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Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 5
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIX. LINACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LIX. LINACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 6 species representing 2 genera of the family Linaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolpate or non-aperturate. Mostly oblate-spheroidal rarely spheroidal, sexine thicker than nexine. Tectum bacculate. On the basis of apertural types 2 distinct pollen types viz., Linum perenne – type and Reinwardtia trigyna –type are recognized.

1819-1822 Download
2
GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF MORUS ALBA (MORACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF MORUS ALBA (MORACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
ABSTRACT:
Present investigations pertain to pollen germination and viability of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) for up to 48 weeks. Pollen germination was made by hanging drop technique in different concentration of sucrose and boric acid solutions (10%-100%). In a refrigerator, freezer, in vacuum over silica gel and in organic solvents (Acetone, Benzene, and chloroform). Pollen stored at low temperature (-30°C, -20°C) showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at 4°C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60°C) showed the best of germination. The study indicates that 30% and 40% solutions favoured pollen germination. Benzene showed more germination than acetone and chloroform.

1823-1826 Download
3
CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GENUS ARTEMISIA L. (ANTHEMIDEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GENUS ARTEMISIA L. (ANTHEMIDEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Twenty four species of the genus Artemisia L., were examined from Pakistan for their cypsela features. Micromorphological characters of cypsela including position of corolla scar on cypsela, shape, surface, colour and carpopodium have been found very useful to evaluate the taxonomic significance for the specific delimitation in the genus Artemisia.

1827-1837 Download
4
ANTHER TYPES OF THE MONOCOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ROOHI BANO, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

ANTHER TYPES OF THE MONOCOTS WITHIN FLORA OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seventy-two monocot species distributed in 10 families were examined for their anther types based on mode of dehiscence by light and scanning electron microscopy. Latrorse anthers were found in 68 species, 3 species dehisce their anthers extrorsely while only one species showed poricidal dehiscence irrespective of primitive or advance taxa.

1839-1849 Download
5
IDENTIFICATION OF IRANIAN COMMERCIAL WOOD WITH HAND LENS
VAHIDREZA SAFDARI1, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, JONATHAN PALMER3 AND MIRZA B. BAIG

IDENTIFICATION OF IRANIAN COMMERCIAL WOOD WITH HAND LENS
ABSTRACT:
Anatomical studies of 14 commercial important tree species from Iranian Hyrcanian forest are carried out. Cross sections of wood species were surfaced and photographed, using different magnifications. Wood samples were grouped into, A- Diffuse-porous woods, including, Fagus orientalis, Acer insigne, Carpinus betulus, Alnus glutinosa, Diospyros lotus, Juglan regia, Tilia rubra, Sorbus torminalis, Prunus avium and Parrotia percia. It is shown that these species can be identified on the basis of distinct/indistinct annual growth boundaries, real/false rays, its visibility and presence and absence of axial parenchyma. B- Ring-porous woods, i-e Ulmus glabra, Quercus castaneaefolia, Gledistschia caspica and Fraxinus excelsior. Apart from colour and texture of species, distinct/indistinct rays, vessel arrangement in late wood and presence/absence of tyloses in earlywood are the indicator characteristics on which these types of woods can be identified. Density values of above mentioned wood species belonged to both groups are also presented.

1851-1864 Download
6
SPATIO-TEMPORAL EFFECTS ON ASSOCIATION OF PLANT SPECIES IN SOONE VALLEY OF PAKISTAN
IFTIKHAR AHMAD, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD* AND MANSOOR HAMEED

SPATIO-TEMPORAL EFFECTS ON ASSOCIATION OF PLANT SPECIES IN SOONE VALLEY OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Six ecologically diverse study sites viz., Khabeki, Khoora, Dape Sharif, Anga, Knotti Garden and Jallar were selected mainly on the basis of differences in their environmental attributes especially variations in elevation, slope, aspect, altitude, topography, soil composition, habitat, vegetation type and plant community. The available plant species at selected sites were enlisted. The ecological data was recorded during all the four seasons (autumn, winter, spring and summer) using quadrate sampling method. Soil physical and chemical properties of each site had their own impacts on the species association but seasonal effects, which were particularly due to different temperature and rain falls during different seasons of the year, were more pronounced. Most of the herbaceous species were frequent during summer and autumn due to suitable temperature and availability of moisture and nutrients. However during winter sparse vegetation did not show grouping of plants due to severe cold temperature. Availability of different nutrients at different sites and similar ability of some species to absorb these nutrients also had significant effect on association of species. Species sharing similar habitat were mostly associated as moisture loving species were grouped around water springs of Knotti Garden and Dape Sharif. Salt tolerant species were associated at Jaller site. Species which can tolerate both high salinity and pH were associated at Anga and Khoora sites.

1865-1876 Download
7
EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE SUGARS IN PLANT SPECIES INDIGENOUS TO SOONE VALLEY (PUNJAB) PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, ZAHID ALI SHAH1, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM2, IRFAN MUSTAFA1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*

EVALUATION OF AVAILABLE SUGARS IN PLANT SPECIES INDIGENOUS TO SOONE VALLEY (PUNJAB) PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Soone Valley (Salt Range) in Pakistan is a habitat of a large number of flora and fauna. Various grasses and leguminous species are indigenous to this valley and are grazed by ruminants. Leguminous plant species were characterized for carbohydrates, starch and total sugar contents in pods and leaves as well. The data obtained after analysis showed that carbohydrates ranged from 54.37 to 64.43; starch contents varied from 30.85 to 40.55 mg g–1 dry weight in leaves while it ranged from 61.65 to 69.09 and 32.55 to 36.11 mg g–1 in pods respectively. Overall values of soluble sugars range from 23.88 to 31.42 in leaves and 35.65 to 40.70 in pods in species under investigation in different pastures. Based on observation recorded for total soluble sugars estimation, it was concluded that the forage plant species studied were found to be palatable and had significant amount of those elements required for the needs of livestock reared in that specific rangeland. The results of the present investigation provide key information regarding sufficient amount of sugars in forages, which seems to be excellent. Furthermore, investigations for toxicosis, if any of sugars on grazing livestock of the range are urgently needed.

