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Year 2008 , Volume  40, Issue 6
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LX. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LX. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 2 species of the family Aristolochiaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, apolar non-aperturate, spheroidal. Sexine thinner than nexine. Tectum rugulate–fossulate or densely rugulate.

2247-2249 Download
2
GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF FICUS CARICA (MORACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

GERMINATION CAPACITY OF STORED POLLEN OF FICUS CARICA (MORACEAE) AND THEIR MAINTENANCE
ABSTRACT:
Present investigations pertain to pollen germination and viability of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) for up to 48 weeks. Pollen germination was made by hanging drop technique in different concentration of sucrose and boric acid solutions (10%-100%). The stored conditions are refrigerator, freezer, in vacuum over silica gel and in organic solvents (acetone,benzene, and chloroform). Pollen stored at low temperature (-30°C, -20°C) showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at 4°C & fresh. The study indicates that 30% and 40% solutions favoured pollen germination. Benzene showed more germination than acetone and chloroform.

2251-2254 Download
3
A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SIBBALDIA (ROSACEAE) FROM SOUTH EAST ASIA
MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT AND SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR

A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SIBBALDIA (ROSACEAE) FROM SOUTH EAST ASIA
ABSTRACT:
During a world wide taxonomic revision of the genus Sibbaldia of the family Rosaceae, a new species Sibbaldia unguiculata sp. nova was discovered from South East Asia. This species is characterized by its moss-like habit, ternate leaves, which are equally tomentose on each surface, Inflorescence a congested compound dichasia, two opposite bracts. Distinctly clawed petals, which are hairy at the margin. A taxonomic key is provided to separate this species from the closely related species. Illustration of habit, with floral parts and a picture of holotypes is also given.

2255-2258 Download
4
POPULATION DENSITY AND REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT OF ACROPTILON REPENS L., IN TURKEY
O. KOLOREN1*, S. UYGUR1, O. BOZDOGAN1, F.N. UYGUR1 AND U. SCHAFFNER2

POPULATION DENSITY AND REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT OF ACROPTILON REPENS L., IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Acroptilon repens of the family Asteraceae L., is a rhizomatous perennial, extends from Turkey throughout Central Asia to China. A. repens is a major weed in vineyards, orchards and meadows in Central Turkey. Our aim was to describe the population density of A. repens patches in Central of Turkey. The patch experiment was conducted in 15 undisturbed meadows in 2003. Six 1 m2 plots were placed in each patch

2259-2263 Download
5
DENSITY AND DYNAMICS OF ACROPTILON REPENS L., PATCHES IN TURKEY
O. KOLOREN1*, S. UYGUR1, O. BOZDOGAN1, F.N. UYGUR1 AND U. SCHAFFNER2

DENSITY AND DYNAMICS OF ACROPTILON REPENS L., PATCHES IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Acroptilon repens is an herbaceous perennial that propagates by seeds and vegetative means. Its natural range extends from Turkey throughout Central Asia to China. A. repens is a major weed for grape, orchards and meadow area in Central of Turkey. Our objective was to determine density and expanding of A. repens patches in Central of Turkey. The patche experiments were conducted for an 6 undisturbed meadow in 2002-2003. Six of 1x1=1 m2 plots were randomly selected in each patch (2 central (C)

2265-2271 Download
6
STOMATAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF POLYGONACEAE
ISHFAQ HAMEED, FARRUKH HUSSAIN AND GHULAM DASTAGIR

STOMATAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF POLYGONACEAE
ABSTRACT:
The study reports variation in the structure and distribution of stomata in some members of Polygonaceae viz., Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus Linn, Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Rheum australe D. Don, Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gay and Polygonum plebejum R. Br. The type of stomata, density, frequency, stomatal index, size of stomatal pore (average length and width), size of guard cells (average length and width) and percentage of the close and open stomata were determined. The upper epidermises of the six plants contain anomocytic, paracytic, anisocytic, tetracytic and hemiparacytic stomata while the lower epidermises contain tetracytic, anisocytic, anomocytic and paracytic stomata. The statistical evaluation of the stomata and epidermis included mean, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variance, standard error and difference of standard error were carried out. The study indicates the taxonomic utility of the stomatal type.

2273-2280 Download
7
PRELIMINARY FLORISTIC LIST OF CHOTIARI WETLAND COMPLEX, NAWAB SHAH, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI

PRELIMINARY FLORISTIC LIST OF CHOTIARI WETLAND COMPLEX, NAWAB SHAH, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The goal of this study is to provide the existing botanical inventory of the area under study. A preliminary floristic survey was conducted in the month of September

2281-2288 Download
8
EVALUATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF MEDICINAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS HYOSCYAMOUS, WITHANIA, ATROPA AND DATURA BASED ON POLY ACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1, SHAHID MASOOD2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, MIR AJAB KHAN3 AND ASHIQ RABANI2

EVALUATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF MEDICINAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS HYOSCYAMOUS, WITHANIA, ATROPA AND DATURA BASED ON POLY ACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
ABSTRACT:
Seed protein profile of 42 accessions belonging to 7 species of 4 different genera (Datura, Hyoscyamus, Withania and Atropa) from the family Solanaceae were investigated through Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Intra and inter specific relationship was estimated using Jaccard’s similarity index. A dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed the generic status and inter relationship of Hyoscyamus, Atropa, Withania and Datura. The specimens of Withania somnifera collected from Panjgur (109717

2289-2297 Download
9
GIEMSA N-BANDING PATTERN IN TWO TETRAPLOID CYTOTYPES OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM BULBOSUM L.)
BUSHREEN JAHAN AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY

GIEMSA N-BANDING PATTERN IN TWO TETRAPLOID CYTOTYPES OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM BULBOSUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Distribution pattern of constitutive heterochromatin in 2 tetraploid cytotypes of Hordeum bulbosum was studied by Giemsa N-banding technique. Ideograms were developed for the description of individual N-bands.The N-banding patterns is characterized by having one or two centromeric or juxtacentromeric very small bands per chromosome. Further, single bands are present at one side of the nucleolar organizers. The N-banded karyotype of H.bulbosum (4x) supports the argument that it is an autopolyploid derivative of the diploid cytotype.

