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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 1
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1
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LXI. VIOLACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN -LXI. VIOLACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 5 species of the family Violaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, colporate, sub-prolate to prolate-spheroidal. Sexine slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum mostly densely punctate rarely psilate. On the basis of exine pattern two distinct pollen types viz., Viola pilosa–type and Viola stocksii-type are recognized

1-5 Download
2
TISSUE CULTURE OF GERBERA
NAFEES ALTAF, ABDUL REHMAN KHAN, LIAQAT ALI AND INKSAR AHMAD BHATTI

TISSUE CULTURE OF GERBERA
ABSTRACT:
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) somatic tissues and seeds were tried for raising tissue cultures. The explants of shoot tips, immature inflorescences, leaf sections, capitulum explants, axillary buds and receptacles explants from field grown plants had contamination problems. Another trouble was slow growth of explant cultures as they were treated with sterilizing chemicals which damage their growing regions. However, callusing was in all explants and shoot regenerations were obtained from shoot tip and axillary buds. The calluses were obtained from clean seeds which were pre-soaked (20mg/liter for six hours) in colchicine for induction of polyploidy. The germinating seedlings were crushed and tissue mass was put on callusing medium containing MS with BA+2,4-D (each 3 mg/liter). After six weeks, the calli were transferred to MS+BA (4mg/liter) +IBA (1mg/liter). The developed plantlets were separated and cultured on MS containing BA and IBA (each @ 0.5mg/liter). The plantlets were transferred to pots under 100% humidity during initial weaning period, acclimatized and grown as normal plants.

7-10 Download
3
ETHNOMEDICINAL STUDIES ON PLANT RESOURCES OF TEHSIL SHAKARGARH, DISTRICT NAROWAL, PAKISTAN
ANDLEEB ANWAR SARDAR AND ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN

ETHNOMEDICINAL STUDIES ON PLANT RESOURCES OF TEHSIL SHAKARGARH, DISTRICT NAROWAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present research work was designed to gather indigenous knowledge of local people especially medicinal healers (Hakims) about traditional and medicinal uses of plants. Present study was confined to interview people of remote villages of tehsil Shakargarh, district Narowal, Pakistan from September 2003- August 2004. Indigenous knowledge was collected by interviewing people of different age groups between 40 to 80 years. Frequent field trips were arranged to record local information. A total of 102 species belonging to 93 genera and 62 families were recorded as being used by local inhabitants for various purposes such as fuel, furniture, fodder, making baskets and mats, brushing teeth, medicinal, vegetables and edible fruits.

11-18 Download
4
INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY LOCAL WOMEN IN SOUTHERN HIMALAYAN REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI1*, MUHAMMAD ASAD GHUFRAN, SYED ANEEL GILANI, ZAHEER YOUSAF, GHULAM ABBAS2 AND ANIQA BATOOL3

INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY LOCAL WOMEN IN SOUTHERN HIMALAYAN REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present work is based on the results of research conducted on traditional uses of some important plants by the local women in southern Himalayan Mountains, Pakistan. The locals especially women of the area have been using the medicinal plants for many day to day uses for various ailments and are dependent on the plants in their surroundings for food, health, medication and various cultural purposes. A total of 28 important plant species belonging to 25 families were recorded which were used medicinally and various other purposes by the local women. About 130 informants were interviewed in this regard. Mostly plants like Viburnum foetens Decne., Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Berberis lycium Royle, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet and Skimmia laureola (DC.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Walp. are used by the local women for medication, health care and other purposes. Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet is most commonly used as tonic by women especially for body strength and other internal body disorders. Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., is used as anticancerous plant and for internal wounds. Skimmia laureola (DC.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Walp. is another widely used plant for respiratory disorders in children by the local women. People have strong faith in herbal medication by ethnomedicinal plants and women are leading men in applying the recipe for medication by these plants.

19-25 Download
5
TOXIC EFFECTS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH
Z.R. FAROOQI, M. ZAFAR IQBAL, M. KABIR AND M. SHAFIQ

TOXIC EFFECTS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L.) BENTH
ABSTRACT:
The effects of lead and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length and seedling dry biomass of Albizia lebbeck was evaluated under laboratory conditions with and without lead and cadmium treatments. Lead and cadmium treatments at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 µmol/L affected seed germination and seedling growth of A. lebbeck as compared to control. Lead treatments at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 µmol/L concentrations produced significant (p<0.05) effects on seed germination and seedling length of A. lebbeck while lead treatment at 50 µmol/L significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 10 to 90 µmol/L affected the seed germination, root, shoot length and seedling dry biomass of A. lebbeck as compared to control. Seedlings vigor index of A. lebbeck showed gradual decrease with increase in concentration of lead and cadmium. Cadmium treatments showed adverse effects on seedlings of A. lebbeck as compared to lead. Lead and cadmium treatments at 90 µmol/L exhibited lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of A. lebbeck as compared to control.

27-33 Download
6
FLOWERS’ SHEDDING UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK*, IQBAL SAEED AND TILLA MUHAMMAD

FLOWERS’ SHEDDING UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Segregating populations were developed through induced mutations and hybridization using local and exotic mungbean genotypes to select mutants/recombinants tolerant to flowers shedding under high temperature. Entire segregating population showed flowers shedding under high temperature. But 242 recombinants/mutants were advanced to phenotypic uniformity following consecutive selection on the basis of new flowers production on the same raceme from where flowers were shed under high temperature. These recombinants/mutants were evaluated to rate the new flowers production on terminal raceme of the main stem at 90% pods maturity and to collect basic information about flowers shedding under high temperature. Out of 242 recombinants/mutants

35-39 Download
7
MINERAL NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ECOTYPES OF WHITE CLOVER AND THEIR NUTRIENT CREDIT TO SOIL AT RAWALAKOT AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
M. KALEEM ABBASI1*, MAJID MAHMOOD TAHIR1, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2 AND FARHAT BATOOL3

MINERAL NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ECOTYPES OF WHITE CLOVER AND THEIR NUTRIENT CREDIT TO SOIL AT RAWALAKOT AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
In comparison with other legumes and grasses, white clover provides forage with high nutritional value and quality. A field experiment was conducted by growing three indigenous and three exotic ecotypes of white clover in the mountain region of Himalayan i.e. the State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Plant nutrient content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined in the forage of white clover while soil nutrient content of N, C, P, K, Ca and Mg were determined in the soil under white clover. Pure grass and soil without white clover were used as control/check. Mineral nutrient contents in white clover were substantially higher than those found in the grass. Among macronutrients, the content of P and K were 0.32 and 1.96%, while the contents of N, Ca and Mg were 2.61

41-51 Download
8
EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION AROUND HAVALIAN CITY USING MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
SHEIKH SAEED AHMED1*, SAIMA FAZAL1, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM2*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN3, GHULAM SARWAR4 AND ZAFAR IQBAL4

EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION AROUND HAVALIAN CITY USING MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
A survey of Abbottabad roadsides vegetation and soil was undertaken. The floristic data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis techniques i.e. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). A total of 63 plant species and 5 major communities were recognized along 5 major roadsides as demarcated by DCA and CCA. The study also investigated the vegetation structure and its relationships to selected environmental factors. This relationship was determined by CANOCO analysis. The most important factors influencing the roadside vegetation were found to be lead and copper, and zinc to some extent. This study provides the basic information to preserve and improve the roadside vegetation, for reservation of native flora.