1877-1883 Download
8
VEGETATION ASSESSMENT OF SAWAN WARI OF NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI

VEGETATION ASSESSMENT OF SAWAN WARI OF NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Vegetation assessment of Sawan Wari of Nara Desert was carried out in the month of October

1885-1895 Download
9
ETHONOBOTANICAL PROPERTIES AND USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MORGAH BIODIVERSITY PARK, RAWALPINDI
SYED ZAHOOR HUSAIN1, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2*, MUBASHERA JAVAID1 AND SADIA BIBI1

ETHONOBOTANICAL PROPERTIES AND USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MORGAH BIODIVERSITY PARK, RAWALPINDI
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted in Morgah Biodiversity Park, Rawalpindi during 2006 to enlist the economic importance of medicinal plants with their medicinal properties and uses. The inhabitants of the area have to use the medicinal plants for various purposes and have for a long time been dependent on surrounding plant sources for their food, shelter, fodders, health care and other cultural purposes. However, changes in their life style seem to be responsible for the decline of practice in the local use of herbs for medicinal uses. It is therefore important to record the ethno botanical uses of these plants before the information is lost. The ethonobotanocal data were collected through questioners by interviewing local communities, local Tabib and Hakims. In total 40 species belonging to 39 genera and 32 families were recorded which were used medically by inhabitants of the area.

1897-1911 Download
10
ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID, ELEMENTAL AND TOTAL PROTEIN OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA MEDICINAL PLANT FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA, W. SHAIKH, T.G. KAZI, S. SOFIA, AMINA KABIR, K. USMANGHANI AND AFTAB A. KANDHRO

ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID, ELEMENTAL AND TOTAL PROTEIN OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA MEDICINAL PLANT FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) is a well known medicinal plant with leaves, roots and bark being exported as popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. It is locally known as AKK with English name as Milk Weed, grows abundantly in Sindh province of Pakistan. The isolated fatty acid composition in the extract of C.procera has 7 saturated fatty acid and 11 unsaturated fatty acid. The essential elements Al, As, Cu, Ca, Cr, Cd, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn have been analyzed from the medicinal plant in variable range. The total protein in C. procera was 27-32%

1913-1921 Download
11
EDAPHIC FACTORS AND DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
MOHAMMAD ARSHAD1, ANWAR-UL-HUSSAN2, M. YASIN ASHRAF3, SAJIDA NOUREEN4 AND MOHAMMAD MOAZZAM4

EDAPHIC FACTORS AND DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Relationship of soil characteristics with vegetation was evaluated for determing the most effective parameters responsible in the distribution of vegetation types in rangelands of the Cholistan desert. Soils of different vegetation types were analyzed for salinity, organic matter, moisture content and ionic concentration (Na, K, P). Vegetation types were analyzed for density, frequency, cover and importance value index. The association of certain plant species to certain soil types was common indicating the influence of chemical composition of the soils. The result showed marked important relationships between soil characteristics and plant species. Suaeda fruticosa and Haloxylon recurvum the high salinity levels and low organic matter. Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Dipterygium glaucum, Capparis deciduas and Haloxylon salicornicum indicated better organic matter, low salinities and Na+ concentration and Na/K ratio. Ecological characteristics, responsible for plant distribution in Cholistan desert seem to be salinity, organic matter and ionic concentration.

1923-1931 Download
12
PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF BIOHERBICIDE
KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN2, ANWAR NAWAZ1 AND ANEES AMIN1

PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF BIOHERBICIDE
ABSTRACT:
Parthenium hysterophorus L., being a declared invasive weed is threatening the biodiversity and human health in several areas of Pakistan. Several researchers have documented the alleloapthic effect of this weed. In the present studies the allelopathic potential was studied in laboratory and in field conditions with the objectives to explore the potential of P. hysterophorus as bioherbicide in future. Laboratory based experiment showed that with the increasing concentration of P. hysterophorus, the germination percentage, seedling length and seedling weight of all the three species tested were significantly decreased. The tolerance order of the species against the extract concentration of P. hysterophorus were Triticum aestivum > Avena fatua > Lepidium sp. While field experiment showed that there was no effect of any concentration either pre or post-emergence on weed density 25 days after sowing, fresh biomass and dry biomass. However different concentration had significant effect on the weed density 50 DAS in post-emergence as well as pre-emergence. This might be due to delayed germination of weeds due to allelochemicals. Hence the present study suggest that P. hysterophorus can be used as a bioherbicide but still needs extensive study to fully explore its potential against different summer and winter weeds.

1933-1942 Download
13
EFFICACY OF SOME PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CANOLA
IJAZ AHMAD KHAN*, GUL HASSAN*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT* AND IHSANULLAH DAUR**

EFFICACY OF SOME PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CANOLA
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted at Malakandher Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2000-2001 using RCB design, having four replications. Dunkled Variety of canola in a plot size of 6x3m² was planted during the last week of October

1943-1947 Download
14
BIOREACTOR MEDIATED GROWTH, CULTURE VENTILATION, STATIONARY AND SHAKE CULTURE EFFECTS ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SUGARCANE
G. MUSTAFA SAJID1* AND SAIRA PERVAIZ2

BIOREACTOR MEDIATED GROWTH, CULTURE VENTILATION, STATIONARY AND SHAKE CULTURE EFFECTS ON IN VITRO GROWTH OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Physical and chemical culture conditions are crucial in large scale micropropagation of clonally propagated plant species. In this study, two lines of sugarcane were used in a series of experiments to assess their In vitro growth performance under specified treatments of physical culture conditions. In one experiment, a Sibata glass double chamber bioreactor was used to evaluate the growth of cultures in two compartments of the bioreactor and it was found that the lower compartment proved better in supporting the culture growth as compared to the upper compartment. Lower compartment generated almost two times greater shoot mass and 1.5 times higher shoot numbers as compared to the upper compartment of the bioreactor. In a separate experiment, In vitro growth of sugarcane cultures was compared in vented vessels with the non-vented vessels. Ventilation was substantiated with microfilters (0.4 um membrane filters). It was observed that growth is initially better in vented vessels but soon extreme desiccation ensues due to loss of moisture from the media and plants and it proved detrimental to culture health. In yet another experiment, liquid and semi solid media were compared for their effect on In vitro culture of two sugarcane varieties. Liquid media exhibited better culture growth in case of BL-4 but Katha behaved opposite indicating thereby that there is a differential genotype dependent response to such culture conditions. Culture conditions described herein have proved very useful in maintaining the In vitro gene bank of Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI) which undertakes collection, maintenance, evaluation, and distribution of germplasm of all plant genetic resources including the clonally propagated species.

