Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 08/06/2019 Uploaded: 22/04/2019
Uploaded: 28/03/2019

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 2
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
IN VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF CITRULLUS LANATUS L., (CUCURBITACEAE)
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

IN VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF CITRULLUS LANATUS L., (CUCURBITACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination capacity of Citrullus lanatus L., (Cucurbitaceae) in “hanging drop” technique was evaluated up to 48 weeks. The collected pollen were stored at different temperatures (4ºC, -20ºC, -30C and -60ºC). The pollen were also treated in organic solvents (acetone, benzene & chloroform), in vacuum over silica gel and in freeze dryer (-60ºC) for 30 minutes. The study indicates that low temperature is far better than high temperature with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. In organic solvents benzene showed better results as compared to vacuum dried pollen. Freeze dryer (-60ºC) seems to be the best method to store pollen grains for a long period of time.

681-684 Download
2
MITREOLA YANGCHUNENSIS (LOGANIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
QI-XIA MA1,2, FU-WU XING1 AND HUA-GU YE1*

MITREOLA YANGCHUNENSIS (LOGANIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Mitreola yangchunensis Q. X. Ma, H. G. Ye & F. W. Xing sp nova from Guangdong province, China is described, illustrated, and compared with its congeners. It is somewhat similar to M. reticulate Tirel, but is distinguished by its pubescent stem or branches, its pilose leaves, with acute apex, its long-pedunculate cymes, present styles and its smooth capsule wall. A distribution map and a key to species of Mitreola in China are provided.

685-689 Download
3
DETERMINATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF CHINESE SPECIES OF THE GENUS CLEMATIS BY USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS SPECTROMETRY (HPLC-MS) TECHNIQUE
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ CH1

DETERMINATION OF TAXONOMIC STATUS OF CHINESE SPECIES OF THE GENUS CLEMATIS BY USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS SPECTROMETRY (HPLC-MS) TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
2*, Q. HE2, S. FENG, YI WANG2, P.G. XIAO2, YIYU CHENG2* AND HABIB AHMED3

691-702 Download
4
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-III. CUSCUTACEAE
DURDANA KANWAL, RUBINA ABID AND M.QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-III. CUSCUTACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 8 species of the genus Cuscuta belonging to the family Cuscutaceae was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seed morphological characters have been found useful to delimit the taxa at specific level and to design Seed Atlas of Pakistan.

703-709 Download
5
THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THREATENED ENDEMIC FLORA IN TURKEY: KEMALIYE (ERZİNCAN) CASE
ZÖHRE BULUT* AND HASAN YILMAZ

THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THREATENED ENDEMIC FLORA IN TURKEY: KEMALIYE (ERZİNCAN) CASE
ABSTRACT:
The flora in Turkey is an outstanding one in terms of its biodiversity and the variety of endemic plant species. In this study, efforts have been made to determine the current situation of Turkey in general and local region (Kemaliye), being rich for endemic plants, based on International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Sources (IUCN) in order to present abundancy of endemic plants in Turkey and conditions in which endemic plant have been threatened. Of 3504 endemic plants in Turkey

711-719 Download
6
ANNUAL RING GROWTH OF CASPIAN ALDER IN THE FOREST ROAD EDGES
H. JALILVAND1, S.A. HOSSEINY*1, A. PARSAKHO2

ANNUAL RING GROWTH OF CASPIAN ALDER IN THE FOREST ROAD EDGES
ABSTRACT:
Three northern forest sites of Iran viz., Neka, Paved; Amreh and Darabkola, unpaved roads were selected to determine the edge effects of forest roads on the annual ring growth of alder trees (Alnus glutinosa). The thickness of annual rings, bark and height of trees were measured. The sampled trees were located in upward and downward of roads along one kilometer length of road. Statistical method and sample selection with the fixed area were used to measure diameter and height of selected trees. Core samples of alder tree were taken by borer in order to investigate the effect of different conditions including road-making operations on thickness of annual rings and its bark. The result showed that the average growth of alder trees in the front edge of roads was less than those were in the back of the road. Average of bark growth in the front edge of road was less than that it in the back. Also, the result of this study revealed negative effect of the paved forest road was more than that of unpaved forest roads. The research showed that the growth of alder in the edge of forest roads (Neka, Amreh and Darabkola in northern forest of Iran) as a main factor and the given samples from either back or front of the roads as secondary factor were considered. Conclusion of this study revealed that the average annual growth of rings in paved road was less than those in unpaved roads.

721-730 Download
7
SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CLIMATIC STUDIES BASED ON TWO PINE TREE SPECIES OF HIMALAYAN AREA OF PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, NASRULLAH KHAN, JONATHAN PALMER, KANWAL NAZIM, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI*

SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CLIMATIC STUDIES BASED ON TWO PINE TREE SPECIES OF HIMALAYAN AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Standardized ring-width chronologies of Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jackson and Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex Lamb., are presented, covering maximum period from AD 1300-2000 and 1400-2000AD respectively. These chronologies are based on highly correlated (0.636) and cross-matchable wood samples. Response function analysis was used to investigate the climatic signals in these chronologies. Both response function analysis were statistically significant at p<0.05 level. Kalash response function showed 40% while Astore explained 22% variance due to climate. It is shown that though both sampling area fall under dry temperate area, good growth in Pinus wallichiana (Astore) is associated with hot and dry conditions, while reverse is the case with Pinus gerardiana (Kalash). However, despite these differences, both species showed some similar effects, responses and trends. Therefore it may be concluded that both species are suitable for paleoclimatic reconstruction back to at least 500 years. It is also suggested that more and detailed investigations are required before making concrete conclusion and reconstruction of past climatic variations.

731-738 Download
8
TAXONOMIC IMPLICATION OF AFLP FINGERPRINTINGIN SELECTED POLYGONACEOUS SPECIES
GHAZALAH YASMIN1*, STEPHEN R. PEARCE2, MIR AJAB KHAN1, SANG-TAE KIM3, NIGHAT SHAHEEN1 AND MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT

TAXONOMIC IMPLICATION OF AFLP FINGERPRINTINGIN SELECTED POLYGONACEOUS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used for the first time to demonstrate the relationship among 28 accessions of 13 species belonging to 4 genera of Polygonaceae. Single primer was used to amplify AFLPs and fragments were separated in 6% denaturing acrylamide gels. A total of 131 fragments were analyzed. The AFLP knowledge was found to be sufficiently susceptible to identify small level of variations and could differentiate highly interrelated genotypes. According to present study, this marker system does not support the distinction of Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómes and Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach as a separate species of single genus. No ultimate genus level relationships was seen, owing to very low bootstrap support for branches connecting the different clusters in the tree, all four genera did not occupy distinct positions to form separate clusters and representatives of all genera are intermingled throughout the tree except the genus Polygonum L. Position of Persicraia lapthifolia (L.) S. F. Gray and Persicaria barbata (L.) Hara is also unresolved, as both of these did not show any relationship with other species. These results will form the base for further analysis of the family by AFLP marker system.

739-750 Download
9
PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE GENUS ARTEMISIA (ASTERACEAE) AND ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS
MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT1

PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE GENUS ARTEMISIA (ASTERACEAE) AND ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT:
2*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3, MIR AJAB KHAN, GHAZALAH YASMIN, NIGHAT SHAHEEN AND SHAZIA JABEEN4

751-763 Download
10
ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN GRAINS IN KONYA, TURKEY
2005

ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE POLLEN GRAINS IN KONYA, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
MUSTAFA KEMAL ALTUNOGLU1*, ERKAN TORAMAN2, MEHMET TEMEL2, ADEM BICAKCI1 AND MUSTAFA KARGIOGLU2

765-774 Download
11
SELECTION INDICES FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SWEET CORN
MUHAMMAD JAWAD ASGHAR1 AND SYED SADAQAT MEHDI2

SELECTION INDICES FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SWEET CORN
ABSTRACT:
The efficiency of three selection indices, viz., Smith-Hazel index (SHI), Desired gain index (DGI) and Base Index (BI) was compared for the improvement of an open pollinated sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) population. The data of genetic studies on various yield and quality traits among S1 families were used to construct these selection indices. Smith-Hazel index was found to be the most efficient in improving the aggregate genotype of yield traits for most of the selection strategies. Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index in the improvement of aggregate genotype for five out of six selection strategies of quality traits. Both smith-hazel and Base indices were found useful for the improvement of sweetness and sweet flavour for all the selection strategies. When selection was confined to eight yield and four quality traits simultaneously, Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index and desired gain index in improving the aggregate genotype for almost all the selection strategies.

775-789 Download
12
UTILIZATION OF ALLELOPATHY AND PLANTING GEOMETRY FOR WEED MANAGEMENT AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION 0F MAIZE
SHAD K. KHALIL, TARIQ MEHMOOD, ABDUR REHMAN, SAID WAHAB, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR, FIDA MOHAMMAD, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN, AMANULLAH AND I.H. KHALIL

UTILIZATION OF ALLELOPATHY AND PLANTING GEOMETRY FOR WEED MANAGEMENT AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION 0F MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Undesirable impact of herbicides on environment had led to the efforts to search for alternative of herbicides. Allelopathy and planting geometry are possible alternatives for achieving sustainable weed management and dry matter production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of maize to allelopathy and planting geometry. Maize was planted in 75, 85 and 95 cm apart rows at New Developmental Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2006. Three allelopathic crops, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiate Wilczek) were intercropped in maize rows alongwith sole maize with no weeding (control) and sole maize with hand weed control. Row spacing and allelopathic crops significantly affected plant height, weeds density and weeds biomass. Maize row spacing of 75 cm produced taller plants height (161.0 cm) and maximum stalk (7093.7 kg ha-1), whereas in allelopathic crop treatments, maximum plant height (170.9 cm) and stalk yield (8854.1 kg ha-1) were produced by hand weed control treatment. Sorghum intercropped with maize suppressed weeds density and resulted in low biomass of deela (Cyprus rotundus L.), field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and itsit (Trianthema portulacastrum L.) compared with other treatments. It may be inferred from this study that weeds were better suppressed by 75 cm row spacing and sorghum intercropped plots.

