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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 4
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1
OBITUARY - Dr. Abdul Kafi (15 July 1929 to 19 May 2009)
ABDUL GHAFFAR*

OBITUARY - Dr. Abdul Kafi (15 July 1929 to 19 May 2009)
ABSTRACT:
OBITUARY: Dr. Abdul Kafi, an eminent Mycologist & Plant Pathologist died on 19 May

1529- Download
2
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN – LXIV: SAXIFRAGACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMAMD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN – LXIV: SAXIFRAGACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 13 species of the family Saxifragaceae belonging to 2 genera viz., Bergenia Moench., and Saxifraga L., has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate-spheroidal rarely prolate or oblate-spheroidal, tricolporate. Tectum reticulate-rugulate or stria-spinulose rarely punctate. On the basis of exine ornamentation 5 distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Bergenia ciliata-type, Bergenia stracheyi-type, Saxifraga asarifolia-type, Saxifraga hirculus-type and Saxifraga oppositifolia-type. However, exine ornamentation and pollen shape are important pollen characters. Within the family pollen diversity is significant enough for delimiting the species.

1531-1538 Download
3
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF RARE TAXA LAGGERA ALATA AND ITS RELATED SPECIES PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA OF TRIBE PLUCHEEAE (ASTERACEAE)
AKBAR ALI MEO* AND MIR AJAB KHAN**

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF RARE TAXA LAGGERA ALATA AND ITS RELATED SPECIES PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA OF TRIBE PLUCHEEAE (ASTERACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of rare taxa Laggera alata and its related species Pluchea lanceolata has been investigated. The pollen grains are trizonocolporate with spines broad at the base with short blunt tip. Aperture is lacunate to non-lacunate in Laggera alata and non-lacunate in Plucheae lanceolata. They are spheroidal in equatorial view and circular to semi-angular in polar view. Distinct columella is of much systematic value; double layered exine with prominent piller like columella is found in Laggera alata of Plucheeae which distinguishes the pollen of this tribe from Inuleae which is characterized by single columellate sexine.

1539-1544 Download
4
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SALVIA CADMICA AND S. SMYRNAEA**
KEMAL HÜSNÜ CAN BAŞER1, BETÜL DEMIRCI1, MINE KÜRKÇÜOĞLU1, FATIH SATIL2* AND GÜLENDAM TÜMEN2

COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SALVIA CADMICA AND S. SMYRNAEA**
ABSTRACT:
Salvia cadmica Boiss., and S. smyrnaea Boiss., (Lamiaceae) differ from each other by the colour of their corolla in that the former is white and the latter is violet-blue, and that calyx widens in fruit in the latter. Both species are characterized by having cryptone in their essential oils as major constituent. Both species are endemic to Turkey. The paper compares morphological and chemical features of the two species with a view to confirm their taxonomical status.

1545-1555 Download
5
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-I. AIZOACEAE
DURDANA KANWAL, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-I. AIZOACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 8 species distributed in 7 genera, belonging to the family Aizoaceae, was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seed morphology was found useful to strengthen the generic and specific delimitation of the family Aizoaceae. The present paper shall be a part of “Seed atlas of Pakistan” which may be ultimately used by the agriculturist, in seed bank and conservation studies.

1557-1564 Download
6
FOLKLORE USES OF AMARANTHACEAE FAMILY FROM NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI AND G.R. BHATTI1

FOLKLORE USES OF AMARANTHACEAE FAMILY FROM NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper is a result of floristic and ethnobotanical project on the Nara Desert, Sindh which was carried out during 1998-2001. Six plant species distributed across four genera of Amaranthaceae family are extensively used ethnobotanically by the people of Nara Desert. They utilize various parts of these plants to accomplish their primary needs, like food, medicine, forage and fuel. Cross-checking of data with literature revealed that these species possessed some new uses not reported earlier in Indo-Pak medicinal literature. Besides, this enumeration also highlights the ethnoveterinary and other folklore uses for the first time from this remote area.

1565-1572 Download
7
ESTABLISHED FORMS OF FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS L. -A NATURALLY GROWING SPECIES IN TURKEY
ŞEVKET ALP¹* NEŞET ARSLAN² MEHMET KOYUNCU3

ESTABLISHED FORMS OF FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS L. -A NATURALLY GROWING SPECIES IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Turkey is a rich country in terms of geophytes. Fritillaria genus is a part of this natural wealth with its 39 species that grow naturally. The most popular of these is Fritillaria imperialis L. Naturally, Fritillaria imperialis L., spreads on a wide area. This plant is found from Anatolia to Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, and high in the Himalayan Mountains. The bulbs of this plant were taken from Anatolia to Europe and then to Australia by the French botanist Carolus Clusius (1525-1609) in 1583. Even though in the past new varieties were developed on the basis of the exported bulbs in Europe, no special breeding programs were carried out. However, in nature the species shows variation. The work presented in this paper, includes the results of observations made during the efflorescence period of the plant in its natural habitats. Significant variations were observed with respect to those characteristics mentioned.

1573-1576 Download
8
A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF RED BUDS (CERCIS L., FABACEAE) BASED ON ITS nrDNA SEQUENCES
FATİH COŞKUN* AND CLIFFORD R. PARKS

A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF RED BUDS (CERCIS L., FABACEAE) BASED ON ITS nrDNA SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
As a member of the large family Fabaceae, red buds are widely cultivated in the world due to their ornamental value. This study included 13 Cercis taxa from different parts of the world. Our analysis of the ITS nrDNA sequences proved useful in understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Cercis taxa and resolved most of the branches in the phylogenetic tree. The lowest sequence divergence within ingroup taxa was between C. canadensis ssp. canadensis and C. californica ssp. californica, 0.0014%. This was assuring that these taxa belong to the same species. The highest sequence divergence within ingroup taxa was 0.028% between C. canadensis ssp. mexicana and C. chingii. ITS data indicated that C. chuniana and C. occidentalis are interestingly close relatives, on one hand and C. siliquastrum and other North American Cercis taxa along with C.griffithii are close relatives on the other.

1577-1586 Download
9
A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CERCIS L. (FABACEAE) USING THE CHLOROPLAST trnL-F DNA SEQUENCES
FATİH COŞKUN* AND CLIFFORD R. PARKS

A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CERCIS L. (FABACEAE) USING THE CHLOROPLAST trnL-F DNA SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
This study included 13 Cercis taxa from different parts of the world and an outgroup, Bauhinia faberi. Although analysis of the trnL-F cpDNA sequences did not resolve the branches of the phylogenetic tree well, it did shed light to some extent on the phylogeny of Cercis taxa. Pairwise distances using Jukes-Cantor model among Cercis taxa for the trnL-F data was very low among many Cercis taxa (0.00%) as expected because the sequenced area is a coding region of the tRNAs. The highest distance was 0.064% between C. racemosa and C. chingii and C. yunnanensis and C. chingii. Our analysis indicated that C. chingii is very different from the other genus members and C. yunnanensis, C. racemosa, C. glabra, C. gigantea and C. chuniana formed well a clade.