1949-1956 Download
15
EFFECT OF COMPATIBLE OSMOTICA AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY STRESS ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS
BILQUEES GUL1,2 AND M. AJMAL KHAN3

EFFECT OF COMPATIBLE OSMOTICA AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY STRESS ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF ALLENROLFEA OCCIDENTALIS
ABSTRACT:
Allenrolfea occidentalis, a perennial halophytic shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae is widely distributed in the inland salt marshes and salt playas of western United States. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of compatible osmotica (betaine and proline) and growth regulators (gibberellic acid and kinetin) in alleviating salinity stress on the seed germination of A. occidentalis. Seed germination decreased with an increase in salinity stress and no seed germinated at 800 mM NaCl. Compatible osmotica and growth regulators were able to counteract the inhibitory effect of salinity. Betaine (0.1 and 1.0 mM) and proline (0.1 and 1.0 mM) completely alleviated the salinity-enforced dormancy at all treatments. Gibberellic acid (0.3 and 3.0 mM) and kinetin (0.05 and 0.5 mM) significantly (p<0.0001) improved the seed germination inhibited by NaCl but the gibberellic acid alleviated more than kinetin. At higher salinity, 800 mM NaCl low concentration of kinetin (0.05 mM) and gibberellic acid (0.3 mM) were more effective.

1957-1964 Download
16
INDUCTION OF RESISTANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) AGAINST HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA AND EARIAS VITELLA BY ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE CHEMICALS
NIGHAT SARWAR, RASHID A. KHAN, SUMAIRA YOUSAF, M. HAYAT ZAHID AND FARHAT F. JAMIL

INDUCTION OF RESISTANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) AGAINST HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA AND EARIAS VITELLA BY ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE CHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
Induced resistance was studied in cotton against bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hub.) and spotted bollworm (Earias vitella Fab.) by treating the plants with Salicylic acid, Bion (Benzo (1,2,3) thiadizole-7-carbothioc acid (S) methyl ester) and Jasmonic acid. At flowering stage, a set of plants were sprayed with different concentrations of Salicylic acid (1.0

1965-1970 Download
17
ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON PREHARVEST FRUIT DROP, YIELD AND QUALITY IN KINNOW MANDARIN
M. AZHER NAWAZ*, WAQAR AHMAD, SAEED AHMAD AND M. MUMTAZ KHAN

ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON PREHARVEST FRUIT DROP, YIELD AND QUALITY IN KINNOW MANDARIN
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken to envisage the effect of growth regulators on preharvest fruit drop and quality of Kinnow mandrin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Various concentration of 2, 4-D, GA3 and NAA were applied during the last week of November

1971-1981 Download
18
ANTIFEEDANT ACTIVITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM AJUGA NIPPONENSIS AGAINST PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA
ZHEN HUANG1, FU CHAI ZHOU1, DI XU2, M. AFZAL3, M. HAMID BASHIR3, SHAUKAT ALI1 and SHOAIB FREED1

ANTIFEEDANT ACTIVITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM AJUGA NIPPONENSIS AGAINST PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA
ABSTRACT:
Antifeedant activities of seven chemicals isolated from Ajuga nipponensis were examined in a bioassay against 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella. Five compounds (luteolin, stigmasterol, acacetin

1983-1992 Download
19
INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENESCENCE AND NITRIC OXIDE IN SUNFLOWER (HELİANTHUS ANNUUS L.) SEEDLINGS
*EROL Ç. SELÇUKCAN AND ÖZ G. CEVAHİR

INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SENESCENCE AND NITRIC OXIDE IN SUNFLOWER (HELİANTHUS ANNUUS L.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the effects of NO (nitric oxide) on senescence occurring in the cotyledons of Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings, were examined. Following germination of the sunflower the seedlings were grown in perlit for 10 days and then transferred into hydroponic culture containing ¼ Hoagland solution. At day 23 approximately when senescence started occurring, 0.1

1993-2004 Download
20
RESPONSE OF CHICKPEA TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON NITROGEN FIXATION AND YIELD
ZARRIN FATIMA1, ASGHARI BANO1*, RIAZ SIAL AND M. ASLAM2

RESPONSE OF CHICKPEA TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON NITROGEN FIXATION AND YIELD
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to compare the effects of three plant growth regulators and Rhizobium leguminosarum on the growth, yield parameters and N2 fixation of chickpea under natural condition. The plant growth regulators viz., kinetin, indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were applied at concentration of 10-5M as seed soaking and 10-6 M as foliar spray, alone and in combinations with Rhizobium inoculum (strain TAL 1148 and TAL 620). Kinetin was found to be the most affective in increasing growth parameter (viz. root/shoot biomass, grain yield) and nitrogen fixation (viz., specific nitrogenase activity of nodules, and total N – fixed plant-1) of chickpea. The IAA seed soaking was least effective. The ABA seed soaking as well as foliar spray treatments significantly decreased nodules weight, nitrogenase activity of nodules, specific nitrogenase activity of nodules and total N – fixed plant-1. The kinetin seed soaking (10-5 M) and ABA foliar spray (10-6 M) were more effective in increasing the grain weight as compared to control. Application of Rhizobium inoculum, generally increased growth yields components and nitrogen fixation. The TAL 1148 strain was more effective than TAL 620. The pattern of response to hormone and Rhizobium inoculum was consistent in the three consecutive years. It would suggest that that both the efficiency and the longevity of the nodules seem to be favorably affected by kinetin application.

2005-2013 Download
21
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF REGIONAL SORGHUM BICOLOR VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
SAJID MEHMOOD1, AMINA BASHIR1, ASIF AHMAD1, ZAHID AKRAM2, NYLA JABEEN³ AND MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ1*

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF REGIONAL SORGHUM BICOLOR VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Systematic characterizations and evaluation of plant genetic resources are prerequisites for the efficient use of material through conventional methods. Pakistan is an agro-based country and has a variety of important crops which includes sorghum. Traditionally, the data on agronomic, morphological and physiological plant traits are used to estimate the genetic diversity. But now biochemical and molecular markers have received much attention in recent years for genetic diversity studies. A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among different sorghum varieties by Genome DNA fingerprinting as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. A total of 10 sorghum varieties were evaluated using RAPD. DNA was extracted from leaves, quantified and subjected to PCR analysis by using different primers. PCR products will be evaluated using 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Data analysis was done using Gel compare ІІ software program. Results show the appreciable amount of genetic diversity among the sorghum varieties. Out of the 95 amplification products scored, 75 bands (78.94%) were found to be polymorphic. The pairwise similarity values shows that variety RARI-S3 and RARI-S-4 (both from Chakwal) are showing closest relationship with highest similarity value i.e., 95.6% while variety YSS-9 and 84G01 (Bonus) show distant relationship with similarity value 67.8%. In this experiment RAPD proved to be a reliable, rapid and practical technique of revealing relationship among sorghum varieties.