2299-2305 Download
10
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS TO DETERMINE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] GERMPLASM
ABDUL GHAFOOR AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAITS TO DETERMINE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BLACKGRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER] GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Thirty-seven pure-lines selected at random from a broad based germplasm were studied for quantitative traits to investigate the impact of selection on diversity in relationship to agronomic performance. Multivariate approach proved its validity to classify blackgram genotypes on the basis of agronomic performance and geographic origin. Five yield contributing traits (branches per plant, pods per plant, biomass per plant, grain yield per plant, harvest index) were important for first PC three years, hence populations in this component were categorized as high yielding with maximum number of reproductive organs. Cluster analysis grouped high yielding genotypes that indicated the importance of selection from a large set of germplasm. The breeding program is suggested to broaden involving diverse parents from various clusters.

2307-2313 Download
11
SEED PROTEIN PROFILING OF PISUM SATIVUM L., GERMPLASM USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE) FOR INVESTIGATION OF BIODIVERSITY
ABDUL GHAFOOR AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

SEED PROTEIN PROFILING OF PISUM SATIVUM L., GERMPLASM USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE) FOR INVESTIGATION OF BIODIVERSITY
ABSTRACT:
Sixty-seven pea genotypes originating from 5 countries were investigated for genetic divergence based on seed protein profile using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Based on seed proteins

2315-2321 Download
12
EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL] GERMPLASM FOR SOME IMPORTANT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
ZAFAR IQBAL, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, TARIQ MAHMOOD2 AND ABDUL WAHEED

EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL] GERMPLASM FOR SOME IMPORTANT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
One hundred thirty nine soybean genotypes were evaluated for yield and yield associated traits at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad. The traits viz., days to maturity, plant height at maturity, number of branches per plant, number of filled pods per plant, number of unfilled pods per plant

2323-2328 Download
13
DISCRIMINATING SOME PROSPECTIVE CULTIVARS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AND PROLINE CONTENTS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS
FARHAT JABEEN, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

DISCRIMINATING SOME PROSPECTIVE CULTIVARS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AND PROLINE CONTENTS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discriminate maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars for drought tolerance using gas exchange characteristics and proline contents as physiological markers. Seven maize cultivars viz., Sahiwal-2002, Sadaf, EV-5098, Pak-Afgoyee, Agaiti-2002, Agaiti-85 and EV-1098 were grown under well watered or water deficit condition (60% of field capacity). Imposition of water deficit condition decreased the shoot and root fresh and dry weights, relative water content, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, while increased root/shoot ratio, chlorophyll a, b and chlorophyll a/b ratio, proline content and shoot N and K in all maize cultivars. Effect of drought stress was non-significant on shoot or root P and shoot N. Of all maize cultivars, cv. Agaiti-85 was found to be relatively better in growth, proline accumulation and gas exchange characteristics under drought stress as compared to the other cultivars.

2329-2343 Download
14
DARK GREEN COLORED SEEDS INCREASE THE SEED VIGOR AND GERMINATION ABILITY IN DRY GREEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.)
MEHMET ATAK1*, MEHMET DEMIR KAYA2, GAMZE KAYA2, MUHARREM KAYA3 AND KHALID MAHMOOD KHAWAR4

DARK GREEN COLORED SEEDS INCREASE THE SEED VIGOR AND GERMINATION ABILITY IN DRY GREEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Three green-seeded dry pea genotypes cvs. ‘Rondo’, ‘Carina’ and ‘Jof’ with each genotypes producing a mixture of light (L), medium (M) and dark (D) green seed at maturity were evaluated for their germination behavior and seedling growth for salinity tolerance. Electrical conductivities of NaCl solutions were 0.0, 5.0

2345-2354 Download
15
AN OPTIMIZED AND IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF KIWIFRUIT (ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA) USING COCONUT WATER
ASMA NASIB, KASHIF ALI AND SAIFULLAH KHAN

AN OPTIMIZED AND IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF KIWIFRUIT (ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA) USING COCONUT WATER
ABSTRACT:
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is grown for its excellent food and nutritional value in many parts of the world. The main objective of this study was to optimize an efficient, reliable and economical protocol for In vitro micropropagation of Kiwifruit. The effect of coconut water along with BAP on shoot proliferation of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has been evaluated. It has been noticed that both the BAP and coconut water had a synergistic effect and none of them was found able to generate the maximum response when used separately. Maximum shoot length (7.2 ± 0.16), number of shoots (11.5 ± 1.5) and number of nodes (4.6 ± 0.22) were achieved on the MS medium containing 20% (v/v) coconut water with 2.0 mg/L of BAP (KW10). The use of coconut water also resulted in the longer sub-culturing time and the production of highly robust plants which were able to survive in the green house conditions. The proliferated shoots were subjected to root induction and half strength MS media with 0.2 mg/L IBA was found optimum for the root formation. The sufficiently rooted plantlets were transferred to green house for hardening. The potting mix comprised of 90% sand and 10% farm yard manure (v/v) and more than 95% of the plants, subjected to acclimatization, survived under green house conditions.

