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Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 3
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
CONSERVATION STATUS OF ANDROSACE RUSSELLII Y. NASIR: A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES IN GILGIT DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
JAN ALAM* AND S. I. ALI

CONSERVATION STATUS OF ANDROSACE RUSSELLII Y. NASIR: A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES IN GILGIT DISTRICT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Androsace russellii Y. Nasir, a narrow endemic species, belongs to the family Primulaceae. It is exclusively endemic in Gilgit district, Pakistan. It was originally reported from Gharesa glacier, Gilgit district. A current six-year re-assessment (i.e.

1381-1393 Download
2
POLLINATION MECHANISM AND ROLE OF INSECTS IN ABUTILON INDICUM (L.) SWEET
RUBINA ABID, JAN ALAM AND M. QAISER*

POLLINATION MECHANISM AND ROLE OF INSECTS IN ABUTILON INDICUM (L.) SWEET
ABSTRACT:
Flowers of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet are slightly protandrous, opening and closing times of flower are temperature and light dependent. Bagging experiments and pollen-ovule ratio reveal that it is a facultative autogamous taxon. Butterflies (Lepidoptera) and Bees (Hymenoptera) are the regular flower visitors. Butterflies are just visitors as they do not take any part in pollination while, Apis sp., and Bembix sp. are found to be the pollinators of Abutilon indicum.

1395-1399 Download
3
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXVI: ANACARDIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN* AND M. QAISER1

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXVI: ANACARDIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 7 species of the family Anacardiaceae belonging to 3 genera viz., Cotinus Miller, Pistacia L. and Rhus L., has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate-spheroidal rarely oblate-spheroidal, tricolporate rarely porate. Tectum striate (coarse-fine), reticulate-rugulate with spinulose. On the basis of exine ornamentation 3 distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Cotinus coggyria-type, Rhus javanica-type and Pistacia chinensis-type.

1401-1406 Download
4
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON USEFUL SHRUBS OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD AJAIB1, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1, NASRULLAH KHAN2 AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB2

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON USEFUL SHRUBS OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The ethnobotanical data on the shrubs of District Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan was documented during 2007-2008 and 38 species of 36 genera belonging to 25 families were found useful in every day life of local inhabitants as medicinal, fuel, shelter, fodder/forage and in making agricultural tools. Most of the shrubs were noticed having more than one ethnobotanical uses. Family Rhamnaceae was recorded unique among all the families in having comparatively the highest number of species i.e., 4.

1407-1415 Download
5
THE STATUS OF ASTERACEAE IN THE ARID AND SAHARAN FLORA OF NORTH AFRICAN REGION: CASE OF TUNISIA
ZOUHEIR NOUMI*, SAAD OULED DHAOU, SALMA DERBEL AND MOHAMED CHAIEB

THE STATUS OF ASTERACEAE IN THE ARID AND SAHARAN FLORA OF NORTH AFRICAN REGION: CASE OF TUNISIA
ABSTRACT:
In North Africa, mainly in Tunisia, the family of Asteraceae is largely represented by a number of species, since in the center and in the south of the country, the number of species is more than 172 species with 13.5% of the whole of the flora of Phanerogames in the center and the south of country. This study consists of an analysis of the botanical importance of the Asteraceae family in the southern Tunisia flora, in particular its generic composition, the biological types and the phytochoric status, which characterize this flora. The analysis shows that the Therophytes are the most abundant in Tunisia. On the other hand, the Geophytes are represented within the family of Asteraceae. The relation between Asteraceae present in Tunisia and their phytogeographical origin shows that the origin of the totality of the species is the Mediterranean circumference region. The taxons with North African origin are on the other hand slightly represented. Moreover, in spite of the abundance of the species within the family of Asteraceae

1417-1422 Download
6
MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SEEDS OF SPERGULARIA MARINA (L.) GRISEB., (CARYOPHYLLACEAE)
RABIA ASMA MEMON1*, G. RAZA BHATTI2, SHAHIDA KHALID3 MUHAMMAD ARSHAD4, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR5 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI6

MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SEEDS OF SPERGULARIA MARINA (L.) GRISEB., (CARYOPHYLLACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb., occurring in wheat fields of Khairpur district, Sindh was carried out with Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Seed size, shape and surface were examined. The seed shape and surface exhibits great diversity, which provide valuable taxonomic information. In species under investigation both winged and unwinged type of seeds were found. Surface ornamentation showed heteromorphic characteristics of seed.

1423-1427 Download
7
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-IV OXALIDACEAE
AFSHEEN ATHER, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-IV OXALIDACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 6 species belonging to the family Oxalidaceae was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seed macro and micro morphological characters were found useful for the taxonomic decisions as all the taxa clearly distinguished at the specific level.

1429-1433 Download
8
TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SEVEN SPECIES OF RUMEX L., FROM PAKISTAN
GHAZALAH YASMIN1*, MIR AJAB KHAN1, NIGHAT SHAHEEN1, MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT1, SADAF ALI2 AND SHAHID ABBAS3

TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SEVEN SPECIES OF RUMEX L., FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 7 species belonging to the genus Rumex L., from Pakistan was examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). This investigation revealed the eurypalynous nature of the genus. Pollen grains usually tricolporate and tetracolporate, circular in polar view while equatorial outline was quite variable. On the basis of exine sculpturing under SEM three distinct pollen types were observed viz., Chalepensis type, Dentatus type and Acetosa type. Keys to the species and pollen types are also provided.

1435-1442 Download
9
SEM STUDIES OF PETAL STRUCTURE OF COROLLA OF THE SPECIES SIBBALDIA L. (ROSACEAE)
SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR M. RAJPUT

SEM STUDIES OF PETAL STRUCTURE OF COROLLA OF THE SPECIES SIBBALDIA L. (ROSACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Epidermal micromorphology of petals of 8 species of Sibbaldia L., of the family Rosacceae has been studied by Scanning Electron Microscope. Micromorhological characters observed in petals and their reliability as a taxonomic marker is discussed. The petal epidermal cells exhibit definite geometrical patterns, where cell wall boundaries are usually raised, cell surface is marked with striae, which are ruminate at the projection. Stomata were completely absent in the epidermis of the petals. The taxonomic significance of petal structure in the identification and elucidation of species affinity and relationship is discussed.

1443-1449 Download
10
COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SALVADORA SPECIES FOUND IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
FARZANA KOREJO1,2, SYED ABID ALI2,*, SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR1, MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT1 AND MUHAMMAD TUAHA AKHTER2

COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SALVADORA SPECIES FOUND IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Salvadoraceae is a small family comprising of three genera viz., Azima, Dobera & Salvadora. Salvadora 10 species are distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. In Pakistan it is represented by a single genus Salvadora with so far, two morphologically distinct species i.e., S. persica L. and S. oleoides Decne. In the present investigation, a comparative and comprehensive leaf, branch, fruit, seed, and pollen grain macro and micro morphological characters have been analyzed and complemented with chemotaxonomy of the seed proteins as biochemical markers for identifications. As expected taxonomical characters within the Salvadora species revealed great vegetative morphological differences, especially plant length and width. Floral morphological characters appear to be more stable, except the fruit colours which are different. Furthermore, sizes and the anatomical characters of the leaf, branch, seed and pollen grain studied by scanning electron microscopy revealed that in contrast to S. oleoides Decne much intra-species variation exist in S. persica L. and at least two types and/or varieties are available in Sindh, Pakistan.

1451-1463 Download
11
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF FOLK MEDICINE BY THE WOMEN OF KALAT AND KHUZDAR REGIONS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN, TAHIRA BIBI*, MIR AJAB KHAN**, MUSHTAQ AHMAD** AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR**

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF FOLK MEDICINE BY THE WOMEN OF KALAT AND KHUZDAR REGIONS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Kalat and Khuzdar regions of province Balochistan possess a rich history and culture of tribal society with regard to medicinal plants. Women use medicinal plant resources of the area for their ailments mainly digestive complaints, stomach problems, fevers, liver complaints, diabetes, children diseases and birth related problems. Information on useful folk medicines known to the women through experience of ages is usually passed on from generation to generation. Ethnomedicinal field surveys and field studies are important for systematic documentation. In the present paper 61 species of medicinal plants belonging to 56 genera of 34 families are traditionally used as medicines by the women for treatment of various diseases. Maximum number of species belongs to family Lamiaceae (9 species) followed by Asteraceae (7 species), Apiaceae, Papilionaceae (Leguminosae), Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae (3 species each). It is concluded that, at present transmission of such knowledge from saniasi, herbalists and hakims to folks has been tremendously decreased as indicated by old women of the area. However, due to the ethnobotanical research activity in Balochistan, awareness in the local community and overall global trend towards the herbal medicine resurgence of the transmission of knowledge from the herbalist to local community has been initiated. Traditional herbalist or jogi do not tell the specific prescription to the local people as indicated from the present research. Hence most of the prescription possessed by the folks is related to the problems of digestive systems, fever or cough etc. Folk knowledge may be preserved and utilized for conservation.

1465-1485 Download
12
THE PROTECTION EFFECTS ON FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A NORTH AFRICAN PSEUDO-SAVANNA
SÂAD OULED DHAOU1*, FETHIA ABDALLAH1*, AZAEIZ OULED BELGACEM2 AND MOHAMED CHAIEB1

THE PROTECTION EFFECTS ON FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A NORTH AFRICAN PSEUDO-SAVANNA
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out in northern Africa to investigate vegetation in Bou Hedma National Park 13 years after it was completely protected from livestock grazing and other anthropogenic activities which have largely depleted the vegetation. This vegetation was compared with that in seriously overgrazed area outside the park, where negative influences persist.

1501-1510 Download
13
A CHECKLIST OF PHANEROGAMIC FLORA OF HARIPUR HAZARA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
HINA FAZAL1*, NISAR AHMAD2, ABDUR RASHID3 AND SHAHID FAROOQ1

A CHECKLIST OF PHANEROGAMIC FLORA OF HARIPUR HAZARA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Taxanomic studies were undertaken for the purpose of collecting information about floristic composition of District Haripur during the years 2004-08. The flora of the area consists of 211 species of 170 genera, distributed among 66 families. Of which, 5 species of 5 genera are Gymnospermic distributed among 4 families. Out of 66 families, 7 are Monocotyledonous having 26 species distributed among 24 genera. Rest of the 55 families are dicotyledonous including 180 species distributed among 141 genera.