2015-2021 Download
22
OXIDATION AND PEROXIDATION OF POSTHARVEST BANANA FRUIT DURING SOFTENING
SHAOYU YANG1, XINGUO SU3, K.NAGENDRA PRASAD1, BAO YANG1, GUIPING CHENG2, YULONG CHEN2, EN YANG2, AND YUEMING JIANG1*

OXIDATION AND PEROXIDATION OF POSTHARVEST BANANA FRUIT DURING SOFTENING
ABSTRACT:
Softening is a characteristic of fruit ripening caused by oxidative action. The oxidized degree of membrane lipids and proteins in relation to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of postharvest banana fruit during softening were investigated. Firmness as an indictor of softening of banana fruit was also measured. Banana fruit firmness decreased markedly after 4 days of storage, which indicated the occurrence of fruit softening. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl after 3 days and lipofuscin content after 4 days of storage increased markedly, which exhibited that the accumulation of lipofuscin appeared later than that of MDA and protein carbonyl which could be associated with the late softening stage. Hydroxyl radical level and hydrogen peroxide content decreased within 3 days and then increased significantly. However, production of superoxide anion radical decreased within 2 days, then maintained a low level, and finally increased significantly after 5 days of storage. It was apparent that the marked increases of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide contents of banana fruit appeared prior to the time of fruit softening and the accumulations of MDA, protein carbonyl and lipofuscin. This study suggested that enhanced production of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide could participate in the formation of oxidative products and then involve the initiation of banana fruit softening.

2023-2029 Download
23
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF WHEAT IN BHALIKE SOIL SERIES OF PAKISTAN
M. SARFRAZ, S. M. MEHDI*, M. ABID AND MUHAMMAD AKRAM

EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF WHEAT IN BHALIKE SOIL SERIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2004-05 in Bhalike soil series (Typic Camborthid) to determine the phosphorus (P) requirement of wheat for obtaining 95 % relative yield. Site selection was based on calcareousness and P deficiency. Phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed to study the behavior of soil to phosphate application by adding 0, 5

2031-2040 Download
24
ASSESSMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN EUCALYPTUS, RAIN TREE AND THAI NEEM UNDER LABORATORY AND THE FIELD CONDITIONS
SURIYAN CHA-UM* AND CHALERMPOL KIRDMANEE

ASSESSMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN EUCALYPTUS, RAIN TREE AND THAI NEEM UNDER LABORATORY AND THE FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this investigation was to discover an effective index for salt-tolerant selection in plant tissue culture system and to assay the physiological responses in a salinity field trial. Net-photosynthetic rate (NPR) in salt-tolerant clones of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.), Rain tree (Samanea saman Merr.) and Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis Val.) was gradually reduced when exposed to 0.17, 0.34, 0.68 or 1.02 M NaCl salts contained in the culture media, while that in salt-sensitive clones was sharply decreased. The reduction percentage of NPR in salt-tolerant species grown under salt stress was lower than that in salt-sensitive species by a factor of 2-3 folds. The NPR reduction in plant species grown under salt-stress was evidently investigated as effective index for salt-tolerance. In addition, physiological characteristics, chlorophyll content and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), in salt-tolerant clones were significantly adapted to salinity field trial at Mahasarakham province, Northeastern region of Thailand, leading to high survival percentage and grew well when compared to the salt-sensitive clones. The salt-tolerant clones of forest tree species can be further used for salinity phytoremediation and ecological succession.

2041-2051 Download
25
HEAT TOLERANCE IS VARIABLE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AND CAN BE EXPLOITED FOR BREEDING OF BETTER YIELDING CULTIVARS UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE REGIMES
AZEEM IQBAL KHAN1*, IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN AND HAFEEZ AHMAD SADAQAT2

HEAT TOLERANCE IS VARIABLE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) AND CAN BE EXPLOITED FOR BREEDING OF BETTER YIELDING CULTIVARS UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Fifty accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L., were evaluated for heat tolerance based on relative cell injury level (RCIL %) and stomatal conductance. Accessions showed highly significant differences for both the parameters and ranged in relative cell injury level between 44.8 to 74.9% and from 58.1 µms-1 to 120.6 µms-1 in stomatal conductance. The breeding material (NIAB 111/2 followed by MNH 553) showing the least mean Relative cell injury level also showed the highest stomatal conductance and both these traits showed negative correlation (r= -0.70). The data on the basis of both the above mentioned criteria were used to sort out heat tolerant and sensitive cotton accessions for further breeding program.

2053-2058 Download
26
MINERAL COMPOSITION, PALATABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FREE RANGELAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN*, INAM-UR-RAHIM*, HAQ NAWAZ* MUHAMMAD YAQOOB** AND IJAZ JAVED***

MINERAL COMPOSITION, PALATABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FREE RANGELAND GRASSES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted in the valley of Chagharzai in Bunair district lying in the north Trans-Himalayan moist zone occupying Malakand Division, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan to determine mineral composition, palatability and digestibility of locally available free rangeland grasses. The study area lies between 34.42 to 34.66 degree latitude and 72.62 to 72.78 degree longitude, having a humid subtropical to temperate environment. The annual precipitation varies from 600 to 1000 mm, mainly during summer and spring. Ten free rangeland grasses were identified for macro-minerals (Ca, P, K and Mg) and micro-minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn and Co). The mean percentage values for Ca, P, K and Mg at early bloom stage were 0.26±0.022, 0.025±0.004, 0.69±0.113 and 0.044±0.006, respectively. The mean ppm values for Cu, Zn, Mn and Co at early bloom stage were 22.75±2.671

2059-2070 Download
27
SCREENING OF ARABIDOPSIS MUTANTS FOR FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC STUDIES
FAISAL SAEED AWAN*, IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN, ASIF ALI KHAN, ANJA SCHNEIDER1, JAVARIA ALTAF2, RASHID AHMAD3, DARIO LEISTER1

SCREENING OF ARABIDOPSIS MUTANTS FOR FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
Eight photosynthetic Arabidopsis mutants were screened for co-segregation of a photosynthetic phenotype with the T-DNA insertion. These mutants were selected from 80 photosynthetic mutants with genetic background of Columbia-0. Two different screening approaches were used to study the T-DNA insertion in the genome of mutant Arabidopsis lines. The sulphonamide sulfadiazine was found to be an effective selective agent and a single copy of sulfonamide resistant gene was found to be completely resistant to the optimal concentration i.e., 5mg mL-1. The maximum number of Arabidopsis mutant plants had confirmed insertions. Some of the plants did not show any amplification with gene specific primer combination, and it was assumed that either they were wild type plants or they had random T-DNA insertion and the insertion was not found in the gene under study but it could be found in any where in the genome. Some mutant plants were morphologically different from the wild type plants e.g., ALP105. These plants grew as small in size and dark green in color. After PCR screening with gene specific and T-DNA border primers all such mutant plants were confirmed as heterozygous T-DNA insertion plants.