791-803 Download
13
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH, QUALITY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.
GEORGIA OUZOUNIDOU1*, ILIAS ILIAS2, ANASTASIA GIANNAKOULA2 AND PARTHENA PAPADOPOULOU1

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH, QUALITY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Pre- and post-harvest physiology and quality responses of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv ‘Standar p.13/0211003-01-Agris’) on exogenous Gibberellic acid-GA3 (100 μM), Prohexadione-Calcium (100 mg l-1), Cycocel (100 mg l-1) and Ethephon (100 mg l-1) applied as foliar sprays, were investigated. Among PGRs, GA3 @ 100μM was effective in promoting flowering and better for vegetative characteristics. Chlorophyll a+b concentration of leaves was markedly inhibited by GA3, Prohexadione-Calcium, Cycocel and Ethephon application while, the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the ratio Fv/Fo was slightly increased under GA3. The above indices were significantly depressed under Cycocel, Ethephon and Prohexadione-Calcium. CO2 production pattern was negatively related with chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fo) yield and ascorbic acid content. The Brix content and the “maturity index” were depressed after Prohexadione-Calcium, Cycocel and Ethephon application. In general, the best green pepper appearance was found under control and GA3 whereas, pre- and post-harvest physiology and quality characteristics dropped sharply and green peppers were not marketable under the three growth retardants.

805-814 Download
14
WEED-CROP COMPETITION EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUGARCANE PLANTED USING TWO METHODS
MUHAMMAD ZAFAR1*, ASIF TANVEER1, ZAHID ATA CHEEMA1 AND M. ASHRAF2†

WEED-CROP COMPETITION EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUGARCANE PLANTED USING TWO METHODS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90

815-823 Download
15
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC, AGRONOMIC FEATURE AND NUTRIENT VALUE OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM IN COCONUT
PLANTATIONS OF PAKISTAN

PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC, AGRONOMIC FEATURE AND NUTRIENT VALUE OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM IN COCONUT
ABSTRACT:
ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI1, BHUGRO MAL1, A.R. KAZMI1 AND M. ZAFAR IQBAL2

825-832 Download
16
GIEMSA N-BANDING PATTERN IN TETRAPLOID TAXA OF HORDEUM MARINUM HUDS
BUSHREEN JAHAN AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY*

GIEMSA N-BANDING PATTERN IN TETRAPLOID TAXA OF HORDEUM MARINUM HUDS
ABSTRACT:
The N-band patterns of heterochromatin distribution in tetraploid taxa of Hordeum marinum chromosomes was studied to identify general patterns or preferential sites for heterochromatin. An ideogram was developed for each studied taxa of Hordeum marinum for the description of individual N-bands. Giemsa N-banding patterns of tetraploid taxa of H. marinum and ssp. marinum were characterized by having 3-4 bands per chromosome on an average, distributed at centromeric, telomeric and intercalary positions.Chromosomes1, 3, 4, 7, 9

833-838 Download
17
ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF HERBS FROM NORTHERN PART OF NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1 G. RAZA BHATTI2 AND RABIA ASMA MEMON3

ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF HERBS FROM NORTHERN PART OF NARA DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotanical survey of Nara Desert, Sindh, Pakistan was carried out during 1998-2001. Local inhabitants are extremely knowledgeable about the utilization of indigenous flora of the study area. They use them in fever, flue, cough, asthma, digestive troubles, piles, diabetes, urinary diseases, male sexual diseases, gynecological diseases, joints pain/rheumatic pains and inflammation, ear diseases, tooth problems, cuts and wounds, skin diseases, cooling agents and miscellaneous uses. In the present communication, 63 plant species belonging to 50 genera and 29 families are included. The major plant families which contributed in folk herbs included Fabaceae (7 spp.), Boraginaceae (6 spp.), Amaranthaceae (5 spp.) and Cucurbitaceae (4 spp.). For each species, botanical name, vernacular name, part(s) used, medicinal use, method of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies are provided.

839-851 Download
18
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY STABILITY OF CHEMICALLY PRESERVED MANGO PULP
SAEED AKHTAR1*, MUHAMMAD RIAZ1, ANWAAR AHMAD2 AND ATIF NISAR3

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY STABILITY OF CHEMICALLY PRESERVED MANGO PULP
ABSTRACT:
The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium metabisulphite (PMS) at various concentrations on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of mango pulp during storage was assessed. Inhibitory activity of the chemical preservatives and their effect on chemical and sensory attributes was tested periodically by simulating the industrial mango pulp storage in the lab (30-42ºC in the dark), for a period of 90 days. Protein, fats, decreased while ash content and total soluble solid (TSS) increased during the storage period. A slight progressive decline in pH was observed with a proportional increase (p<0.05) in the acidity of the stored pulp samples. Significant inhibition of the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed on applying the specified concentrations, however PMS was shown to be more inhibitory. Storage time significantly (p<0.05) increased the CFU/g of the pulp samples as the maximum growth was observed after 90 days of storage. Sensory characteristics of the juice prepared from treated mango pulp samples were affected negatively on addition of preservatives however, the samples were accepted by the judges even after three months of storage.

853-862 Download
19
GROWTH, NODULATION AND YIELD RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN TO BIOFERTILIZERS AND ORGANIC MANURES
ARSHAD JAVAID* AND NASIR MAHMOOD

GROWTH, NODULATION AND YIELD RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN TO BIOFERTILIZERS AND ORGANIC MANURES
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure @ 20 tons ha-1 each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment.

863-871 Download
20
MULTIPLE SHOOT REGENERATION IN CLERODENDRUM INCISUM L., – AN ORNAMENTAL WOODY SHRUB
SONU GOYAL*1, ANWAR SHAHZAD2, MUHAMMAD ANIS2 AND SAMIULLAH KHAN1

MULTIPLE SHOOT REGENERATION IN CLERODENDRUM INCISUM L., – AN ORNAMENTAL WOODY SHRUB
ABSTRACT:
A rapid and efficient protocol for induction of multiple shoots from nodal explants of an ornamental woody shrub, Clerodendrum incisum L., var. macrosiphon was developed. Nodal explants were inoculated on MS medium containing different concentrations of 6-Benzyladenine (BA) or Kinetin (Kn) alone. Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (5 µM) induced maximum number of shoots. The shoots were rooted on half strength of MS medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and rooted plantlets were established in soil as phenotypically normal mature plants.

873-878 Download
21
PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION FOR EFFICIENT CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN THREE PAKISTANI RICE CULTIVARS
ZAHID HUSSAIN1, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1, RAISA BANO1, HAMID RASHID2* AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3

PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION FOR EFFICIENT CALLUS INDUCTION AND REGENERATION IN THREE PAKISTANI RICE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken to standardize an efficient and effective protocol for callus induction, subsequent growth and regeneration in three Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties viz., GNY-53, Basmati-370 and JP-5. MS and N6 media were used for callus induction. Overall, MS medium was found better for callus induction as compared to N6 medium. The growth regulator 2,4-D with varying concentrations (1-3mg/l) were tested for their callus induction and subsequent growth. GNY-53 (83%) and JP-5 (96.66%) showed maximum callus induction frequency on MS medium supplemented with 3mg/l 2,4-D while Basmati-370 (99%) showed higher callus induction frequency on the same medium supplemented with 1mg/l 2,4-D. The callus growth frequencies for varieties GNY-53 (60%) and Basmati-370 (94.73%) were best achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3mg/l 2,4D while JP-5 (73.68%) showed maximum callus growth frequency on the same medium with 1mg/l 2,4-D concentration. Mean square value for variety, treatment and their interactions were recorded for callus induction and growth on both MS and N6 media at probability level of p≤0.05. The regeneration efficiency of these varieties were tested alone on MS medium fortified with two different combinations of NAA and BAP (1mg/l NAA: 2mg/l BAP and 1mg/l NAA:4mg/l BAP). The two varieties GNY-53 (70.27%) and JP-5 (41.81%) showed maximum plantlets formation frequency on 1:2mg/l combination of NAA and BAP whereas Basmati-370 (43.33%) showed higher plantlets formation frequency on 1:4mg/l combination of NAA and BAP. Mean square value for variety, treatment and their interactions were also recorded for regeneration efficiency at probability level of p≤0.05 which showed that these entire factors significantly affect plantlets formation frequency.