1511-1522 Download
14
CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF ASTRAGALUS GAHIRATENSIS ALI (FABACEAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE)
HAIDAR ALI1 AND M. QAISER2

CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF ASTRAGALUS GAHIRATENSIS ALI (FABACEAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Astragalus gahiratensis Ali (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) is endemic to District Chitral Pakistan. The population size i.e. 127 mature individuals were found in 4 localities in 2005

1523-1528 Download
15
INVASIVE SPECIES OF FEDERAL CAPITAL AREA ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
M.A. KHAN, R.A. QURESHI, S.A. GILLANI, M.A. GHUFRAN, A. BATOOL1 AND K.N. SULTANA2

INVASIVE SPECIES OF FEDERAL CAPITAL AREA ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Islamabad has a well-developed flora rich in abundance and variety. Due to high-quality city planning, the native flora is not much affected by the population. It has further been enriched by the introduction of a great number and variety of ornamentals, particularly trees. The tree plantation by CDA has reached the 11 million mark in 1982. Previously the invasion of new species in capital area was not noticed but when the harmful effects of some of these non native species occurred then the experts took it seriously and then much research work was carried out to find out the harmful effects of these species. This project deals with such exotic species of Islamabad capital area, which produced serious problems in various ways, while some plant species which are invaded through seed import or through seed disposal by air, water, animals from the nearby areas or other cities and countries. In the present work 9 species viz., Broussonetia papyrifera, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Lantana camara, Xanthium strumarium, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Pistia stratiotes and Phragmites australis are dealt with which are the most aggressive weeds of the study area. These are examples of alien invasive plant species which not only reduce land value and cause great loss to agricultural communities but were detected as a source of allergy as well. Based on the indigenous botanical knowledge obtained from local communities a project is aimed to find out the list of invasive plant species, their impact on ecosystem and possible arrangement.

1529-1534 Download
16
ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT YIELD POTENTIAL AFTER CROPPING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ADIL KHAN KAYANI1, SAEED QURESHI1, WAQAS KHAN KAYANI2, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2*, ABDUL WAHEED2, M. ARSHAD2, MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ3 AND M.K. LAGHARI4

ASSESSMENT OF WHEAT YIELD POTENTIAL AFTER CROPPING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
The present work was aimed to investigate the impact of legume on the oncoming wheat crop. Mungbean (NM92) was planted during Kharif 2007. The wheat variety Inqalab-91 was sown before and after the mungbean plantation during Rabi 2006-07 and 2007-08. Twelve different treatments were applied having different doses of N and P but Farm Yard Manure (FYM) remained constant. Six parameters were selected to investigate the potential effects of the legume viz., soil physico-chemical properties, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike

1535-1541 Download
17
TRADITIONAL ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF HALOPHYTES FROM HUB, BALOCHISTAN
MUHAMMAD QASIM1, SALMAN GULZAR1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, IRFAN AZIZ AND M. AJMAL KHAN1*

TRADITIONAL ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF HALOPHYTES FROM HUB, BALOCHISTAN
ABSTRACT:
An ethnobotanical study of coastal plants from Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan is presented. Numerous field surveys were carried out to collect information about the ethnobotanical uses of plants by local people. In total 48 wild coastal plant species from 26 families used for 12 different purposes were noted. Plant uses include fodder (56%), medicine (22%), food (5%), house hold utensils (5%), for increasing milk production in cattle (3%) and other uses (8%). Most frequently used species were from Poaceae (29%) followed by Amaranthaceae (Chenopodiaceae) (10%), Mimosaceae and Convolvulaceae (6%). About 56% of the collected plants were halophytes and rest of them were xerophytes (44%). Different plant parts were used to treat 12 disease conditions however, the use of leaves was highest (44%) followed by that of whole plants (19%). Local vegetation appears to be a major resource for the poor coastal communities which lack basic health care facilities and the information about plants has been passed on from one generation to the others in the family. With a little support, the cultivation and conservation of such natural resources, may result in sustainable maintenance and utilization of this plant wealth and uplift the socio-economic status of the people. It is also recommended that both the public and private sector should be encouraged to invest in these plants which have potential to become an economically viable industry.

1543-1551 Download
18
IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF CADABA HETEROTRICHA STOCKS, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN PAKISTAN
HAIDER ABBAS1* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER2

IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF CADABA HETEROTRICHA STOCKS, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In vitro conservation protocol was developed for Cadaba heterotricha, an endangered species reported from Southern Pakistan. This species has been subjected to various threats including habitat loss and over-exploitation, need an urgent conservation measures. Seeds collected from the wild, were used as initiating material. While, nodal segments of in vitro germinated seedlings were employed to induce multiple shoot regeneration. Full strength MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l Kin along with 0.5 mg/l NAA helps in attaining the highest number (16.0) of shoots with 100% shoot regeneration frequency. The cultures maintained in good conditions with subculture after 6-7 months. IAA at the level of 3.0 mg/l gave maximum number (2.70) of rooting along with the highest rooting frequency (80%).

1553-1559 Download
19
WHEAT SEED INVIGORATION BY PRE-SOWING CHILLING TREATMENTS
M. BISMILLAH KHAN1, *, MADIHA GHURCHANI1, MUBSHAR HUSSAIN1 AND KHALID MAHMOOD1

WHEAT SEED INVIGORATION BY PRE-SOWING CHILLING TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
2

1561-1566 Download
20
GENETIC BASIS OF VARIATION FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE IN OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.)
IKRAM-UL-HAQ1, ASIF ALI KHAN1*, F.M. AZHAR1 AND EHSAN ULLAH2

GENETIC BASIS OF VARIATION FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE IN OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na+ and K+/Na+ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible.

1567-1581 Download
21
STATUS OF BT COTTON CULTIVATION IN MAJOR GROWING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SHAUKAT ALI, SHAHID HAMEED, SHAHID MASOOD, GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI AND YUSUF ZAFAR

STATUS OF BT COTTON CULTIVATION IN MAJOR GROWING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey of 10 districts in Sindh and 11 in Punjab was conducted during cotton growing season of 2007-08. Samples were collected from a total of 126 locations. Two samples from each location were subjected to ImmunoStrip analysis for the detection of Bt-Cry protein which revealed that 81% (34/42) and 90% (76/84) samples from Sindh and Punjab provinces, respectively, were positive for Bt protein and harbored CryIAc gene. However, none of the sample was found to have Cry2Ab and Cry1F genes. The samples were further analyzed to confirm their transgenic nature by ELISA for npt- II (Kanamycin) selection marker gene encoded protein. Another limited survey was conducted in 2009-10 to re-assess the situation. Both surveys revealed that Bt transgenic cotton is widely grown in the cotton growing areas of Sindh and Punjab. This is the first science based study to estimate the extent of Bt cotton spread in the country

1583-1594 Download
22
GENETIC GAINS FOR GRAIN YIELD IN TWO SELECTION PHASES OF A WHEAT BREEDING PROGRAM
IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1*, SHAD KHAN KHALIL2, BASHIR AHMAD3, SAAD-UR-RAHMAN3 AND FAZLI SUBHAN4

GENETIC GAINS FOR GRAIN YIELD IN TWO SELECTION PHASES OF A WHEAT BREEDING PROGRAM
ABSTRACT:
Evaluation and selection of experimental lines over several environments is critical component of wheat breeding programs before release of cultivars to growers. Fifteen-year (1989-90 to 2004-05) data from three consecutive trials (A, B and Microplot) of the Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak (Nowshera) were analyzed as two independent selection phases to estimate selection differentials, genetic gains and realized heritability for grain yield. Wheat lines tested in A-trials ranged from 108 to 378 year-1 with selection intensity of 10 to 30% vs 72 to 198 year-1 in B-trials with selection intensity of 6 to 22%. Selection differentials and genetic gains were positive for each pair of years during the 15-year period. Averaged across 15-years, mean selection differential, genetic gain and realized heritability were 8.9 vs 5.3%, 6.0 vs 7.2%, and 0.63 vs 0.56 under Phase–I and Phase-II, respectively indicating more selection efficiency in Phase-I. The selected wheat lines out yielded the check cultivars throughout the 15-year period in A-trials, while the checks surpassed the selected lines in 12 of the 15-years in B-trials. An upward trend in grain yield ha-1 was generally followed by a decline both under A and B-trials. The statistical procedure used is effective for estimating genetic improvement for important traits in multi-stage crop breeding programs.

1595-1600 Download
23
SCREENING OF LOCAL WHEAT VARIETIES AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF STREAK CAUSED BY DIFFERENT STRAINS OF XANTHOMONAS TRANSLUCENS PV. UNDULOSA (XTU)
NAVEED IQBAL RAJA1, HAMID RASHID2*, M. HAROON KHAN2, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3, MUQARRAB SHAH, AND ASGHARI BANO1

SCREENING OF LOCAL WHEAT VARIETIES AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF STREAK CAUSED BY DIFFERENT STRAINS OF XANTHOMONAS TRANSLUCENS PV. UNDULOSA (XTU)
ABSTRACT:
Wheat is one of the most important food crops of Pakistan, but its yield is adversely affected due to bacterial leaf streak disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) resulting in 20% decrease in yield. During present investigation 6 wheat varieties including Chakwal-97, Inqulab-91, GA-2002, Aquab-2002, Punjnand-2000 and Tartara-2000 were screened against 10 different strains of Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) at various stages of plant growth to check virulence against bacterial leaf streak. Wheat nursery was grown in glass house and pathogenicity of each strain/isolate was tested at seedling stage (4 weeks olds) and at tillering stage (8 week-old) wheat plants by using clipping method of artificial inoculation. The symptom development was rated by counting water-soaked lesion, number, size and progress of necrosis on leaves and the resistance of particular variety against particular strain was determined. It was evident from the results that all the six wheat varieties were susceptible to Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) but Aquab-2002 was highly susceptible to all the exotic/local strains/isolates of Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) with an average maximum percentage (69%) of disease incidence and Inqulab-91 was least virulent (10%). The highest percentage (83%) of disease incidence was for Xanthomonas strain UPB-513 at the seedling stage of Aquab-2002. The disease incidence of all the 6 wheat varieties was less at maximum tillering stage (52%) as compared to that of seedling stage (83%) for Aquab-2002 as well as all other varieties. Reactions of bacterial strains were variable (10-83%) to different wheat varieties and the response of bacterial strains/isolates was also found variable (0-72%) within the same wheat varieties.