53-60 Download
9
DETERMINATION OF FORAGE CONCENTRATIONS OF LEAD, NICKEL AND CHROMIUM IN RELATION TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GRAZING RUMINANTS IN THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*, ZAHID ALI SHAH1 AND L. R. MCDOWELL4

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE CONCENTRATIONS OF LEAD, NICKEL AND CHROMIUM IN RELATION TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GRAZING RUMINANTS IN THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ruminants are of central to livestock production system in Pakistan and for livestock grazing, forage mineral concentration is of considerable importance. The forage concentrations of Pb, Ni and Cr were investigated with respect to the nutrient requirement of the grazing ruminants in the Soone Valley located within the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan. Based on the data recorded, it was concluded that the concentration of these three minerals varied among different pastures and even in different plant parts. The Pb concentration in the leaves ranged from 0.034 to 0.069 mg g-1 in different pastures, while in pods it ranged from 0.040 to 0.065 mg g-1. The leaf Cr varied from 0.156 to 0.285 mg g-1 and in pods it was from 0.166 to 0.223 mg g-1 .The leaf Ni concentration ranged from 0.030 to 0.068 and that in pods from 0.037 to 0.084 mg g-1. The concentrations of Pb, Ni and Cr observed in the forage from Salt Range are significantly higher than their critical levels already known in the literature. Thus, these forage may cause toxicosis problems in animals grazing the area.

61-65 Download
10
MINERAL STATUS OF FORAGE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THAT OF PLASMA OF FARM ANIMALS IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, KAFEEL AHMAD1, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3* AND L. R. MCDOWELL4

MINERAL STATUS OF FORAGE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THAT OF PLASMA OF FARM ANIMALS IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study shows seasonal effect on Ca, Mg, Na and K status in both plants and goats at a particular Livestock Experimental Station in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The mean concentration of these metals in the forage was high in summer while low in winter. Plasma contained higher concentration of Mg both in lactating and dry classes during winter than those during summer; however, a reverse trend was found for most groups during both the seasons. Plasma K concentration was non-homogenous in all the classes with higher concentration in males followed by dry goats. Both seasons affected plasma Na concentration with higher concentration in summer than that in winter among all the groups of goats under investigation.

67-72 Download
11
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF LOW-BIURET UREA AND FRUIT CANOPY POSITION IN THE TREE INFLUENCE THE LEAF NITROGEN STATUS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
AHMAD S. KHAN1*, A.U. MALIK1, M.A. PERVEZ1, B.A. SALEEM1, I. A. RAJWANA, T. SHAHEEN3 AND R. ANWAR1

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF LOW-BIURET UREA AND FRUIT CANOPY POSITION IN THE TREE INFLUENCE THE LEAF NITROGEN STATUS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KINNOW MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to study i) the influence of supplemental foliar application of low-biuret urea (LBU) on the leaf nitrogen status and fruit quality and ii) the role of fruit canopy positions in the trees on the physico-chemical characteristics of Kinnow mandarin fruit. In first experiment, foliar application of LBU twice (before blooming and after fruit set) significantly brought the leaf N content of the Kinnow trees from deficient to optimum level as compared to single application before blooming or after fruit set and control trees. Trees sprayed with LBU twice also exhibited higher juice and pulp weight compared to other treatments. However, other quality parameters were not significantly affected with LBU application. Results of second experiment revealed that fruit harvested from inside of the tree canopy exhibited higher fruit volume; fruit, peel and pulp weight in contrast to the fruit harvested from other canopy positions. Highest juice percentage was recorded for fruit harvested either from top or outer periphery of the tree canopy. Soluble solids content (SSC), SSC: titratable acid ratio; reducing, non-reducing and total sugars; ascorbic acid contents were higher for fruit harvested from the top of the tree canopy as compared to the fruit harvested from other canopy positions. In conclusion foliar application of LBU can be used effectively to increase the leaf N status of Kinnow trees. Fruit at different canopy positions vary in their physico-chemical characteristics at harvest and should be harvested separately to have uniform quality and get maximum economic return.

73-85 Download
12
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITY AND GROWTH CHARACTERS IN TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS
SURIYAN CHA-UM* AND CHALERMPOL KIRDMANEE

EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITY AND GROWTH CHARACTERS IN TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Salt stress strongly affects on plant growth and development, especially maize plant, which is reported as a salt sensitive species. The salt tolerant identification in the large genetic resources and breeding population is a profitable research topic for solving the salinity problem. Two maize cultivars, viz., sweet (Zea mays L. cv. Saccharata) and waxy (Z. mays L. cv. Ceratina) seedlings were treated with 0 (control)

87-98 Download
13
ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN TREATMENTS EFFECTS ON PLANT AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF MAIZE IN A DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS
AHMAD KHAN, M. TARIQ JAN, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT AND M. ARIF

ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN TREATMENTS EFFECTS ON PLANT AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF MAIZE IN A DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
In Pakistan, maize (Zea mays L.) is grown following a wheat crop under conventional tillage practices since long ago. The present concern about the soil fertility degradation, soil erosion and environmental pollution due to the intensive tillage practices and high inorganic fertilization is an important issue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various organic and inorganic nitrogen treatments under three tillage systems i.e., Deep tillage (DT), conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) on maize planted after wheat crop. Tillage significantly affected all parameters studied. Minimum tillage and CT proved superior in terms of emergence m-2, plant height, grains per cob

99-108 Download
14
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEAF ACID PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AND EITHER P NUTRITIONAL STATUS OR P EFFICIENCY IN RICE
YONG-FU LI1

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEAF ACID PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AND EITHER P NUTRITIONAL STATUS OR P EFFICIENCY IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
2, AN-CHENG LUO1*, XING-HUA WEI3 AND ABDUL KHALIQ CHAUDRY4

109-119 Download
15
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF DENSITY OF GLANDULAR HAIRS, POPULATION AND SIZE OF APERTURE OF STOMATA IN RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE CULTIVARS OF CHICKPEA TO ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT DISEASE
M.A. RANDHAWA, S.T. SAHI, M.B. ILYAS, M.U. GHAZANFAR AND N. JAVED

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF DENSITY OF GLANDULAR HAIRS, POPULATION AND SIZE OF APERTURE OF STOMATA IN RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE CULTIVARS OF CHICKPEA TO ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
The comparative assessment of density of glandular hairs, population and size of stomatal aperture in chickpea cultivars resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moderately susceptible (MS) and susceptible (S) to Ascochyta blight revealed that the density of the glandular hairs on the ventral, dorsoventral sides and population and size of the aperture of stomata were highly significantly different among the four reaction groups. Similarly length of the glandular hairs and area of stomata were significantly different among the four reaction groups. In the resistant reaction group of cultivars, there were higher number of glandular hairs on the ventral, dorsoventral sides and higher number of stomata of leaf as compared to susceptible group. There was no appreciable difference among the population of glandular hairs on ventral side, length of non-glandular hairs and size of stomata of two reaction groups of resistant and susceptible cultivars. The resistant group had the smallest aperture than other groups.

