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Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 2
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF SOME GENERA IN THE TRIBE GNAPHALIEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY OF SOME GENERA IN THE TRIBE GNAPHALIEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Micromorphological characters of cypsela of the tribe Gnaphalieae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. In all 19 taxa including in Cymbolaena smoljan, Filago L., Ifloga Cass., Lasiopogon Cass., Leontopodium R.Br. ex Cass., and Phagnalon Cass., were examined. Cypsela features were found useful for assessing the taxonomic delimitation both at the generic and specific levels.

473-485 Download
2
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND RELATION BETWEEN POTASSIUM AND POLLEN IN JAPANESE ANGELICA (ARALIA ELATA L.)
MUHAMMAD JAMIL1†, JONG GYUN KANG2, AND EUI SHIK RHA3†

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND RELATION BETWEEN POTASSIUM AND POLLEN IN JAPANESE ANGELICA (ARALIA ELATA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Japanese angelica (Aralia elata L.) pollens were collected from the mature central open spikelet having visible anthers and were used for morphological observation. Scanning electron microscope revealed two distinctive types of pollen. One was comparatively larger in size and regular in shape (fertile) while the other was smaller and irregular in shape (sterile). Scanning electron microscope showed that pollen has clearly visible four apertures. It was hypothesized that potassium (K) may be involved in pollen swelling and the mechanisms underlying the rapid imbibition of water. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray) attachment was used to observe K at aperture area of pollen. It was found the K intensity were higher when the beam was passed through the aperture whereas intensity of K peaks reduced when the beam passed through the area that is between apertures. These results support our hypothesis that if K drives rapid imbibition of water then it should be located in the aperture area of pollen. These results demonstrate that a likely relationship exists between K located at the aperture and the swelling of pollen.

487-493 Download
3
IS PINE (PINUS DENSIFLORA) POLLEN ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF POTASSIUM ACCUMULATION AT SULCUS AREA?
SHAFIQ REHMAN1*, MUHAMMAD JAMIL2, EUI SHIK RHA3, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF4 AND SONG JOONG YUN5

IS PINE (PINUS DENSIFLORA) POLLEN ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF POTASSIUM ACCUMULATION AT SULCUS AREA?
ABSTRACT:
Microscopic studies revealed that pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen grain body consists of a pair of air sacs and has a narrow sulcus (furrow) between two sacs. It is suggested that hydration and emergence of pollen tube take place through this furrow. Macallum’s staining solution, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and confocal laser microscopy using PBFI provide convincing evidence that potassium is concentrated only in the sulcus area of pollen grains. These results demonstrate that the consistent appearance of potassium at the sulcus area of pine pollen may regulate water uptake. Moreover, these results support the idea that the potassium accumulation at the aperture area may be a general pattern in all kinds of pollen grains.

495-500 Download
4
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LVII. VITACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LVII. VITACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 6 species representing 4 genera of the family Vitaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate. Mostly sub-prolate or prolate to prolate-spheroidal, sexine much thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum foveolate or reticulate. On the basis of exine ornamentation three distinct pollen types are recognized. Viz., Vitis parvifolia–type, Vitis jacqumontii and Ampelopsis vitifolia subsp. Hazaraganjiensis-type.

501-506 Download
5
POLLEN ANALYSIS AND HEAVY METALS DETECTION IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM SEVEN SELECTED COUNTRIES
SADIA BIBI1, SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN1 AND RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2

POLLEN ANALYSIS AND HEAVY METALS DETECTION IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM SEVEN SELECTED COUNTRIES
ABSTRACT:
Abstrac: Honey contains pollen grains derived from the foraging activity of honeybees that reflect the environmental location of the beehives. The variability of honey types produced in a region depends upon the diversity of nectar sources present in the region. Microscopic analysis of the pollen in honey was used to determine its geographical origin. This study describes a simplified method for determining the total amount of pollen grains and the relative frequencies of pollen from various plant sources in honey. In 7 commercially obtained honey samples from Austria, Pakistan, Canada, Germany, Australia, Saudi Arabia and America. Pollen of plant species from 12 families: Brassicaceae, Sapindaceae, Cannabaceae, Convolvulaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae, Corylaceae and Loranthaceae were identified. In addition to pollen identification, contamination due to heavy metals and their concentration in honey samples were also measured and the results are discussed in this paper.

507-516 Download
6
IN VITRO SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND CALLUS INDUCTION IN GLADIOLUS HYBRIDUS HORT.
FAHEEM AFTAB, MEMOONA ALAM AND HUMERA AFRASIAB

IN VITRO SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND CALLUS INDUCTION IN GLADIOLUS HYBRIDUS HORT.
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation was carried out to study the In vitro shoot multiplication and callogenesis in Gladiolus. For this purpose, cormel, meristem and leaf explants were chosen. Different concentrations of BAP i. e., 0.5

517-522 Download
7
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM IMMATURE COTYLEDONS AND LEAF CALLI OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
SHAGUFTA NAZ1, AAMIR ALI2, FAYYAZ AHMED SIDDIQUE3 AND JAVED IQBAL4

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM IMMATURE COTYLEDONS AND LEAF CALLI OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Somatic embryogenesis was induced in both direct and indirect pathways from immature cotyledons and young leaf explants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) on MS medium with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. NAA and 2,4-D were used in the range of 1.0-16.0 mg/l. NAA 10-14 mg/l induced direct embryo formation on cut edges of immature cotyledons on adaxial surface. These pro-embryonic structures enlarged into distinct globular pro-embryoids within 4 weeks of incubation. Further growth of these pro-embryoids was limited and very few of these exhibited either shoot or root polarity. Auxins: cytokinins combinations also promoted induction of indirect embryogenesis. The best response was noticed in the medium 3 mg/l 2,4-D + 0.1 mg/l BAP. After 10-15 days leaf explants induced nodular callus consisted of pro-embryoids. After 5-6 weeks, the pro-embryoids transformed into embryo development phase ranging from globular, heart to torpedo stages. The sustainability and further growth of somatic embryos was investigated by shifting both direct and indirect embryoids on basal media. The frequency of embryogenesis and subsequent plantlet regeneration was found higher in indirect embryogenesis as compared to direct embryo formation.

523-531 Download
8
OPTIMIZING FERTIGATION FREQUENCY FOR ROSA HYBRIDA L.
M. QASIM, IFTIKHAR AHMAD AND TANVEER AHMAD

OPTIMIZING FERTIGATION FREQUENCY FOR ROSA HYBRIDA L.
ABSTRACT:
The influence of two levels (500 ml and 250 ml) of NPK fertigation applied at 2, 4 and 6 days interval on plant growth and flowering in two rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars Amalia and Anjleeq was studied as means of achieving better management, production and ascertaining NPK utilization by the rose plants. Plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, number of flowers plant-1, number of petals flower-1, leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage were maximum with fertigation @ 500 ml at 2 days interval whereas more number of days were taken by the plants for the emergence of first flower with fertigation @ 250 ml at 6 days interval. Although all treatments were effective in improving rose growth and yield in both cultivars as compared to control, however, the effect of fertigation @ 500 ml at 2 days interval was very pronounced particularly in improving vegetative as well as the reproductive growth as compared to other treatments.