1601-1612 Download
24
STABILITY PARAMETERS FOR TILLERS, GRAIN WEIGHT AND YIELD OF WHEAT CULTIVARS IN NORTH-WEST OF PAKISTAN
LATAFAT PARVEEN1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1* AND SHAD K. KHALIL2

STABILITY PARAMETERS FOR TILLERS, GRAIN WEIGHT AND YIELD OF WHEAT CULTIVARS IN NORTH-WEST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirteen spring wheat cultivars were evaluated for 2-years at 5 diverse locations of NWFP for stability analysis of tillers per m2

1613-1617 Download
25
EVALUATION OF MAIZE S2 LINES IN TEST CROSS COMBINATIONS I: FLOWERING AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS
H. RAHMAN1*, ARIFUDDIN1, Z. SHAH2, S.M. ALI SHAH1, M. IQBAL3, AND I.H. KHALIL1

EVALUATION OF MAIZE S2 LINES IN TEST CROSS COMBINATIONS I: FLOWERING AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
This research work was conducted at N.W.F.P. Agricultural University, Peshawar to test 24 maize S2 lines using line x tester analysis. Data were recorded on days to 50% pollen shedding and silking, anthesis silking interval (ASI), ear height and plant height. Results revealed highly significant differences among the testcrosses for all these parameters. Maximum days to silking (62) were observed for TC-13, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for day to silking was recorded 3.15. Maximum days to anthesis were observed (60) for TC-36, using WD 3x6 as a tester. Maximum value (3 days) for anthesis silking interval was observed for TC-13, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for anthesis silking interval was recorded to be 1.60 days. Maximum ear height (82cm) was observed for the TC-21, using WD 3x6 as a tester, while SCA for ear height was 1.5 cm. Maximum plant height (161 cm) was observed for TC-21, using WD 3x6 as a tester, while SCA for plant height was found to be -17.8 cm. These testcrosses are recommended to be included in further breeding programs for developing maize germplasm with earlier flowering and desirable plant and ear height attributes.

1619-1627 Download
26
IN VITRO TECHNIQUES AND MUTAGENESIS FOR THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF POTATO CVS. DESIREE AND DIAMANT
HUMERA AFRASIAB1 AND JAVED IQBAL2*

IN VITRO TECHNIQUES AND MUTAGENESIS FOR THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF POTATO CVS. DESIREE AND DIAMANT
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to get somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato for desirable characters with special emphasis on yield and yield components in two cultivars of potato viz., Desiree and Diamant. Inter-nodal explants from both the cultivars were incubated for 14-20wks in callus inducing medium comprising MS salts supplemented with NAA (1.0mg/l) and BAP (0.5mg/l) for obtaining somaclonal variants. For mutation induction

1629-1637 Download
27
IN VITRO PRESERVATION OF PYRUS GERMPLASM WITH MINIMAL GROWTH USING DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE REGIMES
MAQSOOD AHMED1*, MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM2, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH3 AND ABDUL HAMID1

IN VITRO PRESERVATION OF PYRUS GERMPLASM WITH MINIMAL GROWTH USING DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
In vitro cultures of 9 pear genotypes collected from different areas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir were established on MS medium supplemented with 30 g l-1 sucrose, 7 g l-1 agar and 1 mg l- BAP. Proliferated shoots of these genotypes were excised aseptically, cultured on fresh medium and tested for their survival and regenerative ability at various incubating temperatures regimes i.e.

1639-1650 Download
28
EFFECT OF CROP SEQUENCE AND CROP RESIDUES ON SOIL C, SOIL N AND YIELD OF MAIZE
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, ATTAULLAH1 AND MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN3.

EFFECT OF CROP SEQUENCE AND CROP RESIDUES ON SOIL C, SOIL N AND YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize @ 160 kg ha-1, and to wheat @ 120 kg ha-1 or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p≤0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p≥0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p≤0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil – maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil – maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity.

1651-1664 Download
29
IRRIGATION OF SORGHUM CROP WITH WASTE STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT: GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT, OMME HANY AND SURIYA JABEEN

IRRIGATION OF SORGHUM CROP WITH WASTE STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT: GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of treated wastewater and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth, yield and nutrient quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was investigated under field conditions. Treated wastewater significantly increased plant height, stem thickness, number of grain/panicle, grain weight/panicle and 1000 grain weight of sorghum, while basal fertilizer only elevated grain weight/panicle compared to controls. Among the nutrient quality parameters only total sugar content was significantly increased by the treated wastewater over the controls. Other nutrient quality parameters including crude proteins, nitrogen free extract, ether extract and crude ash remained unchanged following the treatments. These results are discussed in the light of previous studies and the potential of wastewater resource in irrigated agriculture is discussed.

1665-1674 Download
30
ROLE OF SILICON IN MITIGATING THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS GROWN HYDROPONICALLY
NUSRAT PARVEEN1 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*

ROLE OF SILICON IN MITIGATING THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ATTRIBUTES OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS GROWN HYDROPONICALLY
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted in an aerated hydroponic system to examine the ameliorating effects of varying levels of silicon on growth and some key gas exchange characteristics in two maize cultivars subjected to salt stress. Various components of the experiment were two maize cultivars (Sahiwal-2002 and Sadaf), two salt treatments (0 and 150 mM NaCl) and nine Si levels (0, 0.4, 0.8

1675-1684 Download
31
CRITICAL OSMOTIC, IONIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) FOR CULTIVAR SELECTION
M. FAROOQ HUSSAIN MUNIS1, LILI TU1, KHURRAM ZIAF2, JIAFU TAN1, FENGLIN DENG1 AND XIANLONG ZHANG1,*

CRITICAL OSMOTIC, IONIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) FOR CULTIVAR SELECTION
ABSTRACT:
Salinity affects the germination, growth and ultimately the yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) which demands reliable traits for the evaluation and selection of salt tolerant cultivars. Here, ten major osmotic, ionic and physiological parameters have been studied to distinguish the effect of salinity in two different cultivars of cotton. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and exposed to different salinity levels of NaCl followed by its recovery under non saline conditions. Data was recorded at three different stages i.e., before stress, after stress and after recovery for comparative study. Recovery assay proved to be very helpful in extracting reliable results. Both cultivars showed significantly different response to Na+ and K+ accumulation and phenotypically salt tolerant cultivar (Coker 312) accumulated less Na+ and more K+ in comparison with susceptible (Simian 3). Decrease in leaf area, seed germination and seedling growth were also conclusive to differentiate these cultivars. We also found other physiological parameters like relative leaf water content (RLWC), plant fresh-weight (PFW), plant dry-weight (PDW), relative growth rate (RGR) and stomatal behavior as good indicators of salinity but could not find their significant role to differentiate two closely relevant cultivars regarding salinity tolerance. Our studies revealed that proline accumulation and chlorophyll concentration are not significant to be used as accurate indicators to characterize the sensitivity of cotton cultivars to salinity. We found post-recovery analysis to be very useful in understanding the role and behavior of different indicators of salinity.

1685-1694 Download
32
EFFECT OF POTASH APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
M. EHSAN AKHTAR1, M. ZAMEER KHAN1, M. TAHIR RASHID1, ZAHIR AHSAN2 AND SAGHEER AHMAD3

EFFECT OF POTASH APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate comparative effects of sulphate and muriate of potash (SOP and MOP) application on yield, chemical composition and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, M. cultivar Roma) at National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, Pakistan. Potassium from two sources i.e., MOP and SOP was applied @ 0

1695-1702 Download
33
QUANTIFICATION OF GROWTH, YIELD AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF PROMISING COTTON CULTIVARS AT VARYING NITROGEN LEVELS
AFTAB WAJID 1, ASHFAQ AHMAD1, TASNEEM KHALIQ1, SARDAR ALAM1, ABID HUSSAUN, KHALID HUSSAIN1, WAJID NASEEM1, MUHAMMAD USMAN2 AND SHAKEEL AHMAD3

QUANTIFICATION OF GROWTH, YIELD AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF PROMISING COTTON CULTIVARS AT VARYING NITROGEN LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Cotton cultivars response to different doses of nitrogen for radiation interception, canopy development, growth and seed yield were studied in 2006. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split arrangement under the climatic conditions of Bahawalpur. Data on seed yield, total dry matter (TDM), leaf area index (LAI), fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), accumulated radiation interception during the growth season (Sa) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) were taken into account. TDM pattern showed sigmoid growth curve for both cultivars and nitrogen levels and showed strong relationship (R2 = 0.98) with the accumulated intercepted radiation (Sa) for the season. Mean maximum value of fraction of incident PAR (Fi) remained 90% at 120 days after sowing (DAS) harvest due to maximum crop canopy development. Cultivar NIAB-111 produced 0.81 g m-2 of TDM for each MJ of accumulated PAR and nitrogen @185 kg ha-1 statistically proved to be better in converting radiation into dry matter production.

1703-1711 Download
34
SILICON ALLEVIATES THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ENDOGENOUS PLANT GROWTH HORMONES OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.)
MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN1, EUN-YOUNG SOHN1, SUMERA AFZAL KHAN2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,4 AND IN-JUNG LEE1*

SILICON ALLEVIATES THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH AND ENDOGENOUS PLANT GROWTH HORMONES OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.)
ABSTRACT:
Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L-1 and 200 mg L-1 Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress.

1713-1722 Download
35
IMPACT OF RATE AND TIMING OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
M.A. CHEEMA1*, M.F. SALEEM1, N. MUHAMMAD2, M.A. WAHID1 AND B.H. BABER1

IMPACT OF RATE AND TIMING OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Canola crop is substituting the indigenous rape and mustard crops due to its high quality edible oil and to its ability to grow well on rain and canal irrigated areas. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for growth and development. A two-years field study (Nov. 2001-April 2003) was carried out to determine optimum N level and stage of its application for canola crop under irrigated conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Five N levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) were maintained at different times i.e., full N at sowing, ½ N at sowing +½ N at branching, ½ N at sowing + ½ N at flowering and ½ N at branching + ½ N at flowering. The total dry matter (TDM), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area duration (LAD), seed yield, oil yield and protein content were significantly affected by different nitrogen rates. The highest N level (120 kg ha-1) produced maximum values for all these traits as compared to minimum in control during both years of study. Time of nitrogen application did not significantly affect TDM, CGR, protein and oil contents however, split application of nitrogen (½ at sowing + ½ at branching or flowering) produced significantly higher seed and oil yield than full nitrogen at sowing or its split application as ½ at branching + ½ at flowering.