121-129 Download
16
LEGACY STUDY OF COTTON SEED TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON USING GRIFFING’S COMBINING ABILITY MODEL
NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, GUL HASSAN2, K.B. MARWAT2, M.B. KUMBHAR3, I. KHAN2, Z.A. SOOMRO3, M.J. BALOCH3 AND M.Z. KHAN4

LEGACY STUDY OF COTTON SEED TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON USING GRIFFING’S COMBINING ABILITY MODEL
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids, and the nature of gene action involved for inheritance of cottonseed traits and oil content % in a 6x6 diallel cross in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) during 2003-2005. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p≤0.01) differences among the genotypes for all the traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were mostly significant in F1 and F2 generations. Genetic components of variances due to GCA and SCA revealed that most of the traits were controlled by additive type of gene action in both generations because of greater GCA variances. However, seeds per boll and cottonseed oil % in F1 generation gained preponderance of SCA variances having non-additive type of gene action. Cultivar CIM-1100 was found as leading general combiner in combination with other cultivars BH-36 and CIM-240, FH-682 and CRIS-9, and their hybrids (CIM-1100 x BH-36, CIM-240 x CIM-1100, FH-682 x BH-36, CIM-1100 x FH-682 & CIM-1100 x CRIS-9) showed prominent SCA and renowned mean performance for seeds per boll, seed index and cottonseed oil content %. Therefore, involvement of CIM-1100 in most of the hybrids resulted in the synthesis of superior genotypes for all the traits.

131-142 Download
17
EFFECT OF GA3 ON REGENERATION RESPONSE OF THREE TOMATO CULTIVARS (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
AMBER AFROZ1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2, RASHEED KHAN1, HAMID RASHID3* AND SABAZ ALI KHAN1

EFFECT OF GA3 ON REGENERATION RESPONSE OF THREE TOMATO CULTIVARS (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in short time span using GA3, as a pre-requisite for the genetic transformation in tomato cultivars. Effects of GA3 were investigated on regeneration efficiencies and days to maturity of three varieties of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum (using hypocotyls and leaf discs as explant source). 0.5 mg/l Indole acetic acid (IAA) and 0.5-2.5 mg/l of benzyl amino purine (BAP) were used alone or in combination with GA3 2mg/l on MS media. Regeneration was significantly higher with different treatments used in combination with GA3. It was increased from 57.33% to 70% in Avinash, followed by Pusa Ruby 51.66% to 67.22% and from 53.2% to 60% in case of Pant Bahr when hypocotyls were used as explant source. Same trend was followed in case of leaf disc derived regeneration, although it was less pronounced. Regeneration was increased from 68% to 73% in Avinash followed by Pusa Ruby 68.5% to 72.33 %. Inclusion of GA3 in the media also significantly reduced the days to regeneration (20-25) as against 40-45 days when GA3 was excluded from media in all three varieties of tomato cultivars.

143-151 Download
18
GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SUGARCANE PLANTLETS DEVELOPED THROUGH IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN1, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT2, NIGHAT SEEMA1, SHAFQAT YASMIN1, SAJIDA BIBI1, SABOOHI RAZA1 AND ABDULLAH KHATRI1

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN SUGARCANE PLANTLETS DEVELOPED THROUGH IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS
ABSTRACT:
Three sugarcane clones viz., NIA-98, NIA-2004 and BL4 were used for induction of genetic variability through In-vitro mutagenesis. Apical meristametic region was used for callus induction (4mg/l 2,4-D). Actively growing callus was treated with five different doses of gamma rays (10Gy

153-166 Download
19
MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BRASSICA SPECIES
S. J. ABBAS­­1, FARHATULLAH2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3, I. A. KHAN1 AND IQBAL MUNIR1

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BRASSICA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Brassica species are the most important source of vegetable oil and the second most important oilseed crop in the international oilseed market after soybean. Genetic improvement of the seed quality made Brassica a source for high quality edible oil for human consumption and high quality protein meal for feeding animals. To improve yield and quality of oil content of Brassica, presence of sufficient genetic diversity in the germplasm is an important prerequisite. On an average, 45.8 and 25.8 alleles were amplified using RAPD and Brassica specific SSR primer sets, respectively. Mean genetic distance estimates ranged from 26-89% and 5-61%, respectively. Size of scorable fragments ranged from approximately 250 to >2000 bp. A high level of genetic dissimilarity (GD= up to 100%) was estimated among the 14 genotypes. Entries were grouped in clusters using cluster analysis. On the basis of dendrogram, most diverse genotypes were identified, that can be used in future brassica breeding program.

167-176 Download
20
SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MT-SHSP GENE OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DIPLOID COTTON GENOMES, G. HIRSUTUM AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
TAYYABA SHAHEEN, MUHAMMAD ASIF, YUSUF ZAFAR AND *MEHBOOB-UR-RAHMAN

SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MT-SHSP GENE OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DIPLOID COTTON GENOMES, G. HIRSUTUM AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most popular DNA markers because of their abundance and consistency in the genomes. House keeping genes are conserved in nature across the genomes of different organisms. Study of variations in these conserved genes can reveal the hidden facts of evolution which can not be excavated with conventional DNA marker systems. In the present study, mitochondrial small heat shock protein gene (MT-sHSP) has been explored to find nucleotide variations within Gossypium arboreum, with the other diploid Gossypium genomes, G. hirsutum and also with Arabidopsis thaliana. A conserved region spanning 300bp was amplified and sequenced from two G. arboreum (A2) genotypes, species of other diploid genomes belonging to A1, C1, E1, D4, D6, D9 genomes and tetraploid species G. hirsutum (AD). Sequence of the gene of A. thaliana was retrieved from Genbank. These sequences were aligned. Within G. arboreum genome one Indel was found while, ‘C’ genome showed the least nucleotide variations with the ‘A’ genome species (G. arboreum) as compared to other genomes. D genome species and G. hirsutum were closely related with each other. A. thaliana was most distantly related with other genomes. The present studies reveal that SNP markers could be identified in conserved regions where conventional markers are of little or no use. This study will lead to the better understanding of G. arboreum evolution and understanding how these variations can be utilized for the improvement of cotton genome.