879-887 Download
22
EFFECT OF NACL SALINITY ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS
ZAHIR MUHAMMAD AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN

EFFECT OF NACL SALINITY ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control)

889-897 Download
23
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND GRAIN FORMATION IN SPRING WHEAT
RIAZ-UD-DIN, GHULAM MAHBOOB SUBHANI*, NAEEM AHMAD, MAKHDOOM HUSSAIN AND AZIZ UR REHMAN

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DEVELOPMENT AND GRAIN FORMATION IN SPRING WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Ten wheat genotypes viz., Inqilab-91, AS-2002, GA-2002, Manthar, Ufaq-2002, 00125, 00055, 01180, 00183 and 99022 were planted on November 10

899-906 Download
24
TREE EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 INCREASES AVAILABILITY OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS
FAISAL N. KHAN1, MARTIN LUKAC2,*, FRANCO MIGLIETTA3, M. KHALID4 AND DOUGLAS L. GODBOLD1

TREE EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 INCREASES AVAILABILITY OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS
ABSTRACT:
Future high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide will increase biomass production of terrestrial plants, however depletion of soil mineral nutrients may act as a negative feedback to increased growth. To test this, an ecosystem phosphorus budget was calculated in poplar grown under field conditions at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 for 5 years. The pools of total, plant available, weatherable and organic P were estimated, as well as the P storage in tree biomass components. While as a non-significant increase in amount of P taken up by the trees we observed, plant available P pools in the soil increased significantly. An increase in all soil P extractions was seen, with the greatest increase in an acid soluble P fraction which is considered to be the weatherable fraction. The formation of this P fraction may be biogenically driven and this additional P probably originates from weathering of occluded mineral pools.

907-916 Download
25
COTTON GROWTH UNDER POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY STRESS IS INFLUENCED BY PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS AND ROOT SYSTEM
ZIA-UL-HASSAN1* AND M. ARSHAD2

COTTON GROWTH UNDER POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY STRESS IS INFLUENCED BY PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS AND ROOT SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Due to rapid depletion of soil potassium (K) and increasing cost of K fertilizers in Pakistan, the K-use efficient crop genotypes become very important for agricultural sustainability. However, limited research has been done on this important issue particularly in cotton, an important fibre crop. We studied the growth and biomass production of three cotton genotypes (CIM-506, NIAB-78 and NIBGE-2) different in K-use efficiency in a K-deficient solution culture. Genotypes differed significantly for biomass production, absolute growth rates (shoot, root, leaf, total), leaf area, mean leaf area and relative growth rate of leaf under K deficiency stress, besides specific leaf area. The relative growth rate (shoot, root, total) did not differ significantly, except for leaf. For all these characters, NIBGE-2 was the best performer followed by NIAB-78 and CIM-506. Shoot dry weight was significantly related with (in decreasing order of significance): mean leaf area, leaf dry weight, leaf area, root dry weight, absolute growth rate of shoot, absolute growth rate of root, absolute growth rate total, absolute growth rate root, relative growth rate leaf, relative growth rate total and relative growth rate shoot. Hence, the enhanced biomass accumulation of cotton genotypes under K deficiency stress is related to their efficient photosynthetic apparatus and root system, appeared to be the most important morphological markers while breeding for K-use efficient cotton genotypes.

917-925 Download
26
EFFECT OF MANNITOL- AND SALT-INDUCED ISO-OSMOTIC STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH CHARACTERS OF RICE CULTIVARS (ORYZA SATIVA L. SPP. INDICA)
SURIYAN CHA-UM1*, NGUYEN THI HONG NHUNG2 AND CHALERMPOL KIRDMANEE1

EFFECT OF MANNITOL- AND SALT-INDUCED ISO-OSMOTIC STRESS ON PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH CHARACTERS OF RICE CULTIVARS (ORYZA SATIVA L. SPP. INDICA)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of rice cultivars to iso-osmotic water deficit and salt stress. Seedlings of three rice cultivars were photoautotrophically grown in MS media and subsequently exposed to -0.23 (control), -0.42 or -0.94 MPa iso-osmotic mannitol (water-deficit stress) or NaCl (salt stress). Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and photon yield of PSII (FPSII) in the osmotically-stressed seedlings were significantly reduced when compared to those of the control group (without mannitol or NaCl), leading to net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth reduction with positive correlation. In addition, physiological changes and growth parameters of salt stressed seedlings were more sharply reduced than those of water-deficit stressed seedlings, especially in PT1 salt susceptible. On the other hand, the proline contents in the root and leaf tissues of osmotically-stressed seedlings increased significantly, especially in response to iso-osmotic salt stress. The chlorophyll pigments in iso-osmotically-stressed leaves were significantly degraded, related to low water oxidation, low Pn and growth reduction. Those multivariate parameters were subjected to classify the salt tolerance, HJ and salt susceptible, PT1 and RD6 as well as the water deficit tolerance, HJ and RD6 and water deficit susceptible, PT1 using Hierarchical cluster analysis.

927-941 Download
27
DIFFERENTIAL POTASSIUM INFLUX INFLUENCES GROWTH OF TWO COTTON VARIETIES IN HYDROPONICS
LIAQAT ALI1*, RAHMATULLAH1, TARIQ AZIZ2, M. ASHRAF, MUHAMMAD AAMER MAQSOOD1 AND SHAMSA KANWAL1

DIFFERENTIAL POTASSIUM INFLUX INFLUENCES GROWTH OF TWO COTTON VARIETIES IN HYDROPONICS
ABSTRACT:
Potassium uptake rate of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties viz., NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 was investigated in nutrient solution culture having deficient K @ 0.3 mM and deficient K+ Na @ 0.3 +2.7 mM. Depletion of K from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time intervals after 0, 0.5

943-953 Download
28
GENETIC BASIS OF YIELD AND SOME YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1*, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

GENETIC BASIS OF YIELD AND SOME YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE
ABSTRACT:
Additive, dominance and epistasis components of genetic variation for yield and some yield related traits were assessed through modified triple test cross technique in Basmati rice. Epistasis was found an important part of genetic variation for plant height, tillers per plant, secondary branches per panicle, grains per panicle

955-961 Download
29
DEVELOPMENT OF AN EFFICIENT REGENERATION PROTOCOL FOR THREE GENOTYPES OF BRASSICA JUNCEA
RAISA BANO1,2, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1,2, RAHAM SHER KHAN1, HAMID RASHID2* AND ZAHOOR A. SWATI1

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EFFICIENT REGENERATION PROTOCOL FOR THREE GENOTYPES OF BRASSICA JUNCEA
ABSTRACT:
Two phytohormones, auxins (Naphthalene acetic acid and Indole acetic acid) and cytokinins (Benzylaminopurine and Kinetin) with concentrations were used to develop an efficient regeneration protocol for 3 genotypes of Brassica juncea (UCD-635, RL-18 and NIFA RAYE). The explants were cultured on MS-medium supplemented with BAP 1.0 mgL-1/NAA 0.1 mgL-1, BAP 2.0 mg L-1/NAA 0.2 mg L-1, BAP 3.0 mgL-1/NAA 0.3 mg L-1 and Kinetin 1.0 mg L-1/IAA 0.1 mg L-1, Kinetin 2.0 mg L-1/IAA 0.2 mg L-1, Kinetin 3.0mg L-1/IAA 0.3 mg L-1. Maximum callus production (65.55) was observed on MS medium containing with BAP 2.0 mgL-1/NAA 0.2 mg L-1. Maximum shooting ( 22.31) was observed BAP 3.0 mg L-1/NAA 0.3 mg L-1 and KIN 3.0 mg L-1/IAA 0.3 mg L-1. Regeneration efficiency was found maximum (7.13) with BAP 3.0 mg L-1/NAA 0.3 mg L-1. The three genotypes were found significantly different at p≤0.05 in shoots production and regeneration efficiency.

963-969 Download
30
GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND CORRELATION STUDIES OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL.] GENOTYPES
ZAFAR IQBAL1, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, REHAN NAEEM3, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM MALIK4 AND ABDUL WAHEED

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND CORRELATION STUDIES OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL.] GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out in National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad during autumn 2004 and 2005 to determine the variability and association among 9 traits in 139 soybean genotypes. The traits viz., days to maturity, plant height at maturity, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant

971-976 Download
31
EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED DROUGHT STRESS ON PHYSIO-HORMONAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOYBEAN
MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN1, SUMERA AFZAL KHAN2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,4, NADEEM AHMAD1 AND IN-JUNG LEE 1*

EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED DROUGHT STRESS ON PHYSIO-HORMONAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is a major abiotic constraint limiting crop production world wide. In current study, we investigated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth, yield and endogenous phytohormones of soybean. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of elevated strength (8% & 16%) were used for drought stress induction. Drought stress period span for two weeks each at pre and post flowering growth stage. It was observed that soybean growth and yield attributes significantly reduced under drought stress at both pre and post flowering period, while maximum reduction was caused by PEG (16%) applied at pre flowering time. The endogenous bioactive GA1 and GA4 content decreased under elevated drought stress. On the other hand, jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content increased under drought stress. On the basis of current study, we concluded that application of earlier drought stress severely reduced growth and yield attributes of soybean when compared to its later application. Furthermore, increases in the endogenous contents of JA, SA and ABA in response to drought stress demonstrate the involvement of these hormones in drought stress resistance.

977-986 Download
32
PHYTOTOXIC STUDIES OF MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
SYED ABDULLAH GILANI12*, YOSHIHARU FUJII3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4, MUHAMMAD ADNAN1, AKIRA KIKUCHI2 AND KAZUO N. WATANABE2

PHYTOTOXIC STUDIES OF MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phytochemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phytotoxic plants as compared to the other test species.