1723-1731 Download
36
PLANTING EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS IN ARID ENVIRONMENT - IS IT USEFUL SPECIES UNDER WATER DEFICIT SYSTEM?
DIN MUHAMMAD ZAHID1*, FAZAL-UR-REHMAN SHAH2 AND ABDUL MAJEED3

PLANTING EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS IN ARID ENVIRONMENT - IS IT USEFUL SPECIES UNDER WATER DEFICIT SYSTEM?
ABSTRACT:
This paper reveals the consequences of water extraction by Eucalyptus camaldulensis as compared to native Acacia nilotica Del., Albizia procera [Roxb.] Benth and Azadirachta indica grown on cultivated lands. Eucalyptus, due to its fast growth rate and wide adaptability to prevailing environmental conditions, was planted ruthlessly without any concern for its impact on soil deterioration and harm to ground water. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Eucalyptus is of any importance in conserving water and consequently its impact on the depletion of ground water resources. The four species were grown in pots in a green house. Water consumption by one year old Eucalyptus [149.27 L] was almost twice that of by Albizia [82.84 L] and more than three times that of by Acacia [58.30 L], and Azadirachta [51.57 L].

1733-1744 Download
37
THE HUDIARA DRAIN WASTEWATER EFFECT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SURROUNDING HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
F.R. SHAH1*, N. AHMAD1, D.M. ZAHID2, K.R. MASOOD3 AND S.S. AHMAD4,

THE HUDIARA DRAIN WASTEWATER EFFECT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF SURROUNDING HERBACEOUS VEGETATION
ABSTRACT:
In this study, phytosociological survey using Braun-Blanquet’s approach was undertaken to investigate the Hudiara drain wastewater influence on the surrounding vegetation. A total of 99 quadrats were laid to identify the plant species and altogether 66 species were recorded. Multivariate analysis of vegetation data (using CANOCO 4.5. software) classified the vegetation into two major communities including Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa, Parthenium hysterphorus and Xanthium strumarium groups. The presence of these species designated the area as waste land strongly supporting the growth of such species. The pattern of floral diversity was also not uniform and exhibited considerable variation. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that the distribution of vegetation has correlation with environmental variables, but their role in the grouping of species remained non significant. However, soil EC played some role in the grouping of Stellaria media and Fagonia cretic. Similarly, some species viz., Ricinus communis, Boerhaavia diffusa and Phragmites karka showed a correlation with Fe and Cr respectively, suggesting Phragmites karka as a suitable candidate for chromium contaminated sites.

1745-1754 Download
38
ERRY SIZE OF THOMPSON SEEDLESS AS INFLUENCED BY THE APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND CANE GIRDLING
TALEB R. ABU-ZAHRA

ERRY SIZE OF THOMPSON SEEDLESS AS INFLUENCED BY THE APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND CANE GIRDLING
ABSTRACT:
The influence of GA3 application on the fruit quality and productivity of cane pruned Thompson seedless was evaluated. Four treatments applied were: GA3, Girdle, GA3 + Girdle and control with no GA3 and no girdle were used. GA3 or GA3 + Girdle berries resulted in heavier berries, hastened berry diameter, and produced larger berries in comparison to the control grapevine trees. In addition, bunch weight and length were increased, while number of berries per bunch was not affected by the applied treatments. Percentage of berry shattering was increased in all grapevine treatments compared to the control treatment. On the other hand, berry quality was improved by GA3 application as indicated by soluble solids and titratable acidity. It can be concluded that GA3 is an effective method for improving Thompson seedless grapevine berries compared with girdle treated bunches.

1755-1760 Download
39
ESTIMATION OF CHILLING REQUIREMENT AND EFFECT OF HYDROGEN CYANAMIDE ON BUDBREAK AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘SUPERIOR SEEDLESS’ TABLE GRAPE CULTIVATED IN A MILD WINTER CLIMATE
HATEM BEN MOHAMED, AHMEDOU MOHAMED VADEL AND HABIB KHEMIRA*

ESTIMATION OF CHILLING REQUIREMENT AND EFFECT OF HYDROGEN CYANAMIDE ON BUDBREAK AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘SUPERIOR SEEDLESS’ TABLE GRAPE CULTIVATED IN A MILD WINTER CLIMATE
ABSTRACT:
The chilling requirement and optimum time for hydrogen cyanamide (HC) application were determined for Superior Seedless table grape grown in southern Tunisia, an arid mild winter region. The reliability of five models to predict chilling accumulation for this cultivar was also investigated. In mid-November, current season shoots were excised and subjected to artificial chilling at 7°C for different lengths of time. Each time, half the shoots were treated with a 2% (v/v) aqueous solution of HC, the others were sprayed with distilled water. Thereafter, these shoots were forced to budburst. Rest intensity gradually declined due to chilling accumulation. We estimated that the cultivar needed approx. 440 hours (h) of chilling, or chilling requirement (CR), to overcome endodormancy. During two dormant seasons, estimation of chilling accumulation showed that the Positive Chill Unit model was the most suitable to predict rest completion for Superior Seedless grown under our climatic conditions. Using this model, we found that the variety's CR was not always met by mid-February. In both laboratory and field trials, HC was most effective in enhancing and advancing budbreak if applied when approx. 2/3 of the cultivar’s CR were met. Moreover, by this application berry weight and diameter were increased and fruit maturity was advanced. Our study indicated that HC (2%) was effective in advancing budbreak and fruit maturity of Superior Seedless table grape although its effectiveness depended on application date.

1761-1770 Download
40
L-TRYPTOPHAN APPLICATION ENHANCES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ZAHIR A. ZAHIR*, H.M. YASIN, M. NAVEED, M.A. ANJUM AND M. KHALID

L-TRYPTOPHAN APPLICATION ENHANCES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Rhizobium inoculation has successfully been used for improving growth and yield of legume crops in different parts of the world. L-Tryptophan (L-TRP) application may further improve its effectiveness due to substrate-dependent inoculum-derived auxins in the rhizosphere. Rhizobium phaseoli strains were isolated using dilution plate technique from the mung bean nodules. Auxin biosynthesis by these rhizobial isolates was determined in the absence and presence of L-TRP, a physiological precursor of auxins. Rhizobial isolates varied widely in auxins biosynthesis capabilities and N42 being the highest auxin producer strain was further evaluated in the presence of different levels of L-TRP (10-3

1771-1780 Download
41
EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUES MANAGEMENT ON MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) CROP YIELD, NITROGEN FIXATION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN RAINFED AREAS
WISAL MOHAMMAD1, SAMREEN SHEHZADI1, S. MAHMOOD SHAH1 AND ZAHIR SHAH2

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUES MANAGEMENT ON MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) CROP YIELD, NITROGEN FIXATION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN RAINFED AREAS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N @ 20: P @ 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied @ 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess @ 90 kg N ha-1. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in no-tillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha-1) and WUE (6.61kg ha-1 mm-1) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha-1) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as reference crop, the biological nitrogen fixed by mungbean ranged from 37.00 to 82.59 kg ha-1 whereas with maize as a reference crop, it ranged from 34.74 to 70.78 kg ha-1 under different treatments. In comparison, non-fixing (reference) crops of sorghum and maize derived upto 16.6 and 15.5% of their nitrogen from the labelled fertilizer, respectively. These results suggested that crop productivity, BNF and WUE in the rainfed environment can be improved with minimum tillage and crop residues retention.

1781-1789 Download
42
ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WALNUT
M. WAQAR KHAN1, I.A. KHAN1, HABIB AHMAD, HAIDAR ALI2, SAJIDUL GHAFOOR1, M. AFZAL, F.A. KHAN1, M. SHAH3 AND S.G. AFRIDI1

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WALNUT
ABSTRACT:
Juglans regia L. belonging to the family Juglandaceae inhabits the northern parts of Pakistan. Biochemical analysis of the plant is not well documented in the country. Present research was the first documented attempt to study total seed storage proteins in 20 genotypes of Juglans regia collected from Swat, Dir and Chitral areas. A protocol was optimized for extraction and separation of seed storage protein from unprocessed seeds. Comparatively simple banding pattern (as compared to legumes and cereals) was observed in Juglans regia L. A total of 114 protein loci were detected in 20 genotypes giving an average of approximately 7 alleles per genotype. Genetic distances estimated during present study range from “0” to “60”. Medium values of Genetic Distances (GDmax= 60%) was estimated among three comparisons. Twenty genotypes were grouped in three clusters based on dendrogram analysis. Genotypes collected from Chitral valley were predominantly grouped in one cluster.

1791-1796 Download
43
CHARACTERIZATION OF CASTOR BEAN GENOTYPES UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTS USING SDS-PAGE OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
NASIR MAHMOOD CHEEMA1*, MUHAMMAD AZIM MALIK2, GHULAM QADIR2 AND MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI3

CHARACTERIZATION OF CASTOR BEAN GENOTYPES UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTS USING SDS-PAGE OF TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an inde­terminate, non-edible oil seed crop grown in low rainfall regions of semi-arid tropics and sub-trop­ics. The present work was conducted to see the feasibility of electrophoresis for intra-specific characterization of castor bean on the basis of their total seed storage proteins. The protein profiles of all the four accessions were very much alike, both in number of bands and in their distribution on the gel, even though accessions represented a wide range of geographic origin. Occasionally, variation was observed in the density or sharpness of bands. The seed protein patterns were also uniform among various accessions grown under various environments. On the basis of banding pattern, polypeptides could be divided into three regions, A to C, equivalent to increasing Rf value and decreasing molecular weight. The present investigation revealed no variation in different accessions and under different environments with regards to their total seed protein profiles. The results clearly showed that it was impossible to discriminate various genotypes from each other, as they were characterized by same banding patterns. However, it might be useful to distinguish diverse forms of it from one another. The present investigation revealed very limited variation in castor bean genotypes in Pakistan.

1797-1805 Download
44
HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN F3 SEGREGATING GENERATION OF SPRING WHEAT
SHOUKAT ALI MANGI, MAHBOOB ALI SIAL1, BASHIR A. ANSARI, M. AFZAL ARAIN1, K. A. LAGHARI1AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR2

HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN F3 SEGREGATING GENERATION OF SPRING WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Heritability estimates provide information about the extent of which a particular genetic character to be transmitted to the successive generations. Heritability studies were conducted in four F3 segregating populations originated through cross combinations of 6 wheat varieties/ advanced lines i.e., Sarsabz, Soghat-90, Marvi-2000, SI-91195, SD-1200/14 and IB-25/99 at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam during 2004-05. Genetic variance, environmental variance, heritability percentage in broad sense and genetic advance were estimated for different grain yield and yield contributing traits. The highest heritability (83.09%) associated with genetic advance (55.39) for grain yield was observed in cross combination of Marvi-2000 x Soghat-90 followed by Marvi-2000 x SI-91195 (80.0%; GA: 39.9), revealed good parental combination for effective selection for high yielding plants in segregating population.