2071-2080 Download
28
EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PEA GERMPLASM THROUGH PHENOTYPIC TRAIT ANALYSIS
M. NISAR1, A. GHAFOOR 2, HABIB AHMAD5, M.R. KHAN3, A.S. QURESHI3, HAIDER ALI4 AND M. ISLAM5

EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PEA GERMPLASM THROUGH PHENOTYPIC TRAIT ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity of 246 accessions of Pisum sativum L. collected from various localities of the world was evaluated at vegetative stages to ascertain the extent of genetic diversity and assess geographical heterogenecity among the germplasm. It was concluded that, high degree of allelic variation was present in seed coat color and seed shape. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed that considerable extent of genetic diversity was available for biological yield, number of locules per fresh pod, grain yield and harvest index. It was also observed that 100 seeds weight was positively correlated with all the observed parameters, but negatively correlated with number of seed per dry pod. Biomass proved high significance of correlation with number of locules per fresh pod, number of pod per plant and 100 seed weight. Harvest index correlated with all the traits except number of locules per fresh pod and biomass. Accessions with best performance were assorted for the desired parameters and communicated for its utilization in breeding programs.

2081-2086 Download
29
GENETIC VARIABILITY, ASSOCIATION AND DIVERSITY STUDIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM
YOUSAF ALI, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA*, JAVED AKHTER, PHILIPPE MONNEVEUX** AND ZAHID LATEEF***

GENETIC VARIABILITY, ASSOCIATION AND DIVERSITY STUDIES IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Seventy local and exotic wheat genotypes grown in Faisalabad, Pakistan during the Rabi season of 2005/2006 were evaluated for variability parameters, correlations and path coefficients for eight metric traits i.e., plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, number of grains per spike, fertility %

2087-2097 Download
30
APPRAISAL OF HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN DIFFERENT VEGETABLES GROWN IN THE VICINITY OF AN INDUSTRIAL AREA
MUHAMMAD FAROOQ, FAROOQ ANWAR* AND UMER RASHID

APPRAISAL OF HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN DIFFERENT VEGETABLES GROWN IN THE VICINITY OF AN INDUSTRIAL AREA
ABSTRACT:
The contents of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in various leafy vegetables viz., spinach, coriander, lettuce, radish, cabbage and cauliflower grown in an effluent irrigated fields in the vicinity of an industrial area of Faisalabad, Pakistan were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn and Cd in the leaves, stems and roots of spinach, coriander, lettuce, radish, cabbage and cauliflower were found to be 1.1331-2.652

2099-2106 Download
31
EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS ORGANIC RESIDUES FOR ENHANCING RICE-WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER NORMAL SOIL CONDITIONS
G. SARWAR1*, N. HUSSAIN2, H. SCHMEISKY3, S. SUHAMMAD1, M. IBRAHIM1 AND S. AHMAD1

EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS ORGANIC RESIDUES FOR ENHANCING RICE-WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER NORMAL SOIL CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Rice-wheat system is one of the most important cropping sequences adopted on large areas not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world. Rice and wheat straw is the main crop residue that is largely burnt due to introduction of mechanical harvesters. This burning poses diversified pollution problems like ashes, production of heat and toxic gases and burning of nearby useful plants. The cost of production of rice and wheat crops is going high and high due to ever escalating prices of chemical fertilizers. The burning of precious organic matter is the major factor of low fertility status and poor physical properties of soil. Resultantly, the soils cannot give yield of crops according to the full potential. The cost of crop production can be brought down and newly emerging problem can be controlled if sources of nutrients available at farm (crop residues and animal wastes) be brought under the input cycle. The compost, FYM and Sesbania green manure were used for nutrient supplementation alone and along with chemical fertilizer for rice and wheat crops. Crop yields significantly increased with the use of compost in combination with chemical fertilizer (3.94 t ha-1 for rice and 5.73 t ha-1 for wheat), FYM (3.36 t ha-1 for rice and 4.38 t ha-1 for wheat) and Sesbania green manure (2.86 t ha-1 for rice and 3.50 t ha-1 for wheat). However, compost proved superior to farmyard manure as well as Sesbania green manure. The pollution problem created due to burning of rice and wheat residues could also greatly be solved.

2107-2113 Download
32
GROWTH REGULATORS APPLICATION AFFECTS VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
BASHARAT A. SALEEM*, A.U. MALIK, M.A. PERVEZ AND A.S. KHAN

GROWTH REGULATORS APPLICATION AFFECTS VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
ABSTRACT:
Two plant growth regulators (GA3 and 2, 4-D) were exogenously applied in different concentrations alone and their combinations on Blood Red sweet orange trees during full bloom. The experiment was performed at the Experimental Fruit Garden Sq # 9 Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; laid out according to RCBD with 13 treatments including control replicated thrice. A single tree was taken as treatment unit. Vegetative and reproductive behaviours of the treated trees were studied to evaluate the effect of exogenous application of plant growth regulators on leaf age, vegetative growth and final fruit set. The leaf drop was significantly reduced by all treatments compared with control. The mixture treatments at all concentrations retained maximum spring leaves ranging between 38.5% (20 mg L-1) - 58.38% (45 mg L-1). The control trees had negligible number of spring leaves (3.09%). Number of leaves per flush, flush length, number of male flowers and flower drop intensity had also significant differences among treatments but no linear trend could be determined. Bud drop, hermaphrodite flowers, fruit on old shoots and fruit on current shoots were not significantly affected by the treatments. The final fruit set was significantly affected by all GA3 treatments individually as well as in mixture with maximum fruit set of 32.32% in 45 mg L-1 GA3 treated trees compared with control. Fruit yield, in terms of number of fruit per tree as well as kg per tree was significantly affected by the treatments compared with control. There was positive correlation between number of fruit and weight of fruit per tree.