1587-1592 Download
10
ALTITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE CONTENT OF PROTEIN, PROLINE, SUGAR AND ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN THE ALPINE HERBS FROM HUNZA VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ASGHARI BANO1*, ABDUL REHMAN1 AND MATTHIAS WINIGER2

ALTITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE CONTENT OF PROTEIN, PROLINE, SUGAR AND ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN THE ALPINE HERBS FROM HUNZA VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaves of four herbaceous alpine plant species were collected during summer

1593-1602 Download
11
AVAILABILITY OF NUTRITIONAL MINERALS (COBALT, COPPER, IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC) IN PASTURES OF CENTRAL PUNJAB FOR FARM LIVESTOCK
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN 1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, NAZIR AHMAD3, KAFEEL AHMAD1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4*

AVAILABILITY OF NUTRITIONAL MINERALS (COBALT, COPPER, IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC) IN PASTURES OF CENTRAL PUNJAB FOR FARM LIVESTOCK
ABSTRACT:
Effects of sampling frequencies on mineral status of Trifollium pastures in central Punjab, Sargodha at the livestock station Khizarabad were studied in relation to cattle requirement. Forages were analysed for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and znic (Zn), and cobalt (Co). Forage Co and Cu concentrations were low and deficient in relation to cattle requirements grazing therein for most of the sampling periods. In relation to cattle requirement, the majority of forages were deficient in Co, Cu and Zn. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the mineral supplementation on this ranch is strongly encouraged.

1603-1609 Download
12
EFFECTS OF KANAMYCIN ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING, COTYLEDON AND LEAF
HONGYING DUAN*, XIAOSHENG DING, JIANYING SONG, ZHIKUN DUAN, YANQING ZHOU AND CHUNE ZHOU

EFFECTS OF KANAMYCIN ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING, COTYLEDON AND LEAF
ABSTRACT:
In this research, growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling cotyledon and leaf were distinctly influenced by kanamycin. Contrasted against the control, cotyledon on MS with kanamycin was very small and took on etiolation, etiolation of cotyledon was serious and some even died as cultured for 10 d. Along with culture time increasing, cells in the epidermis tissue of cotyledon on MS with kanamycin were irregularly arranged, the intercellular space in the mesophyll tissue was large, and ability of cell division in the meristematic zone of shoot tip gradually weakened. In addition, it was detected that effects of kanamycin on seedling cotyledon and shoot tip exhibited reversibility to a certain extent. Accordingly, it is guessed that kanamycin may affect growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling cotyledon and leaf by restraining protein synthesis, and then influence growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling.

1611-1618 Download
13
EFFECT OF ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE ON GROWTH, YIELD AND N USE EFFICIENCY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD YASEEN*, SYED AZHER HUSSAIN, SAIF UR REHMAN KASHIF AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

EFFECT OF ENCAPSULATED CALCIUM CARBIDE ON GROWTH, YIELD AND N USE EFFICIENCY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of encapsulated CaC2 on plant growth and yield of rice. Application of encapsulated CaC2 in combination with recommended dose of N fertilizer significantly increased number of tillers, straw and paddy yield compared to N fertilizer application alone. Maximum number of tillers m-2 and paddy yield was observed where encapsulated CaC2 @ 60 kg ha-1 was applied with N fertilizer @ 60 kg ha-1 applied two weeks after transplanting. Results revealed that half of the recommended dose of N produced maximum paddy yield just with addition of CaC2 @ 60 kg ha-1 than that of full dose of N fertilizer. Moreover, application of encapsulated CaC2 resulted in higher N-use efficiency by rice crop than that observed with N fertilizer alone. Maximum agronomic, apparent and physiological efficiencies were observed where CaC2 plus N fertilizer (each applied @ 60 kg ha-1) was applied. These findings indicated that CaC2 affects plant growth by improving N-use efficiency in addition to a hormonal action

1619-1625 Download
14
DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LINKAGE MAP OF LEAF HAIRINESS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (COTTON) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
IFTIKHAR ALI1*, ABIDA KAUSAR1, MEHBOOB-UR-REHMAN3, YUSUF ZAFAR3, MUHAMMAD ASIF3, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, SANA RIAZ1, SARA ZAFAR1, ABDUL WAHID2, SOBIA MAQSOOD1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1 AND SYED QAISER ABBAS1

DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LINKAGE MAP OF LEAF HAIRINESS IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (COTTON) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotype Rajhans (pilose) was crossed with FH-634 (glabrous) and developed F2 and F3 segregating populations. PCR based techniques RAPD and SSR were used to determine DNA markers linked with the trait of hairiness using 400 RAPD and 54 SSR primers. Prior to analysis, PCR conditions were optimized. Eight RAPD primer markers OPD-19640, OPF-11630, OPG-06980, OPG-17500, OPH-131100, OPN-14890, OPO-11920, OPO-141200 were consistently detected in duplicate reactions. One SSR primer pair, JESPR-154 amplified a 150 bp DNA fragment in hairiness population. Polymorphic DNA markers were used to develop linkage map. Construction of genetic linkage map using RAPD and SSR markers revealed that the inheritance for leaf hairiness exists, which can be used to improve insect resistance in cotton.

1627-1635 Download
15
GROWTH POTENTIAL OF TWO SPECIES OF BASIL IN SANDY SOIL OF KARACHI
KANWAL NAZIM*, MOINUDDIN AHMED** AND MUHAMMAD UZAIR*

GROWTH POTENTIAL OF TWO SPECIES OF BASIL IN SANDY SOIL OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to examine the growth potential of the two species of Basil viz., Ocimum basilicum L., and Ocimum sanctum L., in sandy soil of Karachi. Basil seeds were imported from U.S.A and various stages of their life cycle were investigated in open field. It is shown that both species not only successfully completed their life cycle (germination, vegetative /reproductive growth and seed production) but produced higher amount of viable seeds. It is suggested that these important herbs may be cultivated successfully in Karachi region.

1637-1644 Download
16
CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN ELITE SUGARCANE CULTIVAR HSF-240
HAMID RASHID2, SABAZ ALI KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ZIA1*, M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY1, Z. HANIF3 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDARY4

CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN ELITE SUGARCANE CULTIVAR HSF-240
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to establish an efficient system for callus induction and regeneration of sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. Shoot tip with 5-10 mm size was taken as explant for callus induction on MS medium containing different concentrations of 2, 4-D. Among the different concentrations of 2, 4-D used, maximum (80-82%) calli production with 3-4 mm in size were observed on media containing 2, 4-D, for both 2 mg/l and 3 mg/l. Optimum shoots length (8 mm) was obtained on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l GA3, 0.5 mg/l Kin and maximum roots (3.6) with maximum length of (3.5 mm) was obtained at 1.0 mg/l IBA.