533-545 Download
9
GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM CALLUS CULTURE IN SUGARCANE
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT**, NIGHAT SEEMA, SAJIDA BIBI AND ABDULLAH KHATRI

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM CALLUS CULTURE IN SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Three sugarcane clones, NIA-98, NIA-2004 and BL4 were studied for callus induction and regeneration potential under two concentrations ( 2mg/l and 4mg/l) of four auxins i.e.

547-564 Download
10
PRODUCTION AND CYTOGENETICS OF A NEW THINOPYRUM ELONGATUM / TRITICUM AESTIVUM HYBRID, ITS AMPHIPLOID AND BACKCROSS DERIVATIVES
ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI1, ALEJANDRO CORTES2, ALVINA GUL1, MUHAMMAD FAROOQ4, FARAH MAJEED1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD4, HADI BUX3, MANILAL WILLIAM2, VICTOR ROSAS2 AND ROMAN DELGADO2

PRODUCTION AND CYTOGENETICS OF A NEW THINOPYRUM ELONGATUM / TRITICUM AESTIVUM HYBRID, ITS AMPHIPLOID AND BACKCROSS DERIVATIVES
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement. In wheat this resource is distributed within the three gene pools of the tribe Triticeae and priority usage over the last decade has been with the D genome diploid progenitor of the primary gene pool. Potent variability that contributes towards resistance/ tolerance to key biotic/abiotic stresses limiting wheat production is also available in the tertiary pool where Thinopyrum elongatum (2n=2x=14, EE) possesses usable diversity for improving wheat. It has been hybridized with a top quality commercial hexaploid wheat cultivar as the maternal parent in order to capture its cytoplasmic advantage if any and for developing genetic stocks in terms of Th. elongatum disomic chromosome addition lines for identifying positive individual chromosomal contributions towards some key stresses that limit wheat productivity. The F1 hybrid possessed a 2n=4x=28 (ABDE) composition and exhibited predominantly 28 univalents at meiotic metaphase 1. The 28 chromosome F1 hybrid upon pollination with hexaploid wheat gave 2n=7x=49, AABBDDE backcross 1 progeny that upon further backcrossing produced various monosomic A to G addition lines (2n=6x=42 + 1=43) generating monosomic haploids (n=3x=21 + 1=22) by the wheat / maize protocol which were stabilized by colchicine treatment as their respective disomic additions (2n=6x=42 + 2=44). Giemsa C- banding coupled with biochemical and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were the validation diagnostics for categorization of the disomic addition lines produced. The biochemical applications were to cover one marker per homoeologous group for high molecular glutenins (HMW; Group 1), superoxide dismutase (SOD; group 2), esterase (EST; group 3), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, group 4), β-amylase (β-AMY; group 5), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, group 6) and α-amylase (α-AMY, group 7). Th. elongatum possesses diversity for salinity tolerance and for Fusarium head scab resistance. The four disomic addition lines produced (biochemically partial for groups 1, 3, 5 and 7) have rendered this diversity to be used in a targeted fashion around user friendly germplasm after they are categorized for their stress attributes.

565-579 Download
11
QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS FOR SPRING WHEAT UNDER TWO DIFFERENT POPULATION DENSITIES
SYED EJAZ-UL-HASSAN* AND IHSAN KHALIQ**

QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS FOR SPRING WHEAT UNDER TWO DIFFERENT POPULATION DENSITIES
ABSTRACT:
A seven parent diallel involving spring wheat varieties/lines, Faisalabad-85, Pujab-96, MH-97, Uqab-2000, 6500, 6142 and 7086-1 were evaluated to study gene action for traits like flag leaf area, stomatal frequency, stomatal size, epidermal cell size and leaf venation. All these attributes were conditioned by over dominance type of genetic effects at both population density regimes. The heritability in narrow sense was highest (61%) for stomatal size at both plantings while lowest (12%) for leaf venation at high population density, whereas, heritability in broad sense was maximum for epidermal cell size 97% followed by 94% at high and low population densities, respectively.

581-587 Download
12
VARIATION WITHIN KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA) AND ROUGH LEMON (CITRUS JAMBHERI)
NAFEES ALTAF* AND ABDUL REHMAN KHAN

VARIATION WITHIN KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA) AND ROUGH LEMON (CITRUS JAMBHERI)
ABSTRACT:
Citrus is number one in area and production of fruits in Pakistan. Punjab is the major Citrus fruit producing province. Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is the dominant scion variety grafted on locally well adapted rootstock rough lemon (C. jambheri). The seed embryos from randomly collected fruits from all over Punjab province were studied in invitro culture and 24 different embryo seedlings shapes were found. In another experiment 10534 seeds from randomly collected fruits were cultured, among which 65% were found to be mono embryonic

589-598 Download
13
FRUIT VARIABILITY IN KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA)
NAFEES ALTAF*, ABDUL REHMAN KHAN, JAFAR HUSSAIN

FRUIT VARIABILITY IN KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA)
ABSTRACT:
Kinnow mandarin is hybrid of King and Willow leaf. The cultivar has extreme variability in all fruit characteristics which is undesirable for fresh fruit export. Twelve lots of good looking, healthy clean fresh fruits were taken from different locations. The characteristics studied were fruit and peel weight, fruit volume, diameter, height, number of segments, seed shapes, total seeds, aborted seeds, seed embryony, juice pH and juice Brix. The fruit weight ranged from 101-287 grams, volume 110-300 ml, diameter 5.2-8.5 cm, fruit height 4.2-7.0 cm, number of segments per fruit 8-12, the fruit central core solid to hollow, fruit peel weight 24-71 grams, total seeds including aborted seeds 4-37, while developed seeds per fruit 3-35, developed seeds have 2-5 different shapes. Both mono and polyembryonic seeds were present in fruits of Kinnow lots. The lowest seed number was found in marker fruits. The fruit juice pH ranged 3.5-4.4 and the fruit juice Brix ranged 8-12.5 at the end of January, indicating the differences in the physiological maturity time of different fruits. The variability in Kinnow fruit orchards can be exploited for selection of superior quality strains.

