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Year 2009 , Volume  41, Issue 5
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
MULTIPORATE POLLEN AND APOMIXIS IN PANICOIDEAE
MA GUOHUA1

MULTIPORATE POLLEN AND APOMIXIS IN PANICOIDEAE
ABSTRACT:
2*, HUANG XUELIN2, XU QIUSHENG1AND ERIC BUNN3

2073-2082 Download
2
MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merr., (PAPILIONACEAE)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND SHAUKAT ALI KHAN

MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merr., (PAPILIONACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination and viability of Glycine max L., (family Papilionaceae) was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions. Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different conditions in a refrigerator (4ºC), freezer (-20ºC, -30ºC), freeze drier (-60ºC), in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at 4ºC and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60ºC) showed the highest germination percentage.

2083-2086 Download
3
A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW COMBINATION OF PRENANTHES L., (LACTUCEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ROOHI BANO AND M. QAISER*

A NEW SPECIES AND A NEW COMBINATION OF PRENANTHES L., (LACTUCEAE-ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Prenanthes stewartii Roohi Bano & Qaiser, a new species from Kashmir is described and illustrated. A new combination viz., Prenanthes aitchisoniana (Beauv.) Roohi Bano & Qaiser, is proposed. Key to all the species found in Pakistan and Kashmir, belonging to the genus Prenanthes L., is also given.

2087-2091 Download
4
THREE NEW ALCHEMILLA L. (ROSACEAE) RECORDS FROM TURKEY
SEMA HAYIRLIOGLU-AYAZ* AND HUSEYIN INCEER

THREE NEW ALCHEMILLA L. (ROSACEAE) RECORDS FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Alchemilla L., is a critical and taxonomically difficult group with its numerous and variable forms presents an interesting object for taxonomical studies which have been undertaken since the end of the previous century. Three Alchemilla L. (Rosaceae) species (Alchemilla fissa Günther & Schummel, Alchemilla haraldi Juz. and Alchemilla pseudomollis Juz.) from north-east Anatolia are described as new records for Turkey.

2093-2096 Download
5
A NEW VARIETY OF SOLANUM SURATTENSE BURM. FROM PAKISTAN
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1, MIR AJAB KHAN2 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

A NEW VARIETY OF SOLANUM SURATTENSE BURM. FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Solanum surattense is phenotypically highly polymorphic species. This polymorphism adds difficulty to identification of lower order taxa of this species. The present study was carried out to find morphological, biochemical and molecular markers for the proper identification of various lower taxa of Solanum surattense. Herbarium and fresh samples were subjected to morphological, biochemical and molecular studies. The present investigation suggested a new variety of Solanum surattense. The distinguishing morphological markers of S. surattense var. awanicum are white colour of flower, 4-5 stamens, green colour anthers and stellate hairs on style and ovary. The variety showed marked biochemical and molecular difference from the type species. A new variety of Solanum surattense has been proposed as Solanum surattense var. awanicum Zubaida Yousaf & Mir Ajab Khan.

2097-2103 Download
6
PRIORITIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MARGALA HILLS NATIONAL PARK, ISLAMABAD ON THE BASIS OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD*1, FAKHRA MAHMOOD1, ZAHOOR-UL-HASSAN DOGAR2, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN3, KAFEEL AHMAD3, MUHAMMAD SHER4,

PRIORITIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MARGALA HILLS NATIONAL PARK, ISLAMABAD ON THE BASIS OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
IRFAN MUSTAFA3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5

2105-2114 Download
7
FLORISTIC COMPOSITIONS ALONG AN 18 – KM LONG TRANSECT IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, PAKISTAN
SHEHZADI SAIMA1, ALTAF A. DASTI1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2, SULTAN MEHMOOD WAZIR3 AND SAEED A. MALIK1

FLORISTIC COMPOSITIONS ALONG AN 18 – KM LONG TRANSECT IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The floristic variation in Himalayan moist temperate coniferous forests in Pakistan is poorly understood. Wet temperate forests of Pakistan are interesting because at suitable elevations it merge downward with the tropical thorn forests and upward with the alpine meadows. The very situation of these forests thus make making them a sort of enclave in which the diversity of natural sites has allowed a number of relict species to persist. We recorded the vegetation pattern along a continuous 18 Km long transect that crossed a mixed coniferous forest. Vegetation data was analyzed by multivariate statistics including cluster analysis, Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient to detect relationship between environmental factors and species distribution. Soils were physically and chemically analyzed. Soil texture, pH and tree density were the major determinant of vegetation pattern in these forests. Plant diversities and assemblage with respect to environmental features in these broad forest categories were discussed.

2115-2127 Download
8
RESPONSE OF PLANT PARTS AND AGE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES ON PLANTS FOUND IN QUETTA
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI1*, PALWASHA ACHAKZAI2, AYEESHA MASOOD1, SAFDAR ALI KAYANI1 AND RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN1

RESPONSE OF PLANT PARTS AND AGE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES ON PLANTS FOUND IN QUETTA
ABSTRACT:
Eight plant species belonging to 7 different families were collected from Botanical Garden, University of Balochistan, Quetta. Their leaves and stem was separately oven dried, powdered and analyzed for the arbitrary level of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and total phenolic contents in their young and old plant parts of leaves and stem. Results showed that leaves and stem of all plant species contained alkaloids. Their level in leaves was comparatively greater over the stem of the same plant species. Generally young plant parts contained greater level of alkaloids as compared to old parts. Results also showed that most of the plants are either lacking saponin, or if present are in a least quantity. However, it was noted that the level of saponin were comparatively found greater in stem over their respective leaves. Aged plant parts usually contained greater level of saponins. Results further revealed that except of Tamarex aphylla, all other remaining plant species are generally lacking tannins. The quantitative analysis of total phenolic contents also revealed that old leaves contained high level of phenolic contents as compared to old stem, while young leaves and stem showed mix trend towards the total phenolic contents. Minimum quantity of total phenolic contents (120 µg/g) was found in young leaves of Nerium oleander, while young leaves and stem of Rhododendron sp., contained maximum phenolic contents (340 µg/g) among all test plants. Whereas, all other remaining plant species produced 123-308 µg/g phenolic contents. These secondary metabolites (chemical defenses) are likely to have come about as a consequence of natural selection, as only that can protect themselves from predators are likely to survive to breed. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested material to obtain increased concentration of these secondary metabolites. This then could be used as a natural source of pesticides.

2129-2135 Download
9
S.E.M. STRUCTURE DISTRIBUTION AND TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FOLIAR STOMATA IN SIBBALDIA L. SPECIES (ROSACEAE)
SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT

S.E.M. STRUCTURE DISTRIBUTION AND TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF FOLIAR STOMATA IN SIBBALDIA L. SPECIES (ROSACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The S.E.M. structure, distribution and taxonomic significance of foliar stomata in the species of the genus Sibbaldia L. (Rosaceae) has been examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. Stomata are mostly anomocytic type, usually present on both surface of the leaves. Differences in shape, size, distribution and the orientation of stomata have been observed. Except in 2 species, subsiding cells are mostly covered with non-oriental wax. Both elevated and sunken stomata with elongated to circular stomatal apparatus are found.

2137-2143 Download
10
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND PLANT SPACING ON GROWTH AND DRY MATTER PARTITIONING IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
HAKOOMAT ALI**, M. NAVEED AFZAL* AND DILBAUGH MUHAMMAD*

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND PLANT SPACING ON GROWTH AND DRY MATTER PARTITIONING IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Among agronomic factors, sowing time and plant spacing are considered key management components in any cropping system to harvest a profitable seed cotton yield. Thus, the present studies were conducted to determine the effects of sowing date and plant spacing on growth and yield of cotton under an arid sub-tropical continental climate during 2004-05. Result indicated better yield responses and reproductive vegetative ratio (RVR) in early sown cotton at high plant density. For crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rate (RGR), different plant responses were observed. Early sowing showed the highest CGR50 and RGR50 while at late sowings, CGR100 or CGR150 was highest. Correlation analysis and Path analysis were carried out to understand the effect of different plant traits on seed cotton yield under optimum plant spacing (15cm) and sowing dates (10-May). Both conditions indicated highest association of seed cotton yield with number of bolls per plant and reproductive/vegetative ratio. On the other hand boll weight showed negative association with seed cotton yield. However, path analysis showed the highest direct effect of reproductive/vegetative ratio on seed cotton yield under early sowing dates (10-May). Furthermore, highest correlation of boll number with seed cotton yield was also due to indirect effects through RVR. On the other hand, reproductive dry matter showed highest direct effect on seed cotton yield under high plant density (15cm).