177-183 Download
21
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ERIOBOTRYA LINDL. (LOQUAT) INFERRED FROM INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER SEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR RIBOSOME
PING LI1,2, SHUNQUAN LIN1*, XIANGHUI YANG1, GUIBING HU1 AND YUEMING JIANG3

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ERIOBOTRYA LINDL. (LOQUAT) INFERRED FROM INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER SEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR RIBOSOME
ABSTRACT:
Phylogenetic relationship of the genus Eriobotyra was investigated on the basis of the nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence. A phylogenetic tree of 15 loquat accessions (species, varieties and types) was generated using Photinieae serrulata L., Osteomeles anthyllidifolia Lindl., Sorbus scopulina Hedl., Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Barkh, and Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai as outgroups, and Rhaphiolepis indica (L.) Lindl., as an ingroup. The study exhibited that loquat accessions formed a monophyletic group. In the consensus trees, loquat accessions were divided into six clusters, i.e., Cluster I: Eriobotyra seguinii Card. and E. henryi Nakai; Cluster II: E. cavaleriei Rehd and E. fragrans Champ; Cluster III: E. malipoensis Kuan, E. prinoides Rehd. & Wils.var. dadunensis H. Z. Zhang and E. japonica Lindl.; Cluster IV: E.elliptica Lindl., E.bengalensis Hook.f., E.bengalensis Hook. f. forma angustifolia Vidal; Cluster V: E. salwinensis Hand-Mazz and Cluster VI: E. deflexa Nakai E. deflexa Nakai var. buisanensis Nakai, E. serrate Vidal and E. kwangsiensis Chun. In addition, it was suggested that E. cavaleriei Rehd could be treated as a variety under E. fragrans Champ.

185-193 Download
22
GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN OKRA (ABELMOSCHOUS ESCULENTUS L.)
ABDUL NAVEED1, ASIF ALI KHAN2* AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD KHAN2

GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS OF WATER STRESS TOLERANCE IN OKRA (ABELMOSCHOUS ESCULENTUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were carried out to assess the genetic potential of okra genotypes for drought tolerance through breeding and selection in 6 generations of 4 crosses between pairs of genotypes with a degree of tolerance to drought. Narrow sense heritability and genetic advance varied across crosses, traits and stress conditions. For fruit yield, narrow sense heritability and genetic advance were high under non-stress condition as compared to drought, which indicated that direct selection of fruit yield would only be feasible under non-stress conditions. Among the agronomic traits, although number of pods per plant had shown good narrow sense heritability and genetic advance under drought, yet leaf water potential appeared to be better indicator for selection criteria owning to higher heritability under drought. Among the crosses, Sanam × Arka Anamika appeared elite in terms of narrow sense heritability and genetic gain compared with other crosses, with highest fruit yield and pod number per plant under both conditions. Thus, chances to find stress tolerant breeding material in segregating populations of this cross are promising.

195-205 Download
23
MAIZE HYBRIDS RESPONSE TO NITROGEN RATES AT MULTIPLE LOCATIONS IN SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT
T. KHALIQ1*, A. AHMAD, A. HUSSAIN AND M.A. ALI2

MAIZE HYBRIDS RESPONSE TO NITROGEN RATES AT MULTIPLE LOCATIONS IN SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Productivity and resource use efficiency are critical issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as maize. The aim of this research was to compare maize hybrids and nitrogen fertilization rates, evaluating growth, yield and yield components under varying environments. Two year field experiments were carried out at Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three maize hybrids were subjected to five nitrogen levels (150

207-224 Download
24
EVALUATION OF ZN DISTRIBUTION AMONG GRAIN AND STRAW OF TWELVE INDIGENOUS WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
*MUHAMMAD AAMER MAQSOOD1*, RAHMATULLAH1, SHAMSA KANWAL1, TARIQ AZIZ2 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

EVALUATION OF ZN DISTRIBUTION AMONG GRAIN AND STRAW OF TWELVE INDIGENOUS WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is widespread in wheat grown on alkaline calcareous soils. A large population of the world as result of this also lacks adequate Zn nutrition. A pot study was conducted on Pindorian series (Udic Haplustalf) to evaluate the distribution of Zn in grain and straw of 12 indigenous wheat genotypes. Zinc was applied @ 6mg Zn kg-1 soil as ZnSO4.7H2O. Various fertilizer doses were imposed in triplicate according to complete randomized design. All 72 pots received uniform dose of 60 mg N kg-1 soil as urea, 60 mg P kg-1 as monoammonium phosphate and 30 mg K kg-1 soil as K2SO4. Plant tops were harvested 30 days after sowing. There was a significant (P<0.05) main and interactive effect of wheat genotypes and zinc application on grain and straw yield, Zn concentration and total uptake of Zn by wheat plants. Sehar-06 produced maximum grain and straw yield whereas Iqbal-2000 produced minimum grain and straw yield. The genotypes Sehar-06, Shafaq-06 and SARC-1 were able to retain more Zn in grain compared to straw. However, further verification of the results is warranted under field conditions.

225-231 Download
25
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS (PGRs) AND NUTRIENTS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LILY FLOWERS
G. MUSTAFA SAJID, MAHMOONA KAUKAB AND ZAHOOR AHMAD

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS (PGRs) AND NUTRIENTS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LILY FLOWERS
ABSTRACT:
Foliar application of either GA3 (20mgL-1), or a nutrient solution (comprising of KNO3

233-237 Download
26
WEED COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT CROP IN DISTRICT TOBA TEK SINGH, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*, ABDUL WAHEED AND M. ARSHAD

WEED COMMUNITIES OF WHEAT CROP IN DISTRICT TOBA TEK SINGH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Weed communities of wheat crop were determined using quadrate method at 5 different wheat growing localities of District Toba Tek Singh, during Rabi season 2006-07. A total of 38 weed species distributed across 35 genera and 17 families were recorded. Grassy weeds were constantly present in all the selected sites. Phalaris minor and Avena fatua were found the most dominant and frequent weed species with an average frequency of 84 and 72% respectively. The dominant families in terms of species were Asteraceae (7 spp.), Fabaceae, Poaceae (6 spp. each) and Chenopodiaceae (4 spp.). Based on Importance Value Index (IVI), five communities viz.

239-245 Download
27
WEED COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN WHEAT CROP OF DISTRICT RAHIM YAR KHAN, PAKISTAN
ABDUL WAHEED1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, G.S. JAKHAR2 AND HAYATULLAH TAREEN3

WEED COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN WHEAT CROP OF DISTRICT RAHIM YAR KHAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A phytosociological survey of weeds was conducted during 2002 to check the severity of competition in wheat crop of district Rahim Yar Khan. A total of 37 weed species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were recorded from the area under investigation. Five weed communities viz.

247-254 Download
28
A NEW RAPID AND SIMPLE METHOD OF SCREENING WHEAT PLANTS AT EARLY STAGE OF GROWTH FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE
ABID MAHMOOD*

A NEW RAPID AND SIMPLE METHOD OF SCREENING WHEAT PLANTS AT EARLY STAGE OF GROWTH FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
As efficient, reproducible, economical and simple mass screening technique for the selection of salt tolerant wheat genotypes has been developed. This method is able to identify genetic variation in salinity tolerance in breeding material or in a large number of genotypes of wheat. The germinated seeds of wheat were transplanted in vermiculite filled Japanese paper pots. As the first leaf blade became fully expanded, the Japanese paper pots along with seedlings were transferred to NaCl solution. The NaCl was increased stepwise in two third seedlings, up to the desired salinity levels which were 200 or 100 mol m-3 NaCl and one third Japanese paper pots remained only in nutrient solution as control. Two salt tolerant and two salt sensitive cultivars were included in the study. The plants were grown for 15 days in full strength nutrient solution or at desired NaCl level. The shoot weights were used as estimate of plant salinity tolerance. Shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), Na+ and K+ contents were measured for the assessment of salt tolerance. The validity of this technique was tested by growing the same cultivars at the same salinity levels in hydroponics or in soil filled pots. Salt tolerance of the cultivars was compared in three screening methods. Good reproducibility of the results among three screening methods authenticated the validity of the Japanese Paper Pot technique for the assessment of salinity tolerance at the early stage of plant growth in cereals.

