIUM STRUCTURE IN DAMPIERA SPECIES (GOODENIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The structure of indusium of all the 66 species of Dampiera R.Br. of the family Goodeniaceae were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope and the light microscope. Two types of indusium structures were recognized among the species of Dampiera. SEMGS of the indusia of 11 species are provided, which cover the almost entire structural variation found within the species of Dampiera.

71-75 Download
11
LEAF EPIDERMAL ANATOMY OF SELECTED ALLIUM SPECIES, FAMILY ALLIACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, REHANA ASGHAR1 AND ANJUM PARVEEN3

LEAF EPIDERMAL ANATOMY OF SELECTED ALLIUM SPECIES, FAMILY ALLIACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf epidermal anatomy of the selected Allium species showed variation in size and shape of stomatal cells, stomatal cavity, micro and macro hairs, trichomes, silica bodies and long cells. Leaf epidermal anatomy prooved a significant tool for the resolution of taxonomic confusions of the Allium species. Allium consanguineum had most diverse leaf epidermal anatomy. This species had longest stomatal cells (6-14 µm) and silca bodies (6-14 µm). Presence of micro hairs is an important distinguishing character for A. carolianum, the length of micro hairs varies from 150-200 µm. Only dumb-bell shaped silica bodies were observed in 6 different species viz., A. dolichostylum, A. borszczewii, A. micranthum, A. consanguinem, A. stocksianum and A. stoliczki. Trichomes were present in A. barszczewksi, A. borszczowii, A. micranthum, A. lamondae, A. miserbile, A. longicollum, A. gilli and A. dolichostylum, Cluster analysis based on anatomical characters revealed that 18 species of the genus Allium were divided into 2 main clusters at the phylogenetic distance of 79%. Lower order classification of the genus Allium on the basis of anatomical characters is entirely different from morphological classification.

77-90 Download
12
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BIRD’S NEST FERN (ASPLENIUM NIDUS) FROM SPORES
SAIFULLAH KHAN, MARIAM RAZIQ AND HAMMAD AFZAL KAYANI

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BIRD’S NEST FERN (ASPLENIUM NIDUS) FROM SPORES
ABSTRACT:
Micropropagation can be applied to produce those species of fern that are hard to propagate conventionally for the benefit of the ornamental industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavior of the Asplenium nidus under in-vitro conditions. Micropropagation of Asplenium nidus was initiated using spores as an explant. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate best sterilization technique for Asplenium nidus spores. Commercial bleach at 20% (v/v) along with few drops of Tween-20 was found very effective. Explants were cultured on half-strength Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium and were incubated in the dark at 22±2°C. After 12 weeks germination of spores, prothalli were obtained. After germination, cultures were transferred on to fresh medium every 4-week. Prothalli were subcultured on half-MS medium along with Benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1-4 mgl-1) and Naphthelenacetic acid (NAA) (0.1-0.5 mgl-1) where they multiplied successfully. Maximum number of shoots was obtained after transferring explant on differentiation media containing various concentration of Sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) along with NAA and BAP at the concentration of 2 mgl-1 and 0.5mgl-1 each, respectively. Addition of Sodium dihydrogen phosphate in MS medium plays a significant role in differentiation from gametophyte stage to sporophytic stage. Rooting was optimal at concentration of 2.0 mgl-1 Indole Butyric acid (IBA). Best material for acclimatization was found to be garden sand.

91-97 Download
13
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CROTON (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM)
ASMA NASIB, KASHIF ALI AND SAIFULLAH KHAN

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CROTON (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM)
ABSTRACT:
Croton (Codiaeum variegatum) with its amazing colors and leathery leaves is regarded as a beautiful foliage plant. The plant is native of South East Asia. Generally crotons are multiplied vegetatively by means of cuttings and air layering. This process is slow in response and need to maintain large number of mother plants stock. Micropropagation is an alternative mean of propagation that can meet its high demand in relatively shorter time. An improved and enhanced method was established for the In vitro propagation of croton. A series of experiments were conducted for the optimization of shooting and rooting media. The best media for shoot induction was MS (Murashige and Skoog) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of BAP (6-benzyl amino purine). The effect of the selected media was further enhanced by adding adjuvants like malt extract and peptone. The MS basal salt mixtures with BAP (0.5 mg/L) and 25 mg/L of malt extract along with 25 mg/L of peptone effectively enhanced the shoot formation. The In vitro roots were efficiently induced by using MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of IBA (Indole 3- butyric acid). The sufficiently rooted plants were then transferred to the green house for hardening and 80% sand and 20% farm yard manure, as a potting mix, was best suited for the acclimatization of plantlets.

99-104 Download
14
EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONES ON MICROPROPAGATION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. PERLETTE
MUHAMMAD J. JASKANI1, HAIDER ABBAS2, R. SULTANA1, M.M. KHAN1, M. QASIM1 AND IQRAR A. KHAN1

EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONES ON MICROPROPAGATION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. PERLETTE
ABSTRACT:
In vitro propagation of Vitis offers opportunities for increasing plant material for cultivation. Cultures were established and maintained in vitro on MS medium supplemented with BA (0, 5 and 10 µM) for shoot and NAA (0

105-109 Download
15
AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS)
AAMIR ALI1, HUMERA AFRASIAB2, SHAGUFTA NAZ3, MAMOONA RAUF2 AND JAVED IQBAL2

AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS)
ABSTRACT:
The present research work involves shoot formation, their multiplication and rooting in carnation Dianthus caryophyllous. For shoot formation both apical and nodal meristems were used. MS medium containing BAP alone or in combination with kinetin was tested. Best shoot formation response was obtained after 6 days of inoculation from apical meristem and after 7 days of inoculation from nodal meristem on MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/l BAP. Apical meristem showed more pronounced effect for shoot formation than nodal meristem. Well-developed shoots were shifted for their multiplication. Maximum number of multiple shoots were obtained on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BAP. These multiple shoots increased in their number when were given subsequent incubation period. Addition of Kinetin to BAP failed to show good shoot multiplication response. Shoots after attaining the size of 5.0 cm were shifted for rooting. Best rooting response was obtained on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA. Well rooted plants were shifted into glass house for hardening and acclimatization and were shifted to natural climatic conditions.