599-604 Download
14
INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) II. COMPARATIVE MUTAGENIC EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUTAGENS
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH*, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA1, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA

INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) II. COMPARATIVE MUTAGENIC EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MUTAGENS
ABSTRACT:
Comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) were studied in two desi (Pb2000 and C44), one kabuli (Pb1) and one desi x kabuli introgression line (CH40/91) of chickpea. The treatments included two doses each of gamma rays and EMS calculated on the basis of their LD30. The results revealed that EMS was almost seven times more effective and its efficiency was two times higher than that of gamma rays. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were found to depend upon mutagen type and the genotype and both were higher at lower doses of EMS in three genotypes except in desi genotype C44. The overall trend of mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in both gamma radiation and EMS was in the order i.e. CH40/91>Pb2000>Pb1>C44. The introgression line desi x kabuli genotype was found to be most resistant towards mutagenic treatments than desi and kabuli types.

605-613 Download
15
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION OF CHAPURSAN VALLEY: AN ALPINE MEADOW IN PAKISTAN
SULTAN MEHMOOD WAZIR1, ALTAF AHMAD DASTI2, SHEHZADI SAIMA2, JEHANDAR SHAH3 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN4

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION OF CHAPURSAN VALLEY: AN ALPINE MEADOW IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Climatically the Chapursan Valley (Gilgit) is classified as alpine region but floristically it may be characterized as a part of Eastern Irano-Turanian region. Presence/absence data were used to classify and ordinate for both sites and species. DCA axes 1 and 2 were used for data interpretation. The relationships between soil characters and DCA axes 1 and 2 were determined using Spearman Rank correlation. Cluster analysis identified 5 vegetation types viz., crassulescent steppes, chamaephytic steppes, erme, moist sub-alpine pastures and riverine pseudo-steppes. These vegetation types have been discussed in the context of topographic and edaphic heterogeneity.

615-626 Download
16
PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENT IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
HIDAYATULLAH*, SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI, ABDUL GHAFOOR AND TARIQ MAHMOOD

PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENT IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
ABSTRACT:
Thirty six tomato genotypes, including cultivar, were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, during summer

627-635 Download
17
VARIATION AND INTER-RELATIONSHIPS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ AND TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH

VARIATION AND INTER-RELATIONSHIPS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Thirty two chickpea genotypes were evaluated for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches, pods per plant

637-647 Download
18
RADIO SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CHICKPEA GENOTYPES IN M1 GENERATION I-LABORATORY STUDIES
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA*, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA

RADIO SENSITIVITY OF VARIOUS CHICKPEA GENOTYPES IN M1 GENERATION I-LABORATORY STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of gamma rays and EMS mutagens on germination and seedling growth of four chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes i.e., two desi (Pb2000 and C44), one kabuli (Pb-1) and one desi x kabuli introgression genotype (CH40/91) were investigated. The treatments included two doses each of gamma irradiation and EMS. At lower doses of gamma rays, shoot and root lengths were increased in all four genotypes, whereas adverse effects were observed at higher doses/concentrations of gamma irradiation and EMS. The sensitivity of gamma irradiation and EMS appeared to be related to the seed size and type of genotypes. The desi x kabuli introgression (CH40/91) genotype was the most sensitive to physical mutagen than bold seeded desi and small seeded kabuli genotypes. The trend of radio and chemo resistance was in the order i.e., C44>Pb2000>Pb-1>CH40/91. The present study of radiosensitivity and response of desi x kabuli chickpea introgression genotype to the physical and chemical mutagens is the first report in chickpea.

649-665 Download
19
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF AUTUMN PLANTED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AND ITS WEEDS TO REDUCED DOSES OF HERBICIDE APPLICATION IN COMBINATION WITH UREA
M.A. NADEEM1, R. AHMAD1, M. KHALID2*, M. NAVEED2, A. TANVEER1 AND J.N. AHMAD3

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF AUTUMN PLANTED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AND ITS WEEDS TO REDUCED DOSES OF HERBICIDE APPLICATION IN COMBINATION WITH UREA
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to assess the growth and yield response of autumn planted maize and its weeds to application of a new post-emergence herbicide Equip (foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl) alone and in combination with urea. The experiment comprised weedy check, manual weed control, foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl @ 1125 g a.i. ha-1 alone, foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl @ 1125

667-676 Download
20
INTER-CULTIVAR VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) AT THE GERMINATION STAGE
PAKEEZA SABIR* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

INTER-CULTIVAR VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN PROSO MILLET (PANICUM MILIACEUM L.) AT THE GERMINATION STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) was assessed by screening 18 diverse accessions originally collected from different areas of Pakistan with varying environmental conditions. The set of accessions examined in this study showed considerable variation in germination percentage and seedling weights under salt stress. Accessions 008208, 008210, 008215 and 008230 had higher germination percentage at higher levels of salt, whereas 008214, 008216 and 008222 had lower germination percentage as compared to the other accessions. In seedling weights, accessions 008216, 008218 and 008225 showed a maximum reduction at higher levels of salt, whereas accessions 008208, 008210, 008215 and 008223 showed less reduction. Of the 18 accessions, 008211 and 008215 showed high tolerance in terms of both germination percentage and seedling weights, but it is not sure whether they would maintain the degree of their tolerance if tested at the later growth stages.

677-682 Download
21
SEED GERMINATION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
SABAHAT ZIA AND M. AJMAL KHAN

SEED GERMINATION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Limonium stocksii (Boiss.) O. Kuntze, (Plumbaginaceae) a secreting, perennial shrub is widely distributed in the inter-tidal zones of Karachi, Pakistan. The effect of seawater and Sodium chloride showed that the seed germinated both under a 12-h photoperiod and complete darkness in 0

683-695 Download
22
GROWTH AND SELECTIVE ION TRANSPORT OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII PLUMBAGINACEA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
SABAHAT ZIA1,3, TODD P. EGAN2 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1,3

GROWTH AND SELECTIVE ION TRANSPORT OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII PLUMBAGINACEA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Limonium stocksii is a perennial forb found on the Arabian Sea coast near Karachi, Pakistan. Plants were grown in plastic pots using sub-irrigation under natural conditions. Growth parameters and plant succulence were highest at 0 and 10 dS m-1 salinity (both NaCl and seawater). An increase in growth medium salinity progressively decreased growth, but plants survived in up to 60 dS m-1. No significant difference was observed between NaCl and seawater treatments. Succulence did not change at low salinity (10 dS m-1), however, a further increase in salinity substantially decreased tissue water content. Plants accumulated high quantities of Na+ and Cl- with the induction of salinity in the medium. The selective transport capacity of L. stocksii for Na+ over other elements increased with an increase in salinity in both root and stem, however, roots displayed lower selective ion transport capacity compared to stem.