255-262 Download
29
EFFECT OF SOIL SALINITY ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MUNGBEAN
SHAKIL AHMED

EFFECT OF SOIL SALINITY ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MUNGBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Experiment was conducted with 5 mungbean accessions/genotypes with the aim of ascertaining the effect of salt stress on the yield and its component. The decrease in seed yield per plant under salt stress was more pronounced, associated with a reduced number of seed per pod and 100 seed weight. Consequently salt stress was more effective at vegetative, flowering and seed filling stages rather than seed development stage in all the five accessions/genotypes. NM-92 was less affected which showed its adaptability under saline conditions. Delayed maturity due to salt stress pushes the plant also be desiccation stress causing shriveled seeds.

263-268 Download
30
TWO INDIGENOUS AQUATIC WEEDS LEMNA MINOR AND SPIRODELLA SPP., GAVE PROMISING BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE WITH RAINBOW FISH ON FIELD LEVEL IN KARACHI, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RAJPUT MUHAMMED TARIQ1, S. NAIMUL HASAN NAQVI2 AND S.M. NAUSHAD ZAFAR2

TWO INDIGENOUS AQUATIC WEEDS LEMNA MINOR AND SPIRODELLA SPP., GAVE PROMISING BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE WITH RAINBOW FISH ON FIELD LEVEL IN KARACHI, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Two indigenous aquatic weeds Lemna minor (Fam: Lamnaceae) commonly called as common duckweed and Spirodella spp., commonly called as large duckweed were used for the biological control of mosquitoes with local guppy fish also called Rainbow fish Poecellia reticulata in stagnant and polluted dirty water containing commonly Culex spp., and in few cases Anopheles spp., and in very few cases the Aedes spp., where the water became clear after some time or in overhead flown water and/or in pipeline leakage water. Such type of cases has been recorded in Karachi University Campus at BRC building. The plant was used @ 1kg/100m2 and fishes @ one fish/m2 were released in experimental areas. The fishes started their work of predating the mosquito larvae just after few minutes of their release in water. The plants Lemna, Spirodella and fishes supported to each other in symbiotic condition. The plants Lemna and Spirodella covered the surface of water reducing the oviposition area for egg laying mosquitoes; at the same time reducing area for respiration for already existing mosquito larvae in that area and reducing the water covered area by converting dirty water into water vapours through the process of transpiration and used as alternate food for fishes, especially for mosquito controlling fishes. The best and satisfactory results were obtained in 5 weeks depending on area of water, successful plant growth, quantity of plant introduced and number of fishes released in that area. This method not only avoids the use of synthetic chemicals, side effects of the chemicals where used, increase of pollution in water, resistance in the mosquitoes, inducement of chemicals in food chain, wastage of money and time but also provides the less smell, beautiful and pleasant environment for our health by providing plenty of fresh oxygen by the plants in day time. By this way a complete sound and safe control of mosquitoes may be achieved.

269-276 Download
31
DIVERSITY OF FRESHWATER GREEN MACROALGAE IN THE PUNJAB AND NEIGHBOURING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

DIVERSITY OF FRESHWATER GREEN MACROALGAE IN THE PUNJAB AND NEIGHBOURING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Altogether 139 species of planktonic, edaphic, epioikotic, epiphytic and epilithic algae belonging to 3 phyla, 5 classes

277-291 Download
32
ANTIMICROBIAL AND MUTAGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE ROOT TUBERS OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. (KALIHARI)
SHANMUGAM HEMAISWARYA1,3, RATHINAM RAJA2,3, CHINNATHAMBI ANBAZHAGAN2 AND VENKATESAN THIAGARAJAN2

ANTIMICROBIAL AND MUTAGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE ROOT TUBERS OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. (KALIHARI)
ABSTRACT:
The methanolic, aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of the root tubers of Gloriosa superba were studied for antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Results showed that the petroleum ether extracts were highly active against the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi at 50 µg/ml and active at 1000 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria. All extracts strongly inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger and Mucor at 1000 µg/ml and the spore germination of all the fungi at 500 µg/ml. The tubers of G. superba were found to possess mutagenic properties by Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test due to the presence of the colchicines.

293-299 Download
33
CHARACTERIZATION OF BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
SHAHZAD ASAD, SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, ANJUM MUNIR AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD

CHARACTERIZATION OF BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Bipolaris sorokiniana is a known cause of foliar blight, seedling blight, head blight and common root rot of wheat worldwide. It causes significant yield losses in South Asian countries and considered as a serious foliar disease constraints in warmer growing areas. The pathogen collected during 2004 and 2005 from foliar samples of wheat of different agro ecological zones was characterized on the basis of culture/colony colour and texture, conidial morphology and pathogenic nature. They were grouped in 4 classes having black, grayish black, brown and albino (whitish) colony color with profusely sporulated and suppressed type of growth to fluffy and less sporulated type. The conidial average size ranged from 38.3–65.8 µm x 12.3–25 µm with slightly curved, brown to olivaceous brown with 2–13 septa. Some isolates had relatively long and broad slender conidia, while some were uniformly straight and cylindrical and light brown in colour. All the isolates did not show difference in pathogenicity test by producing the symptoms on leaves but their reaction varied in terms of aggressiveness.

301-308 Download
34
SELECTION OF BARLEY GERMPLASM RESISTANT TO SPOT BLOTCH
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU, MOHAMMAD FAYYAZ AND ANJUM MUNIR

SELECTION OF BARLEY GERMPLASM RESISTANT TO SPOT BLOTCH
ABSTRACT:
Spot blotch is a common disease of barley and wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus). The disease is found where ever barley is grown. Total 130 lines of barley (provided by ICARDA – CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program) were screened for resistance to spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana under controlled and natural conditions at NARC (National Agricultural Research Centre) Islamabad, Pakistan. Out of 130 lines, 7 barley lines viz. Jet, Bey, Forrajera, Beecher, Fiaz, Manchuria and Munch Palidum showed single gene base resistance under controlled and field conditions. However four lines including ETHIOPIA (CI 08755), ETHOPIA (CI 20019), Mac Key-4 and Mac Key-9 gave maximum disease reaction (MRMS) at seedling stage under controlled conditions while they gave low disease reaction (R) at adult stage. These four lines may have more than one gene involvement and can further be exploited as a source of resistance to spot blotch in the breeding programme.