1807-1813 Download
45
EXPRESSION OF A SESAME GERANYLGERANYL REDUCTASE cDNA IS INDUCED BY LIGHT BUT REPRESSED BY ABSCISIC ACID AND ETHYLENE
MYOUNG RYOUL PARK1, EUN AE CHO2, SHAFIQ REHMAN3 AND SONG JOONG YUN1,2*

EXPRESSION OF A SESAME GERANYLGERANYL REDUCTASE cDNA IS INDUCED BY LIGHT BUT REPRESSED BY ABSCISIC ACID AND ETHYLENE
ABSTRACT:
Geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) is localized in plastids and catalyzes the reduction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytyl diphosphate, a molecule required for both tocopherol and chlorophyll biosyntheses. To understand the regulation of Chl P expression in sesame, a Chl P cDNA (SiChlP) was isolated and the effects of light and phytohormones on SiChl P expression was investigated. The putative SiChl P cDNA was 1,633 bp and included a 1,394 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 465 amino acid residues. SiChl P mRNA was expressed most abundantly in leaves and cotyledons, moderately in developing capsules and seeds, but little in flowers, hypocotyls and roots of healthy seedlings and plants. Expression of SiChl P in a cotyledon was induced by light, but the level of induction was higher in red light than in far-red or blue light. However, SiChl P expression was diminished by dark, ethylene and abscisic acid.

1815-1825 Download
46
PHENETIC ANALYSIS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES OF THE GENUS SOLANUM FROM PAKISTAN
ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND MIR AJAB KHAN2

PHENETIC ANALYSIS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES OF THE GENUS SOLANUM FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Solanum is one of the largest and hyper diverse genera of the family Solanaceae. In Pakistan Solanum is represented by 15 species, of which 11 species have the medicinal properties. Taxonomically this is a complex genus because of the presence of number of hybrid and controversial taxonomic status of S. nigrum complex. In the present study numerical techniques were utilized to evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Solanum. Cluster analysis was employed to work out the relationship among the taxa of the genus Solanum. The Euclidean distance measured similarity matrix and a dendrogram was constructed by using the complete linkage method. This analysis showed that all the species of genus Solanum can easily be divided into two groups at hundred percentage linkage distance. Co-relation of quantitative characters showed that floral characters had highly significant relationship with the stem characters, these characters plays a significant role in the identification of the species of the genus Solanum.

1827-1833 Download
47
FLORIGENIC EFFECTS OF IAA FOR IMPROVING PISTILLATE AND STAMINATE FLOWERING IN SOME CUCURBITS
UNDER PB STRESS

FLORIGENIC EFFECTS OF IAA FOR IMPROVING PISTILLATE AND STAMINATE FLOWERING IN SOME CUCURBITS
ABSTRACT:
AISHA SALEEM KHAN1 AND NAJMA YAQUB CHAUDHRY2

1835-1840 Download
48
AGRONOMIC AND POLYMORPHISM STUDY OF WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA L.) BIOTYPES AT DNA LEVEL
IMTIAZ KHAN1*, GUL HASSAN1, MUHAMMAD ISHFAQ KHAN1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2 AND KHAN BAHADER MARWAT1

AGRONOMIC AND POLYMORPHISM STUDY OF WILD OAT (AVENA FATUA L.) BIOTYPES AT DNA LEVEL
ABSTRACT:
Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the biotypes of wild oats collected across North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federal capital areas of Pakistan. The wild oats biotypes included were named by their area from where collected i.e., Mardan, Malakand, Karak, D.I.Khan, NARC-Islamabad, Charsada, Peshawar, Swat and Kohat. The data were recorded for plant height (cm), leaf lamina width (cm), leaf lamina length (cm), number of leaves plant-1 and polymorphism at DNA level. Different biotypes appeared to differ in their competitive ability, as due to variation in agronomic parameters. Range of amplified fragments was from < 250 to > 1000 bp in size. The degree of genetic polymorphism ranged from 0 to 100%, indicating that the studied germplasm of wild oat is genetically very diverse and possesses a higher degree of polymorphism. Consequently their competitive ability will also be varying. Thus, in the areas of the more competitive wild oats biotypes more attention will be needed on the control of wild oats as compared to the less competitive genotypes. Alternately, if using wild oat as a food or feed crop, then based on genetic distance estimates and dendrograms analysis, the most diverse biotypes could be used in future breeding programs aimed at improving genetic variability of wild oat germplasm.

1841-1848 Download
49
PRIMING AND PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION ENHANCE PHENOLOGY AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF WHEAT
SHAD K. KHALIL1*, SHITAB KHAN1, ABDUR RAHMAN1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, I.H. KHALIL1, AMANULLAH1, SAID WAHAB1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, SHAHEEN NIGAR1 , MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1 , SAJIDA PARVEEN1AND AHMAD KHAN1

PRIMING AND PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION ENHANCE PHENOLOGY AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Phenology and dry matter are important traits being affected by seed priming and soil phosphorus (P2O5) application. Wheat variety Saleem-2000 was primed in 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% P2O5 solutions and water for 10 hours. Unprimed treatment was included as control. Four levels of P2O5 (0

1849-1856 Download
50
HIGH FREQUENCY REGENERATION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR WHEAT CULTIVAR INQILAB-91
ASMA AFZAL1, HAMID RASHID2*, M. HAROON KHAN2, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3 AND SALMAN A. MALIK1

HIGH FREQUENCY REGENERATION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION FOR WHEAT CULTIVAR INQILAB-91
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, a high efficiency regeneration system was developed in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Inqilab-91. Mature embryos were taken as explant source and inoculated on MS media for callus induction. MS media with different concentrations of 2, 4-D (2mg/l, 3mg/l and 4mg/l) were used for callus induction. Maximum percentage (76.04%) of callus induction was achieved with 3mg/l of 2, 4-D whereas 53.12% and 56.25% of calli were formed with 2mg/l and 4mg/l of 2, 4-D respectively. Four different hormones (IAA, BAP, Kn and 2ip) were used in different concentrations and combinations in MS medium for regeneration from calli of mature embryos. The regeneration frequency (46.66%) was obtained with 0.1mg/l of IAA and 0.5mg/l of BAP. Different concentrations of Kn (0mg/l, 0.5mg/l

1857-1862 Download
51
NUTRITION MANAGEMENT IN CITRUS: EFFECT OF MULTINUTRIENTS FOLIAR FEEDING ON THE YIELD OF KINNOW AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS
MUHAMMAD YASEEN1* AND MANZOOR AHMAD2

NUTRITION MANAGEMENT IN CITRUS: EFFECT OF MULTINUTRIENTS FOLIAR FEEDING ON THE YIELD OF KINNOW AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Maintaining health of citrus plants by nutrition management demands to deal citrus as a tree plant that has growth in shifts. There is a need to chalk out nutrition programme by keeping in mind growth as well as phonological cycles of the plant because every shift of growth in association with phonological and growth cycles needs special attention to decide fertilization programme. There is a need to develop well established production technology to increase the production of this crop substantially by using non-conventional approaches alone or in combination with conventional approaches. The use of multi-nutrient plant growth regulator formulation amended with appetizer is a new and innovative approach to develop a cost effective foliar spray “Micro Power” for improving citrus yield. Results from two demonstration trials revealed that NPK fertilizers (calculated on the basis of age and foliage on fruit trees rather than on the basis of area) application on drip line in combination with foliar spray was helpful to improve production of quality citrus (kinnow) fruits up to 63%. Moreover, this strategic management of nutrition was also helpful to identify appropriate time and growth stage for the application of fertilizer mix.

1863-1870 Download
52
FERTILITY STATUS OF VEGETABLE GROWING AREAS OF PESHAWER, PAKISTAN
SAJIDA PERVEEN, ZUBARIA MALIK AND WAJAHAT NAZIF

FERTILITY STATUS OF VEGETABLE GROWING AREAS OF PESHAWER, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted to classify soil of vegetable growing areas of Peshawar with respect to low, medium and high soil fertility status for better management of the whole area. A total of 36 soil samples were collected from different sites surrounding Peshawar city at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depths. Soil samples were analyzed for soil chemical properties and soil fertility status. The data of chemical properties of soil showed that soil pH in both the depths was alkaline in nature and non saline. Organic matter was found deficient and medium in 27 and 55% samples in surface soil while it was deficient and medium in 44 and 55% samples in subsurface soil. Total nitrogen was found deficient and medium in 27 and 61% samples in surface soil while it was found deficient and medium in 44 and 55 % samples in sub surface soil. Ammonium Bicarbonate Di-ethylene Triamine Penta Acetic Acid extractable phosphorus was found deficient and medium in 27 and 11% samples in surface soil while it was found deficient and medium in 33 and 22% samples in sub surface soil. AB-DTPA extractable potassium was found medium and adequate in 44 and 55% samples in surface soil while it was found medium and adequate in 66 and 33% samples in sub surface soil .AB-DTPA extractable copper and manganese were found adequate in all the samples. AB-DTPA extractable iron was found medium and adequate in 11 and 88% samples in surface and sub surface soil. AB-DTPA extractable zinc was found deficient, medium and adequate in 33

1871-1880 Download
53
EFFECTS OF AUXIN ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND SOME ENZYME ACTIVITIES DURING DARK-INDUCED SENESCENCE OF TROPAEOLUM LEAVES
İLHAMİ KARATAŞ1, LOKMAN ÖZTÜRK1*, YURDAGÜL ERŞAHİN2 AND YENER OKATAN1

EFFECTS OF AUXIN ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS AND SOME ENZYME ACTIVITIES DURING DARK-INDUCED SENESCENCE OF TROPAEOLUM LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Effects of indole acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were investigated on some physiological parameters in detached leaves of Tropaeolum majus L., during dark-induced senescence. Auxin accelerated the loss of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid content whereas it retarded the loss of protein amount at the end of senescing period in leaves significantly. Auxin (IAA and IBA) decreased meaningfully catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) activity at the second day of senescencing period but increased it at the end of senescence compared to the control group. On the other hand, peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) activity was not changed with auxin application. H2O2 levels in leaves were unstable during senescing period in both treated and control groups however they were higher in treated leaves than the control group at 6th day of experiment. NAA was found to be the most effective auxin on protein and pigment destruction.