987-996 Download
33
INCREASE IN FREQUENCY OF THE RPG4 GENE IN SOYBEAN CULTIVARS
FARHATULLAH1*, MARK M STAYTON2, ROBIN W. GROOSE2, RAZIUDDIN1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, M. AKMAL1 AND MIAN INAYATULLAH1

INCREASE IN FREQUENCY OF THE RPG4 GENE IN SOYBEAN CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to observe the change in frequency of resistance gene (Rpg4) to Pseudomonas syringae pv. Glycinae (Psg) between the ancestors and public soybean cultivars. A comparison of the alleles at the locus for resistance of soybean (Glycine max, L.) to bacterial blight in a sample of 51 North American public cultivars released through 1990 with the allele in their ancestors indicated that breeders have concentrated the dominant allele in public cultivars from 69 to 84%. The Rpg4 gene may be involved in resistance to Psg in soybean, however, it has another useful function that somehow contributes to soybean productivity in modern agroecosystems and thus plant breeders have unintentionally increased its frequency in cultivated germplasm.

997-1002 Download
34
HETEROSIS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF OIL QUALITY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
SHER ASLAM1, SHUJAUL MULK KHAN2, MUHAMMAD SALEEM3*, AFSARI SHARIF QURESHI4, ABDULLAH KHAN5, MUHAMMAD ISLAM1 AND SHAH MASAUD KHAN6

HETEROSIS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF OIL QUALITY IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
To improve the oil quality of the available sunflower genotypes by exploiting heterosis-breeding program. Four Cytoplasmic Male Sterile lines TS-17, TS-18, TS-228, TS-335 and four Restorer lines 291RGI, R-25, TR-9, TR-6023 sunflower parents and their sixteen F1 hybrids were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replicates at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar. Highly significant genetic differences (p<0.01) were observed among parents and F1 hybrids for oleic acid (C18: 1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and behenic acid (C20:0). Mid and high parent heterosis estimates of F1 hybrids ranged from -100 to 157.31% and -100 to 113.59% for C20, –29.84 to 52.02% and –31.23 to 50.49% for C18:1, -20.12 to 16.19% and-20.66 to 9.69% for C18: 2 and –100 to 201.08% and –100 to 100% for C20:0 respectively. TS-335 x 291RGI has highest negative mid and high parent heterotic effects for TS-18 x R-25 has maximum positive mid and high parent heterosis for C18:1, TS-18 x TR-6023 has maximum positive mid and high parent heterotic effects for C18:2 and highest negative mid parent heterosis was observed for C20:0 by TS-17 x TR-9, TS-18 x 291RGI. It is concluded that the mid and high parent heterotic effects improve oil quality of the parent of these eight hybrids and are suggested for use in sunflower breeding program.

1003-1008 Download
35
GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG SOME CURRANTS (RIBES SPP.) CULTIVARS AS ASSESSED BY AFLP MARKERS
AHMET IPEK*, ERDOGAN BARUT, HATICE GULEN AND MERYEM IPEK

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG SOME CURRANTS (RIBES SPP.) CULTIVARS AS ASSESSED BY AFLP MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Currants cultivation has increased its popularity in Turkey due to the use of more currants in Turkish cuisine. To provide farmers with well adapted currants cultivars, some currants cultivars have been planted in various geographical regions of Turkey. In this study, genetic diversity among some of these currants cultivars has been analyzed using AFLP markers. Our results indicated that red and black currants genotypes are genetically distinct, sharing very small proportion of AFLP markers. Selected currants genotypes from Turkey shared all AFLP markers suggesting that they might be the same genotype.

1009-1012 Download
36
DNA LANDMARKS FOR GENETIC RELATEDNESS AND DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN PAKISTANI WHEAT GENOTYPES USING RAPD MARKERS
MUHAMMAD FAISAL SIDDIQUI1*, SAEED IQBAL1, SHAZIA ERUM2, NAHEED NAZ1, SAJID KHAN1

DNA LANDMARKS FOR GENETIC RELATEDNESS AND DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN PAKISTANI WHEAT GENOTYPES USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
DNA profiles from 10 Pakistani wheat genotypes were evaluated for diversity assessment based on RAPD markers. A total of 79 DNA fragments were generated by 10 RAPD primers, with an average of 7.9 bands primer-1. Of these, 64 fragments (81%) were polymorphic among 10 genotypes. Genetic diversity was evaluated via UPGMA cluster analysis by constructing dendrogram, which were used for the calculation of similarity coefficients between these genotypes. The greatest similarity (95%) was observed between PR-94 and PR-95, whereas PR-96 with PR-90 showed the lowest similarity (60%). Adoption of this technology would be useful to the plant protection regulatory systems, especially for plant variety identification and registration of new plant varieties, breeding programs and protection purposes.

1013-1020 Download
37
GENE ACTION STUDIES OF DIFFERENT QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN MAIZE
MUHAMMAD IRSHAD-UL-HAQ1, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2*, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2 AND MUHAMMAD GULFARAZ3

GENE ACTION STUDIES OF DIFFERENT QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to determine the type of gene action, genetic parameters of yield and other quantitative traits by crossing 8 diverse maize inbred lines in complete diallel fashion. Seed of F1 population along with their parents was planted in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Analysis of variance showed that inbred lines differed significantly among each other for all traits. The estimates of components of genetic variation revealed that non additive genetic effects were more pronounced in the inheritance of plant height, days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, ear height and grain yield per plant. Directional dominance was observed for all the characters under study. Asymmetrical gene distribution was observed for all the attributes except ear height for which parental lines contained equal number of dominant and recessive genes. The graphic analysis showed that all the characters were under the genetic control of over dominance type of gene action, therefore, the material can easily be exploited for heterotic effect.

1021-1030 Download
38
VEGETATION COMMUNITIES OF URBAN OPEN SPACES: GREEN BELTS AND PARKS IN ISLAMABAD CITY
SYEDA MARIA ALI* AND RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK

VEGETATION COMMUNITIES OF URBAN OPEN SPACES: GREEN BELTS AND PARKS IN ISLAMABAD CITY
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to assess the vegetation communities of the open urban spaces viz., green belts, gardens and parks of Islamabad city. A total of 162 plant species representing 137 genera and 58 families were recorded. Two way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) classified the floristic species composition into four major community types which showed some overlap in an ordination space, reflecting relatively homogenous nature of the vegetation. Pinus roxburghii and Grewia asiatica were more prevalent in green belts while native vegetation dominated by Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica were present in undisturbed green spaces. Broussonetia papyrifera and Populus euphratica showed distribution along the drains/nullahs in the city. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was applied to identify environmental gradients to define vegetation distribution. First ordination axis demonstrated species distribution influenced by presence of invasive species whereas second axis identified urban development as main gradient for separation of plant communities. The results provide information on urban vegetation and can be used to formulate strategies for future park management and conservation and protection of green spaces.

1031-1039 Download
39
INCREASED RESISTANCE OF ARABIDOPSIS CPR5 MUTANT TO H2O2- INDUCED PHOTOOXIDATION
HUANG HONG-YING1,2*, LAI WEN-LING1*, SONG LI-YING1, SHU ZHAN1,3, YANG CHENG-WEI 1 AND PENG CHANG-LIAN1**

INCREASED RESISTANCE OF ARABIDOPSIS CPR5 MUTANT TO H2O2- INDUCED PHOTOOXIDATION
ABSTRACT:
cpr5 is predicted to be a putative transmembrane protein involved in several cellular processes, including signal transduction plant defense and trichome development. The mutation of the cpr5 gene increases the resistance of Arabidopsis to pathogens. In this study, we show an In vitro increased resistance of cpr5 leaves to hydrogen peroxide-induced photooxidation. Both fluorescence parameters (including Fv/Fm, фPSⅡ, qP and NPQ) and the activities of two anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD and APX) were used to evaluate the response of mutant and wild-type leaves to H2O2 treatment. During a 360-min., treatment, both mutant and wild-type leaves showed a time course dependent decrease trend in Fv/Fm values. However, the decrease rate for mutant leaves (0.046/min) was nearly twenty five-fold lower than that for wild-type leaves (0.101/min). The leaves of cpr5 dramatically delayed the reduction of фPSⅡ values and showed a different profile of фPSⅡ from the wild-type. At 240 min., of treatment, the value of фPSⅡ for the mutant leaves was nearly six-fold as that of the wild-type. The rates of cellular membrane leakage were constitutively lower in the cpr5 leaves than in the wild-type. In addition, the cpr5 leaves showed slightly higher activities of the SOD and APX enzymes than did the wild type. These results indicated that cpr5 mutant increased both anti-oxidative capability and the stability of PSII to H2O2-induced photooxidation.