309-314 Download
35
COMPOSTS, COMPOST EXTRACTS AND BACTERIAL SUPPRESSIVE ACTION ON PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN TOMATO
RAOUDHA KHANFIR BEN JENANA1*, RABIAA HAOUALA1, MOHAMED ALI TRIKI2, JEAN-JAQUES GODON3, KHALED HIBAR4, MOHAMED BEN KHEDHER5 AND BELGACEM HENCHI6

COMPOSTS, COMPOST EXTRACTS AND BACTERIAL SUPPRESSIVE ACTION ON PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM IN TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
The effects of three composts (C1, C2 and C3) produced from Solid Olive Mill wastes (SOMW), Posidonia oceanica (Po) and Chicken Manure (CM), at different proportions, were tested on Pythium aphanidermatum. To evaluate the fungal pathogen inhibition, In vitro and In vivo tests were carried out. In vitro tests aimed to study the inhibitive effect of pure compost extracts and the isolated antagonist bacteria. In vivo tests drench and dip root inoculations were done on tomato seedlings. Pure extracts inhibited the fungal pathogen growth. Isolated bacteria also showed an antagonistic action on the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum and the 16sRNA identification showed that Bacillus subtilis and B. thuringiensis had the highest inhibition. In vivo tests showed that drench inoculated tomato seedlings sown in substrates with composts resisted to P. aphanidermatum. Root dip inoculated seedlings had a more sustained growth in substrates mixed with composts. Results showed that tested composts acted by both their chemical composition and microorganisms and could be used at appropriate proportions as biological fertilizers.

315-327 Download
36
EVALUATION OF RICE GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT
M.A. WAHEED1, INAMULLAH2, HABIB AHMAD2*, SIRAJUDDIN3, HAIDAR ALI4, A.Q. KHAN5 AND A. KHAN6

EVALUATION OF RICE GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT
ABSTRACT:
Assessment of losses in yield and yield components by bacterial leaf blight of 11 rice genotypes viz., PARC-291, PARC-292, PARC-293, PARC-294, PARC-295, PARC-296, PARC-297, PARC-298, PARC-299, PARC-300, PARC-301 were carried out under natural field conditions of Mansehra. Significant differences were observed for all the traits studied. Lowest infection was shown by PARC-301 with a disease scoring of 42.5, minimum and statistically equivalent number of days to 50% heading observed in PARC-294 (79 days), PARC-296 (81.3 days) and PARC-299 (81.3 days), maximum plant height 68.5 cm in PARC-298, maximum 25 tillers in PARC-292, maximum value for spike length showed by PARC-296 (21.6 cm), maximum number of grains in PARC-292 (161.3), PARC-292 and PARC-298 out yielded in straw yield and grain yield with a value of 5.6 kg/plot and 2.567 kg/plot, respectively. The genotypes PARC-298, PARC-299 and PARC-301 showed resistance to bacterial leaf blight and out yielded in grain yield. These genotypes are recommended for general cultivation and further use in breeding programmes.

329-335 Download
37
SCREENING OF MYCOTOXINS IN WHEAT, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES GROWN IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
NAJMUS SAHAR*, MUBARIK AHMED, ZAHIDA PARVEEN, AMBER ILYAS AND ABBAS BHUTTO

SCREENING OF MYCOTOXINS IN WHEAT, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES GROWN IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of the study was to determine the presence of different types of mycotoxins in different varieties of wheat, fruits and vegetables. The toxins included aflatoxin (total), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin and ochratoxin (total). Sixty grain samples of wheat were randomly collected from different farmers’ fields, godowns and flour mills of Sindh, and 20 vegetables and fruits samples from open market and exporters. Wheat samples were analyzed quantitatively by Competitive Direct Enzyme Linked Immunoscorbent Assay (CD-ELISA) and vegetables and fruits were analyzed qualitatively by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The quantity of mycotoxins in most of the wheat, fruits and vegetables were not detected within the detectable limits, and a few were found contaminated with the deoxynivalenol (DON) as in wheat, and aflatoxin in fruits and vegetables. However the values were below the permissible safe limits for human consumption and health.

337-341 Download
38
POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) FRUIT AS AFFECTED BY CHITOSAN COATING
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, ZAFAR IQBAL, MEHDI MAQBOOL AND ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ

POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) FRUIT AS AFFECTED BY CHITOSAN COATING
ABSTRACT:
The effect of coating with irradiated Crab and Shrimp chitosan (CHIirr, Mv = 5.14 × 104) and un-irradiated Crab chitosan (CHIun, Mv = 2.61 × 105) on postharvest preservation of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit was studied. Irradiation at 100 kGy and 200 kGy of both Crab chitosan and Shrimp chitosan were used and the fruits were stored at 15°C ± 1°C and 85% relative humidity for 6 weeks. The effect of various chitosan coatings on fruit ripening behaviour, biochemical and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated during storage. The incidence of disease attack was also observed. The overall results showed the superiority of irradiated Crab chitosan (200 kGy) in extending the shelf-life of mango fruit as compared to control. The irradiated Crab chitosan (200 kGy) treated fruits also maintained their eating quality up to 4 weeks of storage. Only 6% disease incidence was observed in fruits coated with irradiated Crab chitosan (200 kGy) as compared to control (25%) after 4 weeks of storage. The results of this study showed that irradiated chitosan coatings have an excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extending shelf-life.

343-357 Download
39
ASSOCIATION OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE WITH DIFFERENT DECLINE DISORDERS IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1, ZAFAR IQBAL2, AHMAD SALEEM3 AND MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM4*

ASSOCIATION OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE WITH DIFFERENT DECLINE DISORDERS IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Mango decline has assumed an alarming position due to increasing losses day by day in the orchards of Pakistan. The problem is intensified due to dearth of reliable information and suitable control strategies. The present studies were planned to characterize the isolates of the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, test their virulence and evaluate different fungicides to find out effective ones for field application. Ten isolates were identified from 10 mango growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. After inoculation on 10 months old seedlings, the fast growing isolates viz., LT-3, LT-6 and LT-7 resulted in 66.66% mortality and 3.0, 4.9 and 4.5 cm2 pathogenicity lesion, respectively. Five fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl 70 WP, Carbendazim 50 WP, Precure combi (Thiophanate-methyl + Diethofencarb) 65 WP, Copper oxychloride 50 WP and Captan 50 WP with two doses of concentration, 50 and 100 ppm, were applied In vitro by food poison technique. Colony diameter in amended Petri plates was recorded after 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of inoculation. Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim and Precure combi showed 100% decrease over control at 50 and 100 ppm doses while Captan and Copper oxychloride exhibited only 26.84 and 7.8 and 35.26 and 20.2% decrease at both the tested doses, respectively. The results of the present studies will be helpful to devise management strategies for the control of mango decline in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

359-368 Download
40
ADDITIONS TO UREDINALES OF NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ASIM SULTAN1*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ1, HAMID MUKHTAR1, A.N. KHALID2, RUKHSANA BAJWA3 AND A.R NIAZI2

ADDITIONS TO UREDINALES OF NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During the uredonological survey of Northern areas of Pakistan, Cronartium ribicola, Puccinia coronata, Puccinia taraxaci and Aecidium clematidis have been found infecting different plant species. These rust taxa are being reported for the first time from northern areas of Pakistan. With these four rust taxa, the rust flora of Northern areas of Pakistan now consists of 80 taxa.