1881-1888 Download
54
EFFECTS OF 5-AZAC ON VERNALIZATION AND FLOWER-BALL DEVELOPMENT IN BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA)
DAN LI, XIHONG YU*, XINMEI JIANG*, LILI WANG AND FENGJIAO WANG

EFFECTS OF 5-AZAC ON VERNALIZATION AND FLOWER-BALL DEVELOPMENT IN BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA)
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was carried out with different application ways of 5-azaC on two varieties of broccoli ‘Qing-feng 103’ and ‘Lv-xiu’ in order to study the influences of DNA demethylation on vernalization, flower bud differentiation and flower-ball development in broccoli. The results showed that, the 5-azaC spraying could promote vernalization, advance flower-bud differentiation stage, rapid growth and initial harvesting period.

1889-1893 Download
55
ESTIMATING WATER STRESSED DWARF GREEN BEAN PIGMENT CONCENTRATION THROUGH HYPERSPECTRAL INDICES
EYÜP SELİM KÖKSAL1, HALUK ÜSTÜN2, HESNA ÖZCAN3 AND ATİLLA GÜNTÜRK3

ESTIMATING WATER STRESSED DWARF GREEN BEAN PIGMENT CONCENTRATION THROUGH HYPERSPECTRAL INDICES
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the relationship between leaf pigment concentration (analyzed in the laboratory) and four spectral indexes (measured in the field) was investigated. For this purpose, field experiments consisting of six different irrigation treatments were conducted with dwarf green beans during 2005 growing season. Based on spectral data, spectral indexes were plotted against pigment concentration. Results showed that under water stress, the chlorophyll and carotene contents of green bean leaves rose. According to linear regression analysis between spectral indexes and pigment contents, the Normalized Difference Pigment Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) had the highest correlations with the chlorophyll (a, b and total), and carotene content of leaves.

1895-1901 Download
56
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
MUHAMMAD NISAR1*, MUGHAL QAYUM2*, MUHAMMAD RAZA SHAH3, HAMID LATIF SIDDIQUI4, WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM2 AND M. ZIA-UL-HAQ5

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
ABSTRACT:
Crude methanolic extracts of Impatiens bicolor Royle as well as its different fraction namely n-hexane (A), dichloromethane (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D) and aqueous (E) were tested In vitro for their insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Only n-hexane (A) fraction showed moderate insecticidal activity while ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D) and aqueous (E) fractions indicated low insecticidal activity. All fractions except n-butanol (D) indicated significant phytotoxicity. Cytotoxic results observed were also very low as compared to standard used and only dichloromethane (B) fraction showed cytotoxicity at higher dose while all other fractions as well as crude extract exhibited moderate to low activity in killing the tested brine shrimps.

1903-1907 Download
57
PHYSIOLOGY, PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (AUTUMN) AS AFFECTED BY NPK FERTILIZER AND HYBRIDS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2, MOHAMMAD YOUSAF3 AND HAMID ULLAH SHAH4

PHYSIOLOGY, PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (AUTUMN) AS AFFECTED BY NPK FERTILIZER AND HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn

1909-1922 Download
58
INTEGRATING CULTIVARS WITH REDUCED HERBICIDE RATES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN MAIZE
GUL HASSAN1, SANA TANVEER1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2 AND MOHAMMAD MUNIR3

INTEGRATING CULTIVARS WITH REDUCED HERBICIDE RATES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment to study the impact of integrating cultivars with reduced herbicide rates for the weed management in maize (Zea mays L) was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Crop was sown during mid of June

1923-1929 Download
59
AN APPRAISAL OF THE USE OF RECIPROCAL TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS: ASSESSING THE STAGES OF PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY IN ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS L.
MUHAMMAD MUNIR1, PAUL HADLEY1, JAMES CAREW1, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR2*, STEVEN ADAMS3, SYED BILAL HUSSAIN2, JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH3, NAZIM HUSSAIN2 AND M. AMANULLAH4

AN APPRAISAL OF THE USE OF RECIPROCAL TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS: ASSESSING THE STAGES OF PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY IN ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS L.
ABSTRACT:
A new model to analyse reciprocal transfer experiments to assess stages of photoperiod sensitivity in Antirrhinum has been validated in the present study. Flowering time and leaf numbers data of Antirrhinum cultivars Chimes White, Liberty White, Ariane, Winter Euro Rose, Sonnet and Rocket Orchid were used for the validation of the model. Six plants of each cultivar were transferred from LD to SD and Vice versa at four days interval from emergence until first flower appearance. Plants at juvenile phase (initial phase of development) were insensitive to photoperiod in both inductive (LD) and non-inductive (SD) environment. After juvenile phase when plants were transferred from LD to SD, they recognised the stimulus under inductive environment and induced flowering. However, plants transferred from non-inductive environment to inductive showed a continuous phase of photosensitivity. Rate of flower development was less sensitive to photoperiod. The duration of photoperiod sensitive phases varied with the cultivars. Hence, it is concluded that Antirrhinum cultivars are not sensitive to photoperiod during their entire course of growth and development which is mere wastage of energy. These cultivars require 4-8 days of photoperiod at critical phase to flower that will minimise the production cost of cut flower industry.

1931-1940 Download
60
RESPONSE OF MAIZE VARIETIES TO NITROGEN APPLICATION FOR LEAF AREA PROFILE, CROP GROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
M. AKMAL*, HAMEED-UR-REHMAN, FARHATULLAH, M. ASIM AND H. AKBAR

RESPONSE OF MAIZE VARIETIES TO NITROGEN APPLICATION FOR LEAF AREA PROFILE, CROP GROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90

1941-1947 Download
61
NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON MORUS ALBA FROM FAISALABAD PAKISTAN II
MUBASHIR NIAZ, SYED QAISER ABBAS*, RUBAB AYESHA, IFTIKHAR ALI AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR

NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON MORUS ALBA FROM FAISALABAD PAKISTAN II
ABSTRACT:
Cunnighamella echinulata (Maturchat) Thaxter, Graphium putredinis (Corda) Hughes., Memnoniella echinulata (Riv.) Galloway, Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijin and Drechslera state of Cochliobolus spicifer Nelson are first time reported on Morus alba from Faisalabad Pakistan.

1949-1958 Download
62
EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATION AND NITROGEN LEVELS AND METHODS OF APPLICATION ON EAR CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF MAIZE
MUHAMMAD ARIF1*, IBNE AMIN2, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, IQBAL MUNIR3, KHALID NAWAB4, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, AND KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT5

EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATION AND NITROGEN LEVELS AND METHODS OF APPLICATION ON EAR CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m-2), three nitrogen levels (80

1959-1967 Download
63
TILLAGE AND RESIDUE IMPACTS ON MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND SOIL C AND N DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS
Z. SHAH1*, H. RAHMAN2, M.A. SHAH2, M. IQBAL3, U. PERVAIZ4 AND AMANULLAH5

TILLAGE AND RESIDUE IMPACTS ON MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND SOIL C AND N DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
This study was aimed to investigate the impacts of tillage and residue management on soil microbial biomass-C (MBC) and –N (MBN), mineralizable N (MN), soil organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN) in wheat (Triticum aestivum)-fallow, wheat-maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat-mungbean (Vigna radiata) sequences three year after establishment of the experiment. No-tillage increased SOC (16.20%), TN (17.07%), MBC (10.44%) and MBN (16.87%) over the tillage treatment. Crop residue return also increased microbial biomass and accumulation of C and N in soil over the residue removed treatment. Cropping intensity promoted microbial biomass and C and N dynamics over the system containing the fallow cycles. Among cropping systems, the legume-based system (wheat-mungbean) produced greatest SOC and TN in soil than cereal-cereal (wheat-maize) system and increased MBC and MBN in similar pattern. These results demonstrated that no-tillage, residue return and cropping intensity promoted the accumulation of soil organic matter that had beneficial impacts on soil fertility through enhancement of soil microbial biomass and supply of mineralizable nutrients particularly in the rain-fed farming system.

1969-1976 Download
64
GROWTH AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS OF GLYCINE MAX INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM AND EXPOSED TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE
AFSHAN REHMAN, NEELOFER HAMID AND FAIZA JAWAID

GROWTH AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS OF GLYCINE MAX INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM AND EXPOSED TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Glycine max (soybean) were inoculated with N-fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum and grown in growth chamber to investigate interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and plants Nitrogen status on root and shoot length and biomass, nodule formation and Nitrogen concentration. Plants were grown with CO2 at 3500 and 1000ppm with or without Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation. Root and shoot length and dry mass of Glycine max increased significantly with CO2 enrichment provided with Bradyrhizobium japonicum­ as compared to deficient Nitrogen fixing bacterium. While ambient and enriched CO2 levels resulted in increased Nitrogen concentration of Glycine max shoot and root which is inoculated with N-fixing bacterium. Nodule formation was also enhanced in plants supplied with Bradyrhizobium japonicum as compared to plants which is Bradyrhizobium japonicum deficient at both CO2 concentrations.

1977-1982 Download
65
COMPETITIVE COLONIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW BY TRICHODERMA SPECIES AND SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
FOUZIA YAQUB AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

COMPETITIVE COLONIZATION OF WHEAT STRAW BY TRICHODERMA SPECIES AND SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII
ABSTRACT:
Trichoderma harzianum and T. pseudokoningii inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii In vitro and produced coiling around mycelium of S. rolfsii resulting in lysis of hyphae. Trichoderma polysporum and T. virens also inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii but there was no coiling around its mycelium. In vitro interactions of S. rolfsii with microbial antagonists in dual culture assay corroborate well with competitive colonization of wheat straw by Trichoderma spp., and Sclerotium rolfsii. Trichoderma spp., colonized the straw more rapidly than S. rolfsii, over grew the straw pieces colonized by S. rolfsii and gradually eliminated the pathogen from the straw pieces.

1983-1989 Download
66
SURVIVAL OF FUNGI ON SEEDS OF BOTTLE GOURD, BITTER GOURD AND CUCUMBER
NASREEN SULTANA, MEHWISH GUL AND A. GHAFFAR*

SURVIVAL OF FUNGI ON SEEDS OF BOTTLE GOURD, BITTER GOURD AND CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
The survival of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in seeds of bottle gourd was correlated with the inoculum level of the fungus on seeds which survived up to 8 months. Survival of M. phaseolina on seeds of bottle gourd and cucumber varied and up to 50% survival was recorded after 5 and 6 months of storage. Recovery of field fungi viz., Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp., and Fusarium spp., decreased after 3-6 months of storage whereas storage fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were most frequent after 6 till 24 months of storage.