697-709 Download
23
BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION OF SUMMER LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECTS ON SUBSEQUENT RAINFED WHEAT YIELD
RIFAT HAYAT*, SAFDAR ALI, MUHAMMAD TARIQ SIDDIQUE AND TAHIR HUSSAIN CHATHA

BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION OF SUMMER LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECTS ON SUBSEQUENT RAINFED WHEAT YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Biological nitrogen fixation is the most important biochemical reaction for life on earth. Phosphorus and rhizobium inoculation increased N2-fixation by legumes. Legumes in rotation with cereals contribute to the total N pool in soil and improved cereals yield. In view of importance of grain legumes and the role they can play in maintaining soil productivity and succeeding cereal yield, rotational field experiments were conducted on mung bean (Vigna radiata) and mash bean (Vigna mungo) during summer of 2002 and 2003 followed by wheat (Triticum aestivum) in each year at Research Farm of University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, to assess N2-fixation by beans and their residual effect on subsequent wheat yield. Bean seeds were inoculated at sowing with effective brady rhizobia and grown with and without Phosphorus fertilizer. Sorghum (Var.YSS-98) was sown as non-legume crop with 100kg N ha-1. Xylem ureide method has been employed for estimation of N2-fixation. Nodulation, shoot dry matter, grain yield and N concentration of both beans were increased by phosphorus fertilization. Both beans showed excellent nodulations i.e., 4, which showed excellent potential for nitrogen fixation. Estimates of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Pfix) ranged from 49-71% during 2nd year and up to 60% increase was observed from 1st year. Average N2-fixed ranged between 33-55 kg ha-1 during both years and mash bean proved better N2-fixer. Water use efficiency (WUE) based on grain yield were 23-33% higher with phosphorus fertilization. Values of WUE for N2-fixation ranged between 0.22 and 1.00 kg ha-1 mm-1 and declined with declining %Pfix. Total NO3-N was between 56-67 kg ha-1 for legumes and between 40-45 kg ha-1 for non-legume sorghum. Additional residual soil N under legumes, relative to adjacent sorghum was in the range of 16-22 kg ha-1. Beans with phosphorus fertilization increased grain yield of succeeding wheat by 20% over sorghum. It was concluded that phosphorus fertilizer with inoculation enhanced N2-fixation and rotational results confirmed that legume-cereal sequence increased biomass and grain yield of subsequent wheat.

711-722 Download
24
ESTIMATION OF N2-FIXATION OF MUNG BEAN AND MASH BEAN THROUGH XYLEM UREIDE TECHNIQUE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
RIFAT HAYAT*, SAFDAR ALI, SHAHZADA SOHAIL IJAZ, TAHIR HUSSAIN CHATHA AND MUHAMMAD TARIQ SIDDIQUE

ESTIMATION OF N2-FIXATION OF MUNG BEAN AND MASH BEAN THROUGH XYLEM UREIDE TECHNIQUE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Xylem ureide is cost effective and inexpensive technique used for estimation of N2-fixation in legumes. Legumes transport large amount of nitrogenous compound in the form of ureide. To quantify N2-fixation through xylem ureide technique, field experiments were conducted on mungbean (Vigna radiata) and mashbean (Vigna mungo) during summer seasons of 2002 and 2003 at two different locations of Pothwar area i.e., Research Farm of University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi (UAAR) and farmer’s field in Chakwal district. Treatments were T1) Mungbean, T2) Mashbean, T3) Mungbean + P @ 80 kg ha-1, T4) Mashbean + P @ 80 kg ha-1. Bean seeds were inoculated at sowing with effective brady rhizobia. Relative abundance of ureide-N (100×4×ureide/(4×ureide + nitrate + α amino-N) has been used as an indicator for relative dependence on N2-fixation. Concentration of ureide, nitrate and α amino-N were determined at pod filling stage to calculate the relative abundance of ureide-N (RUN%) and proportion of plant N derived from N2-fixation (%Pfix). Highest shoot dry matter (DM) yield 4.0 t ha-1 (85 kg N ha-1) of mash bean was recorded at UAAR site during summer 2003. Mung and mash beans fertilized with phosphorus produced 24 and 28% higher nodules when compared to beans without fertilizer, respectively. Ureide concentration (0.69 mM) was maximum in the xylem sap of mash bean with phosphorus at Chakwal site. The relative abundance of uredide-N (RUN%) in the xylem sap of beans, was in the range of 36-60 %. An increase of 32 % in the value of %Pfix was observed by addition of phosphorus fertilizer. N2-fixation by mung bean and mash bean was 47 and 80 kg N ha-1, which tended to increase up to 24 % with application of phosphorus fertilizer. Regression analysis indicated close association of N2-fixed with shoot DM (R2 = 0.88) and shoot N (R2 = 0.90) at UAAR site. Correlation amongst the parameters for the legumes showed that N2-fixation was positively and strongly correlated with all the legume parameters i.e., shoot dry matter (r = 0.90), shoot N (r = 0.79) and %Pfix(r = 0.99) at Chakwal site.

723-734 Download
25
MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE TO OSMOTIC STRESS IN ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)
A. SAFARNEJAD

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE TO OSMOTIC STRESS IN ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Water stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate low soil water potentials. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is normally grown in arid and semi-arid areas, so the investigation of alfalfa potential for drought tolerance and the proper selection of its drought tolerant accessions are very important in this context. Eight alfalfa accessions widely grown in Iran viz., Baghdadi, Nikshahri, Ghareh, Yazdi, Siriver, Sequel, Ranger and Kodi were assessed for drought tolerance at the germination and seedling stages. Osmotic stress was applied at different concentrations [zero (control), -0.4, -0.8 and –1.2 MPa] of PEG (polyethylene glycol) 6000. The data showed that the intensity of reduction in various growth attributes in different accessions was not the same in response to osmotic stress. The lowest reduction was observed in Yazdi and Nikshahri accessions and the highest in Ranger in most of the characters appraised due to simulated drought. In the second experiment, the selected accessions viz., Yazdi (osmotic tolerant), Nikshahri (moderate) and Ranger (osmotic sensitive) were grown in a hydroponic culture with different PEG 6000 concentrations. After 4 weeks, different characters such as root length shoot length, root/shoot length ratio, leaf area, leaf number, root and shoot dry weights, proline accumulation and concentrations of K+ and Ca2+ were determined. The results showed that with increasing osmotic stress, most of the characters were decreased significantly. With increasing osmotic stress, proline accumulation and concentrations of Ca+2 and K+ increased. There was a significant difference among the accessions in most of the attributes studied. In all cases, Yazdi was the most tolerant and Ranger was the most sensitive accession in response to osmotic stress.

