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Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 5
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1
CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF THE PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
JAN ALAM* AND S. I. ALI

CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF THE PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In this paper, the conservation status of 19 taxa is given according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Of these, Asparagus gharoensis Blatter is now extinct; Scaevola plumierii (L.) Vahl., and Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb., are regionally extinct; Allium gilgiticum Wang & Tang, Arabidopsis brevicaulis (Jafri) Jafri, Christolea mirabilis (Pamp.) Jafri, Consolida schlagintweitii (Huth) Munz, Elymus russellii (Meld.) T. A. Cope, Mattiastrum karakoricum Podlech & Sadat, Plantago baltistanica Hartmann and Saxifraga duthiei Gandogar are possibly extinct; Androsace russellii Y. Nasir, Asperula oppositifolia Reg. & Schmalh. subsp. baltistanica Nazim., Astragalus clarkeanus Ali, Berberis pseudumbellata Parker subsp. gilgitica Jafri, Haplophyllum gilesii (Hemsl.) C. C. Townsend and Tanacetum baltistanicum Podlech are critically endangered, while the remaining two taxa i.e., Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf var. weileri (Gilli) H. Riedl and Rhodiola saxifragoides (Fröd.) H. Ohba are vulnerable.

2967-2971 Download
2
EURYALE FEROX SALISB. OF THE FAMILY NYMPHAEACEAE: AN ADDITION TO THE FLORA OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD AJAIB1, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1, NASRULLAH KHAN2 AND 2MUHAMMAD WAHAB

EURYALE FEROX SALISB. OF THE FAMILY NYMPHAEACEAE: AN ADDITION TO THE FLORA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During the taxonomic field survey (2005-2009) of Marala Headworks wetlands, North West side of the Punjab, an aquatic plant species commonly growing along the water inlets on the left bank of River Chanab, facing Village Gondal, District Gujrat, Pakistan was identified as Euryale ferox Salisb., of the family Nymphaeaceae. This species is characterized by circular large leaves up to 120cm across with quilted texture and a short thick rhizome.

2973-2974 Download
3
ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY POLYGONACEAE
ISHFAQ HAMEED, FARRUKH HUSSAIN AND GHULAM DASTAGIR

ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY POLYGONACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Anatomical studies of the 6 different species of family Polygonaceae viz., Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus Linn, Rumex nepalensis Spreng, Rheum australe D. Don, Polygonum plebejum R. Br and Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gay are presented. The study is based on the presence and absence of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, pith, mesophyll cells and stone cells.

2975-2983 Download
4
SOME NOTES ON THE VEGETATION OF ACHHRO THAR (WHITE DESERT) OF NARA REGION, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI*1 AND MUSHTAQ AHMAD2

SOME NOTES ON THE VEGETATION OF ACHHRO THAR (WHITE DESERT) OF NARA REGION, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A preliminary survey was carried out in the month of October 2001 from Achhro Thar (White desert) of Nara region, Sindh with the aim to record the flora and vegetation of the area in question. Four microhabitats were delineated based on the topography and physiognomic features. Various vegetation parameters like cover, frequency and density were recorded along each transect line using the line intercept method. Within vegetation stands, a total of 76 species belonging to 58 genera and 26 families were identified. In all, 4 plant communities were constructed based on Summed Dominance Ration (SDR). The existing vegetation of the area was identified and categorized into four plant communities viz.

2985-2994 Download
5
LINKAGE OF MORPHOLOGICAL MARKERS IN BRASSICA
MUHAMMAD KHALID1, FARHATULLAH1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, RAZIUD DIN1, M. YASIR KHAN1, M. AKMAL2 AND NASIR ALI3

LINKAGE OF MORPHOLOGICAL MARKERS IN BRASSICA
ABSTRACT:
Morphological markers play a pivotal role in selection of desirable traits in all plant breeding programs. The genetic linkage map

2995-3000 Download
6
MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF VITIS VINIFERA L. (VITACEAE)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND SHAUKAT ALI*

MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF VITIS VINIFERA L. (VITACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination of Vitis vinifera L., of the family Vitaceae was examined in fresh and stored pollen upto 48 weeks at different temperature i.e., refrigerator (+4C), freezer (-20C, -30C) and freeze drier (-60C). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage as compared to pollen stored at +4C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60C) showed the highest germination percentage. Whereas lowering the storage temperature and moisture contents tends to increase the viability.

3001-3004 Download
7
SEED AND OIL DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT CIRCLES OF MATURE SUNFLOWER HEAD
SHUAIB KALEEM AND FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN*

SEED AND OIL DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT CIRCLES OF MATURE SUNFLOWER HEAD
ABSTRACT:
High degree of adaptability, wide range of climatic conditions, high photosynthetic capacity and harvest index allow sunflower crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Prevailing temperature at pollination and after anthesis affects pollen health, fertilization process and ultimately the seed filling and assimilate partitioning that varies in different circles/whorls of sunflower heads. Field experiments one each in spring and autumn were conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan to document the assimilate partitioning (as achene) and oil accumulation in different circles/whorls of sunflower heads as influenced by varying environments. Four sunflower hybrids were planted in randomized complete block design with two factors factorial (hybrids & circles) experiment with four replications. Each head was divided into three equal circles (outer, middle & central). Achene and oil distribution was separately recorded in each circle. All four hybrids produced heads of larger diameter in spring crop than those produced by autumn season crop. Outer circle produced higher number of achenes, those were heavier in weight and accumulated higher oil content in all four hybrids as compared to middle and central circle in spring crop, while oil content showed minor increase from outer to central circle in autumn crop, which showed the least number of rows and hull kernel ratio. Hull kernel ratio showed contrasting results as compared to other traits which progressively increased from outer to central circle in spring crop while consistently decreased in autumn crop in all the four hybrids. Number of achene, achene weight, hull kernel ratio and oil content in all three regions (outer, middle and central) of spring sown sunflower heads were more than those of autumn crop heads. Opposite relationship between head circles, hull kernel ratio and oil content was observed for both the seasons.

3005-3014 Download
8
STOMATAL STUDIES OF COCONUT(COCOS NUCIFERA L.) VARIETIES AT COASTAL AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI1, M. ANWAR ARAIN2 AND M.ZAFAR IQBAL3

STOMATAL STUDIES OF COCONUT(COCOS NUCIFERA L.) VARIETIES AT COASTAL AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf samples of six coconut varieties were collected to determine stomatal studies. Scanning electron micrograph showed that stomata, found only on the abaxial epidermis, were arranged in parallel rows and sunken below the epidermis. The stomatal complex is characterized by the presence of two guard cells and four subsidiary cells, two of which are roundish and the other two are lateral to the guard cells. The values of stomatal features were statistically significant for some Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid coconuts. The mean number of the stomates per mm2 of leaf surface were higher in Tall and Hybrid compared to the Dwarf varieties of coconut. The mean length of the varieties ranged from 31.66µm to 39.06µm and the width 9.46µm to 12.8µm was noted. Stomatal densities of the Sri Lanka Green Dwarf and Ranthambly have 215.18mm2 and 189.87mm2 respectively.