1991-1997 Download
67
LOCAL STEM RUST VIRULENCE IN PAKISTAN AND FUTURE BREEDING STRATEGY
MIRZA JAVED IQBAL, IFTIKHAR AHMAD, KHALIL AHMAD KHANZADA1, NAVEED AHMAD, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU, MUHAMMAD FAYYAZ, YASMIN AHMAD, A.A. HAKRO AND ABDUL MUJEEB KAZI2

LOCAL STEM RUST VIRULENCE IN PAKISTAN AND FUTURE BREEDING STRATEGY
ABSTRACT:
Evolution and spread of stem rust race Ug-99 has created an alarming global situation. Majority of the CIMMYT germplasm protected by gene Sr31 fell susceptible to this catastrophic strain. Like other parts of the world stem rust of wheat was very successfully controlled in Pakistan by the introduction of resistant germplasm during and after green revolution. In 2001 stem rust reappeared and hit many commercial varieties in the province of Sindh. Its sporadic infections were recorded in 2005 summer crop of Kaghan followed by 2005-06

1999-2009 Download
68
GENETIC APTITUDE AND CORRELATION STUDIES IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
KHADIJAH MAKHDOOM1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, SUNDAS BATOOL1, ZARINA BIBI2, FARHATULLAH1, SIRAJ KHAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, DILDAR HUSSAIN1, RAZIUDDIN1, MUHAMMAD SAJJAD1 AND NAUSHAD KHAN1

GENETIC APTITUDE AND CORRELATION STUDIES IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The experiment for determining genetic potential of different cotton genotypes and correlation studies among different yield traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted during 2008 at the NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The breeding material consisted of eight upland cotton genotypes i.e. CIM-446, CIM-473, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-554, CIM-707 and SLH-284. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications. Data were recorded on plant height, bolls plant-1, boll weight, seeds locule-1, seeds boll-1 and seed cotton yield plant-1. Significant (p<0.01) variations were observed among the genotypes for all the parameters. The cultivar CIM-506 performed well by having maximum bolls, seed cotton yield with short stature plants and medium boll weight, seeds locule-1 and seeds boll-1. The cultivars CIM-707, CIM-554 and CIM-496 also showed appreciable genetic potential. Major yield components (bolls plant-1, boll weight, seeds locule-1 and seeds boll-1) were also found to have positive correlation with seed cotton yield. However, plant height (due to lodging) was noticed negatively correlated with yield.

2011-2017 Download
69
GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY COMPONENTS OF PURE AND MIXED CROPPING OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND TRITICALE (XTRITICOSECALE WITTMACK)
RUKIYE KARA 1, ZIYA DUMLUPINAR2*, TEVRICAN DOKUYUCU2, AYDIN AKKAYA2 AND MEVLUT AKCURA3

GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY COMPONENTS OF PURE AND MIXED CROPPING OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND TRITICALE (XTRITICOSECALE WITTMACK)
ABSTRACT:
This research was carried out to determine the advantages of mixed cropping of bread wheat (BW) and triticale (T) compared to pure cropping, during three cropping years, under the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Bread wheat and triticale mixtures were arranged in a ratio as 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60

2019-2027 Download
70
VULNERABILITY OF PAKISTANI WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES AGAINST STRIPE RUST UNDER RAIN-FED CLIMATE OF THE NORTHERN PUNJAB AND NWFP
SYED NADEEM AFZAL1, M. I. HAQUE*1, ABDUL RAUF1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2 AND SYEDA SADIQA FIRDOUS3

VULNERABILITY OF PAKISTANI WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) VARIETIES AGAINST STRIPE RUST UNDER RAIN-FED CLIMATE OF THE NORTHERN PUNJAB AND NWFP
ABSTRACT:
Exploring resistance potential of commercial wheat varieties is imperative to combat against the escalating stripe rust dilemma in the wheat cultivated areas of the northern Punjab and NWFP. A two years field-based screening of 57 Pakistani commercial varieties to evaluate their potential against stripe rust was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07. The commercial varieties, Soorab-96 (barley), Tatara and GA-2002 were the only three that exhibited resistant response to stripe rust at all the WSRN sites during experimentation years. There were 5 cultivars viz., Pavon-76, Kohsar-93, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Iqbal-2000 and Durum-97 that showed a combination of resistance and partial resistance responses at the six hot spots. Contrarily MH-97, Inquilab-91, Sindh-81, Zargoon, Faisalabad-83, Faisalabad-85, Kaghan-93, Kirin-95, Kohinoor-83, LU-26, Nowshera-96, Punjab-96, Sariab-92, Sarsabz, Tandojam-83, SH-2002, Pak-81, Bahawalpur-97, Rothas-90, Suleman-96, WL-711, Zardana, Abadgar-93, Watan-94, Moomal-2002 and Margalla-99 displayed susceptible reactions at all locations except Sialkot. The compiled field results exhibit that although the virulence frequency for some of the stripe rust resistance genes remained low, yet the presence of virulence against them is alarming under the circumstances when genetic base of resistance is stumpy in the presently cultivated varieties.

2029-2042 Download
71
IMPORTANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PAKISTANIAN ACORUS CALAMUS LINN., AS A BIOPESTICIDE
RAJPUT MUHAMMED TARIQ1, S. NAIMUL-HASAN NAQVI2, MUHAMMAD IQBAL CHOUDHARY3 AND AHMED ABBAS3

IMPORTANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PAKISTANIAN ACORUS CALAMUS LINN., AS A BIOPESTICIDE
ABSTRACT:
The Pakistanian Acorus calamus (Fam.: Araceae) is locally found (Nasir

2043-2050 Download
72
DIVERSITY OF GLUTELIN ΑLPHA SUBUNITS IN RICE VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
NADAR KHAN1*, NAUSHAD ALI2, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI1, MUHAMMAD SHAHID MASOOD1

DIVERSITY OF GLUTELIN ΑLPHA SUBUNITS IN RICE VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The diversity of glutelin α subunits in thirty-two rice varieties from Pakistan was assessed using higher temperature sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Five variation types i.e. Type-I, Type-II, Type-III, Type-IV and Type-V on the basis of variation in molecular size and intensities of glutelin α subunits were identified. Six rice varieties, i.e., Khushboo-95, Shahkar, Sonahri-Sugdasi, Sugdasi-Bengalo, Sugdasi-Ratria and Sugdasi-Sadagulab exhibited Type-IV variation having comparatively higher glutelin content. These varieties may be important genetic resources for improving glutelin content of rice seed. Rice variety Jhona-349 exhibited Type-V variation type and displayed unique variation by showing the presence of unique bands. Accordingly, this variety might have some unique glutelin genes and need to be further explored for nutritional quality improvement of rice seed.

2051-2057 Download
73
ASSESSMENT OF CASSAVA ROOT AND STEM ROTS IN ECOZONES OF TOGO AND EVALUATION OF THE PATHOGEN VIRULENCE
A. BANITO1*, K.E. KPÉMOUA2, B. BISSANG2 AND K. WYDRA3,4

ASSESSMENT OF CASSAVA ROOT AND STEM ROTS IN ECOZONES OF TOGO AND EVALUATION OF THE PATHOGEN VIRULENCE
ABSTRACT:
Among the diseases of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), root and stem rots are important in different ecozones of West Africa. This study on the prevalence of cassava root and stem rot diseases was carried out in forest and wet savanna ecozones of Togo and the causing pathogens were isolated, identified and pathologically characterized. Cassava rots were found in both the ecozones, but were more frequently observed in the forest than in the wet savanna zone. A total of 39 fungal strains were isolated from diseased root and stem samples collected from cassava fields. Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium sp., Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium sp. were the fungi isolated from the rotted cassava roots and stems. B. theobromae was the most frequently isolated fungus (51.3% of the isolated root rot pathogens), followed by Fusarium sp. (33.3% of the isolates), while S. rolfsii and Pythium sp., were less frequently found. Virulence tests on cassava stem cuttings and on cassava roots of field plants revealed only B. theobromae strains extremely virulent when inoculated into stem cuttings, whereas most of the fungi were highly virulent when inoculated into both cassava stem cuttings and roots of field plants, except S. rolfsii strains, which were less virulent when inoculated into stem cuttings. A pathogenic specialization of strains for roots or stems seemed to occur.

2059-2068 Download
74
RAPID PRODUCTION OF VIRUS-FREE PLANTLETS BY SHOOT TIP CULTURE IN VITRO OF PURPLE-COLOURED SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) LAM.)
XIANSONG YANG1,2

RAPID PRODUCTION OF VIRUS-FREE PLANTLETS BY SHOOT TIP CULTURE IN VITRO OF PURPLE-COLOURED SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) LAM.)
ABSTRACT:
A rapid virus-free seedlings formation protocol was established for purple-coloured sweet potato by shoot tip culture In vitro. The effects of two factors, namely BAP, NAA and their interaction, on callus, roots, buds and rooted plantlets initiation were evaluated by orthogonal design with two factors and four levels. The variance analysis of the experimental results showed that the actions of the two factors and their interaction had significantly different effects on callus, bud, root and rooted plantlet initiation. The best medium for adventitious bud induction was the combination of solid MS supplemented with 1.0 mg l−1BAP. However, the best medium for rooted plantlet was the combination of solid MS supplemented with 0.5 mg l−1BAP and 0.2 mg l−1NAA. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and appeared normal. The plantlets from shoot tip tissue culture were transplanted successfully. At the same time, the regenerated seedlings were surveyed by the method of indicator plant and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on nitrocellulose membranes (NCM-ELISA), and the virus-free plantlets of purple-coloured sweet potato was obtained. In vitro shoot tip culture can be a useful tool in the provision and conservation of virus-free plantlets of purple-coloured sweet potato.