2145-2155 Download
11
MODULATION IN GROWTH, SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES AND FIBRE QUALITY IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) DUE TO FREGO BRACT MUTATION
SAMINA MALIK1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1 AND TANWIR AHMAD MALIK2

MODULATION IN GROWTH, SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES AND FIBRE QUALITY IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) DUE TO FREGO BRACT MUTATION
ABSTRACT:
Frego bract is a mutant type of floral bract in upland cotton. It is an important insect resistant trait; however, some reports in the literature show that frego bract gene has some negative effects on growth and fibre quality of cotton. In order to assess the role of frego bract trait on growth and photosynthesis, a pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions to compare frego bract and normal bract recombinant cotton lines. The characteristics examined were: gas exchange, number of days from flower to boll opening and the traits related to fibre yield and fibre quality. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was also conducted. The results revealed that the frego bract and normal bract lines had different genetic combinations. Bract type had a significant positive correlation with fibre strength. Frego bract gene had no negative effect on net photosynthesis, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, number of days from flower to boll opening, plant height, ginning out-turn and fibre quality. This shows that the frego bract gene segregates independently of the traits of agronomic importance, so this trait may easily be incorporated into commercial cotton varieties by simple breeding techniques.

2157-2166 Download
12
GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF Bar GENE AND ITS INHERITANCE AND SEGREGATION BEHAVIOR IN THE RESULTANT TRANSGENIC COTTON GERMPLASM (BR001)
M.K. DAUD1

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF Bar GENE AND ITS INHERITANCE AND SEGREGATION BEHAVIOR IN THE RESULTANT TRANSGENIC COTTON GERMPLASM (BR001)
ABSTRACT:
2, M.T. VARIATH1, SHAFAQAT ALI1, MUHAMMAD JAMIL2, MUHAMMAD TARIQ KHAN4, MOHAMMAD SHAFI1, 3 AND ZHU SHUIJIN 1*

2167-2178 Download
13
EFFECT OF ROW SPACING ON EARLINESS AND YIELD IN COTTON
M. FARRUKH SALEEM,1*, SHAKEEL A. ANJUM1, AMIR SHAKEEL2, M. YASIN ASHRAF3 AND HAROON Z. KHAN1

EFFECT OF ROW SPACING ON EARLINESS AND YIELD IN COTTON
ABSTRACT:
To determine the effect of row spacing on earliness in cotton, 3 cultivars viz., NIAB-111, CIM-496 and FH-901 were grown with three row spacings of 60, 75 and 90 cm following a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. Cultivars as well as row spacing significantly affected almost all the characters related to earliness. Among the cultivars, NIAB-111 took minimum days for squaring, appearance of first flower, first boll splition and for boll maturation and recorded the lowest node to the first fruiting branch. Among row spacings, 60 cm apart rows took minimum days for the characters related to earliness. Earliness index was highest (50.9 %) with 60 cm row spacing, production rate index was highest (55.9 g/day) with 90 cm row spacing and seed cotton yield was highest (2603 kg ha-1) with 75 cm row spacing. So, earliness in cotton can be achieved by growing a short duration cultivar and by decreasing the row spacing to a certain limit.

2179-2188 Download
14
IMPACT OF ZINC FERTILIZATION ON GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF COTTON CROP UNDER ARID ENVIRONMENT
NIAZ AHMED1*, FIAZ AHMAD2, MUHAMMAD ABID1 AND MUHAMMAD AMAN ULLAH3

IMPACT OF ZINC FERTILIZATION ON GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF COTTON CROP UNDER ARID ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Gas exchange characteristics play an important role in the growth and development of cotton plants .Therefore, field experiments were conducted for consecutive two years during 2004 and 2005 to study the effects of Zn fertilization @ 0 (control), 5.0, 7.5

2189-2197 Download
15
ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SODIUM ANTAGONISTIC ESSENTIAL MINERALS ON COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
R. JABEEN1 AND R. AHMAD2

ALLEVIATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SODIUM ANTAGONISTIC ESSENTIAL MINERALS ON COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were carried out in drum pot culture to investigate the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv. “CIM 496” grown at high salinity supplemented with foliar application of KCl (500 ppm= 500 mg/L) and NH4NO3 (500 ppm= 500 mg/L) alone and in mixture. Soil salinity was maintained through irrigation water of sea salt concentrations i.e., 0.4% (EC: 6.2 dS/m) and 0.8% (EC: 10.8 dS/m). Plants were tested during a period from germination to vegetative growth as well as reproductive stages. To determine effects on vegetative growth plants were harvested at grand period of growth. Reproductive parameters were mentioned in terms number of squares, flower and balls, seed and lint weight; seed number and seed cotton yield per plant. Values on above-mentioned parameters were reduced significantly at high salinity. Foliar spray of NH4NO3 and KCl in combination showed better result as compare to that of their individual spray. Pattern of the comparative performances at various vegetative and reproductive growth parameters under nonsaline as well as saline conditions remained same, which is produced as follows: Non-spray< water spray< KCl< NH4NO3< NH4NO3+ KCl. Foliar nutrient spray of above mentioned spray material showed beneficial effect both on vegetative and reproductive parameters in Cotton,

2199-2208 Download
16
IMPROVING YIELD PERFORMANCE OF LANDRACE WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS USING ON-FARM SEED PRIMING
SAEED AKHTER ABRO1*, ABDUL RAZAK MAHAR2 AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR3

IMPROVING YIELD PERFORMANCE OF LANDRACE WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS USING ON-FARM SEED PRIMING
ABSTRACT:
The low wheat yield in salt-affected soils is often attributed to low seed germination, emergence and poor seedling establishment. Seed priming technology has been found valuable but is not extensively used in salt affected areas. The priming experiment was conducted in farmer’s field having two salinity levels (ECe 8.01 dSm-1 pH 8.10 and ECe 11.90 dSm-1 pH 8.01 respectively) with five landrace genotypes i.e. SALU1a, SALU1b, SALU2, SALU3, SALU4 and a local commercial variety TJ-83. The priming treatments resulted significant increased germination percentage as well as induced earliness of germination, emergence, heading and maturity of all the genotypes at both salinity levels. The genotype SALU4 was observed having the highest germination percentage under priming while SALU2 was the lowest. Similarly, the number of days to emergence, heading and maturity decreased significantly in primed seeds at both salinity levels while genotype SALU4 was found earliest emerging, heading and maturing. The priming increased 1000-grain weight (g) significantly and genotype SALU1b was observed with highest 1000-grain yield.

2209-2216 Download
17
HIGH YIELDING GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.) VARIETY “GOLDEN”
NAEEM-UD-DIN1, ABID MAHMOOD1, GUL SANAT SHAH KHATTAK2*, IQBAL SAEED2 AND MUHAMMAD FIDA HASSAN1

HIGH YIELDING GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.) VARIETY “GOLDEN”
ABSTRACT:
Kernels of a groundnut variety No. 334 were irradiated at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 KGys doses of gamma rays using 60Co gamma cell at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabd in 1990. Raised M1 to M7 generations followed by consecutive selection for high yield and good plant type at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal from 1990 to 1996. Mutant 96CG010 was selected on high pod yield basis and evaluated its performance along with standard varieties in various replicated yield trials. On the basis of its superb performance in yield trials, Punjab Seed Council approved it as a commercial variety in 2002 under the name “Golden” for general cultivation in Punjab. Average and potential pod yield of “Golden” is 2413 and 4100 kg ha-1, respectively. It has resistance against Cercospora leaf spot (Tikka disease). Reddish seed coat color of this variety is the distinct character to distinguish it from other approved groundnut varieties.

2217-2222 Download
18
EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE OF TWO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE MIXTURE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.)
NEELOFER HAMID AND FAIZA JAWAID

EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE OF TWO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE MIXTURE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.)
ABSTRACT:
The effect of elevated level of SO2+NO2 on some physiological and biochemical parameters of Glycine max were examined. Twelve days olds Soybean (Glycine max) seedling were exposed to two different (2% and 3%) levels of SO2+NO2 mixture. Fumigants were applied for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 3 weeks duration. Aeration with enriched SO2+NO2 air resulted in higher phenolic content as compared to plants grown in control condition. However, reduction in leaf total carbohydrate, total protein and total chlorophyll were found in plants grown under elevated levels and the effect were more pronounced at 3% SO2+NO2 exposure as compared to 2% concentration.