3015-3021 Download
9
IMPACT OF LAND PATTERN AND HYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL ON COTTON YIELD
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*, LALL KHAN BABAR2, SARWAT ZAHOOR3 AND NASIR GHAFOOR KHAN4

IMPACT OF LAND PATTERN AND HYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL ON COTTON YIELD
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to determine the water requirement in various planting methods; flat sowing, ridges after first irrigation; flat sowing then skip irrigation; flat sowing, then alternate skip irrigation; flat sowing, then bed and furrow; and Bed and furrow at sowing, compared with conventional flat sowing. Water saving was observed in case of all treatments compared with flat sowing, however, maximum saving was recorded in case of bed and furrow sowing at planting followed by flat sowing, then bed and furrow sowing. However, yield was significantly higher in bed and furrow sowing compared with flat sowing whereas other water saving sowing methods recorded statistically comparable yield with flat sowing.

3023-3028 Download
10
STUDIES ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN MONOTHECA BUXIFOLIA (Falc.) A.D, FOREST, DISTRICT LOWER DIR, PAKISTAN
NASRULLAH KHAN*, MOINUDDIN AHMED, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, MUHAMMAD AJAIB2 AND SYED SADRUDDIN HUSSAIN

STUDIES ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN MONOTHECA BUXIFOLIA (Falc.) A.D, FOREST, DISTRICT LOWER DIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper is about the species composition, diversity, equitability, richness and concentration of dominance of tree species along an altitudinal gradient of District Dir Lower Hindukush range of Pakistan. A total of 15 stands in Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A.D forests were analyzed at an elevation of 1370m to 1670m asl. The vegetation analysis showed that a total of six tree species existed and Monotheca buxifolia emerged as dominant tree species on all locations with IVI ranging between 62% to 100%. Olea ferruginea and Acacia modesta were reported in four stands as a second dominant species. At two locations Quercus baloot and Punica granatum were associated species with 14% and 35% of importance value respectively. Ficus palmata was notably found as a rare species in the study area. The total density ranged between 110 tree/ha-1 to 304 tree/ha-1. Species diversity was ranged 0 to 0.36 and maximum diversity was reported at the elevation of 1370m and 1555m asl. Concentration of dominance and equitability values in some stands 1 to 1.70 were relatively high due to the presence of single species in the forests.

3029-3038 Download
11
RESPONSE OF WHEAT SPECIES TO THE CONTRASTING SALINE REGIMES
SAEED RAUF1*, M. SHAHZAD ADIL1, ABDUL NAVEED2 AND HASSAN MUNIR3

RESPONSE OF WHEAT SPECIES TO THE CONTRASTING SALINE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major production constraint for wheat. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the interspecific variability among the species for salinity stress. Species have changed their relative ranking across the salinity regimes, thus show the relative tolerance of the species to the salinity stress. Correlations between the ploidy levels and morphological traits were significantly positive under saline conditions, showing values of morphological traits increased with number and types of genomes. Trait such as leave yellowness was independent of ploidy level and may be used to discriminate and compare the species for salt tolerance. Phenotypic scoring of this trait further makes it appropriate to be used in breeder’s large segregating populations. Thus lower values of leaves yellowness may be used to discriminate genotypes for salinity resistance.

3039-3045 Download
12
GROWTH MODULATION AND ION PARTITIONING IN SALT STRESSED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) BY EXOGENOUS SUPPLY OF SALICYLIC ACID
TAHIR MAHMOOD1, NAEEM IQBAL1 *, HAMMAD RAZA1, MUHAMMAD QASIM1 AND M. YASIN ASHRAF2

GROWTH MODULATION AND ION PARTITIONING IN SALT STRESSED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) BY EXOGENOUS SUPPLY OF SALICYLIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to investigate the possible involvement of exogenous salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) lines, viz., PARI-S-4 and YSS-9. Three salinity levels i.e., 0, 60 and 120 mmol NaCl were developed at the time of seed sowing. Foliar spray of salicylic acid (0

3047-3054 Download
13
PROTEOMICS APPROACH TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS INDUCED BY IRON DEFICIENCY IN ROOTS OF MALUS
JING-YING WANG1

PROTEOMICS APPROACH TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS INDUCED BY IRON DEFICIENCY IN ROOTS OF MALUS
ABSTRACT:
2, SONG-LIN RUAN3, WEI-HUA WU4, XUE-FENG XU1, YI WANG1 AND ZHEN-HAI HAN1*

3055-3064 Download
14
CHANGES IN SOME BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] GROWN ON CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS TREATED WITH SOLID TEA WASTAGE
RAFIA AZMAT* AND HIRA AKHTER

CHANGES IN SOME BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] GROWN ON CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS TREATED WITH SOLID TEA WASTAGE
ABSTRACT:
The success of solid tea wastage treatment technology in remediating chromium (111) contamination in the soil has been demonstrated on growth of Vigna radiata. The present research was designed to study the effect of chromium (Cr3+) on plant growth, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), protease activity and proline profile of Vigna radiata as a bioindicator in the presence and absence of the solid tea surface as a biosorbent to control the mobility of Cr3+ in the soil. Results showed toxic effects of Cr3+ on plant growth and development, which include high protease activity with prominent proline and decreased potassium and phosphorus contents at elevated concentration of metal. Proline content is the only amino acid that accumulates to a greater extent in the leaves of plants under stress. An increase in proline contents in leaves, stem and root with high concentration of Cr3+ gets reduced in a solid tea wastage amended plants. Metabolic alteration by Cr3+exposure and their control by solid tea wastage already described in the first report, showed direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. It is suggested that the plant can grow under chromium stress if some suitable adsorbent (like tea wastage) is mixed with the soil which can protect the plants from the phyto-toxicity of Cr3+ by altering various metabolic processes.

3065-3071 Download
15
REGULATION IN GAS EXCHANGE AND QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYSTEM II (PSII) IN SALT-STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED WHEAT PLANTS RAISED FROM SEED TREATED WITH TRIACONTANOL
SHAGUFTA PERVEEN1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1* AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2

REGULATION IN GAS EXCHANGE AND QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYSTEM II (PSII) IN SALT-STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED WHEAT PLANTS RAISED FROM SEED TREATED WITH TRIACONTANOL
ABSTRACT:
To assess the effect of exogenous application of triacontanol (TRIA) as a presowing seed treatment on wheat under saline conditions, a greenhouse experiment was performed. Seeds of two wheat cultivars, MH-97 (moderately salt sensitive) and S-24 (salt tolerant) were primed with TRIA for 12 h. Plants raised from TRIA-treated seeds were grown in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution for 24 days under non-saline conditions, after which time, they were subjected to 0 (control) or 150 mM NaCl. After 21 days of salt application, data for different growth, plant pigments and gas exchange characteristics were recorded. Salt stress of the root growing medium markedly decreased shoot and root fresh biomass, net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate (E), while no significant effect of salinity was observed on chlorophyll pigments (a, b and a/b ratio), quantum yield of PSII, substomatal CO2 concentration and water use efficiency (A/E). Exogenous application of TRIA as seed priming did not ameliorate the inauspicious effects of salt stress effectively, although it slightly increased photosynthetic rate in both wheat cultivars, transpiration rate in MH-97 and water use efficiency in S-24 under saline conditions.