735-746 Download
26
THE ASSESSMENT OF TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS (Cd,Pb and Zn) AND THEIR ACCUMULATION IN THREE WEED SPECIES
OSMAN SONMEZ1*, BEKİR BUKUN2, CENGİZ KAYA1 AND SALİH AYDEMİR1

THE ASSESSMENT OF TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS (Cd,Pb and Zn) AND THEIR ACCUMULATION IN THREE WEED SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Phytoextraction is gaining great attention as an alternative technique for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. A greenhouse study was conducted to assess heavy metal (Cd, Pb, and Zn) accumulation in three weed species viz., Avena sterils, Isatis tinctoria and Xanthium strumarium. A range of phytoavailable Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils was created by applications of five different levels of Cd (0

747-754 Download
27
EVIDENCE OF ENTRY OF RHIZOBIA INTO EPIDERMAL CELLS OF ROOTS OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH. (LEGUMINOSAE - MIMOSOIDEAE) THROUGH PITS
RAIHA QADRI*, A. MAHMOOD* AND MOHAMMAD ATHAR**

EVIDENCE OF ENTRY OF RHIZOBIA INTO EPIDERMAL CELLS OF ROOTS OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH. (LEGUMINOSAE - MIMOSOIDEAE) THROUGH PITS
ABSTRACT:
This article contains no Abstract

755-758 Download
28
ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM IN THREE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS
JIN ZOU1, PU XU1, XI LU1, WUSHENG JIANG2 AND DONGHUA LIU1*

ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM IN THREE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of different concentrations of Cadmium on the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its accumulation in roots, stem and leaves were investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The concentrations of Cadmium chloride ranged from 10-5 M to 10-3 M. Seedlings of three sunflower cultivars viz., No. 665, RH118 and QFS14 exposed to 10-3 M Cd exhibited substantial growth reduction and all of them died 10 days after treatment application. Growth of roots and shoots was inhibited at concentrations of 10-5 M and 10-4 M Cd during the entire experiment (20 days). Cadmium accumulation in roots stems and leaves increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing Cd concentration. Cadmium was concentrated mainly in the roots, and variable amounts of Cd were also transported to stem and leaves. Among the three cultivars, RH118 produced more roots and higher biomass than No. 665 and had a greater ability to accumulate Cd when compared with QFS14.

759-765 Download
29
IMPACT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON COTTON GROWTH, YIELD AND N-UPTAKE PLANTED IN LEGUME ROTATION
A.M. KUMBHAR, U.A. BURIRO, S. JUNEJO, F.C. OAD, G.H. JAMRO, B.A. KUMBHAR AND S.A. KUMBHAR

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON COTTON GROWTH, YIELD AND N-UPTAKE PLANTED IN LEGUME ROTATION
ABSTRACT:
A series of experiments were conducted at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement consisting four replications and repeated in the 2nd year. The treatments consisted crop two sequences [(C1= Cotton (before legume) and C2= Cotton (after legume)] and varying fertility levels (F1=150-50, F2=100-50 and F3=150-50 NP Kg ha-1). The berseem was cultivated as leguminous crop in the sequence. The crop sequences revealed that the cotton crop sown after legume produced tall plants (99.41 cm), higher production of monopodia plant-1 (2.68), sympodia plant-1 (14.10), more bolls plant-1 (24.83), heavier seed index (6.83 g), maximum GOT (34.47%), better staple length (28.83mm), higher oil content (22.87%), superior seed cotton yield (2428 kg ha-1) and N-uptake increased upto 91.17 kg ha-1. The incorporation of NP fertilizer significantly affected crop parameters. Among the tested fertilizers

767-778 Download
30
PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF LIGHT HARVESTING PIGMENTS AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES UNDER ALUMINIUM STRESS
RAFIA AZMAT AND SEHRISH HASAN

PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF LIGHT HARVESTING PIGMENTS AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES UNDER ALUMINIUM STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Aluminium (Al) bioavailability has raised much interest in the last two decades because of its acute toxicity, particularly at high dose, which results in the morphological and physiological disorder. Lens culinaris was selected to study the effects of Al on photosynthetic pigments and synthesis of carbohydrate contents in acidic soil. Growth inhibition like leaf mass ratio (LMR), stem mass ratio (SMR), root mass ratio (RMR) and ratio of dry and fresh weight of total plant DW/FW and reduced biomass production were general response of Al on seedlings. Results showed that Al altered the photochemistry of light-harvesting pigments that were decreased at all applied concentration of Al. This may be attributed, with breakdown of photosynthetic apparatus. Absorption spectrum of pigments showed that concentrations of chlorophyll a and b were decreased without shift in wavelength of pigments, which may be due to the decrease in absorption of photon of light that ultimately alter the synthesis of starch contents. Aluminum enters the cells, it reacts with phosphorus compounds, and upsets the plant phosphorus metabolism, and consequently the reduction in plant phosphorus was observed.

779-784 Download
31
LEVEL OF HEAVY METALS IN THE FOLIAGE OF NATURALLY GROWING PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI CITY, PAKISTAN
SYED ATIQ-UR-REHMAN 1 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL2

LEVEL OF HEAVY METALS IN THE FOLIAGE OF NATURALLY GROWING PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KORANGI AND LANDHI INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF KARACHI CITY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The accumulation of heavy metals of Fe, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn was determined in the foliage of naturally growing plants of Prosopis juliflora Swartz, Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet and Senna holosericea (Fresen.) Greuter, which were collected from various factories in the vicinity of Korangi and Landhi industrial areas of Karachi. High concentration of ferric and lead was observed in the foliage of A. indicum which were collected from Tanveer Garment factory as compared to foliage collected from a control area of Karachi University Campus. The level of copper and chromium was highest in the foliage of S. holosericea at Khan Towel factory than control site. Khan Towel factory also caused considerably high amount of lead in the foliage of P. juliflora as related to control site. The excessive copper was recorded in foliage of A. indicum at One Tech Ply Board factory as compared to control site. The foliage of S. holosericea showed highest concentration of zinc at One Tech Rubber factory as compared to control area. The research demonstrated that accumulation of different metals was generally higher in the foliage of naturally growing plants collected from the industrial areas.

785-789 Download
32
CHICORY (CICHORIUM INTYBUS L.): A POSSIBLE BIOMONITOR OF METAL POLLUTION
A. AKSOY

CHICORY (CICHORIUM INTYBUS L.): A POSSIBLE BIOMONITOR OF METAL POLLUTION
ABSTRACT:
Leaves of Cichorium intybus L., (Chicory) were tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution in Kayseri, Turkey. Forty-five sites (industrial, urban, roadside, suburban and rural) in and around Kayseri were investigated. The mean heavy metal concentrations in industrial site and roadside were non-significantly higher than the urban, suburban sites, significantly higher than rural sites in washed and unwashed leaves of C. intybus. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were determined in unwashed and washed leaves and soils collected from a wide range of sites with different degrees of metal pollution. Differences between the unwashed and washed samples varied according to the metal pollutant levels. The mean Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in industrial site were non-significantly higher than the roadside, urban and suburban sites, significantly higher than rural sites in soil. Significant correlations were obtained between the heavy metal concentrations in surface soil and washed leaf samples. C. intybus was found to be a useful biomonitor of the investigated heavy metals.