2115-2125 Download
33
TRANSFER OF MAGNESIUM FROM SOIL AND FORAGE TO GOATS GRAZING IN A SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN: INFLUENCE OF SEASONS AND SAMPLING PERIODS
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, KAFEEL AHMAD1, L.R. MCDOWELL3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

TRANSFER OF MAGNESIUM FROM SOIL AND FORAGE TO GOATS GRAZING IN A SEMIARID REGION OF PAKISTAN: INFLUENCE OF SEASONS AND SAMPLING PERIODS
ABSTRACT:
The investigations were conducted in a goat farm at “Livestock Experimental Station” located in the South-western Punjab. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the influence of seasons and sampling periods, the transfer of magnesium from soil and forages to grazing goats in this semiarid region as to evaluate Mg requirement of the grazing livestock. Soil, forage and blood samples from lactating/ non-lactating and male grazing animals were taken fortnightly, four times during summer and winter. Soil samples taken from the pasture grazed by goats had adequate levels of Mg during winter and summer, while forage contained marginal deficient Mg. The marginal deficient levels of Mg in lactating goats were observed during winter and summer, while marginal deficient levels of Mg in the plasma of non-lactating goats were observed during both seasons. Plasma of male goats contained marginal deficient levels of Mg during summer. On the whole, the plasma Mg concentration may be considered inadequate mainly due to unavailability of this mineral from the dietary sources. It is concluded that high bio-available Mg supplementation is needed for increased animal productivity in this region.

2127-2133 Download
34
RESPONSE OF WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD TO VARIOUS LEVELS OF COMPOST AND ORGANIC MANURE
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM1*, ANWAR-UL-HASSAN1, MUHAMMAD IQBAL1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM2

RESPONSE OF WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD TO VARIOUS LEVELS OF COMPOST AND ORGANIC MANURE
ABSTRACT:
Organic manures are traditionally used for supplying plant nutrients. Their volume and other operational problems forced the farmers to use inorganic fertilizers. The recycling of organic waste is considered one of the major solutions to get rid of huge piles of wastes. The product obtained provides nutrients in an efficient way along with improving the soil conditions. Because the current practice of using inorganic fertilizers may not fulfil and maintain the soil quality needed for sustainable crop productivity. The impact of organic manure and compost on productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Inqlab-91) was investigated in sandy clay loam soil. The amounts of various organic manures to supplement the inorganic fertilizers must be optimized to increase crop yield. Changes in growth and yield parameters of wheat relative to inorganically fertilized controls were measured. Organic amendments had positive but variable effects. The organic manures application increased the wheat yield by 11.13 (105 %) to 13.53 (128 %) g pot–1, relative to the control. The wheat plant height, number of tillers, spike length, straw yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight all were statistically different from that of control. The findings of the trial suggested that crop productivity may be improved significantly by the application of various organic manures for longer time. Hence, instead of using inorganic chemical fertilizer alone, the integrated use could be more effective and sustainable for environment and agriculture.

2135-2141 Download
35
OCCURRENCE OF THE FAMILIES NAVICULACEAE AND SURIRELLACEAE (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE PUNJAB AND N. W. F. P., PAKISTAN
SYED TARIQ-ALI1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

OCCURRENCE OF THE FAMILIES NAVICULACEAE AND SURIRELLACEAE (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE PUNJAB AND N. W. F. P., PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seven species of pennate diatoms belonging to 4 genera were collected from different freshwater habitats at Lahore and Sheikhupura districts (Punjab) and Sawat Valley (NWFP) of Pakistan during April and September 2004. They were identified and taxonomically described for the first time from their area of collection. They mainly occurred in spring, started diminishing in summer and autumn, and disappeared in winter. The genus Colletonema and its three species viz., C. eximium, C. neglectum and C. subcohaerens as well as Luticola mutica are being reported for the first time from Pakistan. Sexual reproduction was not observed in them.

2143-2148 Download
36
SCOPE OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM ADULTS
MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AHMEDANI1, M.I. HAQUE*2, SYED NADEEM AFZAL2, UMER IQBAL2 AND S. NAZ3

SCOPE OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM ADULTS
ABSTRACT:
Montreal protocol has deprived the world from Methyl bromide which had been used as one of the most effective pesticide since many decades. Alternative fumigation methods are therefore urgently required to fill this gap in relation to the pest control especially the stored grain insect pest management. Investigations were therefore carried out to evaluate the potential role of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as a natural pest control agent against the rust red flour beetle. Different formulations of the pathogens were tested for their efficacy against the pest. Results revealed that two out of the three commercial formulations used in the experiment i.e., Dipel ES and Bactospeine showed moderate results with 59.33 and 54.66 % mortality. Ecotech Pro was however found to be the most effective exhibiting 79.66 % mortality after 7 days of the treatment. The results further revealed that liquid formulations yielded comparatively better results as compared to the powder formulation. Mortality exhibited in case of Ecotech Pro was perhaps due to its active ingredient transconjugant Bt kurstaki x Bt aizawi, its potency as well as more ingestion of the Bt spores and toxins because of its liquid base. Liquid formulations not only enhanced the moisture contents but also made the grain more palatable for T. castaneum adults resulting in more mortality as compared to dry formulation.

2149-2156 Download
37
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVE AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA
SABAHAT SAEED AND PERWEEN TARIQ

IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLOVE AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to investigate the potential of using aqueous infusion, decoction and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as natural antibacterial agents against 100 isolates belonging to 10 different species of Gram –ve bacilli viz., Escherichia coli (36), Proteus mirabilis

2157-2160 Download
38
INFLUENCE OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON PRODUCTION AND ACTIVITY OF PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS BS1
MUSSARAT SHAHEEN, AAMER ALI SHAH, ABDUL HAMEED, FARIHA HASAN

INFLUENCE OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON PRODUCTION AND ACTIVITY OF PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS BS1
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus subtilis BS1 was used in the present study for the production of protease. For protease production optimum pH and temperature were found to be 11 and 50˚C, respectively. Soybean (197 PU/mg) and casein (168 PU/mg) proved as the best substrates for the production of enzyme. Maximum production of protease (126 and 121 PU/mg) was shown in 1.5 and 4.5% of Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, respectively. Maximum activity was observed at pH 9 at 90ºC, in crude extract, after 20 minutes of incubation. EDTA slightly enhanced proteolytic activity, whereas, Na, K, Ca, Li, Mg, Cu and Fe inhibited the activity of protease. Due to maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper, low concentrations of substrate and stability at alkaline pH, high temperature and salt-tolerance, these characteristics makes the strain and its enzymes usefull in different industries.