3073-3081 Download
16
RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO SOIL APPLIED CALCIUM CARBIDE FOR GROWTH, YIELD AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY
MUHAMMAD YASEEN1*, MUHAMMAD JAMIL ASHRAF1 AND MANZOOR AHMAD2

RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO SOIL APPLIED CALCIUM CARBIDE FOR GROWTH, YIELD AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of soil applied calcium carbide (CaC2) on growth, yield and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatments applied were: T1 (control), T2 (CaC2 @ 60 kg ha-1), T3 (CaC2 @ 90 kg ha-1), T4 (nitrogen @ 60 kg ha-1), T5 (nitrogen @ 120 kg ha-1) , T6 (CaC2 @ 60 kg ha-1 + nitrogen @ 60 kg ha-1), T7 (CaC2 @ 90 kg ha-1 + nitrogen @ 60 kg ha-1), T8 (CaC2 @ 60 kg ha-1 + nitrogen @ 120 kg ha-1) and T9 (CaC2 @ 90 kg ha-1 + nitrogen @ 120 kg ha-1). Total number of tillers increased with T8 and T9 compared to other treatments while T9 produced 30% more fertile tillers compared to T5. Straw yield was significantly increased with application of T8. Treatment T9 significantly increased grain yield by 26% over T5 while T3 also produced more grain weight than control. Nitrogen uptake by grain and straw were also increased significantly with T7, T8 and T9 over T1, T4 and T5. These results provide information that wheat showed positive response to the application of CaC2 in combination with nitrogen fertilizer for increase in grain yield as well as nitrogen use efficiency.

3083-3090 Download
17
COMMUNITY DESCRIPTION OF DEODAR FORESTS FROM HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
MOINUDDIN AHMED, KANWAL NAZIM, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI*, MUHAMMAD WAHAB, NASRULLAH KHAN, MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN AND SYED SADARUDDIN HUSSAIN

COMMUNITY DESCRIPTION OF DEODAR FORESTS FROM HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Floristic composition and communities of 47 stands of deodar (Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex Lamb. G. Don.) forests covering its natural limits in Pakistan are presented. On the basis of phytosociological analysis, floristic composition of tree species and importance value index, following deodar communities and a pure forest type are recognized and described quantitatively.

3091-3102 Download
18
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES AND ENDOGENOUS GROWTH HORMONES OF SOYBEAN CULTIVAR HWANGKEUMKONG
MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN1, SUMERA AFZAL KHAN2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN3,5, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4, JAVID HUSSAIN5, EUN-YOUNG SOHN3, SANG-MO KANG3, YOON-HA KIM3, M. AJMAL KHAN6 AND IN-JUNG LEE3*

EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES AND ENDOGENOUS GROWTH HORMONES OF SOYBEAN CULTIVAR HWANGKEUMKONG
ABSTRACT:
The adverse effects of NaCl induced salt stress on growth attributes and endogenous levels of gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) soybean cv. Hwangkeumkong was showed. Plant length, biomass, chlorophyll content, number of pods

3103-3112 Download
19
COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1*, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BASMATI RICE
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability analysis was conducted on 12 parental genotypes and their 27 F1 hybrids to identify superior genotypes based on morpho-physiological traits in Basmati rice following line × tester mating design. Highly significant genetic variability was present among treatments, parents, parents vs. crosses, crosses, testers and line × tester interaction for flag leaf area, panicle density, harvest index, biological yield per plant and yield per plant. However, lines were significant for all the traits except flag leaf area and yield per plant. Preponderance of non-additive gene effects was realized by higher value of specific combining ability comparing to general combining ability, ratio of variance of general combining ability to variance of specific combining ability and degree of dominance. Four parental genotypes for grain yield per plant, 5 for flag leaf area, 4 for plant height, 5 for panicle density, 4 for harvest index and 3 for biological yield per plant were found good general combiners based on significant high mean performance and GCA effects. Seven hybrids for yield per plant, 4 for flag leaf area, 7 for plant height, 7 for panicle density, 4 for harvest index and 3 for biological yield per plant excelled other hybrids in attaining high mean performance and SCA effects, hence these are recommended for heterosis breeding to improve yield and yield related traits. Based on SCA effects of the hybrids in relation to GCA effects of their parents, Kashmir Basmati × Basmati-385 is recommended for recombination breeding with early selection of desired plants whereas DM-107-4 × Basmati-385 and Super Basmati × Basmati-385 are proposed for recombination breeding with the condition of delayed selection of superior genotypes to develop potential varieties.

3113-3123 Download
20
INDUCTION OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] AS A GRAIN LEGUME IN THE ANNUAL RICE-WHEAT DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM
MUHAMMAD YAQUB, TARIQ MAHMOOD, MUHAMMAD AKHTAR*, MUHAMMAD MOHSIN IQBAL AND SIKANDER ALI

INDUCTION OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] AS A GRAIN LEGUME IN THE ANNUAL RICE-WHEAT DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
A traditional approach to deal with the declining yields of rice-wheat system has been introduction of pre-rice legumes as manuring crops. However, despite the long-term beneficial effects on soil fertility and productivity of the rice-wheat system, farmers are reluctant in practicing green manuring technology. Major constraints in the adoption of green manuring technology are the additional cost of green manure production and the lack of short-term benefits. An alternate approach i.e., induction of a short-duration grain legume in the rice-wheat system appears to be more attractive as it offers short-term additional benefits to farmers and is equally beneficial in sustaining the productivity of rice-wheat system over time. Present study was carried out to evaluate the induction of short-duration (maturity period, 55-70 days) mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] as a grain legume in the pre-rice niche of the rice-wheat annual double cropping system. The mungbean crop (grown without mineral N fertilizer) produced 1166 kg ha−1 of grain in addition to 4461 kg ha−1 of the manure biomass (containing 52 kg N ha−1) that was ploughed under before planting rice with urea-N applied in the range of 0–160 kg N ha−1. Averaged across urea-N treatments, manuring significantly increased the number of tillers plant−1 (11% increase), rice grain yield (6% increase), grain N content (4% increase) and grain N uptake (9% increase). Significant residual effects of manuring were observed on the subsequent wheat crop showing higher grain yield (21% increase), grain N uptake (29% increase) and straw yield (15% increase). The results suggested the feasibility of including mungbean in the pre-rice niche to improve the productivity of the annual rice-wheat double cropping system.