1645-1649 Download
17
FFECT OF CYTOKININS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN THREE ELITE SUGARCANE VARIETIES
SABAZ ALI KHAN1, HAMID RASHID2*, M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3, ZARRIN FATIMA1, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI4 AND MUHAMMAD ZIA1

FFECT OF CYTOKININS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN THREE ELITE SUGARCANE VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out for rapid micropropagation of three elite sugarcane varieties i.e., HSF-240, CP-77-400 and CPF-237. The explants were surface sterilized with 50% clorox for 30 minutes. The cultures were initiated by inoculating them on MS (Murashige & Skoog

1651-1658 Download
18
EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE ON SEED BANK AND GROWTH OF WILD PLANTS IN DHABEJI AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD UZAIR*, MOINUDDIN AHMED** AND KANWAL NAZIM*

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE ON SEED BANK AND GROWTH OF WILD PLANTS IN DHABEJI AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
An experimental trial was conducted at Dhabeji area to see the effect of chemical industry waste (organic with heavy metals) on seed bank of barren area of Dhabeji. An industrial sludge and its ash content were used in different concentrations

1659-1665 Download
19
IN VITRO REGENERATION OF GINGER USING LEAF, SHOOT TIP AND ROOT EXPLANTS
AZRA SULTANA1, LUTFUL HASSAN2*, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMAD3, A.H. SHAH3, FARHAT BATOOL4, M.A. ISLAM1, R. RAHMAN1 AND S. MOONMOON1

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF GINGER USING LEAF, SHOOT TIP AND ROOT EXPLANTS
ABSTRACT:
MS medium supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of hormone were studied to obtain a suitable protocol of plantlet regeneration of ginger from calli. Three explants of two varieties of ginger viz., Suruchi and BARI ada-1 were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Dicamba, 0.75 mg/l Dicamba and 1 mg/l 2,4 D. Assessments on callus induction were studied through five quantitative traits such as days required for callus initiation, size of callus, color of callus, nature of callus and percentage of callus induction. Suruchi showed 62.64% callus induction, 63.98% shoot induction and 68.76% root induction. Leaf explant gave best result over shoot tip and root explant. Leaf explant produced 67.07% callus, 67.77% shoot and 66.93% root. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Dicamba was the best (70.20%) for callusing, MS + 1.0 mg/l Kn + 1.0 mg/l BAP best (72.03%) for shooting and Ms + 1 mg/l IBA gave best (66.43%) result for rooting over other treatments. The highest (73.60%) callus induction was found from the leaf x Suruchi interaction. Leaf x Suruchi gave 74% shooting and 74.13% rooting. Percent callus induction was maximum (76.47%) with Suruchi x 0.5 mg/l Dicamba interaction and it was significantly different from all other values. Percent shoot induction were highest (76.33%) by the interaction of Suruchi x 1.0 mg/l Kn +1.0 mg/l BAP. Highest (76.87%) percentage of root was produced by 1 mg/l IBA x Suruchi interaction. Highest percentage of callus induction (87.60%) was obtained from leaf explants of Suruchi and 0.5 Dicamba interactions. The interaction of Suruchi x leaf x 1.0 mg/l Kn + 1.0 mg/l BAP produced highest (87.60%) percentage of shoot. Root induction was best (85.40%) from Suruchi x leaf x MS + 1 mg/l IBA interaction. The regenerated plantlets were successfully established into pot after proper hardening.

1667-1676 Download
20
POSSIBLE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT WEEDS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) CULTIVARS
NASIRA JABEEN AND MOINUDDIN AHMED

POSSIBLE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT WEEDS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was designed to determine the allelopathic effects of three different weeds viz., Onion weed (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cavase), pill-bearing spurge/Asthma plant (Euphorbia hirta Linn) and Fumitory (Fumaria indica Haussk H.N.) on the growth of maize. The weed powders toxicity and their inhibitory effects on germination and growth of maize crop were observed. It was demonstrated that different weed species responded differently to the maize. It was observed that the Asphodelus tenuifolius and Fumaria indica inhibited % germination and germination index of maize. The growth parameters of maize did not show consistent effects by these weeds. During the present study, allelopathic effects were not revealed and more experiments are suggested before making any conclusion about the allelopathic characteristic considering these weed species.

1677-1683 Download
21
REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION OF CORISPERMUM ELONGATUM IN TWO TYPICAL SANDY HABITATS
YU-HUI HE1*, HA-LIN ZHAO1, XIN-PING LIU1, XUE-YONG ZHAO1, TONG-HUI ZHANG1 AND SAM DRAKE2

REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION OF CORISPERMUM ELONGATUM IN TWO TYPICAL SANDY HABITATS
ABSTRACT:
The annual plant Corispermum elongatum is endemic to the sandy soils in the Horqin Sandy Land of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. It plays an important role in sand stabilization and vegetation restoration in the Horqin region. However, studies about the difference of reproductive allocation in C. elongatum in different sandy habitats were limited. To detect this, a test was conducted on typical fixed and mobile sand dunes in the Horqin Sandy Land. The results showed that habitat type had a significant effect on the pattern of reproductive allocation in C.elongatum. The dry weight of reproductive structure, spike number, length of spike, dry weight of vegetative structure, dry weight of reproductive structure relative to total above-ground dry weight biomass, and the number of primary branches were all larger in C. elongatum plants in fixed sand dunes than in mobile sand dunes. The resources allocated to reproduction were size-dependent and also affected by the habitats sampled. C.elongatum plants inhabiting the better fixed-dune habitat seem to allocate more resources to reproduction to increase population size, while vegetative growth appears to be relatively more important for the survival of C.elongatum in the harsh mobile-dune habitat. This information is important for a better understanding of the adaptation strategy of C.elongatum in different habitats.

1685-1694 Download
22
GENETIC VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY IN UPLAND COTTON
NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, GUL HASSAN2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT2, FARHATULLAH1, SUNDUS BATOOL1, KHADIJAH MAKHDOOM1, IMTIAZ KHAN2, IJAZ AHMAD KHAN2 AND WAQAS AHMAD3

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY IN UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
The research work comprising of genetic variability, heritability and correlation study for seed cotton yield and its components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars was carried out during 2005 at the NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Cultivars mean values manifested highly significant differences for all the traits except locules boll-1. Genetic potential of cultivars for different parameters revealed plant height (137.30 to 155.30 cm), bolls sympodia-1 (2.28 to 3.31), bolls plant-1 (14.00 to 25.95), boll weight (3.07 to 4.16 g), locules boll-1 (4.30 to 4.48) and seed cotton yield (1200 to 2450 kg ha-1). Genetic variances were found almost greater than the environmental variances for all the traits except bolls sympodia-1 and locules boll-1. High broad sense heritability (H2) and genetic gain were recorded for plant height (0.94, 9.41 cm), bolls sympodia-1 (0.81, 0.44), bolls plant-1 (0.96, 6.63), boll weight (0.96, 0.64 g) and seed cotton yield (0.98, 643.16 kg), respectively. Correlation of seed cotton yield with other different traits was found significantly positive for majority of traits i.e., plant height (r = 0.560), bolls sympodia-1 (r = 0.158), bolls plant-1 (r = 0.820) and boll weight (r = 0.476). This type of correlation is desirable by cotton breeders and little genetic gain in bolls per plant, boll weight and bolls per sympodia is a great accomplishment. Cultivars CIM-499 CIM-473, CIM-496 and CIM-506 have larger genetic potential and room for enhancement of seed cotton yield and its attributes under the prevailing environmental conditions of Peshawar, Pakistan.

1695-1705 Download
23
ECO-MORPHIC VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SOME GRASSES FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
NARGIS NAZ1, MANSOOR HAMEED1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, RASHID AHMAD2 AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD3

ECO-MORPHIC VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SOME GRASSES FROM CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salt stress on some ecologically different populations of three grasses viz., Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult, Lasiurus scindicus Henr., and Ochthochloa compressa (Forssk.) Hilu] from the Cholistan desert. The populations of all three grasses from the highly salt-affected habitats were relatively more salt tolerant. Of the three grasses, Ochthochloa compressa was the most tolerant as it was least affected due to salt stress in terms of different growth attributes measured in the present study. Cymbopogon jwarancusa was moderately salt tolerant, whereas Lasiurus scindicus was salt sensitive.