111-121 Download
16
RAPID CLONAL MULTIPLICATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM) THROUGH CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS
AAMIR ALI, SHAGUFTA NAZ*, FAYYAZ AHMAD SIDDIQUI** AND JAVED IQBAL***

RAPID CLONAL MULTIPLICATION OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM) THROUGH CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
The results of present investigation demonstrated that inner fresh leaves and shoot apical meristem of sugarcane were highly amenable to In vitro callus culture. Among the auxins

123-138 Download
17
AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUGARCANE THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION
AAMIR ALI, SHAGUFTA NAZ1, FAYYAZ AHMAD SIDDIQUI2 AND JAVED IQBAL3

AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUGARCANE THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION
ABSTRACT:
A rapid propagation and acclimatization response of two different varieties of sugarcane (CP 77,400 and BL-4) was obtained in this study. The shoot apical meristem of different sizes was cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP and kinetin either alone or in combination with each other or GA3. Best shoot formation response in CP 77,400 was obtained on MS medium containing 1.5mg/l BAP while in BL-4 the combination of 0.5 mg/l BAP with 0.25 mg/l Kinetin showed best shoot formation response from apical meristem. Meristem of 3.0 mm size proved to be the best size for micropropagation of sugarcane. Excellent multiplication response of In vitro formed shoots was obtained when the concentration of BAP was decreased to 1.0 mg/l in CP 77, 400 and 0.25 mg/l BAP & Kin in BL-4 (i.e. 0.25 mg/lBAP + 0.25 mg/l Kinetin. MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l IBA showed 100% rooting response of In vitro regenerated shoots of both the varieties of sugarcane within eight days of inoculation. Best hardening response was obtained in Sand+ Soil + Peat (1:1:1) after three week of transplantation in glass house.

139-149 Download
18
MAGNITUDE OF COMBINING ABILITY OF SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
HAKIM KHAN1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN2, HABIB AHMAD3, HAIDAR ALI4, INAMULLAH3 AND MUKHTAR ALAM3

MAGNITUDE OF COMBINING ABILITY OF SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and 5 restorers of sunflower were used, in a line x tester fashions at two locations over two years to determine the magnitude of combining ability and mode of gene action. The traits studied were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity

151-160 Download
19
TRANSFORMATION OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) WITH ARABIDOPSIS EARLY FLOWERING GENE APETALAI (API) THROUGH AGROBACTERIUM INFILTRATION OF RIPENED FRUITS
M. HASAN1, A. J. KHAN2, S. KHAN3, A.H.SHAH4, A. R. KHAN4 AND B. MIRZA5

TRANSFORMATION OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) WITH ARABIDOPSIS EARLY FLOWERING GENE APETALAI (API) THROUGH AGROBACTERIUM INFILTRATION OF RIPENED FRUITS
ABSTRACT:
In order to develop an easy, rapid and efficient protocol for the genetic transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), without involving tissue culturing, ripened fruits of tomato were infiltrated with Agrobacterium harboring plasmid pROKII GUSint AP1. The plasmid contains Arabidopsis early flowering gene AP1, GUS reporter gene and NPTII as a selectable marker gene. Both transient and stable GUS expressions were studied with different parameters such as various incubation periods (48, 72 and 96 hours) and tissue type effect. The effects of infiltration on germination of seeds both on selection and non-selection media were studied. The percentage of germination of seeds on non-selection medium was 14% lesser than control, while the germination percentage on selection medium was significantly higher for treated seeds (65-74%) as compared to control (5%), with 48 hours incubation period having maximum (74%). Among kanamycin resistant plants 94.9% to 87.9% showed stable GUS expression, while 5.1% to 12.07% were escapes. Transient GUS expression exceeded stable GUS expression. Different tissues of the same plant showed variable stable GUS expression (data not shown here). The effect of incubation period was highly significant (p<0.05), with 48 hours incubation period having maximum efficiency (68%). The effect of tissue type on both transient and stable GUS expression was also prominent. Overall, high transformation efficiency 68% to 54% was obtained in seedlings raised from seeds collected from infiltrated fruits. Transformation was confirmed by analyzing the PCR amplified product of AP1, GUS and NPTII genes. This depicted a novel method of transformation in plants in general and tomato in particular.

161-173 Download
20
RESPONSE OF OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L.) TO SOIL GIVEN ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE
SAIF UR REHMAN KASHIF*, MUHAMMAD YASEEN*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD* AND MUHAMMAD AYUB**

RESPONSE OF OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L.) TO SOIL GIVEN ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE
ABSTRACT:
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulated Calcium carbide (CaC2) as nitrification inhibitor and plant hormone. It was studied how encapsulated Calcium carbide slows down the formation of NO3- from applied urea by monitoring the NO3- and NH4+ contents of soil, six weeks after Calcium carbide application. Release of acetylene / ethylene was monitored from encapsulated CaC2 after 1, 7

175-181 Download
21
INFLUENCE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ROOT GROWTH OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
Q. I. CHACHAR1*, A.G. SOLANGI1 AND A. VERHOEF2