2355-2360 Download
16
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION AND CORRELATION ESTIMATES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN MAIZE
MUHAMMAD SALEEM, MUHAMMAD AHSAN, MUHAMMAD ASLAM AND ATIF MAJEED

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION AND CORRELATION ESTIMATES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY ATTRIBUTES IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
A set of 10 elite maize genotypes/populations was evaluated for grain yield and quality attributes. Analysis of variance for the characters under study revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes. The fatty acids detected from grain oil showed significant variability among the genotypes. The quality attributes in most of the cases showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation except grain oil contents which was positively correlated at the genotypic level while grain starch contents and lauric acid were positively correlated with grain yield per plant both at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. DP 3062 was found high yielding while Waxy had more oil, protein, sugar, lauric and linoleic acid as compared to other genotypes. It is inferred that DP 3062 and Waxy may be exploited in maize breeding for quality improvement.

2361-2367 Download
17
GENETIC MAPPING OF QTLs, CONTROLLING SHOOT FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT UNDER SALT STRESS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CROSS BETWEEN Co39 × MOROBEREKAN
TANVEER UL HAQ1*, JAVAID AKHTAR1, JOHN GORHAM2, KATHERINE A. STEELE2 AND MUHAMMAD KHALID3

GENETIC MAPPING OF QTLs, CONTROLLING SHOOT FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT UNDER SALT STRESS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CROSS BETWEEN Co39 × MOROBEREKAN
ABSTRACT:
A mapping population of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between Co39 (lowland, Indica) and Moroberekan (upland, Japonica) rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars was used to map QTLs associated with shoot growth traits under salinity on all chromosomes of rice. The dilution of salt concentration in shoot tissues by higher vegetative growth is an established mechanism of salt tolerance in plants. The fresh weight of shoots was recorded after 42 days of growth at 100 mol m–3 NaCl + 5.0 mol m–3 CaCl2 in nutrient solution in a flood bench system. We also determined shoot dry weight and shoot fresh/dry weight ratio traits from the above data. A total of 7 QTLs for 3 shoot growth traits were detected on chromosomes–1

2369-2381 Download
18
PURPLE NUTSEDGE (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L.) MANAGEMENT IN COTTON WITH COMBINED APPLICATION OF SORGAAB AND S-METOLACHLOR
JAVAID IQBAL AND ZAHID A. CHEEMA*

PURPLE NUTSEDGE (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L.) MANAGEMENT IN COTTON WITH COMBINED APPLICATION OF SORGAAB AND S-METOLACHLOR
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathy can be employed effectively for weed management in different ways; one such aspect may be its utilization for reducing the use of synthetic herbicides. Considering its importance as a natural weed control approach, a study comprising two doses of sorgaab (Sorghum bicolor L. water extract) 12 and 15 L ha-1 combined with lower doses i.e. ½ and 1/3rd (1075, 717 g a.i. ha-1) of synthetic herbicide (S. metolachlor) as pre-emergence spray against purple nutsedge was undertaken in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under irrigated conditions in central Punjab, Pakistan. Label dose of S. metolachlor (2.15 kg a.i. ha-1) and untreated treatment were maintained as control. The results of two years field trials revealed that 62-92% purple nutsedge control was achieved from sorgaab application in combination with reduced doses of herbicide. Similarly purple nutsedge dry weight was reduced by 75-88% than untreated control indicating that sorgaab with lower S. metolachlor doses was quite effective in suppressing purple nutsedge

2383-2391 Download
19
IDENTIFICATION OF TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CONTRIBUTING TO GRAIN YIELD THROUGH CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS
TILA MOHAMMAD, MUHAMMAD AMIN*, FAZAL-E-SUBHAN, MUHAMMAD IRFAQ KHAN AND ABDUL JABBAR KHAN

IDENTIFICATION OF TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CONTRIBUTING TO GRAIN YIELD THROUGH CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
The association among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on the grain yield (GY) of bread wheat were investigated in 144 advance lines tested in partially balance lattice design during 2002-03. Analysis of variance for individual plant characters revealed the existence of genetic variability among the genotypes for all the characters studied. Genotypic correlation of plant height (PH), biological yield (BY), harvest index (HI), thousand kernel weight (TKW), number of spikes/m2 and hectoliter weight (HLW) were positive and significantly correlated with grain yield (GY) under normal and late planting respectively. However, non-significant correlations were observed for BY and TKW in genotypes planted late. Phenotypic correlation revealed that PH, BY, HI, TKW, number of spikes/m2 and HLW were also positive and significantly associated with GY under normal and late planting respectively. Strong positive and highly significant correlations of GY were detected with HI, BY and HLW under normal planting while in late planted genotypes HI showed strong positive and highly significant association with grain yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that HI and BY had the highest positive direct effect on GY under both normal and late planting. In addition, some other yield components had positive direct effect on grain yield. According to the magnitude of the direct effects on GY, the order of various characters was DH > TKW > DM. The increase in GY can be achieved, if the selection is based on HI, BY and HLW under both normal and late planting.

2393-2402 Download
20
EFFECT OF TRANSPLANTING DATES ON PADDY YIELD OF FINE GRAIN RICE GENOTYPES
MUHAMMAD EHSAN SAFDAR1*, AMJED ALI1, SHER MUHAMMAD1, GHULAM SARWAR1 AND TAHIR HUSSAIN AWAN2

EFFECT OF TRANSPLANTING DATES ON PADDY YIELD OF FINE GRAIN RICE GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Field studies were carried out to investigate the effect of various transplanting dates on the yield and yield related parameters as well as flowering behaviour of fine rice grain rice genotypes. The experiment was conducted for three successive years from 2004 to 2006. Rice genotypes viz., 98410, 98316,99417, 99512, 99513, 98408, 00521-1, 98404, Basmati 385and Super Basmati were kept in 6 transplanting dates viz.