1041-1049 Download
40
INTERACTION OF WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA L.) WITH DIVERGENT WHEAT CULTIVARS
IJAZ AHMAD KHAN1*, GUL HASSAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, IHSANULLAH DAUR2, SYED MEHER ALI SHAH3, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN3, SHERAZ AHMAD KHAN3 AND FARHATULLAH3

INTERACTION OF WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA L.) WITH DIVERGENT WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
To elucidate the competitive ability of various cultivars of wheat with wild oats, field trials were established at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan for two crop seasons i.e. 2004-05 and 2005-06 using Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design having four replications. Each experiment comprised of 6 wheat cultivars viz., Khattakwal, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Dera-91, Saleem-2000 and Pirsabak-85. In all the treatments, the wild oats was sown at a constant density of 10 plants m-2. Data were recorded on tillers m-2, plant height (cm), number of spikes m-2, leaf area tiller-1 (cm2), spikelets spike-1, spike length (cm), grains spike-1

1051-1056 Download
41
HERITABILITY AND GENETIC POTENTIAL OF UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES FOR MORPHO-YIELD TRAITS
SUNDAS BATOOL1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, KHADIJAH MAKHDOOM1, ZARINA BIBI2, GUL HASSAN3, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3, FARHATULLAH1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, RAZIUDDIN1 AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN3

HERITABILITY AND GENETIC POTENTIAL OF UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES FOR MORPHO-YIELD TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
The studies determining genetic variability and heritability in upland cotton were carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications during 2008 at the NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The breeding material comprised of eight Gossypium hirsutum cultivars viz., SLH-284, CIM-446, CIM-473, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-554 and CIM-707. The cultivars manifested highly significant differences (p<0.01) for plant height, monopodia and sympodia plant-1 and seed cotton yield plant-1, while merely significant (p<0.05) for days to first flowering and boll weight. However, first internode length showed non-significant variation among the cultivars. The cultivar CIM-506 was found top promising by having maximum seed cotton yield plant-1, sympodia plant-1, short stature plants, and medium early maturity and boll weight as compared to other seven cultivars. The cultivars CIM-707 and CIM-554 also showed comparable yield contributing traits and seed cotton yield. The heritability broad sense (bs) was high for the traits days to first flowering (0.96), plant height (0.95), monopodia plant-1 (0.88), sympodia plant-1 (0.89), boll weight (0.97) and seed cotton yield plant-1 (0.91) while first internode length (0.36) revealed low heritability. For majority of the traits the genetic variances were also greater than environmental variances and were found high heritable. Therefore, the said breeding material has the room for further improvement of morpho-yield traits and can safely be used in future breeding programmes.

1057-1064 Download
42
ESTABLISHMENT OF A SUITABLE AND REPRODUCIBLE PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO REGENERATION OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE)
ANWAR HOSSAIN1, LUTFUL HASSAN1*, ABDUL KHALEQ PATWARY1, M. SULTAN MIA1, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMAD2, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2 AND FARHAT BATOOL3

ESTABLISHMENT OF A SUITABLE AND REPRODUCIBLE PROTOCOL FOR IN VITRO REGENERATION OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE)
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out to find out a suitable and standard protocol for plant regeneration of 2 exotic and 6 locally cultivated varieties of ginger viz., Fulbaria, Syedpuri, Chittagongi, Jangli, Indian, Chaina, Sherpuri and BARI ada-1 were used as explants. For callus induction, comparing the varieties, Indian (51.84%) and among the treatments, selected MS media supplemented with 1 mgL-1 IAA + 3 mgL-1 BAP showed the maximum number of callus (2.681). For shoot regeneration, MS media supplemented with 4 mgL-1 BAP + 3 mgL-1 Kn + 1 mgL-1 IAA showed the best performance in ginger. Considering the combined effect of BAP, IAA, Kn and genotype, maximum regenerants (2.33) were found in Indian placed in selected media. In case of root induction, the root initiation potentiality was evaluated by testing on 5 different combinations of phytohormones. Among the genotypes Indian showed the best response (43.46%) on root initiation and it observed that half strength MS media supplemented with 2 mgL-1 IBA + 2 mgL-1 NAA was very effective. For the plant survival rate from sprout, leaf and root was about 86.67%, 80.00% and 85.71%, respectively. In case of plastic pots after the acclimatization of the plants in growth chamber whereas, in earthen pots it was 84.62%, 75.00% and 66.67% in case of Indian, Jongli and Chittagongi cultivars respectively.

1065-1074 Download
43
STUDIES ON SEED MORPHOLOGY OF CAMPANULA L. SECTION QUINQUELOCULARES (BOISS.) PHITOS (CAMPANULACEAE) IN TURKEY
EMİNE ALÇITEPE

STUDIES ON SEED MORPHOLOGY OF CAMPANULA L. SECTION QUINQUELOCULARES (BOISS.) PHITOS (CAMPANULACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Morphological features of seeds of 9 species of Campanula L., section Quinqueloculares (Boiss.) Phitos (Campanulaceae) which are distributed in Turkey were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characteristics of the seeds and their surface are described and compared. Two main types and two subtypes of surface ornamentation patterns are observed. These can be considered as diagnostic characters.

1075-1082 Download
44
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS ACROSS NORTH WEST OF PAKISTAN
H. RAHMAN1*, DURRESHAWAR1, S. ALI1, F. IFTIKHAR1, I.H. KHALIL1, S.M.A. SHAH1 AND H. AHMAD2

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS ACROSS NORTH WEST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Stability analysis was carried out to study stability in performance and genotype x environment interactions for 18 maize hybrids across three locations of NWFP i.e., Agricultural University Peshawar (AUP), Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Baffa, (Mansehra) and Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak (Nowshera), during 2006. Data were recorded on different morphological and yield parameters. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the three locations for all the traits studied. Hybrids showed significant differences for all parameters except anthesis silking interval (ASI) and ear height, which were non significant across the three locations. The hybrid x location interactions also revealed significant differences for days to 50% silking, days to 50% anthesis, ASI, grain moisture at harvest and grain yield per hectare while non significant differences were observed for plant height and ear height. Based on yield performance of hybrids across the three locations, Baffa ranked first as compared to the other two locations. Hybrid DK-1 x EV-9806 was the highest yielding across the three locations followed by hybrid AGB-108, while the lowest yield was observed for hybrid CSCY. Stability in performance was evident for hybrid CS-2Y2 with regard to days required for silking and anthesis. Stability in anthesis silking interval (ASI) was manifested for hybrid CS-222. Hybrid AGB-108 was comparatively stable for grain yield across the tested locations. Remaining hybrids seemed to be considerably influenced by Genotype x environment interactions encountered at the tested locations and location specific selection has to be made while selecting a maize hybrid for a particular location.

1083-1091 Download
45
COMBINED EFFECT OF CYTOKININ AND SUCROSE ON IN VITRO TUBERIZATION PARAMETERS OF TWO CULTIVARS i.e., DIAMANT AND RED NORLAND OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM)
*AAFIA ASLAM AND JAVED IQBAL

COMBINED EFFECT OF CYTOKININ AND SUCROSE ON IN VITRO TUBERIZATION PARAMETERS OF TWO CULTIVARS i.e., DIAMANT AND RED NORLAND OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM)
ABSTRACT:
The present study is focused on the optimization of culture media and explant density of apical and nodal segments of two potato cultivars for In vitro microtuber production. Fifty media manipulations of Murashige & Skoog (1962) were tested by varying concentrations of sucrose (4, 6, 8

1093-1102 Download
46
CULTIVATION OF LILIES (LILIUM REGALE) FOR COMMERCIALIZATION IN PAKISTAN
K. SAIFULLAH1, N. SHEEBA1, R. MARIAM1, K. NAHEED1, N. ASMA1 AND S. BUSHRA2

CULTIVATION OF LILIES (LILIUM REGALE) FOR COMMERCIALIZATION IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The current study envisages producing Lilium regale plants on a large scale, employing cost-effective in-vitro protocols. The effect of various concentrations and types of plant growth regulators were observed to optimize the media for large scale propagation. Initiated buds were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.5-4.0 mgL-1); IBA (0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1) and IAA (1.0 mgL-1). A rich solid mass of white-green callus was produced. Greatest number and length of shoots were produced in a medium containing BAP (2.0 mgL-1), IBA (1.0 mgL-1), IAA (1.0 mgL-1), Peptone (1.0 mgL-1) and sugar (60 gL-1). Rooting started on media containing half the concentration of MS salts, supplemented with NAA (1.0 mgL-1) and activated charcoal (2 mgL-1). Three weeks after a rich mass of roots were obtained, the plants were transplanted individually in small clay pots and kept in close tunnels where the relative humidity was approximately 40%. Four weeks after acclimatization, the plantlets were shifted into green houses.

1103-1113 Download
47
A PRELIMINARY EXPLORATION: WHY MYRICARIA LAXIFLORA SO IMMERSION-RESISTANT AND SO SOIL-SELECTIVE?
YONG TAO, KAI-YUAN WAN, FANG CHEN* AND JIAN-QIANG LI

A PRELIMINARY EXPLORATION: WHY MYRICARIA LAXIFLORA SO IMMERSION-RESISTANT AND SO SOIL-SELECTIVE?
ABSTRACT:
Myricaria laxiflora is a shrub and also an endemic, rare and endangered plant species in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. It is of highly immersion resistant and soil selective. In this paper, the probable immersion-resistant structures of stem were identified, and the relationships between components of its inhabiting soil and the structures of stem were explored. Results showed that the parenchyma cells in cortical and pith could produce lysigenous intercellular lacuna acting as aerenchyma. The compact periderm, as well as loose-arrayed and star-shaped xylem parenchyma cells might be two fortifications of the stem to isolate water from inner tissues. We estimated that the vessel cavitation conducive to oxygen-store might likely be arisen.

1115-1127 Download
48
TREATMENT OF Cr3+ CONTAMINATED SOIL BY SOLID TEA WASTAGE I. A STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF VIGNA RADIATA
RAFIA AZMAT1*, YASMEEN AKHTER2, TEHSEEN AHMED3 AND SARA QURESHI1

TREATMENT OF Cr3+ CONTAMINATED SOIL BY SOLID TEA WASTAGE I. A STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF VIGNA RADIATA
ABSTRACT:
This study describes the option of using domestic tea waste in soil contaminated with the Cr3+ trace metal due to industrial and mine activity, continuously discharging in the land and aquatic resources. This disposal of industrial wastage without proper treatment is responsible for the lowering of crop productivity with the accumulation of essential and non essential trace metals in the plants. On the other hand domestic waste management in soil and aquatic resources are also accountable for the reduced field productivity. This research discusses the proper domestic waste management in the agriculture land for the cultivation of crop in the contaminated soil. Vigna radiata has been selected as a crop to check the effects of Cr3+ and its deletion in the contaminated soil. The highest yield was obtained when soil was mixed with tea wastage instead of spreaded tea wastage. Seed germination, morphology and physiology of 15 days old plant showed remarkable improvement in the plant growth including seed germination with activated tea wastage in the presence of Cr3+ as compared to those plants which were grown in Cr3+ contaminated soil only. Biochemical analysis of seedling showed an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, protein and amino acids, which confirms the remediation of contaminated soil through tea wastage. It was concluded that proper use of domestic waste can be helpful to increase the soil fertility and can concentrate the heavy toxic metals in it through complex formation.