2223-2228 Download
19
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN ANNUAL WILD SOYBEAN (GLYCINE SOJA SIEB. ET ZUCC.) AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN (G. MAX. MERR.) FROM DIFFERENT LATITUDES IN CHINA
WEI AN1, HONGKUN ZHAO2, YINGSHANDONG1,2*, YUMIN WANG2, QIYUN LI2 , BINGCHANG ZHUANG2, LEI GONG1 AND BAO LIU1*

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN ANNUAL WILD SOYBEAN (GLYCINE SOJA SIEB. ET ZUCC.) AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN (G. MAX. MERR.) FROM DIFFERENT LATITUDES IN CHINA
ABSTRACT:
A total of 50 accessions of annual wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (G. max) were used to study genetic variations by three genetic fingerprinting systems, RAPD, SSR, and AFLP. Ninety polymorphic RAPD bands were generated by 10 decamer primers, 56 SSR loci were obtained by 12 pairs of primers and 935 bands were resolved by 11 AFLP primer combinations. Based on the marker data, an UPGMA-cluster analysis separated the soybean collections into two groups that corresponded to wild soybean and cultivated soybean respectively. Genetic diversity calculation suggested that the diversity of G. soja was higher than that of G. max. Specific informative bands for G. soja and G. max were detected, which provided molecular evidence in support of the clear distinction of G. soja and G. max. Finally, it was found that environmental factors may play important roles in soybean evolution. A comparison of the three molecular markers suggests that AFLP and SSR are more suitable than RAPD for genetic diversity studies in soybean.

2229-2242 Download
20
IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF MAIZE
BAKHTIAR GUL, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT*, GUL HASSAN, AZIM KHAN, SAIMA HASHIM AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN

IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Peshawar, using open pollinated maize variety “Azam” in RCB design having 3 factors viz., tillage, maize populations and mulches with split-split plot arrangements. Tillage levels (zero and conventional) were assigned to the main plots, populations (90000, 60000 and 30000 plants ha-1) to the sub-plots and four types of mulches (weeds mulch, black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and mungbean as living mulch), a hand weeding and a weedy check were allotted to sub-sub plots, respectively. Data were recorded on fresh weed biomass (kg ha-1), leaf area of maize plant-1 (cm2), leaf area index and biological yield (kg ha-1). Fresh weed biomass was not affected significantly by the years, whereas all other factors affected the fresh weed biomass. Zero tillage resulted in maximum fresh weed biomass of 183 kg ha-1 as compared to 165 kg ha-1 in the conventional tillage. While lesser weed biomass (151 kg ha-1) was recorded in the highest population of 90000 plants ha-1 as compared to 60000 plants ha-1 (168 kg ha-1) and 30000 plants ha-1 (183 kg ha-1), respectively. Minimum fresh weed biomass was recorded in hand weeding (112 kg ha-1) and statistically at par with black plastic mulch (120 kg ha-1), followed by weeds mulch (164 kg ha-1), white plastic mulch (191 kg ha-1) and living mulch (195 kg ha-1) as compared to weedy check (260 kg ha-1). With zero-tillage biological yield was 7708 kg ha-1 as compared to 7980 kg ha-1 in conventional tillage. Similarly, increasing crop density increased biological yield, having 7000, 7992 and 8541 kg ha-1 in 30000, 60000 and 90000 plants ha-1, respectively. However, biological yield of individual plants was decreased with increasing plant population. Similarly, mulches, hand weeding and weedy check also affected the biological yield of maize. Significantly higher biological yield of 9118 kg ha-1 was recorded in the hand weeding as compared to weedy check (5537 kg ha-1) and black plastic mulch (8982 kg ha-1). However, based on high cost of plastic, its use is not economical. With weeds mulch (7956 kg ha-1), white plastic (7934 kg ha-1) and living mulch (7540 kg ha-1) yield was not enhanced, as otherwise expected. Based on two years study it is suggested that even if tillage options and plant populations are a part of the weed management program, it should not be used as a sole management tool, instead it must be integrated and supplemented with other control methods, like mulches, hand weeding and/or herbicides.

2243-2249 Download
21
ASSESSMENT OF INTER-CULTIVAR VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) USING GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AS SELECTION CRITERIA
EJAZ HUSSAIN SIDDIQI1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1 AND AMER JAMIL2

ASSESSMENT OF INTER-CULTIVAR VARIATION FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) USING GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS AS SELECTION CRITERIA
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was carried out to appraise inter-accession variation for salt tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) using gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments as useful selection criteria. Ten accessions of safflower viz., Safflower-31, Safflower-32, Safflower-33, Safflower-34, Safflower-35, Safflower-36, Safflower-37, Safflower-38, Safflower-39, Safflower-78 were screened at 150 mM NaCl at the vegetative stage. Salt stress resulted in a considerable decline in biomass (shoot and root dry mass) of all safflower lines. Safflower-36 and Safflower-38 were higher Safflower-39 lower while the remaining lines were intermediate in biomass production under saline regime. Salt stress also reduced physiological and biochemical attributes such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and chlorophylls a and b in all safflower lines. A significant inter-accession variation was found in all safflower accessions with respect to difference in net CO2 assimilation rate (A). Since a positive association of net photosynthetic rate (A) with biomass (shoot and root dry weights) was observed in the 10 diverse safflower lines under saline conditions, thus it can be used as an effectual indicator of salinity tolerance in safflower.

2251-2259 Download
22
YIELD COMPONENTS AFFECTING SEED YIELD AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
YALCIN KAYA¹*, GOKSEL EVCI¹, SEZGIN DURAK¹, VELI PEKCAN¹ AND TAHIR GUCER¹

YIELD COMPONENTS AFFECTING SEED YIELD AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Path and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationships between seed yield and other important yield components in sunflower during 5 years period in Edirne–Turkiye conditions. To determine the level and forms of these relationships, regression analysis was utilized. Plant height

2261-2269 Download
23
LTERED ENERGY STATUS IN PERICARP BROWNING OF LITCHI FRUIT DURING STORAGE
EN YANG1,4, WANGJIN LU2, HONGXIA QU1, HEDONG LIN3, FUWANG WU1,4, SHAOYU YANG1,4, YULONG CHEN1,4 AND YUEMING JIANG1,*

LTERED ENERGY STATUS IN PERICARP BROWNING OF LITCHI FRUIT DURING STORAGE
ABSTRACT:
Browning is a major postharvest problem in litchi fruit which results in reduced shelf life and commercial value. Fruit browning could be related to deficient energy, which could result in a gradual loss of compartmentalization of enzymes and their substrates and then initiates enzyme-catalyzed browning reaction. Experiments were conducted to further examine the energy status in relation to pericarp browning of litchi fruit during storage. Litchi fruit were treated with exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or water (control) and then stored for up to 5 days at 25°C. Membrane permeability, production of reactive oxygen species, levels of quinine pool and contents of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in pericarp tissues of litchi fruit were measured after 0

2271-2279 Download
24
GENETIC VARIATION IN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHNH. IN A PROVENANCE-FAMILY TRIAL ON SALINE SOIL
K. MAHMOOD1*, M.H. NAQVI AND N.E. MARCAR2

GENETIC VARIATION IN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHNH. IN A PROVENANCE-FAMILY TRIAL ON SALINE SOIL
ABSTRACT:
In a provenance-family trial established on marginally saline soil, 45 seedlots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., including 44 families from 11 Australian provenances and 1 family from Pakistan, were evaluated for growth and stem straightness at the age of 60 months. Significant differences were found between families as well as provenances for height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem straightness. The provenance from De Grey river, Western Australia (WA) showed the best growth. Some individual families from Pakistan, Fitzroy river, WA, Lennard & Baker river, WA, and NE Petford, QLD had comparable growth. Overall mean height was 9.67 m with provenance means range of 10.3 m (De Grey river, WA, NE Petford, QLD and SE Petford, QLD) to 7.2 m (Silverton, NSW). DBH also followed a similar pattern with overall mean value of 7.4 cm and provenance mean range of 9.1 cm (De Grey river, WA) to 5.0 cm for Mt Benstead creek, NT. Stem straightness (scored qualitatively on a four point scale 1-4 with four for the straightest stem) was good with a trial mean value of 2.88 (range from 3.3 for Lennard & Barker river, WA to 2.26 for Newcastle Waters, NT). This study indicates significant genetic differences among the seed sources and thus good potential to improve growth of E. camaldulensis on marginal soils by selection and breeding.