2403-2411 Download
21
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIATION AMONG BASMATI RICE MUTANTS
MUHAMMAD RASHID, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIATION AMONG BASMATI RICE MUTANTS
ABSTRACT:
In order to identify the major characters which account for variation among Basmati rice mutants

2413-2417 Download
22
REDUCTION IN GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF THESPESIA POPULNEA L., CAUSED BY LEAD AND CADMIUM TREATMENTS
M. KABIR, M. ZAFAR IQBAL, M. SHAFIQ AND Z.R. FAROOQI

REDUCTION IN GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF THESPESIA POPULNEA L., CAUSED BY LEAD AND CADMIUM TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on seed germination, root, shoot, seedling growth, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index of Thespesia populnea L. were studied. Seed germination, seedling growth and seedling dry weights were significantly (p<0.05) affected by different concentrations (10, 30, 50 and 70 µmol/L) of lead as compared to control. Lead concentration at 10 µ mol/L significantly reduced seed germination, seedling growth and dry weight as compared to control. Cd treatment at 10 µmol/L concentration also produced toxic effects on seed germination, seedling and root growth as compared to control. Increase in cadmium concentration up to 50 µmol/L produced a significant reduction in seedling dry weight of T. populnea as compared to control. Seedlings vigor index of T. populnea gradually decreased with the increase in concentrations of lead and cadmium. Lead and cadmium treatments at 70 µmol/L exhibited lowest percentage of tolerance as compared to control. It was concluded that inhibitory effects of cadmium treatments were more prominent than lead at its higher concentrations.

2419-2426 Download
23
GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) TO SIMULATED ACID RAIN
S. SHAHID SHAUKAT AND MOAZZAM ALI KHAN

GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) TO SIMULATED ACID RAIN
ABSTRACT:
This investigation was undertaken to ascertain the effect of simulated acid rain (SAR) on growth, yield and physiological parameters of tomato. SAR exposure (pH 3.0 and 4.0) caused white-to-tan spots on the abaxial and adaxial surface of tomato leaves. SAR exposure at pH 3.0 and 4.0 significantly suppressed pigment synthesis, shoot and root dry weights and yield of tomato. The effects were more pronounced at lower pH 3.0. Reducing and nonreducing sugars were significantly diminished to varying degree by SAR solutions of pH 3.0 and 4.0 and the effect being more accentuated at pH 3.0. Nonreducing sugars declined to a greater extent than did the reducing sugars and this effect was more pronounced in SAR-treatment of pH 3.0. SAR-exposure of pH 3.0 and 4.0 resulted in accumulation of soluble phenols as an induced mechanism against SAR stress. The results are discussed in the light of physiological responses of plants to abiotic stresses.

2427-2435 Download
24
SALINITY TOLERANCE OF THREE RANGE GRASSES AT GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH STAGES
PARVEEN AKHTAR1 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN2

SALINITY TOLERANCE OF THREE RANGE GRASSES AT GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Three range grasses viz., Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus, Dichanthium annulatum Forssk and Panicum antidotale Retz were subjected to 5

2437-2441 Download
25
BORON TOXICITY IN IRRIGATED COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
NIAZ AHMED1, MUHAMMAD ABID1 AND FIAZ AHMAD2

BORON TOXICITY IN IRRIGATED COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Boron toxicity is a serious concern in irrigated agriculture throughout the world for sustainable crop production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the critical level of boron (B) toxicity for cotton in soil and plant tissues in an arid climate. B levels of 0, 0.5

2443-2452 Download
26
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN ON DRY MATTER AND GRAIN YIELD OF FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.)
IHSANULLAH DAUR1, HASAN SEPETOĞLU2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3, GUL HASSAN3 AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN3

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN ON DRY MATTER AND GRAIN YIELD OF FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Faba bean is widely used in the Mediterranean region as source of protein in both human and animal nutrition. A legume member so fixes atmospheric nitrogen but with the assumption that nitrogen application to crops often results in yield improvement, a field experiment with N rates was conducted for two consecutive years. In the experiment 12 faba bean genotypes (KITIKI-2003, ERESEN-87, FİLİZ-99, SEVİL, SAKIZ, 95 ETA 225, 95 ETA 249, 95 ETA 276, 97 ETA 718, 97 ETA 727, 98 ETA 296 and 98 ETA 329) at 5 N rates (0, 50

2453-2459 Download
27
MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF BRASSICA NAPUS AND INDIGENOUS CAMPESTRIS SPECIES
S. J. ABBAS­­1, FARHATULLAH2, I. A. KHAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3 AND IQBAL MUNIR1

MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF BRASSICA NAPUS AND INDIGENOUS CAMPESTRIS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
In Pakistan, Brassica is the second most important source of oil after cotton. It contributes about 17% to the domestic production of edible oil. Parental lines along with five F2s were assessed for biochemical parameters using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). Parental lines contain more oil 45.85% as compared to F2s 42.26% while the F2s contain more protein 25.92% as compared to the parents 23.70%. Both parents and F2 contain high glucosinolate and fatty acids contents. Insulin Growth like Factor (IGF) primer sets were used to estimate genetic relationship among 5 F2 segregating population of Brassica along with 9 parental lines. On an average 29 alleles were amplified using IGF primer sets. Mean genetic distance estimates ranged from 0.25-1.00 (G.D = 0%-100 %), respectively. Size of scorable fragments ranged from approximately 250 to >2000 bp. A high level of genetic dissimilarity (GD= up to 100%) was estimated among all genotypes. Entries were grouped in clusters using cluster analysis. On the basis of dendrogram, most diverse genotypes were identified which should be utilized in further breeding programs aimed at creating genetic variability in local germplasm.