1707-1714 Download
24
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SEMI-DWARF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM, L.)
MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, M. U. DAHOT1, M. A. ARAIN, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND2, S.M. MANGRIO3, MAZHAR H. NAQVI, KHALIL A LAGHARI AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR4

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SEMI-DWARF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM, L.)
ABSTRACT:
Twenty-one drought-tolerant genotypes of wheat developed through hybridization and mutation breeding were evaluated along with four drought-tolerant check varieties viz., Chakwal-86, Margalla-99, Thori (awnless) and Sarsabz under water stress conditions. Four experiments having 4 different irrigation treatments viz., single, two, three and four were conducted at NIA, Tando Jam. Observations on morphological (plant height

1715-1728 Download
25
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ROADSIDE PLANTS (DALBERGIA SISSOO AND CANNABIS SATIVA) FOR LEAD POLLUTION MONITORING
HUMA PIRZADA1, SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, AUDIL RASHID2 AND TAHIR SHAH3

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ROADSIDE PLANTS (DALBERGIA SISSOO AND CANNABIS SATIVA) FOR LEAD POLLUTION MONITORING
ABSTRACT:
The indication provided by roadside has great significance in ecological terms particularly when environmental pollution is matter of concern. Soil and plant (Dalbergia sissoo and Cannabis sativa) samples from ten locations along Islamabad Highway were analyzed for lead (Pb) concentration (mg kg–1) using atomic absorption spectrometry. The locations were further divided into site A and site B for spatial difference of Pb concentration. The data were subjected to multivariate analysis to examine the relationship between distance and Pb concentration in plants. A strong correlation was observed for the concentration Pb in soil and plants. In addition, the highest and lowest values of Pb concentration in both the soil and plants were found at the same location. The results show that Pb concentration in soil decreases with increasing distance from roadside as the Pb concentration in site A sample of one location declined in site B samples of the same location. This indicated that road traffic may be the key source of Pb present in soil and plants of this area. Furthermore, values of Pb concentration in soil and C. sativa correlated more than D. sissoo and soil. So Cannabis sativa can be used as a good choice species to biomonitor of Pb in this area.

1729-1736 Download
26
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF DIFFERENT ROOT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA WALLICHII
IRSHAD ALI1*, RUBINA NAZ1, WAHIB NOOR KHAN1, RUKHSANA GUL1, AND M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY2

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF DIFFERENT ROOT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA WALLICHII
ABSTRACT:
Root extracts of Euphorbia wallichii obtained from n-hexane (E1), chloroform (E2), ethyl acetate (E3) and n-butanol (E4) were tested In vitro for their phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activities. All the extracts at high concentration of 1000 µg ml-1 showed 60-100% phytotoxicity and 50-100% cytotoxicity while at low concentration of 10 µg ml-1 they showed 30-80% phytotoxicity and 25-70% cytotoxicity. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi showed a trend of inhibition zone in E2 and E3 extracts was found to be the most active while E1 and E4 extracts exhibited moderate to low activity in killing the tested bacteria. No significant antifungal activity for 6 tested fungi was observed.

1737-1741 Download
27
FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTOMETRY STUDY ON EARLY STAGE OF CADMIUM STRESS IN CLOVER LEAVES
Z.L.WEI 1*, L. DONG 2 AND Z. H. TIAN 1

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTOMETRY STUDY ON EARLY STAGE OF CADMIUM STRESS IN CLOVER LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
A technique based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was developed to detect the changes of chemical composition in the cadmium-stressed clover leaves. The obtained IR spectra were further processed by de-convolution and curve fitting for quantitatively examine the chemical contents and structure changing. Within 1h of 15mg/L Cd stress, the changes of structure and content of compounds, such as proteins, lipids and cell wall pectin synthesis, was more remarkable in clover leaves. After 24 hours of Cd stress, except saccharide, all the compounds were restored to near the control level. Our experiment suggested that the FTIR technique is applicable on study of plant stress responding.

1743-1750 Download
28
AVOIDANCE OF SODIUM ACCUMULATION IN THE SHOOT CONFERS TOLERANCE TO SALT STRESS IN CULTIVATED BARLEY
HEE SUN KOOK1, TAE IL PARK2, AMANA KHATOON3, SHAFIQ REHMAN3 AND SONG JOONG YUN1*

AVOIDANCE OF SODIUM ACCUMULATION IN THE SHOOT CONFERS TOLERANCE TO SALT STRESS IN CULTIVATED BARLEY
ABSTRACT:
Growth and development of plants is adversely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in the saline soil. Although barley (Hordeum vulgare) is regarded as relatively tolerant to salt stress among the Tririceae, modern barley cultivars suffer severely at salt concentrations encountered in the field constructed in reclaimed tidelands. This study was conducted to elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms of a collection from Tunisia (Tunisia 76; T76) at the germination and early seedling stages. Gwandongpi 41 (G41) was used as a salt-susceptible control variety. Germination was examined in a culture solution containing 0

1751-1758 Download
29
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INDIGENOUS FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) GERMPLASM IN PAKISTAN ASSESSED BY RAPD MARKERS
N.Y. ZAHID1, N.A. ABBASI1*, I.A. HAFIZ1 AND Z. AHMAD2

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INDIGENOUS FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) GERMPLASM IN PAKISTAN ASSESSED BY RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is an important, well-known aromatic and medicinal herb. Fifty accessions of fennel were collected from different parts of Pakistan and evaluated for important characteristics like seed germination percentage (ger %), days to initiation of flowering, plant height, stem girth, nodal distance, umbel diameter, days to 50% maturity, days to harvesting, seed yield per row, weight of 100 seeds, Harvest index (%). Genomic DNA of the accessions was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis in order to ascertain their genetic diversity. Twenty-four out of 30 decimer primers generated 145 clear bands and 70 (48%) were polymorphic. Sixteen primers OPA-01, OPA-03, OPA-04, OPA-05, OPA-07, OPA-10, OPA-11, OPA-14, OPA-15, OPA-18, AC-11, AC-14, AC-15, AC-16, AC-18 and AC-20 gave polymorphism for different characters. About 66.6% of polymorphic primers generated the highest index to resolve genetic diversity even in small number of accessions. Seven accessions from Punjab, 3 from NWFP, one from Balochistan and one from Northern Areas of Pakistan had appeared with promising characters.

1759-1767 Download
30
COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
SAIFULLAH ABRO*, M.M. KANDHRO, S. LAGHARI, M.A. ARAIN AND Z.A. DEHO

COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A 4x4 complete diallel crosses between Sadori, CRIS-134, Sohni and CIM-448 was designed in F1 generation to estimate the general and specific combining abilities of genotypes and to determine the degree and direction of heterosis and selection of promising recombinants for future breeding programme. The experiment was conducted in RCBD in three replication at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam during 2005-06 for the traits plant height, sympodia/plant, bolls/plant and seed cotton yield/plant. The results of GCA showed that the variety Sadori proved to be best general combiner for plant height, number of bolls/ plant and seed cotton yield while the crosses Sadori x CIM-448 and Sadori x CRIS-134 exhibited higher SCA effects for boll number/plant. All the crosses showed positive magnitude of heterosis over mid and better parental means for plant height. The crosses Sadori x CIM-448 followed by CIM-448 x Sohni exhibited positively higher heterosis and heterobeltiosis for number of bolls /plant and seed cotton yield/plant.