2281-2287 Download
25
AN INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN Pb2+ AND Ca2+ IONS ACCUMULATION IN PHASEOLUS MUNGO AND LENS CULINARIS UNDER Pb STRESS
RAFIA AZMAT1*, SABA HAIDER2 AND MAREENA RIAZ1

AN INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN Pb2+ AND Ca2+ IONS ACCUMULATION IN PHASEOLUS MUNGO AND LENS CULINARIS UNDER Pb STRESS
ABSTRACT:
This study focuses attention on accumulation of Pb2+ in root and shoot of Phaseolus mungo and Lens culinaris in relation with Ca2+ from nutrient solution in which PbCl2 was added. The plants were cultivated in natural environment. It was observed that Pb2+ physically blocks water uptake which results in decline length of root and shoot with reduced leaf size of both species. This may be attributed with reduced fresh weight, and ratio of dry and fresh weight of two species. The accumulation trend of Pb2+ and Ca2+ showed a linear relation in between applied dose and accumulation of Pb2+ in Phaseolus mungo and Lens culinaris which inversely related with Ca2+ contents of both members of Fabaceae family. The reduced Ca2+ contents was due to chemical similarities in between the oxidation states of two ions but smaller ionic radius and high density of Pb2+ helps in accumulation of it in tissues of both species. These interactions may occur at the cellular and molecular level and are the abilities of Pb2+ to displace Ca2+ during specific physiological process. It is likely that Pb2+ blocks Ca2+ efflux from cells by substituting Ca in Ca2+ / Na during some enzymatic activity.

2289-2295 Download
26
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON PIGMENT, PROTEIN CONTENT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN EXCISED SUNFLOWER COTYLEDONS
SERAP ÇAG, GÜL CEVAHIR-ÖZ, MINE SARSAG AND NIHAL GÖREN-SAGLAM

EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON PIGMENT, PROTEIN CONTENT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN EXCISED SUNFLOWER COTYLEDONS
ABSTRACT:
Enviromental stress gives rise to the activation of adaptation and defence responses in plants. It is known that the role of salicylic acid (SA) is quite important in this mechanism. In this study its effect was investigated on excised cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. The sunflower seedlings were grown in dark conditions for 9 days and then their etiolated cotyledons were harvested. Then, they were transferred into Petri dishes containing 0.001 mM, 0.1 mM

2297-2303 Download
27
PLANT DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF THE NORTH-EAST PHRYGIA REGION UNDER THE IMPACT OF LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION (CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY)
HARUN BÖCÜK1*, CENGİZ TÜRE1 AND OSMAN KETENOĞLU2

PLANT DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF THE NORTH-EAST PHRYGIA REGION UNDER THE IMPACT OF LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION (CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
Plant diversity and ecological structure of an area which is in critical level in terms of land degradation and erosion are quite important. North-east part of the Phrygia Region has densely been under natural and anthropogenic effects since 3000 B.C. In the area, primary vegetation was destroyed in low and high parts around steppe plains and replaced by a secondary vegetation with antropogenic characteristics. These antropogenic effects have still continued in the region. In the course of the present study, vascular plant specimens were collected from the area and 589 species belonging to 314 genera classified within 67 families were identified. Seventy seven (13.1%) taxa are endemic to Turkey. When the risk situations of the plant taxa determined in the research area are checked according to IUCN, it can be seen that 56 taxa are in Least Concern, 9 in Near Threatened, 4 in Vulnerable risk categories. The largest family is Asteraceae (72) and the richest genus is Centaurea L. (13) in the area. Distributions of the plant taxa in terms of phytogeographical regions are as follows: Irano-Turanian elements: 123 (20.9%), Euro-Siberian elements: 36 (6.1%), Mediterranean elements: 33 (5.6%). Dominant biological types in the area are Hemicryptophytes (37%) and Therophytes (29.9%). A long term unsystematical use of mountain pastures leads a serious degradation. Therefore, determining the variation in the floristic composition of plant communities gives monitoring opportunity of land degradation in the region.

2305-2321 Download
28
EFFECT OF PACLOBUTRAZOL ON FLOWERING, LEAF AND FLOWER COLOUR OF CONSOLIDA ORIENTALIS
SIBEL MANSUROGLU, OSMAN KARAGUZEL*, VELI ORTACESME AND M. SELCUK SAYAN

EFFECT OF PACLOBUTRAZOL ON FLOWERING, LEAF AND FLOWER COLOUR OF CONSOLIDA ORIENTALIS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of paclobutrazol on flowering characteristics, leaf and flower colour of Consolida orientalis (Gay) Schröd., native to South Anatolia (Turkey) was investigated. Seeds were directly sown into soil under unheated greenhouse and natural photoperiod conditions on 17 January and paclobutrazol at concentrations of 0 (control)

2323-2332 Download
29
EFFECT OF EXPLANT SOURCES AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION AND ROOTING OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) CV. "FUERTE"
BUSHRA ZULFIQAR, *NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI, TOUQEER AHMAD AND ISHFAQ AHMED HAFIZ

EFFECT OF EXPLANT SOURCES AND DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON IN VITRO SHOOT PROLIFERATION AND ROOTING OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) CV. "FUERTE"
ABSTRACT:
In vitro shoot proliferation and rooting capacity of avocado cv. Fuerte was tested by using two different types of explant sources i.e., apical and axillary buds with varying concentrations of BAP and IBA on MS media. Explants exhibited a different response towards shoot proliferation with highest shoot number by axillary buds (2.50). By contrast, the apical buds yielded fairly positive results for shoots length (2.16 cm) than axillary buds. A good response was observed in axillary buds with 1.0 mg l-1 BAP (T3) which lead to the best rate of shoot multiplication (4.80), whereas 1.5 mg l-1 BAP (T4) favored the good shoot length development (4.06 cm) with apical buds. Among various BAP treatments, both T3 (1.0 mg l-1) and T4 (1.5 mg l-1) had a promotory effect on mean shoot number (3.23) and shoot length (2.91 cm). Rooting study revealed that explants also showed a variation in their rooting potential as apical buds proved to be superior with maximum 29.19% rooting

2333-2346 Download
30
AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR RAPID MULTIPLICATION OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM AND BRYOPHYLLUM DAIGREMONTIANUM
SHAGUFTA NAZ*, SUMERA JAVAD*, SAIQA ILYAS* AND AAMIR ALI**

AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR RAPID MULTIPLICATION OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM AND BRYOPHYLLUM DAIGREMONTIANUM
ABSTRACT:
A rapid multiplication protocol for two species of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Bryophyllum daigremontianum has been optimized in the present study. Leaf sections of 1x1cm2 were used as explants. The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron TDZ (2.5, 5.0

2347-2355 Download
31
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF PINUS ROXBURGHII SARGENT. (CHIR PINE) IN LESSER HIMALAYAN AND HINDU KUSH RANGE OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI*, MOINUDDIN AHMED1, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, NASRULLAH KHAN, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN, KANWAL NAZIM AND SYED SADRUDIN HUSSAIN

PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF PINUS ROXBURGHII SARGENT. (CHIR PINE) IN LESSER HIMALAYAN AND HINDU KUSH RANGE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A phytosociological study of Pinus roxburghii was undertaken in Lesser Himalayan and Hindu Kush range of Pakistan during summer 2005. Thirteen stands were sampled at five different locations i.e., Mansehra, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Swat and Lower Dir ranging from 750 - 1700 meters elevation. P. roxburghii was forming pure vegetation in 12 stands but in one location, it was associated with some angiospermic tree species. Quantitative attributes viz. relative density, relative frequency and relative basal area and absolute values were calculated. Circular plots were used to assess the vegetation association on the forest floor. Pine seedlings were recorded in nine stands. The common angiospermic species were found in association with Chir pine like Dodonaea viscosa, Punica granatum, Erodium cicutarium, Medicago denticulate and Vicia sativa. The most rare species encountered were Ailanthus altissima, Daphne mucronata, Melia azedirach, Potentilla nepalensis, Urtica dioica and Olea ferruginea. It was also observed that the studied forests are unstable and degraded and would be vanished if not maintained properly.