INFLUENCE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ROOT GROWTH OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. NIAB-78) to salinity, in terms of seed germination, seedling root growth and root Na+ and K+ content was determined in a laboratory experiment. Cotton seeds were exposed to increasing salinity levels using germination water with Sodium chloride concentrations of 0, 50

183-197 Download
22
WATER AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCIES OF TRANSPLANTED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AT DIFFERENT PLANT DENSITIES AND IRRIGATION REGIMES UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
S. AHMAD1*, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ2, H. ALI1, S.A. SHAD1, A. AHMAD3, M. MAQSOOD3, M.B. KHAN1, S. MEHMOOD1 AND A. HUSSAIN3

WATER AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCIES OF TRANSPLANTED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AT DIFFERENT PLANT DENSITIES AND IRRIGATION REGIMES UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.), in response to plant densities and irrigation (optimum to stress) were analyzed in terms of interception and utilization of photo- synthetically active radiation (PAR) and water use efficiency (WUE). The amount of PAR intercepted and cumulative evapotranspiration (ET) by each treatment was estimated from the measured leaf area index. The relationships between total dry matter, grain yield and accumulated intercepted PAR and cumulative ET were linear. Yield differences among the treatments were attributed to the amount of PAR intercepted and water transpired their efficiencies of utilization or both. The fraction of intercepted radiation and WUE was significantly affected by the plant densities and various irrigation regimes, while, radiation utilization efficiency (RUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) for TDM varied from 1.15 g MJ-1 to 1.36 g MJ-1 and 22.6 kg ha-1 mm-1 to 24.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 during both the seasons.

199-209 Download
23
AMELIORATING EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLIED PROLINE ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN WATER STRESSED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) PLANTS
QASIM ALI1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ AND HAFIZA HUMERA

AMELIORATING EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLIED PROLINE ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN WATER STRESSED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The role of different compatible solutes in plant tolerance to drought stress is significant because they regulate multitude of metabolic processes including ion transport. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the influence of foliar application of a potential osmoprotectant, proline, on patterns of uptake of some essential macronutrients in water stressed plants of two maize (Zea mays) cultivars. Two week old plants of two maize cultivars, EV-1098 and Agaiti 2002, grown under natural environmental conditions were subjected to water stress by maintaining moisture content equivalent to full field capacity (control) and 60% field capacity. Different concentrations of proline applied as a foliar spray at the seedling, vegetative and seedling + vegetative stages were: no spray, 0.1% Tween-20 solution, 30 and 60 mM proline in 0.1% Tween-20 solution. Water stress reduced the concentration of all four mineral nutrients in the shoots and roots of both maize cultivars. However, exogenous application of proline counteracted the adverse effects of water stress on nutrient uptake because it promoted the uptake of K+, Ca2+, N and P in both maize cultivars. Application of 30 mM proline concentration was more effective as compared to the other levels in up-regulating ion transport.

211-219 Download
24
CAN LEAF WATER RELATION PARAMETERS BE USED AS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
EJAZ HUSSAIN SIDDIQI* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

CAN LEAF WATER RELATION PARAMETERS BE USED AS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) using water relation parameters as selection criteria. Ten available lines, Safflower-31, Safflower-32, Safflower-33, Safflower-34, Safflower-35, Safflower-36, Safflower-37, Safflower-38, Safflower-39 and Safflower-78, were screened at 150 mM of NaCl at the vegetative stage. Salt stress caused a marked reduction in shoot fresh biomass and all water relations parameters, relative water content (RWC), water potential (Ψw), and osmotic potential (Ψs) except leaf turgor potential (Ψp). Accessions Safflower-36, Safflower-37 and Safflower-38 were higher, Safflower-39 and Safflower-78 lower, while the remaining accessions intermediate in shoot biomass production under saline conditions. Salt stress also adversely affected all water relation parameters, (RWC, Ψw, Ψs, and Ψp), however, the effect was more pronounced on leaf Ψw, Ψs, and Ψp. Although a great magnitude of inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance was observed in the set of 10 accessions of safflower with respect to shoot biomass production, no one of the water relation parameters was found helpful in discriminating among the lines for salt tolerance.

221-228 Download
25
INTER AND INTRA SPECIFIC VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN TURNIP (BRASSICA RAPA L.) AND RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.) AT THE INITIAL GROWTH STAGES
ZAHRA NOREEN* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

INTER AND INTRA SPECIFIC VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN TURNIP (BRASSICA RAPA L.) AND RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.) AT THE INITIAL GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Exploration of inter- and intra-specific variation for salt tolerance is a pre-requisite for the improvement of this trait through selection and breeding. In order to assess, inter- and intra-specific variation for salt tolerance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip(Brassica rapa L.), local cultivars of these two species were screened at varying levels of salinity stress (0, 60

229-236 Download
26
MINERAL PROFILE, PALATABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF MARGINAL LAND GRASSES OF TRANS-HIMALAYAN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
INAM-UR-RAHIM*, JAVED IQBAL SULTAN*, MUHAMMAD YAQOOB**, HAQ NAWAZ*, IJAZ JAVED*** AND MANSOOR HAMEED****

MINERAL PROFILE, PALATABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF MARGINAL LAND GRASSES OF TRANS-HIMALAYAN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to explore the nutritive value of locally available marginal land grasses. Twelve marginal land grasses viz., Cynodon dactylon, Apluda mutica, Setaria pumila, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum orientale, Digitaria sanguinalis, Saccharum spontaneum, Rottboellia exaltata, Arthraxon prionodes, Cenchrus ciliaris, Desmostachya bipinnata and Andropogon squarrosus were identified and analyzed for dry matter (DM), macro-minerals (Ca, P, K and Mg) and micro-minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn and Co). The DM, Ca, P, K and Mg at early bloom stage were 30.1±1.080, 0.31±0.044, 0.024±0.003, 0.63±0.047 and 0.005±0.001%, respectively. The Cu, Zn, Mn and Co at early bloom stage were 17.25±1.42