3125-3135 Download
21
EFFECT OF SOURCE AND LEVEL OF POTASH ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF POTATO TUBERS
M. ZAMEER KHAN1, M. EHSAN AKHTAR1, M. NAEEM SAFDAR2, M. MASUD MAHMOOD3, SAGHEER AHMAD4 AND N. AHMED5

EFFECT OF SOURCE AND LEVEL OF POTASH ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF POTATO TUBERS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at NARC potato research area Islamabad, Pakistan, to study comparative effect of source, levels and methods of K fertilization on yield and quality of potato produce. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 250 and 125 kg ha -1, respectively whereas three K2O levels, 0

3137-3145 Download
22
VIGOR TESTS USED TO RANK SEED LOT QUALITY AND PREDICT FIELD EMERGENCE IN WHEAT
AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, P. SHAH1, F. MOHD 1, H. KHAN1, AMANULLAH, S. PERVEEN1, S. NIGAR2, S. K. KHALIL1 AND M. ZUBAIR1

VIGOR TESTS USED TO RANK SEED LOT QUALITY AND PREDICT FIELD EMERGENCE IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between various seed quality tests and field emergence of the new and old wheat cultivars. Laboratory and field tests were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan, to investigate the suitability of various laboratory vigor tests, to rank quality of commercial seed lots, and to predict seedling field emergence (FE) of 32 samples of 4 wheat varieties. Seeds of four wheat cultivars Takbeer 2000, Haider 2000, Bakhtawar-92 and Fakhri Sarhad were produced in 8 different location of NWFP, Pakistan during 2003 and 2004. Mature seeds were harvested, threshed and cleaned before determining standard germination and other vigor tests. Results showed that among all tests, germination index (GI), Accelerated aging (AA) and Electrical conductivity (EC) provided the best estimate of seed vigor for the four wheat cultivars, both for ranking seed lots quality and predicting field emergence. The GI, AA and EC tests better indicated seed lot quality and predicted FE than SG of the four cultivars over the 2-years followed by Radical length (RL). The electrical conductivity (EC) result was not only poorly related to FE, but also poorly related to the standard germination (SG) of a wide range of seed lots of the four varieties that varied in viability. Initial count of standard germination (SGi) generally performed more poorly than the other vigor tests. From this study and previous work on wheat crop, we conclude that GI, AA and EC test for wheat crop have the potential to be developed as improved vigor tests for ranking seed lot quality and predicting seeding performance under temperate regions of the world.

3147-3155 Download
23
TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PATTERNS OF SOME LATHYRUS SPECIES GROWING IN TURKEY USING SDS-PAGE
İRFAN EMRE1*, DILEK TURGUT-BALIK2, HASAN GENÇ3 AND AHMET ŞAHİN4

TOTAL SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PATTERNS OF SOME LATHYRUS SPECIES GROWING IN TURKEY USING SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
Present study determined the variation of total electrophoretic seed protein patterns and protein amounts in some Lathyrus species viz., L. tukhtensis, L. cilicicus, L. saxatilis, L. annuus, L. hierosolymitanus, L. gorgoni var. gorgoni, L. Lycicus and L. odoratus collected from their natural habitats of different localities in Turkey. Electrophoretic data were documented by using a gel documentation system (Bio-Rad, USA) and analysed by using Quantity 1-D analysis software and also the dendogram were formed with 4.0% tolerance in UPGAMA (Unweighed Pair-Group Arithmetic Mean). The differences among species were observed and all 9 taxa were clearly identifiable from the protein patterns. The formed dendogram from SDS-PAGE analysis showed that all studied taxa constituted two clusters. The first one consisted of L. saxatilis, L. gorgoni, L. annuus, L. hierosolymitanus, L. lycicus and L. phaselitanus second one by L. tukhtensis, L. cilicicus and L. odoratus. In cluster I, L. saxatilis and L. gorgoni were found to have higher similarity to each other. Also, it was reproted that quantities of total seed proteins in the present study. L. lycicus (79.906 μg/ml) has highest total protein content whereas L. cilicicus (65.860 μg/ml) has lowest total protein content.

3157-3163 Download
24
AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS OF LANDRACE YELLOW-RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SELECTED ACCORDING TO PLANT HEIGHT AND PANICLE PROPERTIES
LEYLA IDIKUT*, AYDIN AKKAYA, TEVRİCAN DOKUYUCU AND HACI BOZOK

AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS OF LANDRACE YELLOW-RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SELECTED ACCORDING TO PLANT HEIGHT AND PANICLE PROPERTIES
ABSTRACT:
Landrace yellow-rice (Oryza sativa L.) has a wide variation in terms of agronomical characters. This research was carried out to determine the agronomic characters of landrace yellow-rice by selection works for three years. In the research, mass selection method was used. At the beginning, from the farmers’ fields, plant selection was made according to phenotypical characters (plant height, panicle length and spikelet form) at physiological maturity. The selected plants were threshed and planted in the first year. The plants selected in the first year was harvested and threshed collectively and investigated in terms of panicle and grain properties. Plant selections and investigations were repeated in the second and third years. On the selected plants; tiller number, stem length, panicle height, grain number per panicle, grain weight per panicle

3165-3171 Download
25
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG THE VARIETIES OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM THROUGH RANDOM AMPLIFICATION OF POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) AND SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (SSR) MARKERS
MUHAMMAD ABUBAKKAR AZMAT1* AND ASIF ALI KHAN2

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG THE VARIETIES OF GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM AND GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM THROUGH RANDOM AMPLIFICATION OF POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) AND SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (SSR) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The relative efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers was assessed for their suitability and reliability for estimating genetic diversity in cotton. Different varieties of cotton belonging to Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum were used by manipulating a number of different loci as marker estimates. Twenty one primers were used. The cotton varieties appeared highly polymorphic and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 0.656 (RAPD) and 0.290 (SSR) while the average genetic distances were 0.371(RAPD) and 0.320 (SSR) in case of Gossypium hirsutum. In case of Gossypium arboreum the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 0.578 (RAPD) and 0.183 (SSR) and the average genetic distances were 0.371 (RAPD) and 0.410 (SSR). Of the 21 primers used for the diversity study of the Gossypium hirsutum 14 (66.66%) RAPD and 04 (19.04%) SSR primers were highly informative while 13 (61.90%) RAPD and 02 (09.52%) SSR primers proved to be highly informative in case of Gossypium arboreum.

3173-3181 Download
26
IN SITU ASSESSMENT OF MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES TO DROUGHT
RAZIUDDIN1*, ZAHOOR A SWATI2, JEHAN BAKHT2, FARHATULLAH1, NAQIB ULLAH1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI3, MOHAMMAD AKMAL3 AND GHULAM HASSAN1

IN SITU ASSESSMENT OF MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES TO DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:
In situ studies were conducted to assess the morpho-physiological responses of wheat genotypes to PEG-induced water stress. Wheat genotypes were raised in hydroponic cultures where plants were nourished with ½ strength Hoagland solution. Plants were exposed to 00

3183-3195 Download
27
ONTOGENY GROWTH AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L., AS AFFECTED BY HYBRIDS, NITROGENOUS REGIMES AND PLANTING GEOMETRY UNDER IRRIGATED ARID CONDITIONS
A. ZAHOOR1, M. RIAZ1, S. AHMAD1*, H. ALI1, M.B. KHAN1, K. JAVED1, M.A. ANJUM2, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ3 AND M.A. KHAN4