2161-2169 Download
39
COMPARISON OF METHODS OF INOCULATION OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV.ORYZAE IN RICE CULTIVARS
M.A. AKHTAR1, ABDUL RAFI2 AND ABDUL HAMEED3

COMPARISON OF METHODS OF INOCULATION OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV.ORYZAE IN RICE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Bacterial suspension containing 108 colony forming units (cfu) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was used for inoculating detached leaves of 6 commercial rice cultivars In vitro as well as for testing these cultivars in pots in growth chamber conditions by three methods of inoculation i.e., clipping, pin prick and brush respectively. Clipping method resulted in much more lesion length development than either the pin prick and brush method.

2171-2175 Download
40
CATEGORIZATION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS ISOLATES OF STORED WHEAT GRAINS IN TO AFLATOXINOGENICS AND NON-AFLATOXINOGENICS
MALIHA RASHID1*, SAMINA KHALIL2, NAJMA AYUB1, WASEEM AHMED3, AND ABDUL GHAFFAR KHAN1

CATEGORIZATION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS ISOLATES OF STORED WHEAT GRAINS IN TO AFLATOXINOGENICS AND NON-AFLATOXINOGENICS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to categorize 157 Aspergillus flavus (AF1-AF157) and 36 A. parasiticus (AP1-AP36) strains isolated from stored wheat grains from three provinces of Pakistan viz., Punjab, Sindh and NWFP, into aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic ones by cultural as well as PCR methods. None of the isolates produced aflatoxin except the AP4 isolate. The positive control in all the batches of A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates produced maximum aflatoxin in grains at 16% moisture and 25ºC temperature in a laboratory experiment of this study. The accuracy of cultural tests ELIZA assessed by percent recovery of the toxin from positive controls, spiked samples and spiked controls ranged from 98–100%. An assay based on multiplex PCR was applied for the detection of four genes located at different loci coding enzymes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway of A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains. These are AflR, reported as regulatory gene and functions as a transcription activator, others are structural genes named according to their substrates Nor 1 (norsolorinic acid), Ver 1(Versicolorin) and Omt (O methylosterigmatocystin). Recovery of these four genes in the DNA template of known Aflatoxinogenic A. flavus strains in every experimental trial of present study as a positive control showed the accurate PCR experimentation. None of the A. flavus and 35 A. parasiticus (AP1-AP3 and AP5-AP36) isolates produced aflatoxin in both the flask and storage experiments. Similarly all these strains did not exhibit presence of all the four genes in the PCRs of the extracted DNA at one time. All the A. flavus isolates on the basis of their gene pattern were grouped into 11 groups and A. parasiticus isolates into 9 groups. Presence of all four genes was detected only in one aflatoxinogenic isolate of A. parasiticus (AP4). The comparison of the cultural and PCR methods showed good agreement, as results of both the methods exclusively matched each other. All the non Aflatoxinogenic isolates of this study showed biocontrol activity against known Aflatoxinogenic A. flavus isolate during an in vitro laboratory experiment.

2177-2192 Download
41
EFFECT OF BARLERIA ACANTHOIDES VAHL. ON ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE INFECTION AND GROWTH OF INFECTED OKRA AND BRINJAL PLANTS
M. WASEEM ABBASI, NAEEM AHMED, M. JAVED ZAKI AND S. SHAHID SHAUKAT

EFFECT OF BARLERIA ACANTHOIDES VAHL. ON ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE INFECTION AND GROWTH OF INFECTED OKRA AND BRINJAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Barleria acanthoides Vahl. is a xerophytic herb found in Karachi. In the present study B. acanthoides was used against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood, In vitro and greenhouse experiments. Its effects on root-knot infection, growth, chlorophylls and protein contents in leaves of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. var. Arka anamika) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L. var. Black beauty) plants were observed. Aqueous extracts of B. acanthoides significantly inhibited egg hatching of root-knot nematode and caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of M. javanica In vitro. Soil amendment with shoot material of B. acanthoides at 1% and 2% w/w significantly suppressed nematode galling in okra and brinjal roots. B. acanthoides amendment resulted in enhanced growth, chlorophyll and total protein contents in okra and brinjal compared to unamended M. javanica inoculated plants.

2193-2198 Download
42
INFLUENCE OF INOCULUM LEVELS OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND SUSCEPTIBILITY ON NEW POTATO GERMPLASM
FARAH NAZ1*, CHAUDHARY ABDUL RAUF1, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI1, IRFAN-UL-HAQUE1 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD2

INFLUENCE OF INOCULUM LEVELS OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI AND SUSCEPTIBILITY ON NEW POTATO GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
The influence of inoculum levels (10

2199-2209 Download
43
DETECTION OF RESISTANT SOURCES FOR COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA GERMPLASM
ABIDA AKRAM1, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL2, CH. ABDUL RAUF1 AND RIZWANA ALEEM3

DETECTION OF RESISTANT SOURCES FOR COLLAR ROT DISEASE IN CHICKPEA GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Ninety-eight chickpea germplasm accessions received from International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria and NARC, Pakistan were evaluated under greenhouse conditions where temperature, ranged from 8-24°C and humidity was maintained above 80% by sprinkling fresh water at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, during the year 2006 to identify sources of genetic resistance against collar rot disease incited by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. The fungus was isolated from diseased chickpea plants present in experimental fields, purified and maintained on PDA at 4°C for further screening process. Mass culture of the pathogen was prepared on wheat grains and used according to the procedure described by Sugha et al., (1991). Out of 98 germplasm accessions only 5 genotypes viz., FLIP 97-132C, FLIP 97-85C, FLIP 98-53C, ILC -5263 and NCS 9905 exhibited highly resistant response to disease while 9 genotypes viz., FLIP 96-153C, FLIP 97-129C, FLIP 97-172C, FLIP 97-185C, FLIP 98-227C, FLIP 98-107C, FLIP 98-230C, ILC-182 and NCS 9903 displayed resistant reaction. Twenty five genotypes displayed moderately resistant to tolerant response while the remaining were susceptible to highly susceptible to this disease. These resistant sources can further be exploited in breeding program for the development of disease resistant commercial cultivars.