791-797 Download
33
GROWTH AND IONIC COMPOSITION OF SALT-STRESSED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS AND EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS
MUHAMMAD NASIM1*, RIAZ H. QURESHI2, TARIQ AZIZ1, M. SAQIB2, SHAFQAT NAWAZ1, SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1 AND SHAHID PERVAIZ2

GROWTH AND IONIC COMPOSITION OF SALT-STRESSED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS AND EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of NaCl salinity on growth, biomass and ionic composition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis was studied in a nutrient solution experiment. Species were grown with control (no NaCl) and 150 mol m-3 NaCl salinity in Hoagland nutrient solution. Salinity significantly suppressed plant height, shoot and root fresh biomass in both the species. However, degree of reduction in these growth parameters was significantly different among both species. Relative fresh weight of E. camaldulensis under salt stress was significantly more than of E. tereticornis. Salinity stress caused significant effect on Na, K and Cl uptake and its distribution within mature and young leaves. Sodium concentration was about 4.5 folds higher in plants grown with salinity than those grown without salinity. Potassium concentration was significantly decreased in both eucalyptus species under salinity stress. However, salt induced reduction in K concentration was significantly lower in E. camaldulensis. Based on the relative fresh weight, K:Na ratio, ion distribution in young and mature leaves, E. camaldulensis exhibited more tolerance against salinity than E. tereticornis.

799-805 Download
34
THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN DOSES ON SEED YIELD, OIL, PROTEIN AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SPRING RAPE
DAVUT KARAASLAN

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN DOSES ON SEED YIELD, OIL, PROTEIN AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SPRING RAPE
ABSTRACT:
In this two seasons experiment, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different nitrogen levels applied to the soil on seed yield, oil, protein content and nutrient uptake of oilseed rape grown under field conditions. Three cultivars of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus) viz., Lirawell, Semu 86/225 Na and Westar were used. The nitrogen doses applied to the soil were 0, 60

807-813 Download
35
PERTACTIN PROCESSING AND SECRETION IN PROTEASE(S) DEFICIENT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI SUGGESTIVE OF THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF PROTEASES IN FOLDING OF AUTOTRANSPORTER PROTEINS
S. HABIB BOKHARI1* AND P. BLACKBURN2

PERTACTIN PROCESSING AND SECRETION IN PROTEASE(S) DEFICIENT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI SUGGESTIVE OF THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF PROTEASES IN FOLDING OF AUTOTRANSPORTER PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
Many of the virulence determinants secreted from pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria are autotransporter proteins, which are usually either exported to the bacterial cell surface or secreted into the external environment. There appears to be dearth of information regarding the exact mechanism of their processing into the surface-exposed passenger domains and C-terminal, β-domains. The C-terminal porin domains mediate the final step of autotransporter secretion by threading of the passenger domain through the outer membrane (OM). The native structure is formed only after this final secretion step, which does not require any energy involvement. Despite sequence divergence and functional diversity among autotransporter passenger domains almost all of them are predicted to form parallel ß-helices, indicating this structural topology may be important for secretion. The possible involvement of periplasmic environment in regulating the export of pertactin, an autotransporter passenger domain from Bordetella pertussis is reported.

815-824 Download
36
PURIFICATION AND PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF RE-NATURED C-TERMINAL DOMAIN (P.30) OF PERTACTIN AUTOTRANSPORTER PROTEIN OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS
S. HABIB BOKHARI1* AND P. BLACKBURN2

PURIFICATION AND PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF RE-NATURED C-TERMINAL DOMAIN (P.30) OF PERTACTIN AUTOTRANSPORTER PROTEIN OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS
ABSTRACT:
Members of the Bordetella pertussis autotransporter family are grouped together on the basis of homology at their C-termini. The full pathogenic potential of the B. pertussis is partly contributed by the members of its autotransporter family, which are usually either exported to the bacterial cell surface or secreted into the external environment. The β-barrel (C-terminus) forming domain plays a key role in surface localization of the virulence associated passenger domains of autotransporter proteins. The protective capacity of the C-terminus (P.30) of B. pertussis autotransporter protein pertactin was studied in mouse protection studies.

825-832 Download
37
TAXONOMIC STUDY ON VOLVOCOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF THE PUNJAB
WAQAR-UL-HAQ1, A. ZARINA1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDY ON VOLVOCOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF THE PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
Eight species of green microalgae belonging to the genera Chlorella, Chlorococcum, Eudorina, Gonium, Oocystis, Pandorina and Volvox were collected from various freshwater habitats of Lahore, Pasrur and Sialkot districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan during July 2003 and December 2004. They were microscopically examined and are taxonomically described for the first time from these areas. Although they occurred in all the seasons of the year but were found to grow mostly in summer and winter. The species Chlorococcum arenosum, Eudorina elegans, Gonium formossum and Volvox aureus are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

833-840 Download
38
OCCURRENCE OF PENNATE DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE PUNJAB AND N. W. F. P., PAKISTAN
SYED TARIQ-ALI1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

OCCURRENCE OF PENNATE DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE PUNJAB AND N. W. F. P., PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seven species of diatoms, belonging to 6 genera and 5 families of the order Bacillariales were collected from various freshwater habitats of Gujranwala, Lahore and Sialkot districts of the Punjab and Attock of N. W. F. P. (Pakistan) during January and December 2004. They were taxonomically evaluated and described for the first time from their area of collection. They usually occurred in winter and spring, no sexual reproduction was observed in them. Among them, the genus Cymatopleura, its two species such as C. elliptica, C. solea and Tabellaria fenestrata are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

841-847 Download
39
THE DINOFLAGELLATE GENUS ORNITHOCERCUS STEIN FROM NORTH ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
S. M. SAIFULLAH, SADAF GUL* AND MAHWISH KHAN

THE DINOFLAGELLATE GENUS ORNITHOCERCUS STEIN FROM NORTH ARABIAN SEA SHELF OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study reports five species of Ornithocercus Stein from north Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan, four of them being new records from the area. The most common and frequent species was O. magnificus and the largest species O. steinii. Individuals of a given species showed variation in size of their body and also of different parts with greater variations observed in length of sulcal list. The Indus Delta region was found to be richer in species diversity than Balochistan.