237-248 Download
27
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FREE RANGELAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN1, INAM-UR-RAHIM1, MUHAMMAD YAQOOB2, HAQ NAWAZ AND MANSOOR HAMEED3

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FREE RANGELAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted in the valley of Chagharzai in Bunair district lying in the north Trans-Himalayan moist zone occupying Malakand Division, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan to determine the nutritive value of locally available free rangeland grasses. The study area lies between 34.42 to 34.66 degree latitude and 72.62 to 72.78 degree longitude, having a humid subtropical to temperate environment. The annual precipitation varies from 600 to 1000 mm, mainly during summer and spring. Ten free rangeland grasses were identified and analyzed for DM, OM, ash, CP, NDF, ADF, hemi- cellulose, and lignin. The mean percentage values for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemi-cellulose and lignin at early bloom stage were 33.1±0.69, 30.6±0.55, 7.4±0.42, 7.8±0.33, 54.7±2.08

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28
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND TIMES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL)
M. AYUB, M.A. NADEEM, A. TANVEER, M. TAHIR, M.T.Y. SAQIB AND R. NAWAZ

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND TIMES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL)
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during winter 2003-04 and 2004-05 to evaluate the effect of four sowing methods viz., broadcast, line sowing (45 cm), ridge sowing (45 cm) and bed sowing (45/45 cm) on growth and yield of fennel sown on 14th September

259-264 Download
29
IMPROVEMENT IN FERTILITY OF NUTRITIONALLY POOR SANDY SOIL OF CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN BY CALLIGONUM POLYGONOIDES LINN.
SAJIDA NOUREEN1, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2, KARAMAT MAHMOOD1 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF 3

IMPROVEMENT IN FERTILITY OF NUTRITIONALLY POOR SANDY SOIL OF CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN BY CALLIGONUM POLYGONOIDES LINN.
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken in Cholistan desert of Pakistan, with the objective of quantifying differences in soil nutrient status under Calligonum polygonoides canopies (canopied subhabitat) in comparison to the open area (uncanopied subhabitat). The results of the study clearly showed the existence of differences in the soil nutrient status between the various subhabitats, which occurred at various places from stem base area of the plant towards the open, uncanopied area. The results confirmed that electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, phosphorus, carbonates and bicarbonates were significantly high in the soils under the canopy cover of the plant as compared to those in uncanopied area (open area) but pH value was comparatively low in the soils under the canopy cover of the plant. It is evident from the results that canopy cover of C. polygonoides is playing a significant role in enrichment of nutrient poor soils of Cholistan desert.

265-274 Download
30
IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES WITH COMPOST APPLICATION IN RICE-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM
G. SARWAR1*, H. SCHMEISKY2, N. HUSSAIN3, S. MUHAMMAD1, M. IBRAHIM1 AND EHSAN SAFDAR1

IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES WITH COMPOST APPLICATION IN RICE-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Crop productivity of soils of Pakistan has become stagnant in the last decade. One of the major constraints is organic matter status that has reached to bare minimum. This research work was conducted to evaluate the use of compost for the improvement of soil parameters of normal soil having no salinity (pHs = 8.19, ECe = 2.35 dS m-1 and SAR = 7.20). Compost (12 and 24 t ha-1) was applied without and with chemical fertilizer (NPK for Rice: 100-70-70 and wheat: 140-110-70 kg.ha-1) to investigate the probable effects of compost on crop yields and soil conditions. The soil pHs was lowered and SAR decreased due to acidic effect of compost, formation of acids, release of Ca and leaching of Na. There was a slight increase in ECe of the soil. The available amount of all the major plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and organic matter content increased in the soil. On the basis of experimental results, a recommendation for the farmers can be formulated that they should compost the crop residues and apply in their soils for the increased sustainable crop production. In this way, the soil fertility can be improved with a net improvement in land productivity.

275-282 Download
31
INTEGRATING N-ENRICHED COMPOST WITH BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF CEREALS
R. AHMAD1, M. ARSHAD2, Z.A. ZAHIR2*, M. NAVEED2, M. KHALID2 AND H.N. ASGHAR2

INTEGRATING N-ENRICHED COMPOST WITH BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF CEREALS
ABSTRACT:
Value addition of the composted organic waste material through biologically active substances (BAS) is a novel approach to convert composted material into a useful soil amendment. In the present study, compost was prepared from waste fruit and vegetables and enriched with 25% of full dose of N fertilizer for maize and wheat, respectively. Biologically active substances (BAS); indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin, each was added @ 1.0 mg kg-1 compost to separate batches of nitrogen enriched compost (NEC). Effectiveness of IAA, GA3 and kinetin-added NEC was compared in field in the presence of 50% recommended dose of N fertilizer for maize and wheat, respectively. Compost was applied @ 300 kg ha-1 to both crops and recommended P and K fertilizers of respective crop were applied as basal dose to all plots. Recommended dose of N fertilizer for respective crop was used for comparison. Results indicated that NEC with or without IAA/GA3 supplemented with half dose of N fertilizer was as effective as full dose of N fertilizer in improving growth and yield of maize as well as wheat, saving ~ 25% N fertilizer. However, kinetin-added compost was better than IAA/GA3-added compost when compared with recommended dose of N fertilizer. It significantly improved yield and N uptakes of maize (6.2 and 6.7%, respectively) and wheat (5.9 and 6.1%, respectively) over full dose of N fertilizer. The technology bears its promise not only to improve crop yield on sustainable basis but also reduce huge piles of organic wastes causing environmental pollution.