2211-2215 Download
44
EFFECT OF VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) FUNGI INOCULATION ON COPPICING ABILITY AND DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF SENNA SPECTABILIS
JAMES B. KUNG'U1*, RODEL D. LASCO2, LORETTU U. DELA CRUZ2, REYNALDO E. DELA CRUZ2 AND TARIQ HUSAIN3

EFFECT OF VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) FUNGI INOCULATION ON COPPICING ABILITY AND DROUGHT RESISTANCE OF SENNA SPECTABILIS
ABSTRACT:
The influence of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna spectabilis was studied in a screen house experiment. The result obtained indicates the dependence of Senna spectabilis on mycorrhizal symbiosis. Under well watered conditions, arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation increased coppicing biomass production of Senna spectabilis by 269% while under water stressed conditions, coppice biomass production increased by 317%. Analysis of variance revealed that interaction between the mycorrhizal fungi and water stress was highly significant. Inoculating Senna spectabilis with VAM improved its drought resistance. Under drought conditions, inoculating Senna spectabilis increased total shoot length by 100% root collar diameter by 74% shoot dry weight by 435% root dry weight by 397% and plant leaves number by 105%. Inoculated plants had more leaf water content than non inoculated plants. Inoculated Senna spectabilis plants took more days to show signs of drought stress (total leaf folding, loss of shoot and leaf turgor and, wilting of lower leaves). The better growth responses of mycorrhizal plants were attributed to higher nutrients uptake and higher moisture absorption. Arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation has a high potential in water stressed environment in maintaining water relationship.

2217-2224 Download
45
MICROBIAL POPULATION LOAD AND ENZYME PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED YEAST
MUHAMMAD TANWEER KHAN1, MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN1, ABDUL WAJID2 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL1*

MICROBIAL POPULATION LOAD AND ENZYME PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED YEAST
ABSTRACT:
Traditionally, yoghurt is in use for centuries because of its beneficial effects on human health. People and health practitioners have long been considering it as prophylactic and therapeutic agent for many gastrointestinal ailments primarily because of its microbial flora. Hence, the health benefits warrant the need to study microbial flora/natural contaminants of indigenously prepared yoghurt. In the present study, 75 yoghurt samples were collected from the retail outlets from all 18 towns of Karachi. Total yeast counts in terms of colony forming units (CFU) per gram were determined using selective media. Yeast load was also compared with bacterial load, particularly coliforms and enterococci in the samples under study. Several isolated yeast strains were screened for enzyme production that in future can be exploited in various industrial/health applications for instance amylase, beta-galactosidase, protease and lipase. Observations thus obtained were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The total yeast population in yoghurt samples was in between 45-2.5 x 107 CFU having population mean of 5 x 106 CFU compared to total bacterial counts (1.3 x 104 -7 x 107 CFU) with an average of 1.0 x 107 CFU. The estimated coefficients of variance (CV) exhibited by total bacterial and yeast counts were 160% and 45% respectively. Enzymatic screening results showed that 32% of yeasts were protease producer followed by lipase (8%) and β-galactosidase (7%). Interestingly no amylase activity was detected in yeast isolates. Laconically, data thus obtained showed more prevalence of bacteria in yoghurt compared to yeast. Beside useful microorganisms like Lactobacillus sp., yeast etc; some pathogenic organisms were also detected during sampling, which indicates malpractice in the preparation of yoghurt. Implication of enzymatic profile studies of the isolated yeast strains suggests that yoghurt yeast could be exploited as a source of industrially and therapeutically important metabolites

2225-2230 Download
46
FERTILIZERS IN COMBINATION WITH AVICENNIA MARINA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASES OF OKRA AND MUNG BEAN
MARIUM TARIQ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, FATIMA S. MEHDI AND M. J. ZAKI

FERTILIZERS IN COMBINATION WITH AVICENNIA MARINA IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASES OF OKRA AND MUNG BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Efficacy of different fertilizers alone or in combination with Avicennia marina plant parts viz., leaves, stem and pneumatophore powder in the control of root rot diseases of okra and mung bean was examined. Maximum shoot length and shoot weight were observed on okra when frutan and urea were used @ 0.1% w/w in combination with pneumatophore and leaves powder whereas urea used @ 0.1% w/w in combination with leaves on mung bean plants. Urea and frutan used @ 0.1% w/w in combination with stem and pneumatophore powder showed maximum root length and weight on okra and mung bean plants. Significant suppression of Rhizoctonia solani was observed when DAP was used @ 0.1% w/w with stem and frutan @ 0.1% w/w with pneumatophore powder on mung bean plants whereas all fertilizers with all parts of A. marina showed complete suppression of R. solani on okra. There was complete suppression of Macrophomina phaseolina when urea and DAP were used @ 0.01 and 0.1% w/w with A. marina leaves powder on okra. All fertilizers and all parts of A. marina showed significant suppression of root infecting fungi on mung bean and okra.

2231-2236 Download
47
NODULATION IN MILLETTIA THONNINGII (SCHUM & THONN.) BAKER; NATIVE RHIZOBIA AND SEED INTERACTION FROM SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
H.G. ADEWUSI1, S.O. BADA2, D.O. LADIPO3 AND TARIQ HUSAIN4

NODULATION IN MILLETTIA THONNINGII (SCHUM & THONN.) BAKER; NATIVE RHIZOBIA AND SEED INTERACTION FROM SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
ABSTRACT:
Eight provenance of Millettia thonningii were selected across the distribution range in Nigeria, for evaluation of its adaptability for nitrogen fixation outside its origin. Significant variations were recorded under glasshouse conditions between the provenances in nodulation. All the provenances commenced nodule production after four weeks of growth, except Jema'a provenance whose nodule production started a week behind others. Ikire-lwo populations produced the highest average number of nodules 45 this variation was highly significant (p≤0.01) between the provenances. Potentials for nitrogen fixation were probably higher in Jema'a (22.58%) and Lokoja (21.23%) populations. Highly significant (p≤0.01) differences in nodule weights (fresh and dry) were observed among two provenances. Similarly, highly significant (p≤0.01) differences between provenances in nodule morphology were observed. The highest correlation (r=0.90**) was obtained between fresh and dry weights, while the least (r=0.17*) was found between number of dead nodules and nodules dry weight.

2237-2242 Download
48
CORRIGENDUM
Ms of paper entitled “LEAF EPIDERMAL ANATOMY OF SELECTED ALLIUM SPECIES, FAMILY ALLIACEAE FROM PAKISTAN” published in PJB 40

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
1

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