2069-2075 Download
75
STORAGE OF RIPE MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CV. ALPHONSO IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE WITH ELEVATED CO2
HAMEED ULLAH1, SAEED AHMAD2*, A.K. THOMPSON3, WAQAR AHMAD2 AND M. AZHER NAWAZ2

STORAGE OF RIPE MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CV. ALPHONSO IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE WITH ELEVATED CO2
ABSTRACT:
Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit of Pakistan which has strong export potential. Fresh mango fruits normally have a short storage life of 10 to 12 days at ambient temperature and can suffer low temperature injury (chilling injury) during refrigerated storage, which severely hinders it from reaching the ultimate consumers in suitable edible form so causes high economic losses. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage was studied to determine its feasibility and optimum storage conditions for mango fruit cv. Alphonso in order to extend its shelf life without detrimental affects on its quality. Fully ripe mangoes were stored at 3% O2 with elevated CO2 levels i.e., 0, 3, 6, 9

2077-2084 Download
76
RESPONSES OF TWO COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN RESISTANCE TO LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE TO NITROGEN NUTRITION
ZAFAR ULLAH ZAFAR1, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR1* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3

RESPONSES OF TWO COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN RESISTANCE TO LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE TO NITROGEN NUTRITION
ABSTRACT:
Use of pesticides to eradicate pest attack on cotton crops has increased substantially during the past decade posing a serious threat to environment and human health. Application of nitrogenous fertilizers which modulates plant metabolism might reduce pest and pest-induced viral diseases. Understanding physiological basis of nitrogen nutrition on disease incidence in cotton may help in developing strategies to prevent, avoid, escape and control viral diseases. Thus, responses of two cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), S-12 (CLCuV-susceptible) and CIM-448 (CLCuV-resistant), to varying concentrations of nitrogen were examined. Plants of both cotton cultivars were grown at varying concentration [224

2085-2094 Download
77
ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF BACITRACIN BY A MUTANT STRAIN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS UV-MN-HN-8 (ENHANCED BACITRACIN PRODUCTION BY MUTAGENESIS)
MUHAMMAD NAUMAN AFTAB1*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ1 AND SHAHJAHAN BAIG2

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF BACITRACIN BY A MUTANT STRAIN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS UV-MN-HN-8 (ENHANCED BACITRACIN PRODUCTION BY MUTAGENESIS)
ABSTRACT:
The present study is focused on the improvement of Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis to obtain mutant having enhanced production of bacitracin. Many isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated and the isolate GP-40 produced maximum bacitracin production (16±0.72 IU/mL). Treatment of Bacillus licheniformis GP-40 with ultraviolet (UV) radiations increased bacitracin production to 29±0.69 IU/mL. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-40 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and Nitrous acid (HNO2) increased bacitracin production to 35±1.35 IU/mL and 29±0.89 IU/mL respectively. Studies regarding the combined effect of UV and chemical treatment on parental cells exhibited significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production reached to 47.6±0.92 IU/mL. An increase of 2.97 fold production of bacitracin in comparison to wild type was observed. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably µ(h-1)max, Yp/x, qp, Qp and Qx mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-8 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.

2095-2103 Download
78
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS USING A DEAD MACRO FUNGUS SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FRIES: EVALUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC MODELS
AMNA JAVAID*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND ARSHAD JAVAID

BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS USING A DEAD MACRO FUNGUS SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FRIES: EVALUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC MODELS
ABSTRACT:
Biomass of a wood rotting fungus viz., Schizophyllum commune Fries was utilized for the treatment of electroplating wastewater that contained Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions. Preliminary batch assays were conducted with synthetic pure metal-bearing solutions. Results obtained showed that among various parameters studied, solution pH between a range of 2.0-6.0 induced negligible uptake at pH < 3.5 and exhibited maximum at around 4.5-5.5 for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, while for Cr(VI) ion the highest was evidenced at pH 2.0-2.5. The kinetics of all metal ions was fast and biosorption equilibrium was established in 1 hour with appropriateness of pseudo-second-order. A temperature change in the range of 15–45 ◦C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the candidate fungus. The biosorption of metal ion increased on elevating initial metal ions concentrations (20-100 mg L-1) in the medium. The maximum biosorption capacity of fungus biomass was 9.0

2105-2118 Download
79
NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED FLORA OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ZIA UL HAQ1, MANSOOR AHMAD1*AND MUSSARAT AKHTER2

NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED FLORA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Nematicidal activity of selected medicinal plants has been carried out to evaluate their potential toxicity against juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp and Cephalobus litoralis. In vitro results showed that ethanolic extract of these plants caused appreciable mortality of second stage juveniles of M. javanica and M. incognita as well as Cephalobus litoralis. The concentrations used @ 2% and 1% were found more effective and produced significant results as compared to 0.5%, and 0.25%. The mortality rate increased with increasing exposure time for most of the extracts.

2119-2123 Download
80
EFFECT OF AGRONOMIC PRACTICES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH AND ITS SUBSEQUENT EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT
M. ANSAR1, NASIR MAHMOOD CHEEMA* AND M. H. LEITCH2

EFFECT OF AGRONOMIC PRACTICES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH AND ITS SUBSEQUENT EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The agronomic practices such as nitrogen fertilizer and population density affect the plant vegetation pattern and cnopy structure and change the pathogenic activities through the microclimate variability generated as a result of these practices and thus modify the disease development. A study was carried out in the field to investigate the effect of three nitrogen rates (0

2125-2138 Download
81
SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT IN DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU, MOHAMMAD FAYYAZ AND KHALIL AHMAD KHANZADA*

SPOT BLOTCH OF WHEAT IN DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Surveys for foliar blight with special reference to spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana were conducted to monitor the disease situation during 2005

2139-2144 Download
82
MAPPING GENE FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT (RPG4 LOCUS) IN SOYBEAN
FARHATULLAH1*, ROBIN W. GROOSE2, RAZIUDDIN1, M. AKMAL1 AND MIAN INAYATULLAH1

MAPPING GENE FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT (RPG4 LOCUS) IN SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Rpg4 gene in soybean. Rpg4 also confers resistance to Pseudomonas syrinagae pv. tomato strains expressing the avirulence gene-avrD. The genetic linkage studies reported here were undertaken to advance the construction of the classical genetic map of soybean. Hybridizations were made in the green house and the F2 generation was produced and classified. Data were tested by chi-square for single-factor segregation and recombination estimates were computed with computer program, Linkage-1. The Rpg4 locus is controlling bacterial blight resistance to Pseudomonas syrinagae pv. glycinea race 4 segregated independently of the y12, y23, fr1, y13, pb, y9, fr2, Fr3, w1, w4 and y10. The chi-square for the Rpg4 and y9 indicated linkage. The recombination frequency between the Rpg4 and y9 loci was estimated at 29.2 + 8.5 cM.

2145-2149 Download
83
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POTASH ON THE QUANTITY, QUALITY AND STORAGE LIFE OF ONION BULBS
GHULAM NABI1, ABDUR RAB1, SAYED JAFFAR ABBAS3, FARHATULLAH2, FAZAL MUNSIF3 AND IBRAR HUSSAIN SHAH1

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POTASH ON THE QUANTITY, QUALITY AND STORAGE LIFE OF ONION BULBS
ABSTRACT:
This experiment was conducted to study the influence of different potash doses i.e., 0

2151-2163 Download
84
EFFECT OF (60COBALT) GAMMA RAYS ON GROWTH AND ROOT ROT DISEASES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
NAHEED IKRAM1, SHAHNAZ DAWAR1, ZEESHAN ABBAS2 AND M. JAVED ZAKI1

EFFECT OF (60COBALT) GAMMA RAYS ON GROWTH AND ROOT ROT DISEASES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation showed that gamma rays influences suppressive effect on root rot fungi such as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium spp., and inducive effect on growth parameters of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Seeds of mung bean were treated with gamma rays (60Cobalt) at time periods of 0 and 4 minutes and stored for 90 days at room temperature to determine its effect on growth parameters and infection of root infecting fungi. All treatments of gamma rays enhanced the growth parameters as compared to untreated plants. Infection of M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., were significantly decreased on mung bean seeds treated with gamma rays. Gamma rays significantly increased the growth parameters and controlled the root rot fungi upto 90 days of storage of seeds.

2165-2170 Download
85
EFFECT OF A STRONG ENZYME DENATURANT (UREA) ON THE STABILITY OF SOLUBLE ACID INVERTASES FROM SUGARCANE
ALTAF HUSSAIN1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN2*, KAFEEL AHMAD2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,!, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3* AND MUHAMMAD HAMID RASHID4

EFFECT OF A STRONG ENZYME DENATURANT (UREA) ON THE STABILITY OF SOLUBLE ACID INVERTASES FROM SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
An investigation was performed to determine the effect of urea, a strong enzyme denaturant on the stability of invertases from two cultivars of sugarcane. The stability of native soluble acid invertases (SAI) of COJ-84 (local cultivar of sugarcane) to urea showed that they were more stable than those of CP-77-400 (local cultivar of sugarcane). The stability of SAI of CP-77-400 to urea gave biphasic trend at different salinity levels, and the stability at these levels decreased significantly as compared to control. The stability of 50 mM salinity level SAI was also decreased, while at 150 mM salinity level remained unchanged. The SAI of COJ-84 secreted under saline growth media presented extreme stability to unfolding by urea. The SAI at 150 and 200 mM salinity levels gave an activation trend and did not show denaturation.

2171-2175 Download
86
ABSCISIC ACID, A STRESS HORMONE HELPS IN IMPROVING WATER RELATIONS AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) HYBRIDS UNDER DROUGHT
S. HUSSAIN1, M. F. SALEEM1*, M. Y. ASHRAF2*, M. A. CHEEMA1 AND M. A. HAQ3

ABSCISIC ACID, A STRESS HORMONE HELPS IN IMPROVING WATER RELATIONS AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) HYBRIDS UNDER DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:
Genotypic variation in water relations under drought is an important index of studying drought tolerance of crops. Abscisic acid (ABA) application helped in mitigating drought stress by improving water relations and yield. Three sunflower hybrids viz., DK-4040 (tall stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation and ABA application regimes i.e., four irrigations (25 days after sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at flower initiation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and had three replications. Exogenous application of ABA under drought at either stage (bud or flower initiation) was helpful in ameliorating drought stress by improving water relations and yield of sunflower hybrids; however response was better when ABA was applied under drought at bud initiation than at flower initiation stage. Sunflower hybrid DK-4040 showed better enhancement of drought tolerance by exogenous application of ABA under drought than SF-187 and S-278 because it showed more improvement in water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, relative leaf water contents and achene yield.

2177-2189 Download
87
ION CONTENTS, RELATIVE ELECTROLYTE LEAKAGE, PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH CHARACTERS OF OIL PALM SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS
S. CHA-UM1*, T. TAKABE2,3 AND C. KIRDMANEE1

ION CONTENTS, RELATIVE ELECTROLYTE LEAKAGE, PROLINE ACCUMULATION, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ABILITIES AND GROWTH CHARACTERS OF OIL PALM SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control)

2191-2020 Download
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