1129-1136 Download
49
THE PLANKTONIC DIATOM OF THE GENUS CHAETOCEROS EHRENBERG FROM NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SEA BORDERING PAKISTAN
ASMA TABASSUM1 AND S.M. SAIFULLAH2

THE PLANKTONIC DIATOM OF THE GENUS CHAETOCEROS EHRENBERG FROM NORTHWESTERN ARABIAN SEA BORDERING PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports the occurrence of 17 species of Chaetoceros including two varieties from the northwestern Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan and deep sea vicinity. C. coarctatus was the most common and frequent species followed by C. messanensis and C. lorenzianus while others were rare. Maximum species diversity occurred during northeast monsoon season. The Indus Delta shelf was more diverse than the Balochistan shelf. All the 17 species were present in the former area and also more frequent than the later area. Most species were neritic indicating coastal influence.

1137-1151 Download
50
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHENAB RIVER WATER AT MARALA HEADWORKS
JAVED IQBAL1, M. WASEEM MUMTAZ2, HAMID MUKHTAR3, TAHIR IQBAL1, SHAHID MAHMOOD1 AND ABDUL RAZAQ1

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHENAB RIVER WATER AT MARALA HEADWORKS
ABSTRACT:
The present study describes the environmental profile of the River Chenab at Marala Headworks regarding physico-chemical characterization and particle size distribution. Water samples from the selected stations were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. To evaluate pollution status the parameters determined were temperature, pH, colour, TDS, TSS, turbidity, total hardness, Ca-hardness, Mg-hardness, nitrates, ammonia, sulphates, chlorides, fluorides, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Na. The results indicated a wide variation of different parameters among the selected sampling stations.

1153-1161 Download
51
MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARALLUMA SPECIES
TARIQ MAHMOOD*, SAMINA MUHAMMAD AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI

MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARALLUMA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Caralluma a genus of the family Asclepiadaceae is an important medicinal and threatened succulent plant in Pakistan. Ethnobotanically, it is being used either to cure diabetes and fat accumulation or as vegetable in different regions of Pakistan. The main objective of present study was to investigate genetic variations within and between two species of Caralluma viz., Caralluma tuberculata and Caralluma edulis collected from different locations. Random primers OPC series was used for genetic characterization. Ten RAPD markers were used and only 6 of them gave reproducible results with all the primers showing polymorphism (79%) among the samples of both the species. The primer OPC5 showed highest number of bands (89). UPGMA cluster analysis of molecular data showed mixed grouping of samples of both the species and failed to differentiate the species at molecular level. Morphological data of both the species was also recorded for comparison with the molecular data. Based on morphological data the two species of Caralluma were clustered into two groups, viz., C. tuberculata and the C. edulis, while molecular data showed a high level of genetic diversity as both species have shown mixed patterns.

1163-1171 Download
52
MULTIVARIATE CLASSIFICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-2), PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, ABDUL WAHID2 AND KHALID FAROOQ AKBAR3

MULTIVARIATE CLASSIFICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-2), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey of motorway (M-2) roadside vegetation and soils was undertaken. In this study, phytosociological survey using Braun-Blanquet’s approach was undertaken. The floristic data were analyzed by the TWINSPAN and DECORANA, computer programs in order to classify and provide baseline information about the study area. Two major and 16 sub-communities were recognized along 358 km long motorway. Floristic data was collected from 397 quadrats and 227 vascular plants species belonging to 75 families were recorded. TWINSPAN divided the vegetation of whole study area into 2 major communities, which are further divided into 16 sub-communities. The study also provides basic information for the implementation of conservation oriented planning and management to preserve and improve the road verges of M-2.

1173-1185 Download
53
FLORAL HOST PLANT RANGE OF SYRPHID FLIES (SYRPHIDAE: DIPTERA) UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ASIF SAJJAD AND SHAFQAT SAEED

FLORAL HOST PLANT RANGE OF SYRPHID FLIES (SYRPHIDAE: DIPTERA) UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Syrphid flies are very important group of insects in ecosystem from viewpoint of pollination and biological control. Floral host preference of 15 most abundant syrphid fly species was assessed towards 11 agricultural and 40 non-agricultural plant species in 28 families under natural field conditions. Coriandrum sativum, Cirsium arvense, Launaea procumbens, Prosopis juliflora, Allium cepa, Ranunculus muricatus and Daucus carota were visited by maximum number of syrphid fly species (>9). Eristalinus aeneus, Ischiodon scutellaris and Episyrphus balteatus were the most frequent floral visitors and also visited maximum number of plant species. There was a positive relationship between abundance of syrphid fly species and the amount of available floral resources along the flowering weeks. Fifteen syrphid most preferred plant species were identified including 8 agricultural and 7 non-agricultural plant species. Parkinsonia aculeata and Mangifera indica were the most preferred plant species by syrphid flies among agricultural and non-agricultural plant species, respectively. Most of the syrphid fly species preferred white and yellow colored actenomorphic flowers.

1187-1200 Download
54
FATTY ACIDS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM SINDH
B. GHAZALA1*, B. NAILA2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

FATTY ACIDS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Seven blue-green and 3 green algae were collected from various freshwater habitats of Sindh, (Pakistan), during January 1997-December 1999. Their methanol extracts revealed 17 saturated

1201-1212 Download
55
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON DENSITY ON THE SURFACE WATER OF SAPANCA LAKE, TURKEY
NEŞE YILMAZ* AND GÜLER AYKULU

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON DENSITY ON THE SURFACE WATER OF SAPANCA LAKE, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Seasonal variations of phytoplankton composition and density of Lake Sapanca, were investigated on the littoral and pelagic sample station points between December 1999 and February 2001. Samples were collected monthly from 4 stations which were chosen in the west part of the lake. At each station, water samples were obtained at three site. The first sites were at the closest point to the shore. In addition, there is 100 m distance between each sites. In total 54 phytoplankton species were recorded: Bacillariophyta 30, Chlorophyta 12, Cyanophyta 5, Euglenophyta 3, Dinophyta 2, Chrysophya 1 and Cryptophyta 1. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta constituted majority of the phytoplankton both in terms of species numbers and density. No apparent differences were found in phytoplankton compositon at three sampling sites of each station. In general, surface phytoplankton were found to be rather poor as it was in the previous quantative phytoplankton studies carried-out in the lake. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured higher (8.39- 21.79 mg/m3) than the previous studies.

1213-1224 Download
56
PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS PROTEIN BY SEQUENTIAL CULTURE FERMENTATION OF ARACHNIOTUS SP., AND CANDIDA UTILIS
SIBTAIN AHMED1, FAYYAZ AHMAD2 AND ABU SAEED HASHMI2,3*

PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS PROTEIN BY SEQUENTIAL CULTURE FERMENTATION OF ARACHNIOTUS SP., AND CANDIDA UTILIS
ABSTRACT:
Sequential culture fermentation by Arachniotus sp. at 35oC for 72 h and followed by Candida utilis fermentation at 35oC for 72 h more resulted in higher production of microbial biomass protein. 6% (w/v) corn stover, 0.0075% CaCl2.2H2O, 0.005% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.01% KH2PO4, C: N ratio of 30:1 and 1% molasses gave higher microbial biomass protein production by the sequential culture fermentation of Arachniotus sp., and C. utilis. The mixed microbial biomass protein produced in the 75-L fermentor contained 16.41%

1225-1234 Download
57
MUTATION INDUCED ENHANCED BIOSYNTHESIS OF LIPASES BY RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS VAR. MICROSPORUS
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1,2*, MUBASHIR NIAZ2, SYED QAISER ABBAS2, MUHAMMAD ANJUM ZIA3, IFFAT ASHRAF5, KYE JOON LEE4 AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ1

MUTATION INDUCED ENHANCED BIOSYNTHESIS OF LIPASES BY RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS VAR. MICROSPORUS
ABSTRACT:
The present study describes the isolation, identification and screening of fugal strain Rhizopus oligosporus (var. microsporus) for the production of extracellular lipases. One hundred and sixty seven cultures of fungi were isolated from different environments such as soil, air, milk, pickle, oily bread, decayed fruits and vegetables by serial dilution method. The strains were initially selected qualitatively on Tween 80-Agar plates and were shifted to the slants of PDA for maintenance and storage at 4oC. Quantitative screening for extracellular lipase production by isolated strains was carried out in shake flasks and the most potent strain producing 3.20 ± 0.003 U mL-1 of enzyme was selected. The strain was then identified on the basis of standard morphological measurements and was assigned the code IIB-63. The selected strain was then subjected to physical (UV and Gamma radiations) and chemical mutagenic (MNNG/NTG, NA, EtBr) treatments in order to improve its lipolytic potential. During the treatment, mutants were qualitatively and quantitatively selected and IIB-63 NTG-7 was found to be the mutant showing highest lipases production (10.37 ± 0.06a U mL-1) with a zone size of 12.3 mm on Luria-Bertani-tributyrin agar plates. This mutant showed an overall 325% increase in activity over its parent strain for the production of extracellular lipase.