283-293 Download
32
EVALUATION OF MACRO-MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FORAGES IN RELATION TO RUMINANTS REQUIREMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN SOONE VALLEY, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, ZAFAR I. KHAN1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*

EVALUATION OF MACRO-MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FORAGES IN RELATION TO RUMINANTS REQUIREMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN SOONE VALLEY, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This manuscript reports the essential macro-mineral composition of different plant species in the Soone Valley located in the Salt Range within the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The climate of this Range is characterized by a relatively low annual rainfall (508 mm) and temperature varying from 1° C to 36° C in winter and summer, respectively. Hot dry winds and prolonged periods of drought are frequent in the Range. Grazing animals were followed and forage plants consumed by the livestock, were collected during the study period in the year 2004. The forage plants consisted of legumes and grasses. Different plant parts such as leaves, leaflets and pods, which were lavishly grazed by the grazing animals were separated and analyzed for macro-minerals, Na, P, K, Ca and Mg. On the basis of observations it can be concluded that most of the forage samples were sufficient in Na, P, K, Ca and Mg for the requirements of ruminants grazing therein. Comparatively, the macro-mineral concentrations in pods were higher than those found in the leaves and leaflets showing no need of mineral supplementation. However, it seems most interesting to elucidate the phenomenon of antagonism among minerals, which may adversely affect the availability of minerals in the bodies of animals.

295-299 Download
33
MAGNITUDE OF HETEROSIS AND HERITABILITY IN SUNFLOWER OVER ENVIRONMENTS
HAKIM KHAN1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN2, *HABIB AHMAD3, HAIDAR ALI4, INAMULLAH3 AND MUKHTAR ALAM3

MAGNITUDE OF HETEROSIS AND HERITABILITY IN SUNFLOWER OVER ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted using 5 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and 5 restorers of sunflower, in a line x tester fashions at two locations to determine and quantify the magnitude of heterosis and heritability over environments. The traits studied were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity

301-308 Download
34
CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANTLETS REGENERATION FROM HYPOCOTYL OF BRASSICA NAPUS BY USING DIFFERENT MEDIA COMBINATIONS
MUHAMMAD MUNIR, HAMID RASHID*, M. RAUF, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY* AND M. SHAHJAHAN BUKHARI

CALLUS FORMATION AND PLANTLETS REGENERATION FROM HYPOCOTYL OF BRASSICA NAPUS BY USING DIFFERENT MEDIA COMBINATIONS
ABSTRACT:
The genus Brassica includes several important crop species. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is considered as the most important source of vegetable oil and protein rich meal worldwide. Effect of 5 different callusing media (CIM1 to CIM5) and regeneration media (RM1 to RM10) supplemented with different concentrations of hormones were studied for callus induction and regeneration of four cultivars of Brassica napusc viz., Dunkeld, Oscar, H-19 and Rainbow. The experimental work was carried out at the Agricultural Biotechnology Program, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during March 2004 to January 2005. The results indicated that among the 5 media combinations, MS media supplemented with 0.5mg /l IAA

309-315 Download
35
EVALUATION OF ACQUIRED THERMOTOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND T. DURUM) CULTIVARS GROWN IN TURKEY
MUSTAFA YILDIZ* AND HAKAN TERZİ

EVALUATION OF ACQUIRED THERMOTOLERANCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND T. DURUM) CULTIVARS GROWN IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Genotypic variability in acquired thermotolerance (ATT) among 30 cultivars of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat was evaluated at the seedling stage of growth by 2,3,5­triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) cell viability and chlorophyll (Chl a+b) accumulation assays. In TTC assay, first leaf segments were subjected to heat stress (50°C

317-327 Download
36
EVALUATION OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPE
G. MUSTAFA SAJID AND ZAHOOR AHMED

EVALUATION OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPE
ABSTRACT:
In order to circumvent the constraints in the existing methods for In vitro culture growth, germplasm conservation and large-scale propagation of grape, a study was undertaken to devise and formulate an appropriate growth media for micropropagation of new grape genotypes. Explants of two germplasm accessions viz., Sunder Khani (SK) and 019972 from a recently established field gene bank were used. In total

329-336 Download
37
LINKING REMOTE SENSING AND ECOLOGICAL VEGETATION COMMUNITIES: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH
RIFFAT N. MALIK1 AND SYED Z. HUSAIN2

LINKING REMOTE SENSING AND ECOLOGICAL VEGETATION COMMUNITIES: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
In spite of few attempts for mapping land-cover types in Pakistan, remotely sensed data has not been used widely; and its potential is not being explored for providing information on mapping vegetation cover in general and ecological communities in particular. The present study was undertaken in the Lohibehr scrub forest in the Foothills of Himalaya, northeast of Pakistan. The objective of the study was ot find out the relationship between remote sensing data and vegetation communities of ecological importance using multivariate techniques such as TWO WAY INDICATOR SPECIES ANALYSIS (TWINSPAN), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Correspondence Canonical Analysis (CCA). Floristic data were compiled for vegetation types and Digital number (DN) values were extracted from SPOT XS image for visible and near infrared bands (NIR). Classification and ordination methods were used for the classification of floristic data and to describe the relationships between floristic species composition and DN values. Ordination analyses indicated positive correlation between floristic species composition and DN values along the first ordination axis, with the NIR. The ordination methods proved effective in summarizing basic, general structure of the plant community types and to some extent indicated correspondence with their spectral signatures. The results highlighted the potential of remote sensing data in providing information on different plant community types that could be used in planning, management and conservation of subtropical forest.