2357-2369 Download
32
DEFINING JUVENILITY IN THE APOMICTIC SYSTEM OF MALUS HUPEHENSIS FOR BASIC STUDIES ON REGENERATION AND TRANSFORMATION
HAFEEZ UR-RAHMAN, D.J. JAMES*, P. D. S. CALIGARI** AND A. WETTEN**

DEFINING JUVENILITY IN THE APOMICTIC SYSTEM OF MALUS HUPEHENSIS FOR BASIC STUDIES ON REGENERATION AND TRANSFORMATION
ABSTRACT:
The apomictic system in Malus was used as a model to examine the competence of genetically identical mature and juvenile tissues for regeneration and to undergo genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Thidiazuron (TDZ) 1.00 mg l-1 added in the regeneration media enhanced the frequency of regeneration and the mean number of shoots per explant and was found to be more effective then Benzyladenine (BA). Explants of juvenile (J) origin and those with the adaxial side (A) in contact with the medium exhibited a higher regeneration frequency and mean number of shoots regenerating per explant than explants of mature (M) origin and explants with the abaxial side (B) in contact with the medium. It was possible to obtain transgenic callus lines, and shoot organogenesis from the transformed callus using the hyper virulent strain EHA101 although M. hupehensis is reported to be resistant to crown gall disease (Sax

2371-2377 Download
33
STUDIES OF VEGETATIVE BEHAVIOR AND CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON SOME PASTURE GRASSES GROWING WILD IN PAKISTAN
TARIQ HUSAIN1, ASRAR HUSSAIN2 AND MOINUDDIN AHMED3

STUDIES OF VEGETATIVE BEHAVIOR AND CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON SOME PASTURE GRASSES GROWING WILD IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eight genera and 12 species of plants viz., Apluda mutica L., Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng, Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf., C. serrulatus Trin., Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.) Stapf., C. jwarancusa (Jones,) Schult, C. martinii (Roxb.) Wat., C. commutatus (Steud.) Stapf., Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf., Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf., Themeda anathera (Nees) Hack and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers, were collected from different climatic regions of Pakistan. They were replanted in a nursery at Karachi to investigate their vegetative and climatic behaviours. Although growing m different habitats and conditions, these pasture grasses are quite able to grow in monoclimate condition successfully. Hyparrhenia and Themeda showed slight deviation. Once they established by proper irrigation it helped them to survive in adverse conditions also. The vegetative growth occurs through runners, root-stocks and small rhizomes. The erect and dropping new clones / branches also shoots arise from vegetative buds in the rainy season which is most suitable.

2379-2386 Download
34
EFFECT OF THE CANOPY COVER ON THE ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTENT OF SOIL IN CHOLISTAN DESERT
BASIT KARIM1, AZAM MUKHTAR2, HAMID MUKHTAR3 AND MAKSHOOF ATHAR4

EFFECT OF THE CANOPY COVER ON THE ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTENT OF SOIL IN CHOLISTAN DESERT
ABSTRACT:
Present study describes the effect of canopy cover of different shrubs on the physico-chemical parameters of soil. The organic and inorganic content of soil underneath the canopy covers (canopied subhabitat) of four different shrubs viz., Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Khip), Calligonum polygonoides (Phog), Capparis decidua (Karir) and Acacia jacquemeontii (Banwali) were analyzed and compared with the barren soil (uncanopied subhabitat). It was found that the pH of the soil was decreased while moisture content was increased under the canopy covers as compared to barren soil. The mineral content including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, sulphates and phosphates was found to be higher under the canopy covers as compared to barren soil. As for as the soil organic matter and total nitrogen content is concerned, it was found that the organic matter was increased from 0.630% in the barren soil to 0.726% under the canopy cover. Similar results were observed in case of nitrogen which increased from 0.040% of barren soil to 0.135% under the canopy. The study suggests that plantation in the desert areas can contribute a great towards fertility of the soil.

2387-2395 Download
35
TIME-COURSE CHANGES IN SELENIUM STATUS OF SOIL AND FORAGE IN A PASTURE IN SARGODHA, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2 ZAHID ALI SHAH2, ABID EJAZ2, AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*

TIME-COURSE CHANGES IN SELENIUM STATUS OF SOIL AND FORAGE IN A PASTURE IN SARGODHA, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to determine the effects of pasture and sampling periods on selenium status of soil and forage at a livestock farm in district Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. All animals at this farm received a basal diet consisted of different forage species in the pasture. Soil and forage samples were collected four times on monthly basis and analyzed after wet digestion to determine the selenium concentrations. Soil and forage exhibited very low levels of Se which were far below the critical level for plant growth and animal requirements for various metabolic processes. According to these results, forage and soil selenium concentrations showed both pasture and sampling period effects. High incidence of deficiency was found particularly in some months of sampling compared to the other intervals. These findings suggest the need of application of selenium containing fertilizers for pasture or supplementation with mixture containing selenium for animals being reared therein.

2397-2401 Download
36
VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF WHEAT AND PADDY AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER IN NORMAL SOIL
G. SARWAR1, H. SCHMEISKY2, N. HUSSAIN3, S. MUHAMMAD4 M.A. TAHIR1 AND U. SALEEM1

VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF WHEAT AND PADDY AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER IN NORMAL SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Rice-Wheat system is one of the most important cropping sequences adopted on large areas not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world. Rice and wheat straw is the main crop residue that is largely burnt due to introduction of mechanical harvesters. This burning poses diversified pollution problems like ashes, production of heat and toxic gases and burning of nearby useful plants. The cost of production of rice and wheat crops is going high and high due to ever escalating prices of chemical fertilizers. The burning of precious organic matter is the major factor of low fertility status and poor physical properties of soil. Resultantly, the soils cannot give yield of crops according to the full potential. The cost of crop production can be brought down if sources of nutrients available at farm (crop residues and animal wastes) be brought under the input cycle. The compost was used for nutrient supplementation alone and along with chemical fertilizer for rice and wheat crops. Plant samples of rice and wheat were analyzed for nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and it was observed from the data that concentration of these nutrients increased significantly with the application of compost. The nutritional status of plants was further strengthened when chemical fertilizer was combined with compost. Hence, compost can be used to enrich the chemical composition of rice and wheat straw as well as grains and at the same time the pollution problem created due to burning of rice and wheat residues could also greatly be solved.

2403-2410 Download
37
TRIPLE TEST CROSS ANALYSIS OF SOME PHYSIO-MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

TRIPLE TEST CROSS ANALYSIS OF SOME PHYSIO-MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
The genetic basis of flag leaf area, days to flowering, seed weight per panicle, biological yield per plant, harvest index and yield per plant were investigated using triple test cross analysis in Basmati rice. Epistasis was detected for all the traits except biological yield per plant. Partition of epistasis into i (additive x additive) and j + l (additive x dominance + dominance x dominance) types showed that epistasis of i and j + l types were involved in the expression of those traits. Expression of epistasis was dependent on particular cultivars. Various lines contributed significant and positive epistatic deviations to the total epistasis. Additive (D) and dominance (H) genetic components controlled the manifestation of biological yield per plant. However, partial dominance was revealed by degree of dominance (H/D)1/2 for this trait. Direction of dominance (rs.d) was non-significant for biological yield per plant showing absence of directional dominance. Due to influence of epistatic effects for majority of the traits, recurrent selection may be recommended to develop high yielding Basmati rice varieties.