849-857 Download
40
RESPONSE OF ETIOLATED PEA SEEDLINGS AND COTTON TO ETHYLENE PRODUCED FROM L-METHIONINE BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS
MUHAMMAD H. MAHMOOD, AZEEM KHALID, MUHAMMAD KHALID AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD*

RESPONSE OF ETIOLATED PEA SEEDLINGS AND COTTON TO ETHYLENE PRODUCED FROM L-METHIONINE BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS
ABSTRACT:
The presence of a suitable substrate(s) in soil may release physiologically active concentration of a plant hormone ethylene (C2H4) as a result of microbial activity. We isolated three strains of fungi (Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium commure and Thamridium elegans), from the maize rhizosphere soil, capable of producing C2H4 in the soil from L-methionine (10 mmol l-1). The plate and soil inoculation experiments conducted under controlled conditions revealed that the C2H4 released as a result of precursor (L-MET)-inoculum (fungi) interaction caused a classical “triple” response in etiolated pea seedlings (a significant reduction in seedling length and increase in stem diameter). The classical “triple” response was also observed in the etiolated pea seedlings grown in non-sterilized soil amended with L-MET (no inoculation). The application of Ag(I), an inhibitor of C2H4 action, partially eliminated the classical “triple” response in etiolated pea seedlings. A significant direct correlation (r = 0.910* to 0.997**) was found between classical “triple” response and [L-MET] or [C2H4 gas]. The results of pot trial conducted on cotton indicated that L-MET applied at 1.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1 soil significantly increased the number of bolls (up to 45.5%), seed cotton weight (up to 35.7%), and root and shoot weight (up to 35.1 and 28.2%) over the unammended control. The results of this study imply that C2H4 production is a substrate-dependent biochemical process and application of small quantity of L-MET (1-10 mg kg-1 soil) may affect plant growth.

859-866 Download
41
TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS ENTEROCOCCAL POPULATION FOR PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL
MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD TANWEER KHAN1, ABDUL WAJID2 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL1*

TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIGENOUS ENTEROCOCCAL POPULATION FOR PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL
ABSTRACT:
Probiotics are the live microbial supplements of single or mixed cultures that produce health beneficial effects when ingested. Diversity in metabolic and/or physiological attributes has made Enterococcus a probiotic organism and quite conversely a second or third most common agent of nosocomial infections. The present study is a technological screening for the selection of potential probiotic isolates from the indigenous enterococcal population. Over 500 enterococcal strains have been isolated from sewage samples and baby fecal material, respectively collected from all 18 towns and well recognized hospitals of Karachi. Production of several enzymes and bioactive peptides/proteins has been screened from isolated microbes for instance alkaline phosphatase, bacteriocins, β-galactosidase, urease, protease, cytolysin and lipase etc. Among the total, 95.7%, 78.2% and 3.4% of enterococci have been found as producers of β-galactosidase, bacteriocin and hemolysin (cytolysin) respectively. Other metabolites have been less frequently produced by the isolates. The high prevalence of β-galactosidase suggests the constitutive nature of gene while fluctuation in different metabolite production indicates their dispensability and concomitantly delineates the significance of selection for probiotic organisms. Moreover, far less frequency of hemolytic enterocococci suggest low prevalence of pathogenicity island in the indigenous enterococcal population. Conclusively, the findings facilitate not only the down right selection of occult probiotic enterococci but also provide baseline information for composition of potentially probiotic and pathogenic enterococci in the local microbial population.

867-875 Download
42
BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF MALVAVISCUS ARBOREUS AND PANCRATIUM BIFLORUM FLOWERS
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, *AYESHA-JAMAL AND **SHARFUN-NAHAR

BIODIVERSITY OF YEAST MYCOFLORA IN NECTAR OF MALVAVISCUS ARBOREUS AND PANCRATIUM BIFLORUM FLOWERS
ABSTRACT:
A total of 11 species belonging to 8 genera of yeasts were isolated from nectar of Malvaviscus arboreus and 26 species belonging to 12 genera from nectar of Pancratium biflorum flowers. The isolated yeast species were identified on the basis of morphological and physiological / biochemical characters. Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. macerans, Debaryomyces castellii, Phaffia rhodozyma and Pseudozyma fusiformata were predominantly isolated from nectar of Malvaviscus arboreus and Pancratium biflorum.

877-885 Download
43
CURRENT STATUS OF THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF (PUCCINIA TRITICINA) WHEAT LEAF RUST VIRULENCE IN PAKISTAN
M. FAYYAZ1, A. R. RATTU1, I. AHMAD1, M.A. AKHTAR1, A.A. HAKRO1 AND A. MUJEEB-KAZI2

CURRENT STATUS OF THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF (PUCCINIA TRITICINA) WHEAT LEAF RUST VIRULENCE IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks & Henn., is a serious fungal wheat disease of global occurrence. In order to determine its presence and virulence distribution within Pakistan, a trap nursery comprising of 39 isogenic wheat lines and 12 commercial bread wheat varieties carrying different Lr genes were planted and evaluated at 5 locations over 2 consecutive crop cycles; 2004-05 and 2005-06. The study objectives were to identify the naturally prevailing leaf rust virulences. Entries with leaf rust genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr28 were resistant at all locations. Leaf rust genes Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2b, Lr2c, Lr3, Lr3ka, Lr3bg, Lr10, Lr11, Lr12, Lr14b, Lr15, Lr16, Lr17, Lr18, Lr20, Lr21, Lr23, Lr24, Lr25, Lr26, Gatcher (10

887-895 Download
44
MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN
SHAUKAT HUSSAIN, ASGHAR ALI, M. ASHRAF ZAHID AND S.M. IQBAL

MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN LENTIL GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lentil blight, rust and viral diseases, particularly pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV) are serious threat to lentil production in Pakistan. Multiple disease resistance in lentil is not available in the country. During 1998-99, 590 local lentil germplasm accessions were evaluated under field conditions to identify multiple sources of resistance against major diseases. A wide range of variation to disease reaction was observed among lentil genotypes. Majority of the accessions was susceptible to rust, whereas maximum number of genotypes showed either resistant or tolerant reaction to Ascochyta blight and PSbMV. Only one accession (66013-6) was found with high level of resistance to all the three diseases. Twenty-three accessions were found highly resistant to both Ascochyta blight and PSbMV. Two lines (66013-3 and 66013-4) were found resistant to blight and rust. The identified sources of resistance can be utilized in lentil breeding program for the development of disease resistant cultivars for commercial cultivation.

897-903 Download
45
EFFECTS OF NEEM FORMULATIONS APPLIED AS SOIL DRENCHING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON ROOTS OF TOMATO
NAZIR JAVED1*, SAFDAR A. ANWAR1, SHAHINA FYAZ2, M.M. KHAN4 AND M. ASHFAQ3

EFFECTS OF NEEM FORMULATIONS APPLIED AS SOIL DRENCHING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON ROOTS OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
The effects of neem formulations applied as soil drenching on the development of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica on roots of susceptible tomato cv. Tiny-Tim was investigated at controlled environment consisted of photoperiod of 16 h light/8 h dark at 30oC during light and 24.1oC during dark. Thirty day old seedlings were transplanted singly in 15cm diam., pots filled with autoclaved proprietary based loam. Beginning 7-days after transplant, three neem formations viz., neem cake, aza 5 mg and 10 mg were drenched @ 10 ml per pot. Water and 4% ethanol treated plants were included as check for comparison. Three days after the application, plants were inoculated with freshly hatched 250 J2 suspended in 10 ml of water surrounding root zone of each plant. Each treatment consisted of 5 replications. The experimental plants were completely randomized on a bench in a growth room. The roots of tomato plants drenched with three neem formulations and ethanol equal numbers of J2 penetrated but significantly less than that of water check plants. Three neem treatments including aza (5mg), aza (10mg) arrested the development of J2 over that of water check. The roots of plants treated with aza (10mg) allowed less number of J2 to develop into immature females than on roots of ethanol check plants. The plants treated with all three neem formulations and ethanol responded less in terms of root gall formation over that of water check. Aza at 10mg was found most effective in protecting the roots against nematode infection. These findings warrant the use of neem as biocide to manage the nematode populations.