337-349 Download
38
RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO DEFICIENT AND ADEQUATE LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
MUHAMMAD YASEEN, SUMREEN SIDDIQ, NADIA MANZOOR AND MUHAMMAD SOHAIL

RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO DEFICIENT AND ADEQUATE LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS
ABSTRACT:
Response of wheat genotypes to deficient and adequate levels of phosphorus was studied in solution culture. Substantial differences in growth parameters such as total plant dry matter (TDM), shoot dry matter (SDM), root dry matter (RDM), root: shoot ratio and some phosphorus related parameters were obvious at deficient and adequate P levels. TDM ranged from 0.89 to 1.51 and 1.56 to 2.25 g 2 plants-1 at deficient and adequate P levels, respectively. Genotype 91773 produced almost double the SDM of Pasban at deficient P level while 90640 produced the highest RDM at adequate P level. Differences in SDM indicate that more than 50 % of genotypes produced SDM less than the mean average shoot dry matter at both the P levels. Only three genotypes 89626, 90627 and 91773 showed a phosphorus stress factor (PSF) ≤ 30 %. However RDM was higher at deficient P level than that at adequate P level. It is also obvious from high root: shoot ratio of wheat genotype at deficient phosphorus level in the growth medium. Significant differences for P uptake, absorption rate and utilization rates were also in wheat genotypes at deficient and adequate P levels. A significantly positive correlation with root dry matter (r = 0.698**, p< 0.01) suggested greater P uptake due to greater root biomass at deficient P level. Specific absorption rate also varied significantly among genotypes at adequate level. Specific utilization rate (SUR) was reduced by increasing P supply in the growth medium. Maximum SUR was observed in Inqlab 91 and minimum in Pasban and line 88678. Results showed existence of genetic differences among wheat genotypes with regard to P absorption and utilization. This information may provide useful basis for their selection under field conditions.

351-359 Download
39
INFLUENCE OF SALICYLIC ACID SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
MOHSINA HAMID1, M. YASIN ASHRAF*, KHALIL-UR-REHMAN1 AND M. ARASHAD2

INFLUENCE OF SALICYLIC ACID SEED PRIMING ON GROWTH AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES IN WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A sand culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of salicylic acid seed priming on growth and some biochemical attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under saline conditions. Wheat seeds of cv. Inqlab and S-24 were soaked in water and 100 mg L-1 salicylic acid solution for 24 hours and sown in sand salinized with 0, 50 or 100 mM NaCl. Pots were irrigated with ¼ strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Fourteen days old seedlings were harvested and growth parameters (shoot and root length, and shoot and root dry weights) were recorded and chlorophyll a and b contents and soluble sugars (reducing and non-reducing) in the leaves were estimated. Salt stress significantly reduced all growth parameters. However, salicylic acid treatment alleviated the adverse effect of salinity on growth. Salinity decreased the chlorophyll a and b content and chlorophyll a/b ratio in both the lines, but reduction in chlorophyll a/b ratio was lower in salt tolerant wheat line S-24, which could be a useful marker for selection of salt tolerant wheat. Salinity (NaCl) stress considerably increased the accumulation of reducing, non-reducing and total soluble sugars in the leaves of 14 days old wheat seedlings of both cultivars. Salt tolerant line S-24 accumulated higher sugar content which could also be a useful marker for salt tolerance in wheat.

361-367 Download
40
CHICKPEA NITROGEN FIXATION INCREASES PRODUCTION OF SUBSEQUENT WHEAT IN RAIN FED SYSTEM
*ZARRIN FATIMA, **M. ASLAM AND *ASGHARI BANO

CHICKPEA NITROGEN FIXATION INCREASES PRODUCTION OF SUBSEQUENT WHEAT IN RAIN FED SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
A three-year chickpea-wheat rotation study was carried in a well-drained sandy soil at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, to quantify nitrogen fixation by chickpea and determine its residual N effects on soil N-fertility and yield of following wheat crop. The treatments were; continuous wheat without N, continuous wheat with N, chickpea wheat rotation without N (to wheat), chickpea wheat rotation with N (to following wheat), and continuous chickpea. In N treatments, nitrogen was applied to wheat @ 100 kg ha-1. The δ15N of shoot of chickpea and non-nitrogen fixing reference crop (wheat) was used to determine the percentage of chickpea N derived from nitrogen fixation (pfix). The pfix values by chickpea ranged from 70-98%. The total N fixed by chickpea ranged from 64-103 kg N ha-1 in 996/97 and 138 kg ha-1 in 1997/98. After removal of above ground biomass of chickpea at harvest, the average N balance in our study was 38 kg N ha-1 and 35kg N ha-1 after first and second years. Continuous wheat grown without N fertilizer (control) exhausted soil N fertility and produced the least grain yield. Wheat sown after chickpea with N application produced the highest grain yield followed by continuous wheat with N. Chickpea rotation also increased significantly the yield by 11% of following wheat without N treatment. Continuous chickpea crop and its rotation with wheat enhanced N fertility level of the soil. Our results support the strategy of using legumes in rotation with wheat in the arid region for enhancing soil N-supply and increasing wheat yield.

369-376 Download
41
STUDIES ON THE GENUS OF DICTYOTA LAMOUROUX FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
MUBINA BEGUM AND NAUSHABA KHATOON

STUDIES ON THE GENUS OF DICTYOTA LAMOUROUX FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eco-taxonomic study of 4 species of Dictyota (Dictoyotales, Phaeophyta) dealing with the revision of D. dichotoma, D. haukiana Nizam but D. dichotoma var. intricata and D. dimensis as new records for the coast of Karachi, Pakistan is reported.