1769-1774 Download
31
INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT ON THE PADDY YIELD IN SINDH PROVINCE
M.A. ASAD, H.R. BUGHIO, I.A. ODHANO, M.A. ARAIN AND M.S. BUGHIO

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT ON THE PADDY YIELD IN SINDH PROVINCE
ABSTRACT:
The implication of genotype-by-environment (G x E) interaction is an important consideration in plant breeding programmes. A significant G x E interaction for a quantitative trait such as yield can seriously limit efforts in selecting superior genotypes for both new crop introduction and improved cultivar development. To determine the possible effects of environments and genotypic differences for yield, 7 advanced mutants of non-aromatic rice alongwith parent variety IR6 and 2 commercial checks were tested at 8 different sites in Sindh during 2004 and 2005 rice crop-growing season. Genotypes, locations, genotype x environment interactions were highly significant (P< 0.01) indicating genetic variability between genotypes by changing environments. Stability analysis showed that mutants IR6-15/A and IR6-15/E had the mean paddy yield with regression coefficient (b) less than or close to unity (1.10 and 0.85) and the lowest deviation from regression (S­2d) (0.03 and 0.17) suggesting above average stability and adaptability over environments. IR6-15-18 produced low mean yields with the highest regression coefficient (b) and highest deviation from regression coefficient (S2d) had below average stability and is specifically adapted to favourable environments.

1775-1779 Download
32
IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION COMPETENCE OF APPLE ROOTSTOCKS M. 9 AND M. 26 ON DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
MEHWISH YASEEN, TOUQEER AHMED, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI* AND ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ

IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION COMPETENCE OF APPLE ROOTSTOCKS M. 9 AND M. 26 ON DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Competence of two apple rootstocks M. 9 and M. 26 for in vitro shoot proliferation was appraised using a miscellany of carbon sources i.e., sorbitol, sucrose, glucose and mannitol which were employed @ 0, 5

1781-1795 Download
33
EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AS INDICES OF SALT TOLERANCE IN HOT PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
KHURRAM ZIAF1*, MUHAMMAD AMJAD1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM PERVEZ1, QUMER IQBAL2, ISHTIAQ AHMAD RAJWANA3 AND MUHAMMAD AYYUB1

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AS INDICES OF SALT TOLERANCE IN HOT PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Plant growth and development is hampered by various environmental stresses including salinity. Effect of salt stress on relative water contents, membrane permeability, chlorophyll contents and carotenoids level was evaluated to assess their suitability as reliable indicator of salt tolerance in hot pepper. Cultivars Maha, Tata Puri and Hot Queen were subjected to different NaCl concentrations (2 [control], 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1). Root and shoot length, dry matter contents, relative growth rate, leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio were significantly reduced by higher salinity levels (6 and 8 dS m-1). Nonetheless, all the aforementioned attributes improved at 4 dS m-1 compared with control (2 dS m-1). In contrast, relative leaf water content (RLWC) was markedly affected with an increase in salinity stress. However, leaf chlorophyll contents and carotenoids (CAR) were significantly higher at 6 dS m-1 than the control. Salt tolerance index was high for Tata Puri followed by Hot Queen. Changes in RLWC and antioxidant activity were strongly correlated with dry matter, specific leaf area and relative growth rates. While, change in leaf area ratio, chlorophyll contents and membrane permeability was not correlated with the growth traits. In crux, RLWC and CAR contents can be used as reliable index of salt tolerance in hot pepper.

1797-1809 Download
34
EFFECT OF THIDIAZURON (TDZ) ON IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CVS. DESIREE AND CARDINAL
ZAHOOR AHMAD SAJID AND FAHEEM AFTAB*

EFFECT OF THIDIAZURON (TDZ) ON IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CVS. DESIREE AND CARDINAL
ABSTRACT:
Thidiazuron (1-phenyl-3- (1,2,3- Thiadiazol-5-yl) urea; TDZ) is one of the several substituted ureas that have been investigated recently for their cytokinin-like activity. TDZ is known to be more active than zeatin for stimulating the growth when added to a tissue culture medium at a low concentration. In this study, effect of TDZ on several In vitro growth parameters in Solanum tuberosum cvs. Desiree and Cardinal were observed. Shoot apices (1.0cm each) from both the cultivars were separately inoculated on full strength MS basal media as well as on MS full strength supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (10-10

1811-1815 Download
35
COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GRAIN YIELD TRAITS IN MAIZE AT TWO TEMPERATURE REGIMES
MUHAMMAD AKBAR1*, MUHAMMAD SALEEM2, M. YASIN ASHRAF3*, AMER HUSAIN4, F.M. AZHAR2 AND RASHID AHMAD5

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GRAIN YIELD TRAITS IN MAIZE AT TWO TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
The F1 generation obtained from a 6×6 diallel cross was evaluated for combining ability effects at normal and high temperature regimes for various physiological and grain yield parameters. The mean squares due to genotypes, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant for all the traits at both temperature regimes while GCA effects were non–significant for stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at high temperature. The GCA: SCA variance ratio exhibited that all traits were controlled by the non-additive genes except for growing degree-days to 50% maturity that was predominantly under the control of additive genes at both temperature regimes. The inbred line 935006 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for grain yield plant-1 with lesser growing degree days to 50% silking growing degree days to 50% physiological maturity and higher turgor potential at normal and high temperature regimes. The best single cross hybrid was 935006 × R2304-2 and its reciprocal followed by F165-2-4 × R2304-2 and F165-2-4 × 935006 for good specific combining ability, reciprocal effects, better grain yield plant-1 and some other desirable traits.

1817-1829 Download
36
EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO TWO DIFFERENT CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS ON GROWTH AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EDIBLE BEANS (VIGNA RADIATA AND VIGNA UNGUICULATA)
NEELOFER HAMID, FAIZA JAWAID AND DEENAZ AMIN

EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO TWO DIFFERENT CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS ON GROWTH AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EDIBLE BEANS (VIGNA RADIATA AND VIGNA UNGUICULATA)
ABSTRACT:
Two weeks old seedling of Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata were exposed to 2% and 3% CO2 for 5 and 10 minutes in controlled environment chamber thrice a week for 4 weeks. The treatment had definite positive effect on Specific leaf area, total carbohydrate and total chlorophyll content promoted to increasing concentrations and duration of carbon dioxide exposure.

1831-1836 Download
37
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SODIUM ION ACCUMULATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. SPP. INDICA) SEEDLINGS GROWN UNDER ISO-OSMOTIC SALINITY STRESS
KONGAKE SIRINGAM1, NIRAN JUNTAWONG1, SURIYAN CHA-UM2* AND CHALERMPOL KIRDMANEE2

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SODIUM ION ACCUMULATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. SPP. INDICA) SEEDLINGS GROWN UNDER ISO-OSMOTIC SALINITY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this research was to elucidate the role of sodium ion (Na+) on photosynthetic machinery and growth characteristics in both salt-tolerant (HJ) and salt-sensitive (PT1) rice varieties grown under iso-osmotic salinity stress. The Na+ and Na+/K+ in HJ and PT1 rice seedlings were increased with increasing salt concentrations in the culture media. K+ in salt-stressed HJ seedlings was increased but that in salt-stressed PT1 seedlings was unchanged. The Na+ accumulation in salt-stressed seedlings was negatively related to the water potential in HJ (r2 = 0.78) and PT1 (r2 = 0.72), leading to pigment degradation i.e. chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total carotenoids (Cx+c). The water potential in both HJ and PT1 salt-stressed seedlings was positively related to the Chla concentration (r2 = 0.78 and r2 = 0.58). Furthermore, Chla and total chlorophyll (TC) concentrations in HJ and PT1 salt-stressed seedlings were positively related to water oxidation in PSII (PSII) as maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) (r2 = 0.73 and r2 = 0.68) and quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) (r2 = 0.92 and r2 = 0.91), respectively. The ΦPSII in HJ and PT1 salt-stressed seedlings was positively related to the dry matter (r2 = 0.86 and r2 = 0.67). The K+ accumulation in HJ salt-stressed seedlings may play a major role in salt defense mechanisms, leading to enhance on photosynthesis capacity, water oxidation in photosystem II (PSII) and growth abilities.