2411-2418 Download
38
EVALUATION OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L SPP. TURKESTANICA) WILD ECOTYPES FROM PAKISTAN USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (AFLP)
ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH1, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMAD1, ISHTIAQUE KHALIQ2, FARHAT BATOOL3, LUTFUL HASSAN1 AND STEPHEN R. PEARCE2

EVALUATION OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L SPP. TURKESTANICA) WILD ECOTYPES FROM PAKISTAN USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (AFLP)
ABSTRACT:
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamonides L) is a very potent medicinal and multipurpose plant which has gained global significance due to its medicinal and multipurpose utility. It bears yellow to orange berries which are known to human beings from centuries for their effects on health. The plant is wildly distributed throughout Northern Areas of Pakistan. The phylogenetic relationship among these natural Sea buckthorn ecotypes from Northern Areas of Pakistan is not established so for using reliable molecular markers. AFLP has been proved to be an effective tool for the determination of phylogenetic relationship among closely related species. To provide a population level genetic profile for investigation and exploitation of genetic diversity of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides sub spp. turkestanica)

2419-2426 Download
39
DENDROCLIMATIC INVESTIGATION IN PAKISTAN, USING PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL) BOISS., PRELIMINARY RESULTS
MOINUDDIN AHMED*, MUHAMMAD WAHAB AND NASARULLAH KHAN

DENDROCLIMATIC INVESTIGATION IN PAKISTAN, USING PICEA SMITHIANA (WALL) BOISS., PRELIMINARY RESULTS
ABSTRACT:
Dendroclimatic studies were carried out in Picea smithiana dominated forests of Chera and Naltar, located in Himalayan region of Pakistan. Six hundred year (1400-2006 AD) dated chronologies are presented. Each chronology obtained from highly correlated (0.65 to 0.73 correlation) wood samples. These chronologies were standardized using the program ARSTAN, so that long-term climatic trends could be detected. Various chronology statistics were discussed. Climate and growth response of Picea smithiana was analyzed using response function (RF) analysis. Overall response function analysis was highly significant, showed 37 to 40% variance due to climate. The results presented in this paper are encouraging for long term climatic reconstruction using this species. However more investigations are suggested to improve the results.

2427-2435 Download
40
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN ASSESSED BY RAPD MARKERS
AZHAR HUSSAIN1, NADEEM A. ABBASI1*, ISHFAQ A. HAFIZ1, ZAHOOR AHMAD2 AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI3

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN ASSESSED BY RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Loquat is an important sub-tropical fruit crop of Pakistan. A number of loquat genotypes are there in the loquat growing areas of Pakistan, however, no research work has been reported regarding the description of these genotypes. As a result, there is no standard or identified loquat cultivar available to the growers in the loquat growing pockets of Pakistan. In the present study, 42 genotypes identified through the morphological and physical characters were subjected to the DNA analysis to determine the level of genetic diversity among the local loquat genotypes found in different areas of Pakistan and to assess the relationships among them. Out of 48 amplification products scored, 47 bands (97.92%) were found to be polymorphic. According to the dandrogram, two main groups of the loquat genotypes were identified. In general, all genotypes belonging to a certain location came under any one of the two groups. In this study, RAPD proved to be a reliable technique for revealing relationship among loquat genotypes.

2437-2444 Download
41
SOME ECOLOGICAL TRAITS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THESE TRAITS WITH WOOD ANATOMY IN QUERCUS PONTICA C. KOCH
HAMDİ GÜRAY KUTBAY1, NESİME MEREV2, TOLGA OK3 AND TUĞBA BAYRAK OZBUCAK4

SOME ECOLOGICAL TRAITS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THESE TRAITS WITH WOOD ANATOMY IN QUERCUS PONTICA C. KOCH
ABSTRACT:
The ecological traits and relationships of these traits with wood anatomy of Quercus pontica C. Koch were examined. Despite some minor differences in wood anatomy Q. pontica is entirely within the range of wood anatomical variation of Quercus. For instance, Q. pontica has ring porous or semi-ring porous xylem anatomy like other oaks. There were no striking differences between the diameter of earlywood and latewood vessels and relatively low number of multiseriate rays were observed as compared to the other oak species in Q. pontica and the other prominent feature is multiseriate rays were not so wide and so long as compared to the other oak species. In addition to this, significant differences were found between full-leaf expansion and senescence in terms of N and P concentrations. Despite some differences proportional and absolute resorption were usually within the ranges reported for the other deciduous species.

2445-2454 Download
42
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) TO SOIL APPLIED CALCIUM CARBIDE AND L-METHIONINE
SUMREEN SIDDIQ, MUHAMMAD YASEEN*, SYED ALI RAZA MEHDI, AZEEM KHALID AND SAIF-UR-REHMAN KASHIF

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) TO SOIL APPLIED CALCIUM CARBIDE AND L-METHIONINE
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted in the wirehouse to compare the effects of 2 precursors (Calcium carbide and L-methionine) of ethylene on growth and yield of tomato. L-methonine @ 1 mg kg -1soil in the form of solution and Calcium carbide @ 15 mg kg-1soil in medical capsules were applied. Encapsulated Calcium carbide was applied 6 cm deep into soil. Recommended doses of N, P and K fertilizers @ 100-90-60 kg ha-1, respectively were applied alone and in combination with precursors. Half dose of N and full dose of P and K was applied after one week of nursery transplantation and the remaining dose after 3 weeks of nursery transplantation. Encapsulated Calcium carbide was applied after 10 days of transplantation while L-methonine was dissolved in water and then applied after 10 days of transplanting. A completely randomized design was followed with 6 treatments and 3 replications. Results regarding number of flowers, number of fruits, shoot dry weight, fruit weight, root weight, N concentration and uptake in shoot and fruit were significantly affected by both precursors in combination with fertilizers compared to control and alone fertilizer. Application of Calcium carbide with NPK fertilizer improved the yield contributing factors that resulted in significant increase in tomato fruit yield.

2455-2464 Download
43
EVALUATION OF MINERAL COMPOSITION OF FORAGES FOR GRAZING RUMINANTS IN PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, KAFEEL AHMAD1,NAZIR AHMAD3, MUHAMMAD DANISH3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4*

EVALUATION OF MINERAL COMPOSITION OF FORAGES FOR GRAZING RUMINANTS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The current research on the assessment of mineral composition of forages for grazing ruminants was carried out at the Government Livestock Experimental Station in Central Punjab, Pakistan. The aim of the study was to determine and collect data on the mineral contents of forages or feedstuffs that are harvested and used in animal nutrition in the region. The pastures of the station were visited twice, in summer and winter for sampling so as to determine the effect of seasonal changes on the mineral contents of forages. Forage samples were analyzed to determine some macrominerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and microminerals (Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu) levels. These results showed that pasture grasses/ forages have sufficient levels of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn to meet the requirements of ruminants being reared there but the occurrence of marginal to deficient supplies of Na and Cu appears very likely in this area of investigation. Food supplements containing Na and Cu are recommended for maximizing the potential of livestock production in this particular ranch of animals.

2465-2476 Download
44
BIOSYSTEMATICS STUDIES AMONG EBENUS L. SPECIES BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL, RAPD-PCR AND SEED PROTEIN ANALYSES IN TURKEY
AYTEN ÇELEBI*, LEYLA AÇIK AND ZEKI AYTAÇ

BIOSYSTEMATICS STUDIES AMONG EBENUS L. SPECIES BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL, RAPD-PCR AND SEED PROTEIN ANALYSES IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Taxonomic status of 14 Turkish endemic species and one variety of the genus Ebenıus L. was analyzed using seed proteins and RAPD markers. These profiles were evaluated as characters to clarify the taxonomic relationships in the genus. A total number of 136 protein bands from all species, with molecular weight ranging between 116 kDa and 21 kDa were detected in SDS-PAGE electrophoregrams of the species studied. A total of 99 RAPD markers were generated by the 42 primers. The relative similarity between various taxa estimated by Jaccard’s similarity index and clustered in UPGMA, is generally in accordance with taxonomic position. However, there are slightly different arrangements of these species from Flora of Turkey. Ebenus argentea Siehe ex Bornm. and Ebenus longipes Boiss. & Bal., are two different species in Flora of Turkey. However, this study revealed a close relationship between E. argentea and E. longipes. These taxa are clustered together and show genetic distance of 0.4% by SDS-PAGE and 33% by RAPD-PCR analysis. Ebenus plumosa Boiss. & Bal. var. plumosa has a seed protein banding profile very similar to Ebenus plumosa var. speciosa Hub.-Mor., genetic distance of 0.4%. In case of RAPD data, the genetic distance between two taxa is 44%.