369-372 Download
41
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS IN THE PUNJAB AND NWFP, PAKISTAN
YASIR IFTIKHAR1*, M. ASLAM KHAN1, A. RASHID1, S.M. MUGHAL4, Z. IQBAL2, ASIA BATOOL3, M. ABBAS3, M.M. KHAN3, S. MUHAMMAD2 AND M. J. JASKANI3

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS TRISTEZA CLOSTEROVIRUS IN THE PUNJAB AND NWFP, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Extensive surveys of the major citrus groves in Punjab (Faisalabad, Sahiwal, T.T. Singh, Sargodha and Bhalwal) and N.W.F.P (Haripur, Peshawar and Mardan) and ELISA tests revealed that CTV is prevalent and now is an emerging important disease. The citrus trees were found to be infected regardless of scion-rootstock combination. Maximum incidence of CTV was recorded at Bhalwal in the Punjab; 44.61% and 48.46% in 2006-07, and Mardan in N.W.F.P, 37.39% and 40.86% respectively. CTV infection was confirmed by DAS-ELISA in sweet orange, kinnow and grapefruit showing mean OD405nm values of 0.60, 0.42 and 0.31 respectively. Similarly Mardan showed the highest infection with the mean ELISA values of 0.52, 0.34 and 0.20 in sweet orange, kinnow and grapefruit respectively. Among the varieties, sweet orange showed a significant increase of CTV in 2007 in Punjab as compared to other varieties. Twig portion of the kinnow in N. W. F. P was found to contain high concentration of CTV.

373-380 Download
42
ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA APPLIED IN COMBINATION WITH COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS TO IMPROVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
M. JAVED AKHTAR, HAFIZ NAEEM ASGHAR, K. SHAHZAD AND M. ARSHAD

ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA APPLIED IN COMBINATION WITH COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS TO IMPROVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to assess the possible role of the integrated use of seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), compost and mineral fertilizers for improving growth and yield of wheat sown at different plant spacing. PGPR were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat plants. Four treatments were applied in the main plots viz., T1 (Recommended N as Chemical Fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 as Control), T2 (Recommended N as Chemical Fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 + Compost @ 250 kg ha-1), T3 (Recommended N as Chemical Fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 + Compost @ 250 kg ha-1 + Inoculation with PGPR), T4 (Recommended N as Chemical Fertilizer @ 120 kg ha-1 + Inoculation with PGPR). Basal dose of P and K @ 100 and 60 kg ha-1 as Diammonium phosphate and murate of potash respectively was applied to all treatments at sowing time. Maximum increase in plant height, number of tillers m-2, and number of spikelets spike-1, grain and straw yield were recorded with the use of PGPR inoculated seeds in combination with compost and chemical fertilizers. Maximum grain yield and 1000 grain weight were observed where PGPR inoculated seeds were used in combination with recommended chemical fertilizers. Higher N content in grain and straw were recorded with the application of seed inoculation with PGPR along with compost and recommended chemical fertilizers. Planting space had a significant effect and maximum growth and yield was recorded at 25cm plant to plant spacing.

381-390 Download
43
STUDIES ON VIRULENCE REACTIONS OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE
SHAZIA MANNAN1, SALMAN AKBAR MALIK2, IFTIKHAR AHAMAD3, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA3 AND MUHAMMAD AFZAL AKHTAR3

STUDIES ON VIRULENCE REACTIONS OF LOCAL ISOLATES OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE
ABSTRACT:
Local isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae were collected from different rice producing areas of Pakistan and evaluated for their virulence on 12 rice lines viz., IRBB1, IRBB2, IRBB3, IRBB4, IRBB5, IRBB7, IRBB8, IRBB10, IRBB11, IRBB13, IRBB14 and IRBB21. The ability of an isolate to cause lesions with different lengths across the lines was interpreted as virulence. Isolates that were consistently associated with high or low virulence were differentiated. Isolates produced lesions of different sizes on different rice lines. Five virulence groups (races) were identified based on the virulence of the bacterial isolates on these lines. No single gene tested was found to be resistant against all virulence groups prevalent in Pakistan. The results of this study will facilitate the breeders in deployment of effective resistance genes against X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains prevalent in Pakistan.

391-402 Download
44
AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TOBACCO TRANSFORMATION WITH RICE FAE GENE AND SEGREGATION ANALYSIS OF T1 GENERATION
KHIZAR HAYAT BHATTI1,2* AND CHAOZU HE1

AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TOBACCO TRANSFORMATION WITH RICE FAE GENE AND SEGREGATION ANALYSIS OF T1 GENERATION
ABSTRACT:
The transformation of plants through Agrobacterium is very important to impart desirable traits. Usually plants are subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses, which affect the growth and metabolism. Plants evolve certain mechanisms to cope with the prevailing stressful conditions. Among them, cuticular waxy coating layer may serve as protective barrier to deter water loss as well as pathogens assault. The rice OsFAE encodes a protein involving elongation of fatty acids to form very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), necessary for cuticular wax biosynthesis. The OsFAE gene in the sense sequence was placed under the control CaMV35S promoter. The Agrobacterium mediated transgenic tobacco plants were obtained using tissue culture techniques. The PCR analysis of T2 generation confirmed the incorporation of transgene into the tobacco genome. The selection of transgenic plants was made on hygromycin. Segregation analysis of T1 generation revealed that most of the transgenic lines showed typical 3:1 Mendel’s segregation ratio.

403-412 Download
45
PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IN ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.) LIB., OF CHICKPEA
SAYED RASHAD ALI1, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL1, UMER IQBAL1, ABDUL GHAFOOR AND ABIDA AKRAM2

PATHOGENIC DIVERSITY IN ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.) LIB., OF CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Ten isolates of Ascochyta rabiei derived from single spore cultures were studied for their morphological characters and pathogenic variability. These isolates exhibited variation in morphological and cultural characteristics. Variation in rating of each A. rabiei isolates towards all the test cultivars exhibited in a continuous manner. Susceptible cultivars showed symptoms involving lesions on the leaves and stem and even in severe cases resulted in plant mortality. Reaction of 19 chickpea genotypes to all the isolates of A. rabiei indicated that Venhar was resistant to most of the isolates and tolerant to AR 1 and AR 9 isolates, whereas as it was susceptible to the isolates AR 2. Cultivars AUG 424, C 44 and NIFA 95 showed susceptible response to all the isolates. The remaining cultivars acted as differentials and showed considerable variation in disease reaction. The grouping of isolates is expected to have indication for virulence response to various cultivars that is yet to be investigated.