1235-1249 Download
58
BIO-PHYSICAL BASES OF ANTIXENOTIC MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE IN BITTER-GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L., CUCURBITACAE) AGAINST MELON FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA CUCURBITAE (COQUILLETT) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
MUHAMMAD DILDAR GOGI1, MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ1, MUHAMMAD JALAL ARIF1* AND MUHAMMAD ASLAM KHAN2

BIO-PHYSICAL BASES OF ANTIXENOTIC MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE IN BITTER-GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L., CUCURBITACAE) AGAINST MELON FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA CUCURBITAE (COQUILLETT) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
ABSTRACT:
Plants genotypes possess different phenotypic and/or biochemical properties, which resultantly induce in them different mechanisms of resistance. These mechanisms enable the plants to avoid, tolerate or recover from the effects of insect pest attacks. The results of the present studies revealed that there were significant variation in tested bitter-gourd genotypes for percentage fruit-infestation and larval-density per fruit. Col-II and Faisalabad-Long were ranked resistant genotypes and identified as resistance source for melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. The larval density per fruit had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.992) with percentage fruit infestation. The fruit-length, fruit-diameter, number of longitudinal ribs/fruit and number of small ridges/cm2, which were significantly lowest in resistant and highest in susceptible genotypes, had a significant positive correlation with the percent fruit infestation and larval-density per fruit. However, fruit toughness, height of small ridges, height of longitudinal ribs and pericarp thickness, which were significantly highest in resistant and lowest in susceptible genotypes, had a significant negative correlation with the percent fruit infestation and larval-density per fruit. Step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that the tested morphological traits explained 100% of the total variation in fruit infestation and larval-density per fruit. However, the fruit-length, fruit-diameter, fruit-toughness and number of longitudinal ribs showed 95.49% of the total variation in fruit fly infestation and 99.67% of the total variation in the larval-density per fruit. The maximum variation, in fruit infestation and larval-density per fruit, was explained by fruit toughness (63.4 and 49.2%, respectively) followed by fruit-diameter (23.22 and 22.34%, respectively) and number of longitudinal ribs (8.23 and 11.57%, respectively). These can be used as marker traits to induce resistance against melon fruit fly in bitter gourd; whereas, rest of the morphological fruit-traits explained less than 2% variation in the fruit infestation and less than 1% variation in the larval-density per fruit.

1251-1266 Download
59
AN EFFICIENT METHOD OF PROTOPLAST ISOLATION IN BANANA (MUSA SPP.)
ABDULLAH KHATRI1, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT2, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN1 AND GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI1

AN EFFICIENT METHOD OF PROTOPLAST ISOLATION IN BANANA (MUSA SPP.)
ABSTRACT:
Protoplast cultures are essential commodity for transformation and this can be achieved through electroporation and somatic hybridization. Like other monocot systems, embryogenic cell suspension is the material of choice for the isolation of protoplasts. In banana protoplasts have been successfully isolated but so far sufficient quantities of protoplasts for practical application are not routinely met. Enzyme mixture comprises of 3% cellulose R-10

1267-1271 Download
60
COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACT OF DATURA ALBA NEES AND CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS., ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF COWPEA AND OKRA
SHAHNAZ DAWAR, SADIA KHALIQ AND MARIUM TARIQ

COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACT OF DATURA ALBA NEES AND CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS., ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT DISEASE OF COWPEA AND OKRA
ABSTRACT:
To investigate the effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Datura alba Nees extracts used as soil drenching and seed of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) were treated with different antagonists like Trichoderma harzianum, Rhizobium meliloti and Paecilomyces variotii under screen house conditions. Results showed that Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn were completely suppressed when D. alba extract was used as soil drenching and seeds of okra and cowpea were coated with P. variotii while Fusarium spp., was suppressed when C. dactylon extract was used in combination with P. variotii as seed treatment. Growth parameters were maximum when soil was drenched with D. alba and C. dactylon extracts and seeds were treated with P. variotii.

1273-1279 Download
61
COMMUNITIES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI IN MEDICINAL PLANT WITHANIA SOMNIFERA
REZWANA KHAN1,3, SALEEM SHAHZAD2, M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY3, SHAKEEL A. KHAN1 AND AQEEL AHMAD1*

COMMUNITIES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI IN MEDICINAL PLANT WITHANIA SOMNIFERA
ABSTRACT:
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is known to possess medicinal properties. Medicinal plants harbour endophytic mycoflora. Only a few plants have been studied for their endophyte biodiversity and their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. There is a need to understand the biodiversity of endophytic fungi and their potential of producing novel compounds of medicinal importance. A total of 643 segments (202 leaf, 391 stem, and 50 root samples) from 20 different plants were screened for their endophytic mycoflora. Thirty-three fungal strains of 24 species have been isolated, four belonged to the class Ascomycetes and 20 to class Deuteromycetes. The highest species richness as well as frequency of colonization was in stem; with the exception of Aspergillus niger, A. terreus and A. alternata, all the other fungi were found to be organ-specific. In this study most dominant endophyte was found to be A. alternata. Overall colonization frequency was measured as 14.15%. Many of the pharmaceutical compounds produced by medicinal plants are reportedly produced by their endophytic fungi. Hence, it is important to study medicinal plants for their endophytic mycoflora for biodiversity and then to determine their medicinal properties. The present work was therefore initiated to study the endophytic fungal population in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal., a commonly used medicinal plant in the subcontinent.

1281-1287 Download
62
METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF SYMPTOMS SEVERITY OF MANGO SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME IN PAKISTAN
ASAD MASOOD1, SHAFQAT SAEED1, NAEEM IQBAL1, MUHAMMAD TARIQ MALIK2 AND MUNAWER RAZA KAZMI3

METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF SYMPTOMS SEVERITY OF MANGO SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit tree of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Presently, the mango orchards in Pakistan are badly infected with the destructive and latent disease, Mango Sudden Death Syndrome (MSDS). The apparent symptoms of this disease are gum oozing, bark splitting, rotting signs, vascular discoloration, canker formation and withered leaves attached over after dying of tree. Methodology for the assessment of mango sudden death in mango orchards was developed in devising a decision support system for timing management of disease. Disease incidence was observed on the collar portion including main roots of infected trees over total number of trees. The disease severity symptoms were recorded on the whole trees i.e., collar region, root zone, main stem, main limbs and leaves from four sides of tree. A disease scale was developed on the basis of visual observations of symptoms on infected mango tree. It comprised of seven scales ranging from 0= no disease sign

1289-1299 Download
63
OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN WHEAT AND MAIZE CROPS OF MALAKAND DIVISION OF NORTH
WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN WHEAT AND MAIZE CROPS OF MALAKAND DIVISION OF NORTH
ABSTRACT:
NASRULLAH1, M. SHARIF1*, K. RUBINA2 AND T. BURNI3

1301-1312 Download
64
DECAYING LEAF SHEATHS OF WHEAT-AN UNUSUAL NICHE FOR GLOMUS MONOSPORUM
GHAZALA NASIM

DECAYING LEAF SHEATHS OF WHEAT-AN UNUSUAL NICHE FOR GLOMUS MONOSPORUM
ABSTRACT:
The sporocarp formation by a species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus monosporum (Gerd.) Trappe has been reported in sheathing leaf bases of decaying wheat stumps. For this purpose wheat stumps left after crop harvest were sampled periodically with an interval of 5 days from a cultivated field along with rhizosphere soil. All stages of sporocarp development of G. monosporum and changes taking place after dispersal were studied in senescing leaf bases and roots of these stumps. In pot cultures developing sporocarps were occasionally observed while large sized, thin-walled vesicles were observed in roots of wheat plants inoculated with leaf bases of wheat colonized with G. monosporum.

1313-1316 Download
65
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION ON PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2, MOHAMMAD YOUSAF3, RAZIUDDIN4 AND MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN5

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION ON PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of four regimes of irrigation on physiological and morphological characteristics of sunflower hybrids was studied at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The four irrigation levels were control (no-irrigation), heading stage, heading + flowering stages, and heading + flowering + grain filling stages. Sub plot size of 4.5 m x 5 m was maintained and randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement having 5 replications were used. Water regimes/ irrigation were kept in the main plot while hybrids (Parsum-1 and SF-187) in the sub plot. Maximum seed yield (2680 kg ha-1) was obtained with three irrigations when compared with other treatments. Among the hybrids, SF-187 produced more yields (2440 kg ha-1) than the hybrid Parsun-1 (2333 kg ha-1). Oil content was lower (41.01%) in treatments receiving three irrigations. Seed yield with three irrigations was 24.83% higher than the control plot. Maximum leaf area index was observed when irrigation was given at 90 day interval after emergence of the sunflower (third irrigation). The same trend was also observed in dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate.

1317-1326 Download
66
ANTIFUNGAL AND NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LEGUMES OF PAKISTAN
SHAKEEL AHMAD1, MUSSARAT AKHTER2*, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ3, MEHJABEEN4 AND SAGHEER AHMED5

ANTIFUNGAL AND NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LEGUMES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The antifungal activity of legume seed extracts was tested against 6 fungi, viz., Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The extracts showed moderate activity against different fungal strains. Nematicidal activity has also been carried out to evaluate their potential toxicity against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In vitro results showed that ethanolic extract of these legumes caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The concentrations used @ 1% and 0.5% were found more effective and produced significant results as compared to 0.25%, and 0.1%. The mortality rate increased with increasing exposure time for most of the extracts.