377-389 Download
42
EFFECT OF GLOMUS CALLOSUM, MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA AND SOIL MOISTURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER
M. JALALUDDIN1, N.B. HAJRA2, K. FIROZA3 AND F. SHAHINA3

EFFECT OF GLOMUS CALLOSUM, MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA AND SOIL MOISTURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
The effect of inoculating a VAM fungus (Glomus callosum) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) separately and combined before and 7 days after the inoculation of the each other were carried out in the rhizosphere regions of 10-days old sunflower seedlings growing in pots in which the water regime of the soil was maintained at 60% throughout till harvesting. The result showed that infestation by root-knot nematode was less when the VAM-fungus was inoculated 7 days before and infestation by the root-knot nematode was more when the VAM-fungus was inoculated 7 days after in combined inoculation experiments. A better growth and yield of sunflower was noticed when VAM-inocula was put in the rhizospheric regions 7 days before in the combined inoculation experiments. It was found that inoculation of VAM-fungus 7-days before can limit the infestation by root-knot nematode where the water regime in soil exceeds the requirement.

391-396 Download
43
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SEED OILS AND BENLATE FUNGICIDE ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF FOUR DRECHSLERA SPECIES
ISHRAT NIAZ, UZMA SITARA AND SHAHABUDDIN QADRI

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SEED OILS AND BENLATE FUNGICIDE ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF FOUR DRECHSLERA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil, Dill (Anethum graveolens) seed oil and benlate fungicide @ 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 & 1.0% concentration were tested against four species of Drechslera viz., Drechslera rostrata, D. hawaiiensis, D. papendorfii and D. specifera. Dill seed oil 1% was most effective against D. rostrata and D. papendorfii whereas 1% Neem seed oil inhibited the growth of D. specifera and D. hawaiiensis. All treatments significantly inhibited the growth of all tested fungi; however dill seed oil showed greater suppression at all dose level followed by neem seed oil and benlate fungicide.

397-401 Download
44
COMPARISON OF ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF NEEM SEED OIL COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF PAKISTAN
ISHRAT NIAZ, UZMA SITARA, S.A.R. KAZMI AND SHAHABUDIN QADRI

COMPARISON OF ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF NEEM SEED OIL COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Oil extracted from neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds collected from five different localities of Pakistan was evaluated for their efficacy against three fungi viz., Fusarium moniliforme, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The neem oil sample from Karachi was the best among all the samples in checking the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani @ 0.1% concentration compared to those from other localities.

403-408 Download
45
ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI
UZMA SITARA, ISHRAT NIAZ, JAWED NASEEM AND NASREEN SULTANA

ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Essential oils extracted from the seeds of neem (Azadirachta indica), mustard (Brassica campestris), black cumin (Nigella sativa) and asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida) were evaluated for their antifungal activity @ 0.5, 0.1 and 0.15% against eight seed borne fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. nivale, F. semitectum, Drechslera hawiinesis and Alternaria alternata. Ridomyl gold (MZ 68%WP) was used for comparison. All the oils extracted except mustard, showed fungicidal activity of varying degree against test species. Of these oils, Asafoetida oil @ 0.1% and 0.15% significantly inhibited the growth of all test fungi except A. flavus and Nigella sativa oil @ 0.15 was also effective but showed little fungicidal activity against A. niger followed by neem, Ridomyl gold and mustard oils.

409-414 Download
46
SELECTION OF IN VITRO TECHNIQUE FOR PATHOGENICITY AND SCREENING OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AGAINST BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ANJUM MUNIR AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD*

SELECTION OF IN VITRO TECHNIQUE FOR PATHOGENICITY AND SCREENING OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AGAINST BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA
ABSTRACT:
Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus) is a seed and soil borne pathogen causing leaf blight or spot blotch of wheat worldwide. In Pakistan the pathogen was identified as predominant leaf spot causing fungus in wheat growing areas during 2004 – 2006. A lab based technique has been standardized to study the pathogenic nature of the pathogen, its variability/ aggressiveness and preliminary screening of cultivars/ germplasm before going to explore the sources of resistance under natural conditions. The purpose of this study was to adopt a time and cost effective methodology which can be referred as In-vitro technique. Five methods were used to select the best one and later that method was standardized. This may be used for pathogenicity test, to check the Pathogen variability/ aggressiveness of the pathogen and preliminary screening of varieties/ germplasm against the pathogen. These methods include pot and test tube experiments by application of inoculum and seed in soil simultaneously, by dipping roots in spore suspension before planting in soil, by foliage spray with spore suspension, seed coating with spore suspension before planting in test tube with cotton swab method. Out of these five procedures the test tube with cotton swab method has been found the most appropriate and effective for the study of B. sorokiniana.

415-420 Download
47
ISOLATION AND CLONING OF CRE1 GENE FROM A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
MUBSHARA SAADIA, SIBTAIN AHMED AND AMER JAMIL*

ISOLATION AND CLONING OF CRE1 GENE FROM A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
ABSTRACT:
Cellulases and hemicellulases are two important classes of enzymes produced by filamentous fungi and secreted into the cultivation medium. The production of these enzymes is under carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a general mechanism that prevents their synthesis in the presence of a preferred carbon source such as glucose. CRE1 causes the repression of transcription of cellulase and xylanase encoding genes. This study describes the isolation and cloning of a partial sequence of glucose repressor creI gene from Trichoderma harzianum E-58. The fungus was grown in Vogel’s medium at 28oC, and pH 5.5 with glucose as a carbon source. Genomic DNA was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of cre1 gene by using degenerate primers. The PCR product was purified through agarose gel electrophoresis and ligated into pTZ57R/T vector. The ligation mixture was then transformed into E. coli DH10B and spread on the LB agar plate containing ampicillin. Clone analysis by PCR was done to confirm the positive transformants. These results will help study the regulation of cellulase and xylanase gene expression in the fungus in future.