1837-1850 Download
38
WATER RETENTION RATIOS OF MULCHING MATERIAL CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF PINE BARK OVER DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES
ZEKI DEMİR*, OKTAY YILDIZ AND BÜLENT TOPRAK

WATER RETENTION RATIOS OF MULCHING MATERIAL CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF PINE BARK OVER DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES
ABSTRACT:
Study was carried out in the Turkish province of Düzce to compare the water absorption ratios of a mulching material, formed using different mixtures of tree bark materials. Soils compounded from clay, turf and sandy materials were laid in 1m by 1m experimental plots within a thickness of 10 cm, and then, soil surfaces in each plot was blanketed with a mulching material containing Corsican pine bark (Pinus nigra Arnold) in 5 cm and 8 cm. thickness settings: Furthermore, application was repeated with and without the possibility of a plant species presence. Experimental plots were watered every three days; 15 liters per plot using a colander. After 12

1851-1859 Download
39
GROWTH ANALYSIS OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA (L.) SCHRAD) IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER IN SUMMER CROPPING
MASOUME SALEHI1, MOHAMMAD KAFI1* AND ALIREZA KIANI2

GROWTH ANALYSIS OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA (L.) SCHRAD) IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER IN SUMMER CROPPING
ABSTRACT:
Kochia species has recently attracted the attention of researchers as a forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide. Kochia is drought and salt tolerant and native to Iran. This plant has a potential to grow in saline soils and it can be irrigated with brackish water. To evaluate how salinity stress affects growth parameters, an experiment was conducted wherein plants of Kochia scoparia were exposed to six levels of saline waters (1.5, 7

1861-1870 Download
40
EFFECT OF NICKEL ON SEED GERMINABILITY OF SOME ELITE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS
MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, RASHID AHMAD2 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF3

EFFECT OF NICKEL ON SEED GERMINABILITY OF SOME ELITE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of 5 sunflower cultivars viz., Nstt-160, Mehran-II, Hyssun-33, M-3260 and SF-187 were exposed to a range of nickel levels (0

1871-1882 Download
41
GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR SEED YIELD IN KABULI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES DEVELOPED THROUGH MUTATION BREEDING
BABAR MANZOOR ATTA*, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH, GHULAM ABBAS AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ

GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR SEED YIELD IN KABULI CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES DEVELOPED THROUGH MUTATION BREEDING
ABSTRACT:
Elite lines of kabuli chickpea developed through mutation breeding at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad were evaluated for stability of grain yield at four diverse locations in the Punjab province during 2003-04

1883-1890 Download
42
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS ON PLANT GROWTH, SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS AND YIELD IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) CULTIVARS IN HIGH ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION
MELEK EKINCI AND ATILLA DURSUN*

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS ON PLANT GROWTH, SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS AND YIELD IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) CULTIVARS IN HIGH ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to determine the effects of different mulch materials on plant growth, some quality properties and yield in melon cultivars in high altitude environmental condition. Clear mulch application affected more plant growth than the other applications. Fruit width, fruit length, dry matter in fruit, total soluble solid, color, husk thickness, fruit fresh thickness, fruit firmness, pH, total and reducing sugar of the cultivars were investigated. The effects of mulch application in terms of the characters were significant depending on the cultivars. Average fruit weight of the cultivars was significantly high in mulch application, especially clear mulch application when compared to control. Marketable yield in melon cultivars was different based on the years. The highest marketable yield was obtained from clear mulch application as compared to control. Average marketable yield in the study years increased by 25-28% in clear plastic mulch and 15% in black plastic mulch compared to the control application. Soil temperature in clear and black mulch applications were higher (5-8oC and 1-4oC respectively) than that of control application.

1891-1901 Download
43
LIMNOLOGICAL STUDY OF BAGHSAR LAKE DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR
M.Y. KHUHAWAR1, M. ASLAM MIRZA1, S. M. LEGHARI2* AND RAFEE ARAIN 1

LIMNOLOGICAL STUDY OF BAGHSAR LAKE DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
This paper is based on the limnological study of Baghsar Lake. The perennial Baghsar Lake located in Baghsar village, Subdivision Samahni, District Bhimber in Azad Kashmir is of mesotrophic to eutrophic nature. The water of the lake indicated average conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) at 499 µS/cm and 319.16 mg/L respectively with pH 7.1. A total of 122 algal species were recorded with 35 of Volvocophyta; 23 Chlorophyta; 38 Cyanophyta; 14 Euglenophyta; 11 Bacillarophyta and one Glenodinium pluvisculus belonging to Pyrrhophyta. Among aquatic plants Lemna minor, Salvinia molesta are freely floating and Nelumbo nucifera attached floating; Typha domingensis and Phragmites vallatoria emergent; Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Myriophyllum indicum, Potamogeton crispus, P. natans and P. pectinatus submerged. The fishes Barbus sarana, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala (mori), Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Puntius ticto have also been identified from the catch.

1903-1915 Download
44
OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS BACHELOTIA (ECTOCARPALES, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
K. AISHA AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

OCCURRENCE OF THE GENUS BACHELOTIA (ECTOCARPALES, PHAEOPHYCOTA) IN THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A rarely occurring brown alga, Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff [=Ectocarpus antillarum Grunow] was collected from the coastal areas near Karachi, Pakistan and taxonomically investigated. This is the first report of occurrence of the genus Bachelotia (Bornet) Kuckuck ex G. Hamel from northern Arabian Sea, It is suggested to place it in the family Pilayellaceae Pedersen, as its thallus becomes parenchymatous due to the formation of a few longitudinal divisions and as its sporangia arise by a simple transformation of vegetative cells.

1917-1920 Download
45
ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON COLPOMENIA SINUOSA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM KARACHI COAST OF PAKISTAN
ALIA ABBAS1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON COLPOMENIA SINUOSA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM KARACHI COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A commonly growing brown alga, Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès et Solier in Castagne [= Ulva sinuosa Mertens ex Roth] was collected during November 2006 and April 2009 from intertidal rocks at the coasts of Manora and Buleji, near Karachi. The globular thalli were investigated for their morphology, anatomy and reproduction. Peripheral cells were described in detail, bunches of oil globules were observed in upper few layers of the cortex and there was a complete absence of any intercellular space and in all types of cells.