2477-2486 Download
45
IMPACT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION INDUCED CHANGES ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
A. SHEREEN, R. ANSARI, S. MUMTAZ, H.R. BUGHIO, S.M. MUJTABA, M.U. SHIRAZI AND M.A. KHAN

IMPACT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION INDUCED CHANGES ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF RICE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of 3 rice varieties viz., Shua-92, Sarshar and IR-8 were irradiated with gamma rays (150

2487-2495 Download
46
DIFFERENTIAL ACCUMULATIONS OF PROLINE AND FLAVONOIDS IN INDICA RICE VARIETIES AGAINST SALINITY
SUTEE CHUTIPAIJIT1, SURIYAN CHA-UM2 AND KANOKPORN SOMPORNPAILIN1, 3*

DIFFERENTIAL ACCUMULATIONS OF PROLINE AND FLAVONOIDS IN INDICA RICE VARIETIES AGAINST SALINITY
ABSTRACT:
Four varieties of indica rice differing in salt sensitivity were used for comparative study of defense systems in response to salinity. Rice seedlings were transferred into the photoautotrophic system containing NB medium with 100 mM NaCl as a salt stress treatment for 4 days. The physiological responses of jasmine rice (KDML105) and Sangyod (SY) varieties showed the better tolerance to salinity than those of Pathumthani 1 (PT1) and Black Sticky (BS) varieties. In salt stress treatment, the relative water content (RWC) of rice seedlings was decreased when compared to untreated seedlings. The RWC of salt-tolerant seedlings (KDML105 and SY) were decreased (0.33-0.53%) less than those of salt-sensitive seedlings (PT1 and BS), which exhibited 1.18-2.63% reductions. The salt-tolerant KDML105 and SY showed the lesser extent of membrane damage (lipid peroxidation; 7.94-19.26%) while enhanced the proline level (56.56-78.56%) and the flavonoid level (1.72-3.48%) more than those of the sensitive PT1 and BS varieties. Moreover, the positive correlation between proline or flavonoid accumulations and RWC was observed whereas the correlation between proline or flavonoid accumulations and MDA content was negative. These results suggest that high proline and flavonoids levels accumulated in each varieties of rice might be closely related to tolerant abilities indicating by physiological performances.

2497-2506 Download
47
STUDY OF VEGETATION AND SMOOTH COATED OTTER IN CHOTIARI WETLANDS COMPLEX, SANGHAR, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, WASEEM AHMAD KHAN2 AND BABAR KHAN2

STUDY OF VEGETATION AND SMOOTH COATED OTTER IN CHOTIARI WETLANDS COMPLEX, SANGHAR, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A preliminary vegetation and smooth coated otter survey was carried out in the month of October

2507-2516 Download
48
INORGANIC PROFILE AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF ENDEMIC INULA KOELZII FROM HIMALAYA PAKISTAN
ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,2 , JAVID HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, HAMAYUN KHAN4, YOUNG-HWA KANG2, SANG-MO KANG2 AND IN-JUNG LEE2*

INORGANIC PROFILE AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF ENDEMIC INULA KOELZII FROM HIMALAYA PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Inula koelzii of Astereaceae, an endemic plant growing at Ladakh and Kashmir regions, has been observed a potential allelopathic plant species. Further observing its allelopathic role, four subfractions (hexane, chloroform, butanol and water) were extracted from 80% MeOH of the aerial plant material. While using EDX technique for inorganic profile of each subfraction, it revealed 18 different elements i.e., C, O, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Si, S and P. However, C, O, K, Fe, Zn and Co was present in highest percentages in each subfraction. Overall, chloroform (CHCl3) revealed a composition of 13 different elements and the most abundant were Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu and Al. To know the allelopathic effect of each subfraction, dish pack method was used for bioassay with a concentration gradient of 10, 30

2517-2527 Download
49
EFFECTS OF CITRIC ACID PRESOAKING AND STRATIFICATION ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF PRUNUS AVIUM L. SEED
DERYA EŞEN*, NEVAL GÜNEŞ AND OKTAY YILDIZ

EFFECTS OF CITRIC ACID PRESOAKING AND STRATIFICATION ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF PRUNUS AVIUM L. SEED
ABSTRACT:
Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a fast-growing broadleaved tree of Turkey with great ecological and economic values. Deep and variable dormancy inhibits germination of PA seed. Presoaking seed with a 0.1% citric-acid (CA) enhances pretreatment efficacy for some tree species. Long, constant high temperatures during stratification and germination tests induce secondary seed dormancy in European PA seed sources. This study assesses the effects of 0.1% CA or deionized water (DW) soaking in combination with various pretreatments on the germination of PA seeds from northern Turkey, using alternating temperatures during germination tests. Following presoaking, seeds were put through eight different pretreatments, including complex cold or warm + cold periods ranging from 60 to 135 days. Cumulative germination percentages and the course of germination were determined at the end of the trial. Presoaking seeds in DW for two days increased germination more than presoaking in 0.1% CA solution. Pretreatments affected seed germination significantly differently, whether they were presoaked in CA or DW. For both presoaking treatments, a 15-day warm period followed by a four-month cold period, and then recurrent warm + cold periods followed by a three-month cold period, were the best pretreatments. Germination course results conformed to the cumulative germination results. In conclusion, presoaking seeds in water for two days followed by recurrent warm + cold periods with long cold periods lasting at least four months in total are recommended for adequate germination of Prunus avium. Variable and delayed germination may offer PA an ecological adaptation, improving survival in a wide array of environments.

2529-2535 Download
50
EFFECT OF VERTICAL TRAILING ON VEGETATIVE, REPRODUCTIVE AND YIELD OF LUFFA AS INTERCROP IN COCONUT FIELD
ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI*, JAVEED AKHTAR BALOCH* AND M. ZAFAR IQBAL**

EFFECT OF VERTICAL TRAILING ON VEGETATIVE, REPRODUCTIVE AND YIELD OF LUFFA AS INTERCROP IN COCONUT FIELD
ABSTRACT:
Intercropping trial in coconut (Cocos nucifera L), was carried out for generating more income/yield. The experiment was conducted at Coastal Agricultural Research Station (CARS) Farm, PARC, Karachi. The Tori varieties planted ridge gourd (Luffa acutangulla Roxb.) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica L.) under the trail staked and unstaked Tori were grown satisfactory under coconut plot. The results showed that the staked method compared to unstaked had 30-35% increase in yield and also insect pest protection. The yield data recorded showed that staked gave maximum yield. It was also found that the intercropping did not affect the agronomic trails and yield of the coconut, but increase the yield compared to palms alone.

2537-2541 Download
51
EFFECT OF ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION OF BROILER DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVEL OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND CRUDE FIBER
SHAHID RAZA1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, TALAT NASEER PASHA3 AND FAROOQ LATIF4

EFFECT OF ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION OF BROILER DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVEL OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND CRUDE FIBER
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multi enzyme in broiler diets containing varying levels of sunflower meal and crude fiber. Sixteen isonitrogenous experimental diets were prepared using 0, 5

2543-2550 Download
52
DIVERSITY OF THE GENERA OF PENNATE DIATOMS IN THE PUNJAB
SYED TARIQ-ALI1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

DIVERSITY OF THE GENERA OF PENNATE DIATOMS IN THE PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
Twenty nine genera of algae belonging to 15 families of the phylum Bacillarophycota were collected during December 2003 and July 2006 from different freshwater habitats in various districts of the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Among them family Pinnularaceae with 19 species was most commonly found (25.33 %), next to it were the families Cymbellaceae (13.33 %), Naviculaceae (13.33 %) and Nitzschaceae (12 %) with 9 or 10 species each. The genera Cymbella with 10 species (13.33 %), Nitzschia with 9 species (12 %), Navicula and Pinnularia with 8 species each (10.66 %) occurred most commonly. About 64 % of diatoms were found as epiphytes

2551-2561 Download
53
LOCATION OF SEED-BORNE INOCULUM OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA AND ITS TRANSMISSION IN SEEDLINGS OF CUCUMBER
NASREEN SULTANA, TALHA AZEEM AND A. GHAFFAR

LOCATION OF SEED-BORNE INOCULUM OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA AND ITS TRANSMISSION IN SEEDLINGS OF CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
Using component plating technique Macrophomina phaseolina was isolated from testa, tegmen, cotyledons and embryo of cucumber seeds. The fungus was transmitted to seedling and caused pre- and post-emergence infection which was significantly high under water stress conditions.