1327-1331 Download
67
STUDIES OF OIL FROM COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN
M. ZIA-UL-HAQ1, S. AHMAD2*, E. CHIAVARO3, MEHJABEEN4 AND SAGHEER AHMED5

STUDIES OF OIL FROM COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The physiochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of oil from seeds of 4 cowpea cultivars viz., Elite, CP1, White Star and SA dandy, commonly grown in Pakistan, were investigated. Oil contents ranged from 2.71-2.96% with triacylglycerols being present in highest amount. Iodine values were found highest in CP1 while SA dandy and CP1 excelled in saponification values and acid values, respectively. Despite variations unsaturated fatty acids were observed as being present in higher concentration in all cultivars. Among sterols, stigmasterol was present in highest amount followed by β-sitosterol and campesterol. Among tocopherols, a-, and β- tocopherols were observed as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively. Results from most of the parameters revealed not significant (p≤0.05) differences among the cultivars. The results showed that campestrol positively correlated with stigmasterol, D5- avenasterol, D7-avenasterol, and have high negative (-0.9) correlation with b-sitosterol. However, campesterol (sterol) has only negative correlation with α-tocopherol, while have positive correlations with β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol. But stigmasterol has negative correlations with α-tocopherol (-0.7; high), β-tocopherol (-0.3, low) and δ-tocopherol (-0.2, low) while have low positive (+0.4) with γ-tocopherol. b-sitosterol also depicted similar correlations with different tocopherols. All cowpea cultivars appeared to be suitable as nutritional oil source of comparable quality.

1333-1341 Download
68
ECO-MORPHIC RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS IN TWO HALOPHYTIC GRASSES FROM THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
NARGIS NAZ, MANSOOR HAMEED* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF†

ECO-MORPHIC RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS IN TWO HALOPHYTIC GRASSES FROM THE CHOLISTAN DESERT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted to evaluate the ecotypic difference in salinity tolerance in two halophytic grass species Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus ioclados from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan in a hydroponic system. Three populations of each of the two grass species were collected from ecologically different habitats, i.e., lesser salt-affected Derawar Fort (DF), moderately salt-affected Bailahwala Dahar (BD), and highly salt-affected Ladam Sir (LS). Genetic variation for salinity tolerance was found in all populations of both A. lagopoides and S. ioclados, its magnitude corresponded to the selection pressure of the habitats. The lesser saline DF populations of both grass species were the least tolerant to salt stress in relation to most of the agro-morphological characteristic measured. The moderately saline BD populations were relatively less affected due to salt stress and 100 mM NaCl stimulated their growth measured in terms of plant height, root length and fresh and dry weights of shoots and root. The highly saline LS populations were the most tolerant among all populations of both grasses and optimal growth was recorded at 200 and 300 mM NaCl of the growth medium. Of the two grasses, A. lagopoides was superior to S. ioclados in salinity tolerance because its all three populations were relatively more tolerant as compared to those of the latter grass species.

1343-1351 Download
69
PERIODIC EVALUATION OF POTASSIUM TRANSFER FROM SOIL AND FORAGE TO SMALL RUMINANTS ON AN EXPERIMENTAL STATION IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, M. ASHRAF2**, KAFEEL AHMAD1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3*

PERIODIC EVALUATION OF POTASSIUM TRANSFER FROM SOIL AND FORAGE TO SMALL RUMINANTS ON AN EXPERIMENTAL STATION IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The premier purpose of the present investigation was to appraise the impact of season and the sampling period, the transport of K from soils and forages to sheep grazing in the semi-arid region of Punjab. The ultimate aim was to enhance animal production by employing a balanced K supplementation, if necessary. The samples of soil, H2O, feed, forage and animal (urine, faeces, milk and blood plasma) were taken eight times fortnightly during two seasons (winter and summer). During summer, K level in soil was found to be adequate for plants, while forage K was above the critical levels for ruminant requirements during both seasons. The plasma K levels were less than required levels in all classes of sheep during both seasons. Milk K concentrations showed no lactation period effect. The lactating sheep had higher faecal K during winter and the non-lactating sheep during summer than that in the male sheep, while urine contained higher K in the lactating as compared to that in the non-lactating sheep during summer and winter. Dietary sources showed no significant effect in enhancing the plasma K status of these animals. Low plasma K may have been due to high excretion through faeces resulting from low absorption and availability through the gastrointestinal tract. Overall, K appraisal based on plasma concentration may be considered inadequate mainly due to unavailability of this mineral from the dietary sources. It is concluded that high bio-available K supplementation is needed for increased animal productivity in this region.

1353-1360 Download
70
APPRAISAL OF PRESSMUD AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND SUGARCANE QUALITY
MUHAMMAD ALEEM SARWAR1, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM2, MUHAMMAD TAHIR3*, KAFEEL AHMAD4, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN4 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5

APPRAISAL OF PRESSMUD AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND SUGARCANE QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted under semi-arid climatic conditions to evaluate the response of pressmud in combination with inorganic fertilizers and alone (only inorganic fertilizers) on the yield and sugarcane quality parameters besides a value-added product (locally called Gur). It is obvious from the results that inorganic fertilizer use (T2) has increased the tillers per plant, number of millable canes, stripped cane yield, sugar yield and juice present cane by 38.95 %, 38.66 %, 51.96 %, 54.92 % and 21.9 5% respectively, over the control (T1). Similarly when higher dose of pressmud was applied in integration with inorganic fertilizers (in T3), it increased total soluble solids, sucrose, purity, CSS and sugar recovery of juice by 7.83 %

1361-1367 Download
71
GENOTYPING WITH RAPD MARKERS RESOLVES PATHOTYPE DIVERSITY IN THE ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT AND FUSARIUM WILT PATHOGENS
OF CHICKPEA IN PAKISTAN

GENOTYPING WITH RAPD MARKERS RESOLVES PATHOTYPE DIVERSITY IN THE ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT AND FUSARIUM WILT PATHOGENS
ABSTRACT:
FARHAT F. JAMIL*, MUHAMMAD SARWAR1, NIGHAT SARWAR1, JUNAID A. KHAN1, M. HAYAT ZAHID1, SUMAIRA YOUSAF1, HAFIZ M. IMRAN ARSHAD1 AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ1

1369-1378 Download
72
CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GEMMOTHERAPEUTICALLY TREATED WITHANIA SOMNIFERA AGAINST CHEMICALLY INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INJURY
SAMAN HINA1, KHALIL-UR-REHMAN1, ZAHOOR-UL-HASSAN DOGAR2, NAZISH JAHAN1, MANSOOR HAMEED1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN3, KAFEEL AHMAD3, KHALID MUKHTAR3 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4*

CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GEMMOTHERAPEUTICALLY TREATED WITHANIA SOMNIFERA AGAINST CHEMICALLY INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INJURY
ABSTRACT:
The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive and curative cardioprotective potential of native and gemmotherapeutically treated on the basis of biochemical, histopathological and antioxidant parameters in the salbutamol (albuterol) induced myocardial necrosis in rabbits. Gemmotherapy is a newly emerging way of treatment and no work so far has been done on evaluation of curative cardioprotective potential of Withania somnifera. Rabbits were divided into eight main groups: Normal, Ischemia, WS Gemmo-baseline, WS Native-baseline, WS Gemmo-preventive, WS Native-preventive, WS Gemmo-curative and WS Native-curative groups. Gemmo and native-baseline groups were treated with gemmo and native W. somnifera (50 mg/kg) for 20 days. Native and Gemmo-preventive groups were pre-treated with native and gemmotherapeutically treated W. somnifera at a dose 50 mg/kg for 3 weeks. On 20th and 21st day animals of all groups except normal and baseline groups were given Salbutamol (50mg/ kg), orally at an interval of 24 h. The Native-curative and Gemmo-curative groups were then treated with native and gemmotherapeutically treated W. somnifera at a dose 50 mg/ kg for 5 days, subsequent to the treatment with Salbutamol. Rabbits were subsequently sacrificed for gross pathological studies and hearts were removed for antioxidant assay. Administeration of Salbutamol significantly increased (p<0.05) the serum level of CK-MB, LDH, SGOT and SGPT in ischemia group as compared to Normal. However, pre- and post-treatment with Native and Gemmo extracts of W. somnifera significantly restored and reduced (p<0.05) the elevated serum levels of these cardiac markers. Also Native and Gemmo extracts of W. somnifera significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. No significant change was observed in the activity of cardiac enzymes in baseline groups. Protective actions of W. somnifera on heart have also been confirmed by gross pathology.

1487-1499 Download
73
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS ON THE FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURED COTTON OVULES
HAFIZA MASOOMA NASEER CHEEMA1, ASIA KHATOON2, AFTAB BASHIR2* AND KAUSER A, MALIK3

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS ON THE FIBER DEVELOPMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURED COTTON OVULES
ABSTRACT:
The outer epidermal layer of the cotton ovule may differentiate in vitro to form a mass of white fluffy fibers in an appropriate liquid medium. The in vitro cultured fibers provide a model for studying not only the cellular physiology and development mechanism but also generate a key resource for promoter evaluation in developing fibers. However, the potential uses of in vitro cultured ovules are restricted due to the frequent problem of bacterial and fungal contamination. In this study, the effect of Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Sodium Azide on cotton fiber development was observed at various concentrations (100 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL respectively) which were added in the media as contamination controlling agents. The in vitro grown ovules were evaluated at 5

4235-4242 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1460545, Today's: 67, Yesterday's: 1136, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");