1921-1926 Download
46
SEAWEED AS A NEW SOURCE OF FLAVONE, SCUTELLAREIN 4'-METHYL ETHER
H. SABINA AND R. ALIYA*

SEAWEED AS A NEW SOURCE OF FLAVONE, SCUTELLAREIN 4'-METHYL ETHER
ABSTRACT:
Phycochemical investigation of a red alga Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse, collected from Karachi Coast of Pakistan, led to the isolation of a flavone, which was assigned as Scutellarein 4'-methyl ether. It was obtained from BuOH fraction of the alga and chemically elucidated by spectroscopic methods and 2D-NMR techniques. In the present study, occurrence of this compound is being reported for the first time as a metabolite in marine algae.

1927-1930 Download
47
VIRUS INDEXATION OF IN VITRO REGENERATED SUGARCANE PLANTS
SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, FAYYAZ AHMAD SIDDIQUI2, AAMIR ALI3 AND JAVED IQBAL4

VIRUS INDEXATION OF IN VITRO REGENERATED SUGARCANE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The present study reports the SCMV indexation of In vitro regenerated plants by infectivity assay, serology test and by transmission electron microscopy. The plants were developed by apical meristem, organogenesis and embryogenesis methods. For infectivity test sap of In vitro regenerated plants was inoculated on different cultivars of Sorghum. Out of 166 plants only 44 were SCMV+tive. These plants were further analyzed by using precipitin test. These plants also showed negative result for virus. A total of 17 randomly selected plants i.e.

1931-1939 Download
48
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF VITEX NEGUNDO LINN.
SHAUKAT MAHMUD1, HUMA SHAREEF3, UMBREEN FARRUKH2, ARFA KAMIL1 AND GHAZALA H. RIZWANI4

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF VITEX NEGUNDO LINN.
ABSTRACT:
In vitro antifungal activity of fruits of Vitexs negundo Linn., was examined against 5 common fungal strains, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis and Fusarium solani. Ethanol extract of fruit seeds showed significant activity against Fusarium solani and moderate response against Microsporum canis with no effect on Candida albicans.

1941-1943 Download
49
SCREENING OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) INDUCED MUTANTS AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH1*, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA1, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

SCREENING OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) INDUCED MUTANTS AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
ABSTRACT:
Two hundred and forty nine chickpea mutants in M4 generation developed through gamma irradiation and Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) were screened along with their respective parents and susceptible check Aug-424 for resistance to Fusarium wilt in natural wilt sick plot during 2003-2004 seasons. All the 4 parent genotypes showed highly susceptible reaction to Fusarium wilt. Out of a total of 249 morphological mutants of 4 genotypes, 75 mutants exhibited highly resistant reaction (less than 10 %) followed by 31 mutants resistant (11 to 20%), 34 mutants moderately resistant / tolerant (21 to 30%), 35 mutants susceptible (31 to 50%) and 75 mutants were highly susceptible (50 to 100%). The mutagenic treatments proved to be effective in producing morphological mutations along with improved tolerance to Fusarium wilt. These mutants with resistant to tolerant reaction for Fusarium wilt could be used in hybridization program for transferring of resistance genes into high yielding elite cultivars/ producing better recombinants.

1945-1955 Download
50
VIRULENCE ANALYSIS OF PUCCINIA TRITICINIA CAUSE OF LEAF RUST OF WHEAT
A. R. RATTU1, I. AHMAD1, M. FAYYAZ1, M. A. AKHTAR1, IRFAN-UL-HAQUE2*, M. ZAKRIA1 AND SYED NADEEM AFZAL2

VIRULENCE ANALYSIS OF PUCCINIA TRITICINIA CAUSE OF LEAF RUST OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Virulence analysis of wheat provides breeders early information about the behavior of their material. Survey of wheat leaf rust using seedling differentials are very useful in describing virulence variation, geographical distribution of virulence pathotypes, and how leaf rust phenotypes change in response to host selection. Wheat leaf rust samples collected from the different wheat growing areas of Pakistan and single spore culture was multiplied for virulence analysis. Very high virulence frequencies (75-100%) showed by the resistance genes Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2b, Lr2c, Lr3, Lr3ka, Lr3bg, Lr10, Lr11, Lr14a, Lr14b, Lr15, Lr17, Lr18, Lr21, Lr23, Lr25, Lr26, Lr30, Lr32, Lr33, Lr35, Lr37 and LrB. Resistance genes Lr9, Lr19, Lr28 and Lr34 demonstrated their effectiveness of pathogen population of Puccinia triticina. Lr13, Lr16, Lr24 and Lr29 falls in 51-75% virulence frequencies range. Lr36 and Lr23+ showed the virulence in the range 26-50%. Virulence frequencies at different locations in the country and utilization of this data for wheat improvement is discussed

1957-1964 Download
51
ROLE OF TEMPERATURE, MOISTURE AND TRICHODERMA SPECIES ON THE SURVIVAL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM CICERI IN THE RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
M. INAM-UL-HAQ1, N. JAVED1, M. AHSAN KHAN5, M.J. JASKANI 2, M.M. KHAN2, H.U. KHAN 3,G. IRSHAD4 AND S.R. GOWEN1

ROLE OF TEMPERATURE, MOISTURE AND TRICHODERMA SPECIES ON THE SURVIVAL OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM CICERI IN THE RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
It has been observed in the present study that when spores of Trichoderma harzianum (Th-2) isolate were applied in the sandy clay loam soil and continuously incubated for 4 months at 25oC and 35oC and at three water potentials, -0.03 MPa, -0.3 MPa and <-50 MPa, it has resulted in significantly reduced (P<0.05), growth of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri (Foc) on branches of chickpea plant. The pathogen population was greatly reduced in the moist soil (-0.3 MPa) when compared with the wet soil (-0.03 MPa) at both temperatures which was indicated by greater colonization and growth of T. harzianum-2 on the branch pieces of chickpea plants. The pathogen was completely eradicated from the chickpea branch pieces, after 6 months at 35oC in the moist soil. In air-dry soil (<-50 MPa), Foc survived in 100% of the branch pieces even after 6 months at both temperatures. When chickpea plant branch pieces having pathogen was sprayed with T.h-2 antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp., the T.h-2 isolate killed the pathogen up to minimum level (10-12%) after 5 months at 35oC in the sandy clay loam soil. It can be concluded that in chickpea growing rainfed areas of Pakistan having sandy clay loam soil, Foc can be controlled by using specific Trichoderma spp., especially in the summer season as after harvest of the crop the temperature increased up and there is rainfall during this period which makes the soil moist. This practice will be able to reduce the inoculum of Foc during this hot period as field remain fallow till next crop is sown in most of the chickpea growing rainfed areas of Pakistan.