2461-2469 Download
28
THE ROLE OF SEED PRIMING IN SEMI-ARID AREA FOR MUNG BEAN PHENOLOGY AND YIELD
AHMAD KHAN, SHAD KHAN KHALIL, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN, KHAN BAHADER MARWAT AND ASHFAQ AFZAL

THE ROLE OF SEED PRIMING IN SEMI-ARID AREA FOR MUNG BEAN PHENOLOGY AND YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Patchy plant stand due to uneven germination is one of the major constraints in mung bean (Vigna radiata W.) production. Enhanced emergence and establishment of the mung bean crop are considered to be the most important factors contributing to the crop yield. Mung bean cultivars (NM-92 and NM-98) seed were primed for 6 and 12 hours in different solution of water and osmotic solution (ψo) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000) equivalent to 0, -0.2, -0.5 and -1.1 MPa (Mega Pascal). The primed seed along with control (un-primed) were sown in field experiments at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during 2003 and 2004. Delayed phenological observations were recorded in NM-98 compared to NM-92, but no differences in yield and yield components were observed for both cultivars of mung bean except grains pod-1 being higher for NM-98. Primed seed performed better when compared to control, and resulted in 12 % more grain yield. A decrease in osmotic potential in treatment solution from 0 to -1.1 MPa resulted in better performance, in terms of yield and yield components, but was not consistent. Significant interaction of Varieties x Duration x PEG Treatment for days to emergence, grain and biological yield suggest the differential response of each treatment levels over the other. It was concluded that hydro-primed and/or seed primed in -0.5 MPa osmotic potential solution of PEG were better in phenology and yield than all other treatments.

2471-2480 Download
29
LEAF AND NODULE SENESCENCE IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AND THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
SAHAR ALI AND ASGHARI BANO*

LEAF AND NODULE SENESCENCE IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) AND THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of Kinetin and Abscisic acid (ABA) on leaf and nodule senescence in chickpea (Cicer arietinum (L.)) cv. CM88, in relation to the changes in the endogenous level of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Studies was carried out for study the 1 involvement of hormonal and non-hormonal signal factors involved in nodule senescence

2481-2492 Download
30
NUTRITIONAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE FAMILY POLYGONACEAE
ISHFAQ HAMEED, GHULAM DASTAGIR AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN

NUTRITIONAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE FAMILY POLYGONACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Proximate composition of proteins, crude fibers, fats & oils, moistures, ash contents and carbohydrates and different elements like C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Br in some medicinal plants viz., Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus, Rumex nepalensis, Rheum australe, Persicaria maculosa and Polygonum plebejum of the family Polygonaceae is presented.

2493-2502 Download
31
NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF FODDER TREE LEAVES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
JAVED IQBAL SULTAN*, INAM-UR-RAHIM*, HAQ NAWAZ*, MUHAMMAD YAQOOB** AND IJAZ JAVED***

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF FODDER TREE LEAVES OF NORTHERN GRASSLANDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The Intent of this experiment was to figure out the nutritive value of fodder tree leaves of Chagharzai vlley in Bunair district, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. Leaves of 12 fodder trees (Grewia oppsitifolia, Morus alba, Betula celtis, Celtus australis, Diospyros lotus, Aesculus indica, Celtis caucasica, Robinia pseudoacacia, Olea ferruginea, Melia azedarach, Ailanthus chinensis and Quercus incana) were selected and analyzed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemi-cellulose and lignin contents. The mean percentage values for DM, OM, ash, CP, NDF, ADF, hemi-cellulose and lignin were 27.65±1.64

2503-2512 Download
32
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME RANGE GRASSES AND SHRUBS FROM HARBOI RANGELAND KALAT, PAKISTAN
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND MUFAKHIRAH JAN DURRANI2

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME RANGE GRASSES AND SHRUBS FROM HARBOI RANGELAND KALAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The mineral composition including K, P, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn of some grasses and shrubs from Harboi rangeland, Kalat, Balochistan was analysed at three phenological stages. There were non-significant differences between grasses and shrubs in K, P, Fe and Zn contents. The concentration of Cu was higher in shrubs than grasses while Mn was higher in grasses than shrubs. The differences in the K, P, Mn, Fe and Zn were insignificant among the various phenological stages. Generally K and Fe were sufficient while P and Zn were deficient in most of the analysed forage plants. The concentration of Cu was mostly within the toxic range for livestock. The mineral concentration of forage plants generally increased/ decreased inconsistently with the advancing phenological growth stages in most plants. Across all the grazing seasons the forage for sheep and goats was generally deficient in one or other mineral at some stage for growth and maintenance. It is concluded that the poor livestock productivity in Harboi rangeland is partially due to insufficient amount of mineral efficient forage. It is suggested that fertilization of soil and vegetation with additional source of commercial fertilizers will not only improve the over all vegetation cover but also improve the health and productivity of grazing animals and other wild life in this rangeland.

2513-2523 Download
33
PHENOLIC CONTENT IN VITRO CULTURES 0F CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) DURING CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS
SHAGUFTA NAZ1, AAMIR ALI2 AND JAVED IQBAL3

PHENOLIC CONTENT IN VITRO CULTURES 0F CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) DURING CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
The callogeneic response of different explants i.e. cotyledon, leaf, node, shoot and root apices of Cicer arietinum was investigated on MS basal media supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. A combination of BAP and 2,4-D or NAA enhanced proliferation response. Of different combinations MS+1.0 2,4-D+0.5 NAA+0.5 BAP mg/l proved exceptionally good both for callus induction and proliferation. Callus masses initiated from different explants were maintained from main to 10thsub cultures. The morphogenic behaviour of different calli was also investigated. It was observed that the rate of browning and necrosis was increased with the increasing subcultures. To elucidate the biochemical basis of growth inhibition in non-morphogenic and morphogenic calli, total phenolics were estimated from main to 10th sub cultures both quantitatively and qualitatively. A gradual increase in total phenolic content was noticed from main to 10th sub cultures in both non-morphogenic and morphogenic calli. Non-morphogenic calli exhibited higher phenolic content as compared to morphogenic calli. The qualitative analysis of phenolic compound was also in conformity with quantitative data as the number of phenolic spots increased from main to 10th subcultures.