905-910 Download
46
EFFICIENT REGENERATION SYSTEM AND AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (L.) NASH
BINGBING YANG, GUOJIANG WU, ZHENRONG MA AND HANPING XIA*

EFFICIENT REGENERATION SYSTEM AND AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (L.) NASH
ABSTRACT:
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) has been widely used in South China for erosion control and ecological restoration, but it cannot be used in North China due to poor resistance to cold. To better improve the cold resistance of vetiver, a method was established to enhance cold resistance of vetiver. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacitic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) at a concentration of 1.0 and 0.5 mg l-1, respectively were most successful in inducing embryonic calli with an induction frequency up to 96.7%. Cytology observation proved that embryonic calli originated from epidermal cells and parenchyma cells of vetiver, and formed typical embryonic structure of monocotyledon. The regeneration ability of embryonic calli could be maintained for over two years, and the regeneration frequency was over 80% regardless of subculture times. Plant expression vector p1301UN-otsA was constructed by inserting the otsA gene digested with Sac I/Kpn I into Multiple Colony Site (MCS) of binary vector p1301UN. The freeze-thaw method was used to mobilize the recombinant plasmid into DH5a. Both Restriction analysis and DNA sequence analysis confirmed that the construction of plant expression vector p1301UN-otsA was successful. Moreover, an efficient genetic transformation system of vetiver was determined as follows: embryonic calli were infected with A. tumefaciens EHA105/p1301 (OD600=0.4-0.5) for 20 min., and then transferred to co-cultivation induction medium (CIM) in the dark at 25oC for 4 days; thereafter the infected calli were selected on screening induction medium (SIM) in the dark at 25 oC for 4 weeks. Using the optimized protocol

911-921 Download
47
IMPACT OF STRIPE RUST ON KERNEL WEIGHT OF WHEAT VARIETIES SOWN IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SYED NADEEM AFZAL1, M. I. HAQUE*1, M.S. AHMEDANI2, ABDUL RAUF1, MUHAMMAD MUNIR3, SYEDA SIDDIQA FIRDOUS4, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU5 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD6

IMPACT OF STRIPE RUST ON KERNEL WEIGHT OF WHEAT VARIETIES SOWN IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The stripe rust is the most striking among various factors that contribute towards enormous wheat yield losses in the northern Punjab and NWFP. Investigations revealed that there exists a direct linkage between the disease level of Puccinia striiformis Westend f.sp. Tritici Eriksson and weight loss of kernel in the most common wheat varieties sown in Pakistan. The kernel weight was significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of leaf area affected by stripe rust. The correlation coefficient (-0.9185) depicted highly significant effect of stripe rust on lowering 1,000 grain weight, ultimately the wheat yield. Variation in resistance level was also observed among different wheat varieties. The extensively cultivated wheat variety, Inquilab-91 proved to exhibit minimum kernel weight loss followed by Bakhtawar and Wafaq-2001. The Morocco, however, expressed as the most susceptible of all the varieties with maximum grain weight loss. Evaluation of disease resistance revealed that wheat variety Bakhtawar proved to be the moderately susceptible whereas Wafaq-2000, Inquilab-91 and Morocco ranked as susceptible to Puccinia striiformis. Among the four wheat varieties grown to assess the yield loss, sowing of Inquilab-91 and Bakhtawar was recommended because of their potential to withstand heavy yield losses inflicted by the stripe rust.

923-929 Download
48
YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY (WUE) OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS AS INFLUENCED BY VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE (VAM)
I.A. KHAN1*, N. AYUB2, S.N. MIRZA1, S.M. NIZAMI1 AND M. AZAM3

YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY (WUE) OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS AS INFLUENCED BY VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE (VAM)
ABSTRACT:
The influence of VAM on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied at two water regimes (100% field capacity and 50% field capacity). The shoot dry weight and root dry weight significantly increased at 100% field capacity as compared to 50% field capacity. There was a proportionate increase in shoot and root weight of the plant at dual mycorrhizal inoculation. The water use efficiency significantly increased by the inoculation with mycorrhizae under both the water regimes. Water use efficiency increased with the dual inoculation but maximum water use efficiency with Glomus etunicatum + Glomus intraradices was 915 g at 100% field capacity and 633 g at 50% field capacity. The maximum shoot and root dry weight also increased to 11.43, 9.21 g for shoot and 5.71, 4.61 g for root at 100 and 50% field capacity, respectively.

931-937 Download
49
SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF DUAL INOCULATION (VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE) ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF MEDICAGO SATIVA
I.A. KHAN1*, N. AYUB2, S.N. MIRZA1, S.M. NIZAMI1 AND M. AZAM3

SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF DUAL INOCULATION (VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE) ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF MEDICAGO SATIVA
ABSTRACT:
Inoculation effect of single and dual vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) with Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus etunicatum + Glomus intraradices on the growth and nutrients uptake (NPK) on Medicago sativa were carried out. Yield in the response of shoot and root dry weight was significantly increased due to dual inoculation than single inoculation. The dry weight of dual inoculation in shoot was 10.61g and 12.64 g and in root was 3.11 and 3.68 g, respectively while the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake % was also more due to dual inoculations.

939-945 Download
50
EFFECT OF SEED PELLETING WITH TRICHODERMA SPP., AND GLIOCLADIUM VIRENS ON GROWTH AND COLONIZATION OF ROOTS OF SUNFLOWER AND MUNG BEAN BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
FOUZIA YAQUB AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFECT OF SEED PELLETING WITH TRICHODERMA SPP., AND GLIOCLADIUM VIRENS ON GROWTH AND COLONIZATION OF ROOTS OF SUNFLOWER AND MUNG BEAN BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
ABSTRACT:
During the present studies, Trichoderma species viz., T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. pseudokoningii and Gliocladium virens were used for seed pelleting to prevent seed rot, damping-off, root rot of sunflower and mungbean caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Conidial suspensions of microbial antagonists prepared either in water or 10% sugar solution effectively suppressed root colonization by S. rolfsii and significantly enhanced plant growth as compared to control. Growth promoted by microbial antagonist was more evident in soil when S. rolfsii was not present.

947-953 Download
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