1965-1974 Download
52
SOME STUDIES ON VERTICAL PROFILE OF AIR BORNE MYCOFLORA OF LAHORE
ASAD SHABBIR1*, FATIMA AHMED1 AND MOHAMMAD OSMAN YOUSAF2

SOME STUDIES ON VERTICAL PROFILE OF AIR BORNE MYCOFLORA OF LAHORE
ABSTRACT:
A survey of vertical profile of air-borne fungal spore concentration of district Lahore was carried out from October 2006 to September 2007. A site close to academic block of University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam campus was selected for study. The concentration of atmospheric fungal spores was studied by using 9 cm diameter Petri dishes containing MEA and PDA media exposed to different levels of heights viz.; 0

1975-1980 Download
53
NALYSIS OF PESTICIDES RESIDUES OF RAWAL AND SIMLY LAKES
SHAZIA IRAM, IFTIKHAR AHMAD*, KARAM AHAD*, ASHIQ MUHAMMAD* AND SOBIA ANJUM

NALYSIS OF PESTICIDES RESIDUES OF RAWAL AND SIMLY LAKES
ABSTRACT:
Water samples were collected from the locations of Rawal and Simly lakes. Analysis of pesticide residues in water samples was done GC/ECD through Turbochrome hardware/software system. From the collected samples

1981-1987 Download
54
IN VITRO SCREENING OF SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT LINES AGAINST BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA IN PAKISTAN
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ABDUL MUJEEB KAZI* AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD**

IN VITRO SCREENING OF SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT LINES AGAINST BIPOLARIS SOROKINIANA IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf blight caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus) is a world wide economically important foliar disease of wheat. Leaf blight or Spot blotch mainly occurs in warm, humid wheat growing areas. In Pakistan Helminthosporium leaf spots (spot blotch) has been noted in different agro-ecological wheat production zones especially where winter temperatures are warmer. Bipolaris sorokiniana was identified as predominant pathogen of leaf spot in wheat growing areas of Pakistan during 2003 - 2006. Out of 87 isolates collected from different agro-ecological zones of wheat producing areas, the most aggressive isolate P2 -9 was used to screen the synthetic hexaploid elite I, elite II from Aegilops tauschii (2n=2x=14, 44) accessions and durum parents (Triticum turgidum) (2n=4x=28, AABB) by In vitro technique. Out of 93 accessions of Elite I, none of them was found resistant or moderately resistant in foliar symptoms. Nine out of 32 accessions of synthetic hexaploid (Elite II) and 3 accessions of total 51 durum parents were found moderate resistant to B. sorokiniana in two years of In vitro study. Total 16 lines of synthetic hexaploid elite 11 and 12 lines of Durum parents having moderately resistance and moderately susceptibility may further be exploited in breeding program.

1989-2001 Download
55
EPIDEMIC OUTBREAKS OF STRIPE RUST CAUSED BY PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS ON NATURAL POPULATION OF LOLIUM PERENNE IN TURKEY
H. KAVAK*

EPIDEMIC OUTBREAKS OF STRIPE RUST CAUSED BY PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS ON NATURAL POPULATION OF LOLIUM PERENNE IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis was found for the first time on Lolium perenne L., in Turkey. Based on surveys conducted during two years, an epidemic level of the infection was observed. Disease rate and severity were measured in 20 local areas in the Malatya region within eastern Anatolia district of Turkey. Disease rates on flag

2003-2008 Download
56
THE ETHNOBOTANY OF CHITRAL VALLEY, PAKISTAN WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS
HAIDAR ALI1 AND M. QAISER2

THE ETHNOBOTANY OF CHITRAL VALLEY, PAKISTAN WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information regarding the various indigenous uses, especially the medicinal plants in Chitral valley. A total of 83 taxa are reported as being used locally for various purposes. Our results suggest that root is the major plant part used in most of the recipes. Majority of the recipes are prepared in the form of decoction from freshly collected plant parts. Mostly a single species is used and are mainly taken orally. All of these plants are collected from the wild, 7 of which are reported as scarce locally. Unsustainable collection methods, poor post harvest methods, soil erosion and intense deforestation are the main causes of the depletion of local flora. As the Chitrali people still partly depend on medicinal plants for majority of their ailments, therefore loss of these plant resources will, to a certain extent, hamper the existing healthcare system in the area. Measures for the conservation of plant resources especially medicinal plants of Chitral valley are urgently needed.

2009-2041 Download
57
OPTIMIZED SELECTION AND REGENERATION CONDITIONS FOR AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF CHICKPEA COTYLEDONARY NODES
M.T. ÖZ, F. EYİDOĞAN1, M. YÜCEL AND H.A. ÖKTEM*

OPTIMIZED SELECTION AND REGENERATION CONDITIONS FOR AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF CHICKPEA COTYLEDONARY NODES
ABSTRACT:
An efficient selection system and Agrobacterium mediated transformation for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cotyledonary nodes were investigated. Effect of selective agents and antibiotics on multiple shoot and root induction of cotyledonary nodes and effects of mechanical injury and vacuum infiltration on transformation efficiency were evaluated. Selective agents and antibiotics were applied to explants at different concentrations for one month and numbers of regenerated shoots and roots were recorded. Kanamycin at 100 mg dm-3, hygromycin at 20 mg dm-3, phosphinotricin at 3 mg dm-3 and glyphosate at 5 mg dm-3 were found to be appropriate to select chickpea transformants. Lowest concentrations of all selective agents (50 mg dm-3 kanamycin

2043-2054 Download
58
SPLIT ROLE OF PLASMID GENES IN THE DEGRADATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS BY INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA MAS-1
MUNAZZA AJAZ1, NUSRAT JABEEN2, TASNEEM ADAM ALI2 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL2*

SPLIT ROLE OF PLASMID GENES IN THE DEGRADATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS BY INDIGENOUSLY ISOLATED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA MAS-1
ABSTRACT:
A chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 was isolated from the cotton grown soil of NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Genetic studies based on plasmid curing and electroporation mediated transformation were performed on this bacterium. The bacterium lost the property to grow on the nutrient agar containing 10mg/mL chlorpyrifos after acridine orange mediated curing. The plasmid (bearing chlorpyrifos degrading determinants / genes) was isolated and transferred into E. coli DH5a. The transformants however, could not resist and grow in the chlorpyrifos containing medium. It may be concluded that chlorpyrifos degradation Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is accomplished by the combined action of plasmid and chromosomal genes.

2055-2060 Download
59
A NOVEL DNA SEQUENCE OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS d-ENDOTOXIN RECEPTOR IN HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA
KAUSAR MALIK AND SHEIKH RIAZUDDIN

A NOVEL DNA SEQUENCE OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS d-ENDOTOXIN RECEPTOR IN HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA
ABSTRACT:
The pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins are effective in controlling agriculturally and biomedically harmful insects. However, the mechanism of Bt protein pesticidal action is not well understood. It is assumed that the pesticidal protein has affinity for specific receptors in the midgut of the susceptible larvae and binds irreversibly to create holes in the gut leading to eventual death of the target larvae. The study is endeavored to characterization of Bt delta endotoxin receptor in agronomically important pest, American bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Presence of a novel Protein is reported in the extract of the larval midgut membrane of Helicoverpa armigera as putative receptor for Bt Cry1A delta-endotoxins. The gene sequence has novelty because it has no significant homology to already existing sequences of Bt receptor.

2061-2065 Download
60
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS
SEVDA KIRBAĞ1*, FIKRIYE ZENGIN2, MURAT KURSAT1

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv., Centaurium erythraea Rafn subsp. turcicum (Velen.) Melderis, Prunella vulgaris L., Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl., Chrysophthalmum montanum (DC) Boiss. and Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., were investigated. The antimicrobial activity were evaluated according to the disk diffusion method by using Bacillus megaterium DMS 32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DMS 50071 SCOTTA, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Staphylococcus aureus COWAN 1 FMC 16, Candida albicans FMC 17, Candida glabrata ATCC 66032 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. In the end of experimental studies, the extracts of six plants used in this study were inhibited the growth of microorganisms used in the test at different ration. The results indicated that Chryosphtalum montanum had the greatest antimicrobal activity.

2067-2070 Download
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