2563-2566 Download
54
DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES AMONG NATIVE FUNGI: ASPERGILLUS THE PRE-DOMINANT GENUS OF HYDROLASE PRODUCER
MUHAMMAD SOHAIL1, SAMINA NASEEB1, SIKANDAR KHAN SHERWANI1, SHAHIDA SULTANA1, SABIHA AFTAB1, SALEEM SHAHZAD2, AQEEL AHMAD1 AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN1*

DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES AMONG NATIVE FUNGI: ASPERGILLUS THE PRE-DOMINANT GENUS OF HYDROLASE PRODUCER
ABSTRACT:
One hundred and twenty eight fungi isolated from the native environments, including soil, plant, deteriorating distempered-wall and spoiled orange-juice samples and 32 isolates obtained from the culture collections were screened for hydrolytic enzyme production. A large proportion (71.25%) of fungal strains belonged to the genus Aspergillus followed by genera Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Basidiomyces, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Rhizocotonia, Trichoderma, Macrophomina, Botryodiplodia, Monilia, Gliocladium and Rhizopus. These strains were sorted on the basis of their hydrolytic potential of starch, cellulose, protein, xylan and pectin. Some selected strains that produce high levels of enzymes, grown in shake-flask and amylase, cellulase, protease, xylanase and pectinase were quantitatively evaluated. Members of the genus Aspergillus appeared to exhibit the greatest diversity in terms of high levels of all the investigated hydrolases.

2567-2582 Download
55
FUNGAL TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS
SHAZIA IRAM, IFTIKHAR AHMAD*, BARIRA JAVED, SAEEDA YAQOOB, KULSOOM AKHTAR, MUNAWAR RAZA KAZMI* AND BADAR-UZ-ZAMAN*

FUNGAL TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METALS
ABSTRACT:
Peri-urban cultivated areas of many cities in Pakistan are being irrigated from municipal and /or industrial wastewater since long. Soil samples were collected from two villages of Faisalabad (Jappaywala and Kajle), three of Rawalpindi districts (Dahgal, Gorakhpur and Sihala) and from the campus of Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (FJWUR) for investigating the status of heavy metals, fungal diversity, and fungal tolerance to heavy metals. There was marked differentiation among the soils for various heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Co) and fungal diversity. Forty-one fungal species among the 37 genera were found in these soils. The most common fungal strains viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp, Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp., were tested for tolerance against the heavy metals Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd. The degree of tolerance was measured by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the presence of the each metal and it was compared with control containing no heavy metals. Among the isolated fungal strains of all locations Aspergillus niger was the most tolerant against all the tested heavy metals. It exhibit strong radial growth from 0-40ppm followed by Aspergillus sp., Pencillium sp., and Fusarium sp against all the tested heavy metals. Thus the heavy metals tolerant fungus Aspergillus niger has shown a high level of tolerance to all metals tested, which makes it attractive potential candidate for further

2583-2594 Download
56
SCREENING OF PAKISTANI RICE (ORYZAE SATIVA) CULTIVARS AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZA PV. ORYZAE
AMJAD ALI1, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1

SCREENING OF PAKISTANI RICE (ORYZAE SATIVA) CULTIVARS AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZA PV. ORYZAE
ABSTRACT:
2, RAISA BANO1

2595-2604 Download
57
STUDY OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFORMATION IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) CV. RIOGRANDE USING RICE CHITINASE (CHT-3) GENE
NYLA JABEEN1*, BUSHRA MIRZA1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHARY2, HAMID RASHID3 AND MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ4

STUDY OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFORMATION IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) CV. RIOGRANDE USING RICE CHITINASE (CHT-3) GENE
ABSTRACT:
The factors affecting the Agrobacterium mediated gene transformation of tomato cv. Riogrande are reported in detail. Shoot tips (explants) were transformed with pBI333 carrying rice chitinase (cht-3) gene. Approximately 49% transformation frequency was achieved. The optimum conditions for successful transformation were: infecting the explants with the Agrobacterium suspension for two minutes, co-cultivation period for two days, 50 µM of acetosyringone in the co- cultivation medium, pre- selection for seven days and 500 mg/l cefaxine in the pre- selection. The transgenic plants were selected on the medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin. The presence of hygromycin and chitinase gene in the hygromycin resistant (T0) transgenic plants was evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. A fragment of 500bp size for the hygromycin gene was amplified from the 100% hyg resistant plants while 250 bp long fragment for the cht-3 gene was amplified from the 88% of the transgenic plants only.

2605-2614 Download
58
ESTABLISHMENT OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED BT GENE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM IN MAT RUSH (JUNCUS EFFUSUS L.)
LING XU1, ULLAH NAJEEB1, WEI QI SHEN2, GHULAM JILANI3, MUHAMMAD RASHEED1 AND WEI JUN ZHOU1*

ESTABLISHMENT OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED BT GENE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM IN MAT RUSH (JUNCUS EFFUSUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was explored for inducing insect resistance in mat rush (Juncus effusus L.). Firstly, the callus regeneration system was established, and secondly the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 with plasmid pKUB carrying cryIA(b), hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and β-glucuronidase, respectively, was used for transformation. Results indicated that 150 μM acetosyringone in both of the induction and co-cultivation media increased the frequency of GUS+ calli, and OD600 value 0.4 of Agrobacterium enhanced the rate of GUS+ calli, significantly. The infection duration of 45-60 min, co-cultivation duration of 4 days, and infection in the 12th or 16th day were the best combination for transformation. Agrobacterium-treated plants achieved a transformation frequency of 9.56 % to the highest. Transient GUS expression and hygromycin-resistance tests were practicable and reliable for selecting the positive transformants. This transformation system was found suitable for manipulating the desired traits through transgenic techniques, as the transgenic Juncus effusus L. plants were produced from seeds to embryogenic calli, then to plantlets. The Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of Bt gene into mat rush with some optimizations is highly successful and reproducible as experienced from the established protocol.

2615-2624 Download
59
NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SPICES AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD
SAMREEN ABBAS, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, MARIUM TARIQ AND M. JAVED ZAKI

NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SPICES AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA (TREUB) CHITWOOD
ABSTRACT:
Nematicidal activity of some spices against Meloidogyne javanica root knot nematode was examined. In vitro results showed that aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum (100 % w/v) and ethanol extract of Capsicum annum, Cinnamomum tamala and Curcuma longa (1000 ppm) significantly inhibited egg hatching of Meloidogyne javanica. Aqueous extract of C. longa, Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum in 100% w/v whereas ethanol extract of C. tamala and P. nigrum in 1000 ppm caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Ethanol extract was found better as compared to aqueous extract. The concentration used @ 100% and 1000 ppm were found more effective and produced significant results as compared to 50%, 500 ppm and 250 ppm.

2625-2632 Download
60
PISTACHIO TREE - A NEW HOST FOR TWO SPECIES OF TERMITES (ISOPTERA, ARTHROPODA) FROM IRAN
SULTAN RAVAN1, FARKHANDA MANZOOR2* AND GHAZALA NASIM3

PISTACHIO TREE - A NEW HOST FOR TWO SPECIES OF TERMITES (ISOPTERA, ARTHROPODA) FROM IRAN
ABSTRACT:
Two termite species viz., Anacanthoterms vagans (Hagen), harvester termite and Microceroterms diversus (Silvestri) mound–building termite are reported for the first time from cultivated and wild pistachio trees in the main pistachio growing areas of Iran. Out of 200 plants studied, 47 were infested with termites and the rate of infestation was 23.50%. A. vagans attacked more frequently as compared to M. diversus on all three varieties of Pistacia viz., P. vera L., P. mutica Fisch. & Mey., and P. khinjuk Stocks. Percentage damage of trees was also discussed in relation to different environmental factors like soil temperature, ambient temperature, humidity, rainfall and drought. The density and species richness in termites was positively correlated with soil temperature. An enhancement in termite feeding activity also showed a direct relationship with soil temperature.

2633-2637 Download
61
EFFECT OF DISINFECTANTS IN IMPROVING SEED GERMINATION OF SUAEDA FRUTICOSA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABDUL HAMEED, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMED, SALMAN GULZAR AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

EFFECT OF DISINFECTANTS IN IMPROVING SEED GERMINATION OF SUAEDA FRUTICOSA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
This research examines the possible role of two commonly used disinfectants viz., hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in improving seed germination and rate of germination of a subtropical cash crop halophyte, Suaeda fruticosa under saline conditions. Brief seed pretreatment with H2O2 (0.34%) and NaOCl (2%) had the following effects in various salinity (0

2639-2644 Download
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