ONTOGENY GROWTH AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L., AS AFFECTED BY HYBRIDS, NITROGENOUS REGIMES AND PLANTING GEOMETRY UNDER IRRIGATED ARID CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of ontogeny growth and radiation use efficiency (RUE) to nitrogenous regimes and planting geometries was studied in two field experiments conducted at Experimental Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University (BZU), Multan, Pakistan during spring 2009. Variables included in this study were four hybrids and four nitrogenous regimes in experiment 1; three hybrids and three planting geometries in experiment 2. Overall, increasing nitrogenous regimes significantly increased LAI compared to control in experiment 1, while, in experiment 2, the ridge and bed sown crops yielded higher LAI as compared to the flat sown crop. The accumulative leaf, root, stem, head and total dry matter were 63, 51

3197-3207 Download
28
HETEROSIS FOR YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN MUNGBEAN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2 AND SHAUKAT ALI1

HETEROSIS FOR YIELD RELATED ATTRIBUTES IN MUNGBEAN VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation, heterotic effects were studied over mid parent and better parent values for yield and its components in an 8 parental diallel involving 5 exotic and 3 local mungbean genotypes. Hybrids were evaluated alongwith their parents in the field of National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. High level of hybrid vigour was observed for plant height, number of pods per plant and grain yield per plant. Considering overall performance, the superior F1s were NM 51 x VC 3902, NM 51 x VC 4982, NM 20-21 x VC 1163, NM 51 x VC 3301 and VC 3301 x VC 1163 that revealed strong heterotic effects for number of pods per plant, number of grain per pod and grain yield per plant. These hybrids are, therefore, suggested to be utilized for developing high yielding mungbean cultivars.

3209-3214 Download
29
AN IDM APPROACH TO IMPROVE RATOONABILITY OF SUGARCANE CROP IN KP PROVINCE, PAKISTAN
MOHAMMAD TAHIR1, SAJJAD ANWAR1, MUHAMMAD KHALID1, AMJAD ALI1, AZRA2, NASIR ALI3 AND FARHATULLAH4*

AN IDM APPROACH TO IMPROVE RATOONABILITY OF SUGARCANE CROP IN KP PROVINCE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
An integrated disease management (IDM) approach was applied for the control of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moneliforme and Xylaria hypoxilon that produce phytotoxic substances responsible for the deterioration of ratoon crop of sugarcane. All components of IDM i.e., Aspergo Pak, Penecillium and Trick Pak together reduced the disease intensity (0.16%) that resulted the highest cane height (3.49 m), cane (81.25 tons ha-1) and sugar (9.95 tons ha-1) yield. The Tricho Pak alone has significantly controlled all three diseases responsible for ratoon crop failure in sugarcane.

3215-3219 Download
30
ORIGIN OF HONEY PROTEINS AND METHOD FOR ITS QUALITY CONTROL
HASSAN NAZARIAN1*, RAZIEH TAGHAVIZAD2 AND AHMAD MAJD3

ORIGIN OF HONEY PROTEINS AND METHOD FOR ITS QUALITY CONTROL
ABSTRACT:
As one of the best suppliers of energy and the necessary substances in human’s nutrition, honey has numerous consumers all over the world. There are some protein compounds in honey in addition to sugars, lipids and mineral compounds. Relative quantity of proteins in honey compound is considered as a quality index. Determination of the quantity of plant origin (pollen) and animal origin (honey bee) of the proteins of honey is an important but unknown issue. Knowing this ratio can be an index for quality control of honey. In this research, 6 honey “unifloral” samples were collected from “Sirachal” region located in Karaj-Chaloos Road, 40 km from North of Karaj in different months. After a quantity of each honey sample was diluted with water, pollens were counted in 10 gram of each sample using optical microscope. Total quantity of proteins in each sample was specified through method of “Bradford”. Electrophorus profile of pollen proteins used by bees, pollens in honey and honey proteins were prepared and compared through electrophorus method of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. Statistical study of tests results and repeating them was done by T test. The results showed that honey collected in June-July has the most quantity of pollen (680000 in each 10 g honey). Average of the whole pollen proteins that were mostly used by honey bees is 35.91±5.56 of the dry weight of the pollens. Honey collected in June-July with the most amounts of pollens has the most quantity of total protein means 0.99% of the total weight of the pollen and honey collected in Aug.-Sep. with the least amount of pollen (147000 in each 10 g) has the least quantity of total protein means 0.37% of the total weight of the pollen. Average protein of the whole honey during hive establishment is 0.64±0.26% and average quantity of pollen proteins of honey in this period is 0.24±0.14%. Since proteins are among very valuable compounds in human’s nutrition and plays vital role on growth and health of cells, quantity of the whole protein of honey is one of the quality indices and since based on the tests carried out in this research, about 1/3 of proteins of honey penetrate it through pollens, ratio of pollen proteins to total proteins of honey can be considered as a new index for examination of honey quality.

3221-3228 Download
31
IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF SIX HELICHRYSUM TAXA USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
HALIL ERHAN EROĞLU1*, ÜMIT BUDAK1, ERGIN HAMZAOĞLU1, AHMET AKSOY2 AND SEVIL ALBAYRAK2

IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF SIX HELICHRYSUM TAXA USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
ABSTRACT:
Helichrysum Mill., (Asteraceae) species have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years in the world. The In vitro cytotoxic effects in human lymphocytes of 6 Helichrysum taxa used in Turkey folk medicine were investigated. Blood samples were obtained from healthy donors, non-smoking volunteers, which were incubated and exposed to increasing concentrations of methanol extracts of Helichrysum taxa (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL). According to results, other taxa outside H. peshmenianum and H. goulandriorum affected MN rates at high concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/mL). However mitotic and replication indexes rates of H. pallasii and H. chionophilum did not show a cytotoxic effect.

3229-3237 Download
32
ANALYSIS OF GENETIC AND GENOTYPE × ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION EFFECTS FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) IN SALT TOLERANCE
H.K. ZHOU1, Y. HAYAT 2, L.J. FANG1, R.F. GUO1, J.M. HE1 AND H.M. XU3*

ANALYSIS OF GENETIC AND GENOTYPE × ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION EFFECTS FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) IN SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
A diallel cross experiment of 4 rice (Oryza sativa L.) female and 6 male varieties was conducted to study the genetic effects and their interaction with salt-stress condition of 7 agronomic traits in normal and salt-stressed planting conditions. The panicle length (PL), effective number of panicles per plant (ENP), plumped number of grains per panicles (PNG), total number of grains per panicles (TNG)

3239-3246 Download
33
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND OIL FATTY ACIDS OF KUNDUR [BENINCASA HISPIDA (THUNB.) COGN.] SEED
CHANG CHEW SEW 1, NURUL AQILAH MOHD ZAINI1, FAROOQ ANWAR1,2, AZIZAH ABDUL HAMID1 AND NAZAMID SAARI1*

NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND OIL FATTY ACIDS OF KUNDUR [BENINCASA HISPIDA (THUNB.) COGN.] SEED
ABSTRACT:
The seeds from Kundur [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.], a fruit vegetable plant with high functional properties (especially in medicinal treatment), were analysed for nutritive parameters (dietary fiber, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and energy) and oil fatty acids composition. Proximate analysis of the seeds revealed the total dietary fiber as the principal component, comprising 58.43% of the seed. The contents of crude fat and crude protein were found to be 20.70 and 11.63%, respectively. The extracted Kundur seed oil mainly consisted of linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6), accounting for 67.37% of the total fatty acids. Other important fatty acid detected were palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1 cis) and stearic (C18:0) acids with contribution of 17.11