413-419 Download
46
ANALYSIS OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE IN SOME GENOTYPES OF MAIZE AGAINST CHILO PARTELLUS (SWINHOE) (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA)
MUHAMMAD AFZAL*, ZAHID NAZIR, MUHAMMAD HAMID BASHIR AND BILAL SAEED KHAN

ANALYSIS OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE IN SOME GENOTYPES OF MAIZE AGAINST CHILO PARTELLUS (SWINHOE) (PYRALIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA)
ABSTRACT:
Twenty available genotypes of maize were screened for resistance to Chilo partellus in the field. The genotype Sahiwal 2002 was found to be most susceptible while DK-6525 was most resistant. Maximum infestation was observed at the end of April while the minimum in the last week of March. Significant variations were observed in all the plant characters viz., number of nodes per plant, plant height, cob height, stem diameter, length of central spike, cob length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf trichomes and 100 grains weight. All these characters had negative and significant correlation with the infestation of Chilo partellus except number of nodes per plant, plant height, cob height and length of central spike which had negative but non significant results. The R2 values computed for multiple linear regression indicated that leaf trichomes contributed for the maximum 41.6% individual role followed by stem diameter alone contributed 32.7% towards resistance to Chilo partellus. Overall contribution of significant factors was observed 84.8% which was resulted from the combined effect of stem diameter, cob length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf trichomes and 100 grains weight.

421-428 Download
47
PATHOGENESIS AND CONTROL OF MYROTHECIUM SPP., THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT ON BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN.)
NASREEN SULTANA AND A. GHAFFAR

PATHOGENESIS AND CONTROL OF MYROTHECIUM SPP., THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT ON BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN.)
ABSTRACT:
Seed and soil inoculation by M. roridum and M. verrucaria reduced seed germination and caused seed rot, damping off, root rot and spots on aerial parts of bitter gourd. Isolates of M. roridum were found more pathogenic than isolates of M. verrucaria. This is the first report of seedling and root infection of M. roridum and M. verrucaria and also the first report of M. verrucaria leaf spot disease in bitter gourd. Isolates of M. roridum were found more pathogenic than isolates of M. verrucaria. Foliar sprays of fungicides and oil cakes extract significantly reduced the incidence and were found superior to other treatments in controlling disease. Maximum percent efficiency of disease control was observed where Topsin-M was sprayed on M. roridum (87.48%) and M. verrucaria (95.79%) inoculated leaves of bitter gourd.

429-433 Download
48
SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOL.) STANDL.
NASREEN SULTANA AND A. GHAFFAR*

SEED BORNE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOL.) STANDL.
ABSTRACT:
Using ISTA techniques, the seed borne fungi of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria was studied. A total of 22 genera and 45species of fungi were isolated, of which 35 have not hitherto been recorded from seeds of bottle gourd in Pakistan. Both blotter and deep-freezing methods yielded quantitatively as well as qualitatively more fungi than agar plate method. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium semitectum Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum were most frequently isolated from 33, 91, 50 and 66 % seed samples of bottle gourd respectively.

435-442 Download
49
DETECTION OF SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ISHRAT NIAZ AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

DETECTION OF SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Seed borne mycoflora of maize was tested by using blotter, agar plate and deep freezing methods as recommended by ISTA. Of the 100 samples collected from different places of Pakistan, a total number of 56 species belonging to 23 genera of fungi were isolated and identified. About 70% of the samples were infested with Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. wentii and Penicillium spp. Of the three methods used, agar plate method yielded the highest number of fungi as compared to blotter and deep freezing methods. Deep freezing method was the best for the detection of Drechslera spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., while agar plate method was suitable for the detection of Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., and Rhizopus spp. Out of 56 species

443-451 Download
50
SOME NOTES ON MICROMYCETES FROM TURKEY
ELŞAD HÜSEYIN, ALI S. BÜLBÜL AND HASAN AKGÜL

SOME NOTES ON MICROMYCETES FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The paper deals with some rare micromycetes species viz., Cryptocoryneum condensatum, Pestalotia fibricola, Pestalotiopsis maculans, Cercospora myrti, Pseudocercospora ceratoniae, Oidium ceratoniae, Uncinuliella australiana, Microdiplodia buddlejae. These species are reported for the first time from Turkey.

453-459 Download
51
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF HONEY, SANDAL OIL AND BLACK PEPPER
IFRA GHORI AND SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD*

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF HONEY, SANDAL OIL AND BLACK PEPPER
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of honey, sandal oil and black pepper by taking a selected standard medicine. These products are used for the treatment of various diseases. The bacterial isolates obtained from clinical samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. After identification and confirmation the pure culture of clinical bacterial isolates were used to test the sensitivity of bacterial isolates against sample products. Dimethyl sulfoxide and distilled water were used as solvent for sample products. Different types of honey, sandal oil and black pepper were tested against bacterial isolates. Results of all sample products showed zone of inhibition against all selected bacterial isolates. At the dilution of 25µl of stock solution in 75µl and at 50µl: 50µl concentration, the results were similar as obtained from honey and sandal oil. Dimethyl sulfoaxide DMSO and honey 1 showed inhibition zones against all except Staphylococcus aureus, whereas honey 2 was effective against all isolates. Sandal 1 oil showed inhibition zones against all isolates except E.coli whereas sandal 2 was effective against all. The results obtained from black pepper 1 and 2 did not gave effective results both at 50µ litre: 50µ litre and 25µ litre: 75µ litre concentration, both were found to be effective against Bacillus subtilus. Standard medicine showed inhibition zone against all selected bacterial isolates in each test.

461-466 Download
52
A REPORT OF PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII ON HUMAN FROM PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS1, ARIF MAAN2, JAVED IQBAL2, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, MUHAMMAD WAQAS1, HUSSAIN AHMED1, ASIFA LIAQAT1 AND SIDRA1

A REPORT OF PAECILOMYCES VARIOTII ON HUMAN FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Paecilomyces variotii is for the first time reported on human beings from Faisalabad, Pakistan. The fungus was isolated, identified and illustrated.

467-472 Download
53
EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID ENHANCES ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN SALT STRESSED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS
SIBGHA NOREEN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1 AND AMER JAMIL2

EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID ENHANCES ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN SALT STRESSED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. The present study was conducted to assess alteration in antioxidative capacity of salt stressed sunflower plants due to foliar applied SA. Two hybrid lines of sunflower (Hisun-33 and SF-187) were grown under non-saline (control) or saline (120 mM NaCl) conditions. Varying levels of salicylic acid (0

473-479 Download
54
INVESTIGATING POSSIBILITY OF USING LEAST DESIRABLE EDIBLE OIL OF ERUCA SATIVA L., IN BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION
MOHAMMED H. CHAKRABARTI* AND RAFIQ AHMAD**

INVESTIGATING POSSIBILITY OF USING LEAST DESIRABLE EDIBLE OIL OF ERUCA SATIVA L., IN BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Eruca sativa Miller of the family Brassicaceae is grown in West Asia and Indo-Pakistan as poor quality oilseed crop at marginal land under poor rainfall. Studies have shown that it is salt tolerant as well. When crushed for oil, glucosinolates in the seeds are hydrolyzed by myrosinase, yielding isothiocyanates which make the oil pungent. Due to its bitterness, the oil has almost negligible value in the food market. However, its fatty acid profile shows that it has the potential to be used as an alternative fuel for the transport sector. In the present study, its bio diesel was found possessing more or less similar storing, handling and combustion properties as bio diesel formed from edible oils of soya bean or canola. In addition, due to lower sulphur content, its bio diesel is expected to be environment friendly in comparison to petroleum based diesel fuel.

481-487 Download
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