2525-2539 Download
34
EFFECT OF OSMOTIC STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTLETS (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
SURIYAN CHA-UM* AND CHALERMPOL KIRDMANEE

EFFECT OF OSMOTIC STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTLETS (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Disease-free sugarcane plantlets derived from meristem cutting were photoautotrophically grown on the MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0

2541-2552 Download
35
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. MEDICINAL PLANT IN SINDH
SAMINA KABIR KHANZADA, W. SHAIKH, SHAHZADI SOFIA, T.G. KAZI, K. USMANGHANI, AMINA KABIR AND T.H. SHEERAZI

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. MEDICINAL PLANT IN SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Thirty two fatty acids, two other compounds 9ß

2553-2559 Download
36
TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE CLASS ZYGNEMOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA1*, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE CLASS ZYGNEMOPHYCEAE SHAMEEL FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five species of the algal genera, Hallasia Rosenvinge and Mougeotia C. A. Agardh have been collected from various freshwater habitats of Kasur, Lahore, Sargodha and Sialkot districts of Punjab Province of Pakistan and Neelum Valley of Azad Kashmir during March and October 2004 and taxonomically investigated. Although, all the species have been described for the first time from their area of collection, most of them are first reports from Pakistan. They were mostly found in spring.

2561-2566 Download
37
ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON STOECHOSPERMUM MARGINATUM (PHAEOPHYTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ALIA ABBAS1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON STOECHOSPERMUM MARGINATUM (PHAEOPHYTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Stoechospermum marginatum (C.A. Agardh) Kützing [= S. maculaum (J.G. Agardh) J.G. Agardh] a commonly growing sub-littoral brown alga of Pakistan was collected from the coast of Buleji, Karachi and investigated in detail for its morphology, anatomy and reproduction.

2567-2572 Download
38
POSTULATION OF STRIPE RUST RESISTANT GENES IN SOME AUSTRALIAN BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE
MAQSOOD QAMAR1, S. DILNAWAZ AHMAD1, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH1, COLIN R.WELLINGS2 AND FARHAT BATOOL3

POSTULATION OF STRIPE RUST RESISTANT GENES IN SOME AUSTRALIAN BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE
ABSTRACT:
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an important constraint to wheat production in cool environments. Six pathotypes (PST) were used to identify resistance genes in 27 Australian spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Postulation of resistance at seedling growth stage showed that most cultivars carried Yr17 alone or in combination with Yr7 and or other undesignated resistance genes. The cultivar H45 carried Yr7 Molecular markers were used to confirm the presence of stripe rust resistant gene Yr17 in these cultivars. The 252-bp PCR product from primer VENTRIUP was observed in all Australian spring wheat cultivars tested and in positive check Avocet + Yr17 NIL. The molecular marker for Yr17 verified the results from rust testing. The effect of temperature on expression of resistance conferred by Yr17 was also confirmed. Seedlings that possess Yr17 expressed high levels of resistance under higher temperature (15-20oC). Under lower temperature (12-15oC) most cultivars possessing Yr17 showed compatible or near-compatible reactions to the pathotype 134 E16 A+ (avirulent to Yr17).

2573-2585 Download
39
SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF AM FUNGI IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. CV. SPF-213) IN RELATION TO RED ROT (COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM) DISEASE FROM PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
GHAZALA NASIM 1, AMIR ALI2, ASIFA MUNAWAR3 AND RUKHSANA BAJWA1

SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF AM FUNGI IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. CV. SPF-213) IN RELATION TO RED ROT (COLLETOTRICHUM FALCATUM) DISEASE FROM PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In this study we have observed the seasonal spore dynamics of 15 species of AM fungi prevalent in (cv. SPF-213) sugarcane fields in and around District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan through out the growing season. Maximum number of spores per 10g sample soil was recorded for G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum and G. monosporum towards the end of growth period. However the pattern for highest values of propagule number in rhizosphere soil was variable for rest of the species. Maximum spore abundance for G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum and G. monosporum was noticed at the time of crop harvest. However figures close to the peak values were observed even during the growth period. The presence of 2 Gigispora spp. (Gi. nigra and Gi. minuta,) was recorded only in February. Lowest propagule number for G. mosseae, G. monosporum and G. fasciculatum was in October, September and November respectively. The difference between highest and lowest spore densities was statistically significant for G. mosseae and G. monosporum and Gi. nigra and Gi. minuta, at 5% level and insignificant for G. fascicultum and G. mosseae. There was a positive correlation between average number of spores and average percentage frequency of G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum and G. monosporum, while this relationship was not apparent for rest of the species. In interspecific interactions it was observed that in a particular sample higher number of propagules of one species was associated with significantly lower values of spore number of some other species. In order to assess the AM colonization of sugarcane plants in relation to Red Rot, 4 categories of plants for disease incidence were identified as healthy, partially diseased, diseased and severely diseased. A significant change in pattern of AM colonization was recorded. Percentage frequencies of arbuscules, vesicles and intra-matricle mycelium exhibited a gradual increase from slightly diseased to severely diseased. Various AM structures showed a significant variation with the passage of time in the extent of infection. Alongwith AM and pathogenic fungi, Dark septate endophytic fungi were also observed in 80% of the samples particularly in the severely diseased specimen. Heavy colonization suggest a significant role of these fungi as biocontrol agent

2587-2600 Download
40
PISUM SATIVUM-RHIZOBIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES
FARRUKH NAEEM, KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK AND FAUZIA YUSUF HAFEEZ*