3247-3255 Download
34
DETERMINING THE NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RICE GENOTYPE JAJAI 25/A EVOLVED AT NIA, TANDO JAM, PAKISTAN
PARVEZ KHAN*, MUHAMMAD ASLAM, MUHAMMAD YOUSUF MEMON, MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ, JAVAID AHMED SHAH AND NIZAMUDDIN DEPAR

DETERMINING THE NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RICE GENOTYPE JAJAI 25/A EVOLVED AT NIA, TANDO JAM, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Field studies on rice genotype Jajai 25/A were carried out to investigate the effect of different nitrogen and phosphorus levels on its growth during kharif 2006 and 2007 at experimental farm NIA, Tando Jam, Pakistan. Three levels of nitrogen i.e., 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 and 7 levels of phosphorus i.e. 15

3257-3263 Download
35
AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSGENIC RICE WITH ENHANCED PHOSPHATE UPTAKE ABILITY BY OVER-EXPRESSED TOBACCO HIGH AFFINITY PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER
MYOUNG RYOUL PARK1, KULDEEP TYAGI1, SO-HYEON BAEK2, YOUNG JIN KIM2, SHAFIQ REHMAN3 AND SONG JOONG YUN1*

AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSGENIC RICE WITH ENHANCED PHOSPHATE UPTAKE ABILITY BY OVER-EXPRESSED TOBACCO HIGH AFFINITY PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to examine phosphate (Pi) accumulation and performance of agronomic traits of transgenic rice overexpressing a tobacco high affinity phosphate transporter (NtPT1) gene. Transgenic plants containing one copy of NtPT1 transgene were selected and advanced to T3 generation based on the stability of inheritance and expression of the transgene. Performance of major agronomic traits was examined for the 19 selected T3 transgene-homozygous lines. In the transgenic line 1-7-8, seed phosphorous (P) content

3275-3283 Download
36
USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIFFERENT COMPOSTS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT OF VARIOUS STRAINS OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
M. INAM-UL-HAQ1*, NASIR A. KHAN, M. AHSAN KHAN, M.ASLAM KHAN, N. JAVED, RANA BINYAMIN AND G. IRSHAD

USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIFFERENT COMPOSTS FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT OF VARIOUS STRAINS OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
ABSTRACT:
Different of concentration of four medicinal plants viz., Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Azadirachta indica, Citrus lemon, Cymbopogon marginatus were investigated for the effect of certain active components in their parts, capable of increasing mushroom yield and controlling mushrooms pathogenic microbes which cause great loss in mushroom yield. Four strains of Oyster mushroom were selected on the basis of their well mycelial growth on MEA. For selection of best compost simple composts were also prepared without any medicinal plant products i.e., cotton, wheat, paddy straw. Corn stover composts and cotton compost gave the maximum yield. The dried leaves of the Citrus lemons, lemon grass and Neem cake (dried) were crushed, and the sawdust of the logs of Eucalyptus were incorporated with different doses of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% w/w of substrates with cotton substrate before compost fermentation. Each of the compost bag having specific medicinal plant product with specific concentration were spawned with selected four strains of Oyster mushroom i.e., two local strain Pleurotus florida (P-17), Pleurotus ostreatus (P-19) and two exotic strains Pleurotus (florida) ostreatus (WC536), Pleurotus ostreatus (WC-522). Spawn running and mushroom fruitification were allowed to develop under optimum environmental condition. The mushroom yield data of compost bags with different concentration of medicinal plant products plants were calculated. The results showed that presence of Neem cake and Citrus lemon in the substrate increased the yield of Oyster mushroom strains i.e. Pleurotus (florida) ostreatus (WC-536) followed by P. ostreatus (WC-522) strain. Neem cake and Citrus lemon were more promising in improving yield of mushroom. These results led to the conclusion that addition of specific medicinal plants concentration to compost increases the yield of Oyster mushroom by reducing the incidence of microbes and is more preferable than chemicals due to their lethal effects during human consumption of mushroom.

3275-3283 Download
37
NEW WHEAT VARIETY “FAREED-06” FOR IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
MANZOOR HUSSAIN, GHULAM HUSSAIN, LAL HUSSAIN AKHTAR2, ALTAF HUSSAIN TARIQ, MUHAMMAD RAFIQ, MUHAMMAD ZAHID ASLAM, MUHAMMAD ASLAM, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, SAEED AHMAD AND SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1

NEW WHEAT VARIETY “FAREED-06” FOR IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
"Fareed-06" is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2006 for irrigated areas of Punjab. Fareed-06 originated from a cross between two genotypes PTS/3/TOB/LFN// BB/4/BB/HD-832-5//ON, (a high yielding line received from CIMMYT, Mexico) and GV/ALD‘S’/ /HPO‘S’BR-3385-3B-1B-0B (a local line resistant to rust diseases) at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur. F1 to F4 progenies of this cross were advanced by pedigree method. Resistance against rusts (Leaf rust = 5R to 20RMR and Yellow rust = 10MS, RRI value of 8 for both leaf and yellow rusts and ACI values of 0.6 & 7.4 for both leaf and yellow rusts) and high yield potential (6000 kg ha-1) are the major attributes of Fareed-06 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Fareed-06 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera and responsive to fertilizer compared to the check varieties. The 1000-seed weight of this variety is 38-42 gm. Seed is amber in colour and contains 11.9-13.3% protein

3285-3297 Download
38
MOLECULAR DETECTION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL POLEROVIRUS THROUGH REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION IN DORMANT POTATO TUBERS
ALI RAZA AWAN1, 3*, IKRAM UL HAQ2, MASROOR ELLAHI BABAR1 AND IDREES AHMAD NASIR3

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL POLEROVIRUS THROUGH REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION IN DORMANT POTATO TUBERS
ABSTRACT:
A Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique was applied for the detection of Potato leaf roll polerovirus (PLRV) in dormant potato tubers. A primer pair was designed from the coat protein-encoding fragment of the PLRV genome that amplified a 336-bp product. The amplified product was detected in nucleic acid preparations from leaves and tubers of 5 cultivars and from purified virions. The specificity of the RT-PCR product was confirmed through southern blot analysis. The primer pair used in the RT-PCR did not produce any non-specific product from 7 other potato viruses. Sensitivity of RT-PCR was confirmed by detecting PLRV from known mixture of PLRV and randomly selected potato virus. Dilution of 1:1000–1:4000 and 1:200–1:1000 were used to detect viral load from foliage and tuber, respectively. RT-PCR efficiently detected PLRV in sprouting tubers as well as dormant tubers stored at 20– 25°C for 4 months.