421-426 Download
48
EFFECT OF SALT PRIMING ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SOME SOIL FUNGI
GHAZALA NASIM1*, NUSRAT ILYAS1, AAMIR ALI2 AND ASIFA MUNAWAR3

EFFECT OF SALT PRIMING ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SOME SOIL FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three salts of copper viz., Copper sulfate (CuSO4), Copper chloride (CuCl2) and Copper oxychloride [CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2] on In vitro growth of three soil fungi viz., Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger and Drechslera tetramera. The data recorded at the end of incubation period revealed a remarkable decrease in fresh and dry biomass of these fungi by the action of all salts of Copper. Aspergillus oryzae showed maximum suppression in growth in response to these treatments especially to Copper sulfate while Aspergillus niger proved highly resistant.

427-431 Download
49
IN VITRO FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SPICES AGAINST ROOT INFECTING FUNGI
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SAMREEN ABBAS, MARIUM TARIQ AND M. J. ZAKI

IN VITRO FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SPICES AGAINST ROOT INFECTING FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Fungicidal activity of 16 spices were tested In vitro against root rot fungi viz., Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina using paper disc and well methods. R. solani was inhibited by Curcuma longa and Myristica fragrans (flower) whereas M. phaseolina and Fusarium solani were inhibited by Piper nigrum, Capsicum annum, Cuminum cyminum, Carum carvi, Secale cereale, C. longa, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale and Coriandrum sativum. Ethanol extract of spices was more effective in the control of root rot pathogens as compared to aqueous extract whereas 100% w/v aqueous extracts were more effective than 50% w/v aqueous extract. Paper disc and well methods were equally effective in the inhibition of test fungi.

433-438 Download
50
APPLICATION OF BACILLUS SPECIES IN CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD ON COWPEA AND MASH BEAN
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, MARIUM TARIQ AND M.J. ZAKI

APPLICATION OF BACILLUS SPECIES IN CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD ON COWPEA AND MASH BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Application of Bacillus spp., significantly reduced hatching of larvae of Meloidogyne javanica root knot whereas mortality of larvae was significantly increased with the increase in time. Germination of seeds of cow pea and mash bean and growth parameters in terms of shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight significantly increased in treated seed and soil with all the species of Bacillus as compared to control. Maximum inhibition of knots was observed in cowpea as compared to mung bean. Of the different species of Bacillus used, B. subtilis showed maximum inhibition of knots.

439-444 Download
51
VARIABILITY AMONG ISOLATES OF FUNGUS FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE ASSOCIATED WITH MALFORMATION DISEASE OF MANGO
ZAFAR IQBAL1, KAFEEL AHMAD2, ZAFAR I. KHAN2, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*, MUHAMMAD MAQBOOL1 AND MUHAMMMAD ASLAM PERVAIZ4

VARIABILITY AMONG ISOLATES OF FUNGUS FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE ASSOCIATED WITH MALFORMATION DISEASE OF MANGO
ABSTRACT:
Twenty isolates of the fungus Fusarium mangiferae were isolated and identified from 14 different locations of Pakistan. The isolates FM-1 to FM-20 showed prominent purple or rosy buff pigmentation on the under surface of the Petri dishes on Potato dextrose agar medium. On Carnation leaf agar the colony growth was granular white and sometimes cottony with pinkish tinge. Some differences among cultural and morphological features were detected after 3, 7 and 12 days of inoculation. Maximum colony diameter of 32.16 mm after three days was exhibited by isolate FM-2 on PDA and 32.5 mm by FM-17 on CLA, after seven days, 66.0 mm by FM-20 on PDA and 65.5 mm by FM-18 on CLA. After twelve days, maximum colony diameter of 81.33 and 80.0 mm was shown by FM-20 on PDA and CLA, respectively. Isolates FM-20 proved to be fast and FM-7 slow growing with mean colony size of 57.50 and 42.96 mm on both the media, respectively. The present study elucidates mycological variability among isolates of ecological proximity or different national origins.

445-452 Download
52
VARIABILITY AMONG ISOLATES OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ASSOCIATED WITH COLLAR ROT DISEASE OF CHICKPEA IN PAKISTAN
ABIDA AKRAM, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL1, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI AND CHAUDHARY ABDUL RAUF2

VARIABILITY AMONG ISOLATES OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII ASSOCIATED WITH COLLAR ROT DISEASE OF CHICKPEA IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Variability among 12 isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc collected from various localities of chickpea growing areas of Punjab province was studied. The isolates varied in colony morphology, mycelial growth rate, sclerotial formation, sclerotial size and color. Variability among the isolates of S. rolfsii was determined on the basis of their sensitivity to different fungicides. Mycelial incompatibility among the isolates was also studied and out of 66 combinations, only 26 combinations (39%) showed compatible reactions. Based on mycelial compatibility, 39% vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) were identified among the isolates.

453-460 Download
53
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF KALONJI, CUMIN AND POPPY SEED
NAZIA MASOOD AHMED CHAUDHRY AND PERWEEN TARIQ*

IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF KALONJI, CUMIN AND POPPY SEED
ABSTRACT:
Antibacterial activity of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of kalonji (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Umbelliferae) and poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae) were investigated against 188 bacterial isolates belonging to 11 different genera of Gram +ve and Gram -ve microorganisms isolated from oral cavity of apparently healthy individuals. Disc diffusion method was performed to test antibacterial activity. The highest antibacterial potential was observed from the aqueous decoction of cumin which inhibited 73% of the tested microorganisms than aqueous decoctions of kalonji (51%) and poppy seed (14.4%). In case of tested aqueous infusions, kalonji and cumin showed inhibitory potential against 17% and 5.9% tested microorganisms, respectively. Besides, all isolates were found resistant to aqueous infusion of poppy seed.

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The names of 2 authors were accidentally omitted from the authors list of the paper published in Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38

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