PISUM SATIVUM-RHIZOBIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES
ABSTRACT:
Effect of low temperature, salinity, nutrient level and photoperiod has been studied on 3 varieties of Pisum sativum var., P-48, meteor and AM-1inoculated with Rhizobium strain PS-1. The plants were grown at 5

2601-2612 Download
41
SELECTION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER MUTANT USING ANTIMETABOLITE 2-DEOXY D-GLUCOSE AFTER N-METHYL N-NITRO N-NITROSO GUANIDINE (MNNG) TREATMENT
IKRAM-UL-HAQ*, RUQAIYA HUSSAIN, UZMA HAMEED AND MOHSIN JAVED

SELECTION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER MUTANT USING ANTIMETABOLITE 2-DEOXY D-GLUCOSE AFTER N-METHYL N-NITRO N-NITROSO GUANIDINE (MNNG) TREATMENT
ABSTRACT:
A xylan-degrading enzyme (endo ß-1,4 xylanase, EC 3.2.1.8) cleaves ß-1,4 glycosidic bond to produce xylose and is useful mainly in biobleaching paper pulp, pharmaceutical and food industries. The present investigation deals with the selection of derepressed mutant of Aspergillus niger GCBT-35 using antimetabolite 2-deoxy D-glucose (2DG) after N-methyl N-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) treatment and optimization of cultural conditions for the enhanced xylanase production. Medium containing (g/l) wheat bran 20.0, NaNO3 1.0, NH4Cl 1.0, KH2PO4 1.0, CaCl2 1.0, MgSO4. 7H2O 0.3, meat extract 5.0 and Tween 80 1.5 ml was found to be best for xylanase production. The optimal production of xylanase (289.86 U/ml/min) was achieved 72 h after the conidial inoculation, when 1.0% (w/v) meat extract was used as a nitrogen source in the culture medium at an initial medium of 5.5 pH. This enhancement in xylanolytic activity is about 2.7 fold higher than that of wild culture.

2613-2623 Download
42
INSECTICIDAL, NEMATICIDAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM
RAHILA NAZLI*1, MUSSARAT AKHTER, SHAGUFTA AMBREEN, ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI** AND NIGHAT SULTANA

INSECTICIDAL, NEMATICIDAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM
ABSTRACT:
Gliricidia sepium is an exotic plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. This plant has been cultivated in Pakistan for the first time. For the preliminary studies, Ethanol extract of leaves has been used to check the efficacy on parasitic nematodes, clinical pathogens and mosquito’s repellent activity. Nematicidal property of extract was observed in different concentration against Meloidogyne incognita nematode showing 60% mortality. Mosquito’s repellent activity has been studied against Aedes aegypti, the maximum repellency was 78% compared with the citronella oil, the repellency was 74%. Using well diffusion method the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract against E.coli, S.aureus, Pseudomonas spp., S.typhi, Klebsillia spp., showed the best result against Escherichea coli.

2625-2629 Download
43
PATHOGENICITY AND HOST RANGE OF FUSARIUM SOLANI (MART.) SACC. CAUSING DIEBACK OF SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.)
N.A. RAJPUT1*, M.A. PATHAN1, M.M. JISKANI, A.Q. RAJPUT2 AND R.R. ARAIN1

PATHOGENICITY AND HOST RANGE OF FUSARIUM SOLANI (MART.) SACC. CAUSING DIEBACK OF SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB.)
ABSTRACT:
Pathogenicity test of predominantly isolated Fusarium solani from shisham dieback trees was conducted on shisham seedlings by inoculating either alone or in combination with less frequently isolated Rhizoctonia solani and Curvularia lunata. Internal browning of stem and roots were rated on 0-5 scale. Shisham plants inoculated with F. solani alone produced maximum disease incidence, showed prominent typical symptoms of the disease with internal browning of stem and roots. However, R. solani and C. lunata either completly failed or caused very rare infection on test plants. F. solani produced moderate infection on shisham seedlings when inoculated with either R. solani or C. lunata. Maximum reduction in root and shoot length was observed in plants inoculated by injecting spore suspension of F. solani as compared to soil amended with spore suspension of the fungus or plants sprayed with spore suspension. Root and shoot weight was also decreased when spore suspension of the F. solani was injected into stem followed by soil amended with spore suspension and plants sprayed with spore suspension. Similar trends were also observed in reduction percentage in whole plant growth and weight of plants. Host range studies were coducted by inoculating seedlings of 10 different trees with F. solani indicated that the test fungus was moderate to highly pathogenic to shisham, Indian laburnum, siris and gold mohar.

2631-2639 Download
44
FIRST RECORD OF FUSARIUM NIVALE (FR.) CES. ASSOCIATED WITH MANGO MALFORMATION DISEASE (MMD) IN PAKISTAN
M.I. KHASKHELI, M.A. PATHAN, M.M. JISKANI, K.H. WAGAN, MANZOOR H. SOOMRO AND G.B. POUSSIO3

FIRST RECORD OF FUSARIUM NIVALE (FR.) CES. ASSOCIATED WITH MANGO MALFORMATION DISEASE (MMD) IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During a survey of mango plantations in Sindh for investigating the association of fungi with mango malformation disease (MMD), six fungal species viz., Fusarium nivale (Fr.) Ces, F. oxysporium, F. moniliforme, F. semitectum, Alternari alternata and Aspergillus niger were isolated and identified on the basis of their colony characteristics and conidial morphology. F. nivale (Fr.) Ces., was predominantly isolated from malformed tissues of infected inflorescence; it produced white colonies and some discoloration of the agar medium was noticed around the growing mycelium. This is the first record of Fusarium nivale (Fr.) Ces., from Pakistan and also the first report of its association with mango malformation in Sindh, Pakistan.