3299-3306 Download
39
MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ISOLATES FROM LAHORE
GHAZALA NASIM*, MUHAMMAD ALI, AND NASIR MEHMOOD

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ISOLATES FROM LAHORE
ABSTRACT:
Isolates of Ganoderma lucidum were collected randomly from the various regions of the Lahore and Changa Manga. The samples were brought to the Lab for their DNA isolation and quantification as well. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was used to determine the % variability in the genomic profiles of randomly collected Ganoderma lucidum isolates from Lahore. For RAPD analysis three primers (5’ACCTGGACAC3’, 5’GTATTGCCC3’ and 5’GCTGTAGTGT3’) were applied and designated as P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Only P1 was screened for the amplification of DNA fragments. Dendrogram of the RAPD analysis provided information of the genetic variability among the isolates.

3307-3315 Download
40
NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON EUCALYPTUS SPP. FROM DISTRICT FAISALABAD PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR, MUBASHIR NIAZ AND NAILA SADAF

NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON EUCALYPTUS SPP. FROM DISTRICT FAISALABAD PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The genus Eucalyptus is a large genus belonging to the family Mytraceae, containing more than 700 species, most of them are native to Australia. Economically and medicinally Eucalyptus is a very important plant. Its importance further increases due its ability towards environmental stability and reclamation of saline land. In the present study, three fungi have been reported on Eucalyptus from district Faisalabad viz., Gliomastix novae-zelandia Hughes & Dikinson, Beltrania rhombica Penzig Deighton and Cerebella andropogonis Cesati.

3317-3321 Download
41
SEED TREATMENTS INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT IN WILT SICK FIELD
NIGHAT SARWAR*, M. HAYAT ZAHID CH. AND IKRAMUL HAQ

SEED TREATMENTS INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT IN WILT SICK FIELD
ABSTRACT:
Induced systemic resistance in chickpea against wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysorum f. sp. ciceri (FOC) was studied by treating the seeds with benzo (1,2,3)-thiadizole-7-carbothioic acid -s- methyl ester (Bion), salicylic acid (SA) and di- potassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4). Reduction in disease was observed in both type of applications but seed dressing was found more effective than soaking method. Highest reduction, 63% in wilt disease was observed with Bion dressing followed by SA, 40% and K2HPO4 , 30%. Bion and SA showed 41 & 24% reduction in the disease, respectively, when seeds were soaked in the respective chemicals but no reduction was found with K2HPO4 soaking. Slight increase in yield was observed with all the treatments in both applications but difference among them was statistically non-significant.

3323-3326 Download
42
SCREENING OF COTTON GERMPLASM AGAINST COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS
SAGHIR AHMAD*, NOOR-UL-ISLAM1, ABID MAHMOOD1, FARZANA ASHRAF, KHEZIR HAYAT AND MAMOONA HANIF

SCREENING OF COTTON GERMPLASM AGAINST COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
Cotton leaf curl virus poses a major threat to cotton productivity in Pakistan. Screening of germplasm to explore resistant source is a basic step towards the solution of this hazardous problem. With this objective genetic material comprising 11060 genotypes of cotton of different research centers was tested at Cotton Research Station, Vehari during 2002 to 2007. During 2002-03, 3694 genotypes were tested on the basis of cotton leaf curl virus disease incidence and 30 (Code No./varieties 124

3327-3342 Download
43
EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACTERIUM ON CHEMICAL CONTENTS, YIELD AND GROWTH OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM L.) AND CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.)
ATİLLA DURSUN1*, MELEK EKİNCİ1 AND MESUDE FİGEN DÖNMEZ2

EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACTERIUM ON CHEMICAL CONTENTS, YIELD AND GROWTH OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM L.) AND CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to determine the effects of spraying a growth promoting bacterium on chemical contents, yield and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) vegetable species. Different strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis BA-142, Bacillus megaeorium- GC subgroup A. MFD-2, Acinetobacter baumannii CD-1 and Pantoea agglomerans FF, were used. The effects of the bacterial treatments on the plant nutrient elements of tomato and cucumber fruit were determined. Its effects on average fruit weight, fruit number per plant, fruit weight per plant, plant length, fruit width and length, total soluble solid and dry matter in tomato and cucumber fruit were also determined. The effects of bacterial application on plant mineral contents were significant. Bacterial applications increased mineral contents of tomato and cucumber fruit as compared to control treatment. All bacterial applications particularly affected on improving the in N, P, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn contents of the fruit. Growth promoting effects of bacterial application on the plant growth parameters except TSS (Total soluble solid) were significant. The highest average fruit weight, fruit weight per plant and plant length were obtained from Pantoea agglomerans FF applications in tomato as comparing to that of the other applications. Fruit number per plant was high in Acinetobacter baumannii CD-1 application and fruit width, fruit length and dry matter were highest in Bacillus megaterium-GC subgroup A., MFD-2 application than that of the other application in tomato. The highest fruit number per plant, fruit weight per plant, plant length, fruit width, fruit length and dry matter were obtained from Pantoea agglomerans FF applications in cucumber as compared to that of the other applications and the highest average fruit weight was found in Bacillus megatorium-GC subgroup A. MFD-2 application when compared to the other applications. The results of this study showed that Pantoea agglomerans FF, Acinetobacter baumannii CD-1 and Bacillus megaterium-GC subgroup A. MFD-2 have a great potential to increase the yield, growth and mineral contents of tomato and cucumber vegetable species.

3349-3356 Download
44
BIODEGRADATION OF TRINITROTOLUENE BY IMMOBILIZED BACILLUS SP. YRE1
HAFIZ ULLAH, AAMER ALI SHAH*, FARIHA HASAN, ABDUL HAMEED

BIODEGRADATION OF TRINITROTOLUENE BY IMMOBILIZED BACILLUS SP. YRE1
ABSTRACT:
The present study focus on the biodegradation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Bacillus sp. YRE1 isolated from red effluent in free state and also cells immobilized on charcoal and polystyrene. TNT degradation was monitored weekly for 168 hours, at 262 nm. Immobilized Bacillus sp. YRE1 was checked for its ability to degrade TNT by exposing it to different temperatures. It was found that both charcoal and polystyrene immobilized bacteria degraded TNT more efficiently at 37oC. Maximum percentage reduction in case of charcoal immobilized Bacillus sp. YRE1 at 37ºC was calculated as 73.35%. Whereas, polystyrene immobilized bacteria showed 70.58% reduction. Bacillus sp. YRE1 immobilized on charcoal, showed maximum degradation at pH 7 with 93.81% reduction in TNT. Similarly, pH 5 was found to be optimum for the degradation of TNT by polystyrene immobilized bacteria, with percentage reduction as 94%. Charcoal immobilized cells showed increased transformation with 96% reduction in the presence of Tween 20, whereas, polystyrene immobilized cultures showed 87.77% reduction in TNT.