2641-2644 Download
45
CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS CONDUCIVE FOR URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE (ULCV) DISEASE DEVELOPMENT
M. ASHFAQ1*, M. ASLAM KHAN2 AND N. JAVED 2

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS CONDUCIVE FOR URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE (ULCV) DISEASE DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT:
In order to see the impact of environmental conditions on Urdbean leaf crinkle disease development

2645-2653 Download
46
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BACTERIAL DILUTIONS ON TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCY OF HOT CHILLI (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) VARIETIES
RABBIA HASNAT1, N.A. ABBASI1*, I.A. HAFIZ1, T. AHMAD1 AND Z. CHUDHARY2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT BACTERIAL DILUTIONS ON TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCY OF HOT CHILLI (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L.) VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
A reproducible and efficient protocol for two varieties of chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) varieties Nepali and NARC-IV using different bacterial dilutions was optimized to assess its effect on transformation efficiency. The hypocotyl segments were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 harboring binary vector pTCL5. Plant response in culture was highly dependent on infection of hypocotyls with different bacterial densities. Proliferation and differentiation of calli forming plantlet as well as percentage transformation efficiency was strongly affected by the bacterial dilutions. Drastic increase in plant production from calli along with transformation efficiency was achieved at low bacterial density as compared to high density which in consequences brought about the necrosis and death of calli.

2655-2662 Download
47
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AND MYCELIAL COMPATIBILITY AMONG THE ISOLATES OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM ASSOCIATED WITH STEM ROT OF CHICKPEA
ABIDA AKRAM1, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL2, NAVEED AHMED1, UMER IQBAL2 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR2

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY AND MYCELIAL COMPATIBILITY AMONG THE ISOLATES OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM ASSOCIATED WITH STEM ROT OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Variability among 16 isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum associated with the stem rot of chickpea collected from various localities of Pakistan is reported. The isolates varied in colony morphology, mycelial growth rate, sclerotium formation, sclerotial size and color. Variability among the isolates on the basis of their mycelial compatibility was also observed and out of 120 combinations more than half showed compatible reactions between either two isolates. Based on mycelial compatibility, 58% vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) were identified among all the isolates. Sixteen isolates were grouped into two clusters at 50% dissimilarity and both the clusters consisted 8 isolates in each case. The members of same cluster were compatible in most of the cases, whereas it was not true for the isolates with different background on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics. A detailed study to investigate molecular and genetic basis of diversity in relation to antagonistic activity is suggested.

2663-2668 Download
48
TRANSMISSION AND HOST RANGE STUDIES OF PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS
HUSSAIN SHAH*, TAHIRA YASMIN*, MUHAMMAD FAHIM*, SHAHID HAMEED* AND M.I. HAQUE**

TRANSMISSION AND HOST RANGE STUDIES OF PAKISTANI ISOLATE OF CHILLI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
Chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), being the most important remunerative vegetable of Pakistan is susceptible to a wide range of viruses which are the major constraints in its production resulting to heavy crop losses. Among these, Chilli veinal mottle Potyvirus (ChiVMV) is the major prevalent virus with an incidence range of 50% that reduce yield by 50% worldwide. Transmission and host range studies under glasshouse conditions revealed that ChiVMV Pakistani isolate is transmitted mechanically, through aphid vector (Aphis gossypii) and grafting to chilli pepper and tobacco but not through seed. Among 44 host plants tested, 5 different plant species (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa, Solanum nigrum, Datura metel and Physalis floridana) induced characteristic systemic mottling symptoms within 7 to 14 days of inoculation. The rest of the hosts remained asymptomatic and were DAS-ELISA negative.

2669-2681 Download
49
SEED DRESSING WITH BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND NEMATICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON SUNFLOWER AND OKRA
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, A. SATTAR AND M.J. ZAKI

SEED DRESSING WITH BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND NEMATICIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE ON SUNFLOWER AND OKRA
ABSTRACT:
Application of biocontrol agents viz., Rhizobium meliloti, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum and nematicides viz., fertinemakil, vermox as seed dressing for the reduction of Meloidogyne javanica infection on sunflower and okra was examined. In vitro experiments, maximum reduction in hatching of M. javanica egg was observed in R. meliloti aqueous extract whereas T. harzianum showed significant mortality of second stage juveniles of M. javanica. In vivo experiment the biocontrol agents and nematicides coated with sugar, mollasses, glucose and gum arabic used @ 1 and 2% significantly reduced the infection of root knot nematode on okra and sunflower roots. An increase in concentration of coating materials significantly enhanced the germination and growth parameters in terms of shoot length, shoot weight, root length and root weight on both okra and sunflower plants. Of the different microbial antagonists and nematicides used, T. harzianum and fertinemakil were found more effective followed by R. meliloti, B. thuringiensis, vermox and A. niger in the control of root knot nematode.

2683-2691 Download
50
09-07-09
REACTION OF VARIOUS CITRUS ROOT STOCKS (GERMPLASM) AGAINST CITRUS ROOT NEMATODE (TYLENCHULUS SEMIPENETRANS COBB.)

09-07-09
ABSTRACT:
NAZIR JAVED, MAKKY JAVED, M. B. ILYAS, M.M. KHAN* AND M. INAM-UL-HAQ

2693-2696 Download
51
CORRIGENDUM
A paper entitled “IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF CROTON (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM)” by ASMA NASIB, KASHIF ALI AND SAIFULLAH KHAN was published in 39

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
4

2697- Download
52
CORRIGENDUM
A paper entitled “SCOPE OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL BROMIDE AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM ADULTS” by MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AHMEDANI, M.I. HAQUE, SYED NADEEM AFZAL, UMER IQBAL AND S. NAZ was published i

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
5

2699- Download
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