3357-3367 Download
45
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN USING RAPD MARKERS
ZAHIDA HASSAN PERVAIZ1, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, M. SHAHID MASOOD2 AND SALMAN A. MALIK1

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Information on genetic diversity and relationships among rice genotypes from Pakistan is currently very limited. Molecular marker analysis can truly be beneficial in analyzing the diversity of rice germplasm providing useful information to broaden the genetic base of modern rice cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of 75 rice accessions and improved cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Twenty-eight decamer-primers generated a total of 145 RAPD fragments, of which 116 (80%) were polymorphic. The number of amplification products produced by each primer varied from 3 to 9 with an average of 5.2 alleles primer-1. The size of amplified fragments ranged from 250 to 4000bp. A dendrogram was generated from minimal variance algorithm using Ward method. All the 75 genotypes were grouped into two main groups corresponding to aromatic and non-aromatic types of indica rice. Clustering of accessions did not show any significant pattern of association between the RAPD fingerprints and collection sites. This type of analysis grouping different rice accessions in relation to fragrance, a major rice quality determinant, and varietal group is extremely useful to develop a core collection and gene bank management. Further more, the information revealed by the RAPDs regarding genetic variation is helpful to the plant breeder in selecting diverse parents and for future orientation of rice breeding program.

3369-3376 Download
46
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE ETHYLENE PERCEPTION ELEMENTS AND THEIR EXPRESSIONS DURING LONGAN FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
JIAN-FEI KUANG1,2 , WANG-JIN LU2 , YUE-MING JIANG1 AND JIAN-YE CHEN2*

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE ETHYLENE PERCEPTION ELEMENTS AND THEIR EXPRESSIONS DURING LONGAN FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT:
Ethylene has long been regarded as the major regulator of fruit development. In the present work, three full-length cDNAs homologous to Arabidopsis ethylene perception element genes ethylene response1 (ETR1), ethylene response sensor1 (ERS1) and constitutive triple response1 (CTR1), designated as DlETR1, DlERS1 and DlCTR1, respectively, were isolated and characterized from fruit of longan, a non-climacteric fruit. Homology analysis showed that DlETR1 and DlERS1 proteins contained three N-terminal membrane-spanning domains and the conserved histidine kinase domain while DlCTR1 protein possessed a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain, an ATP binding site and a serine/threonine kinase catalytic site. Northern blotting demonstrated that mRNA levels of DlETR1and DlERS1 gradually decreased while DlCTR1 transcript increased steadily during fruit development. Furthermore, treatments with plant growth substances, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethrel, inhibited the accumulation of DlERS1 transcript. In addition, ABA treatment suppressed the expression of DlCTR1. Thus, DlETR1 and DlERS1 exhibited a different response to plant growth substances. It was suggested that DlETR1 and DlERS1 might play a role in the early stage of longan fruit development, whereas DlCTR1 was likely to be involved in fruit ripening.

3377-3386 Download
47
WATER DEFICIT STRESS IN THE REPRODUCTIVE STAGE OF FOUR INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES
SURIYAN CHA-UM1*, SURAVOOT YOOYONGWECH2 AND KANYARATT SUPAIBULWATANA3

WATER DEFICIT STRESS IN THE REPRODUCTIVE STAGE OF FOUR INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Relative water content (RWC) in the leaf of different rice cultivars dropped significantly in relation to reduced soil water content (SWC), especially in PT1 and IR20. In contrast, the proline content in the leaf-blade and leaf-sheath increased when plants were subjected to 7% SWC. The RWC was positively related to chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoids, maximum quantum yield of PSII, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency in rice grown under water-deficit conditions declined significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate. In addition, when exposed to water-deficit, panicle length and fertile grains in KDML105 and NSG19 were stabilized, leading to greater productivity than in PT1 and IR20. These data were utilized as effective criteria for the classification of water-deficit tolerance. From the results, KDML105 and NSG19 were identified as water deficit-tolerant, and PT1 and IR20 as water deficit-susceptible.

3387-3398 Download
48
THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF YOUNG DWARF CHERRY TREES IN A SUB-HUMID CLIMATE
BURAK NAZMI CANDOGAN AND SENIH YAZGAN

THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF YOUNG DWARF CHERRY TREES IN A SUB-HUMID CLIMATE
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the effects of different irrigation treatments on evapotranspiration and vegetative growth parameters such as plant height, trunk cross-sectional area, volume of trees and branch cross-sectional area of ‘Z-900’/Gisela-5 young dwarf cherry trees were investigated in a sub-humid climate during 2001-2002. Four irrigation treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were applied based on different percentages of Class A Pan evaporation (50%, 75%

3399-3408 Download
49
ASSESSMENT OF CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL-PLANT-ANIMAL CONTINUUM: POSSIBLE RISK FOR GRAZING CATTLE
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, KAFEEL AHMAD1, NASIRA RAZA1, F. AL-QURAINY2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3 AND ABRAR HUSSAIN4

ASSESSMENT OF CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL-PLANT-ANIMAL CONTINUUM: POSSIBLE RISK FOR GRAZING CATTLE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to examine the chromium (Cr) status of soil, forage and lactating cows at Livestock Experimental Station, Khizerabad, Sargodha, Pakistan. Samples of soil, forage, blood plasma and milk were collected periodically with a regular interval of one month each and subjected to acid digestion to assess the influence of the sampling intervals on Cr as well as the transfer of this element from soil to forage and onwards to animal during the whole experimentation period. The Cr contents of soil and forage were severely deficient in relation to the requirement for forage and ruminant growth and development, whereas that of blood plasma and milk was marginal deficient level. Supplementing the deficient levels of Cr with locally available feed resources and mineral mixtures having high availability of this element would alleviate the deficiency of chromium in the animal ranch.

3409-3414 Download
50
EVALUATION OF DYNAMICS OF IRON AND MANGANESE FROM PASTURE TO BUFFALOES: A CASE STUDY AT RURAL LIVESTOCK FARMS
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ABID EJAZ1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, SUMAIRA GONDAL1, ASIA FARDOUS1, ABRAR HUSSAIN2, MUHAMMAD SHER4, EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM3 AND SAMI ULLAH5

EVALUATION OF DYNAMICS OF IRON AND MANGANESE FROM PASTURE TO BUFFALOES: A CASE STUDY AT RURAL LIVESTOCK FARMS
ABSTRACT:
Trace minerals (Fe and Mn) contents of soil, forages, and blood plasma of dairy buffaloes from five different Rural Livestock Farms in Sargodha, Pakistan were evaluated. Samples of soil, forages, and blood were taken from respective farms and analyzed after wet digestion. The higher mean Fe and Mn content of soil at farm -104,Fe lower at farm-89 and Mn at farm-106 was observed in this investigation. The higher mean forage Fe and Mn concentration at farm-104 and Fe lower at farm-106 and Mn at farm-96 was found. The blood plasma contained high level of Fe at the farm-96 and the lower at farm-104,while higher Mn level at the farm-106 and the lower at the farm-96.Based on these findings, it is evident that soil had higher value of both Fe and Mn than the requirements of forage crops at all farm studied while forage Fe was higher than the requirements of livestock being reared at those farms while reverse was true for forage Mn, pointing to the warranted need of supplementation to the animals to fulfil their Mn requirements. The blood plasma Mn levels were higher and deficient level of Fe was observed at some farms. Therfore supplements with high bioavailability of Fe should be provided to the livestock being reared at these farms to enhance the reproduction potential of the ruminants.

3415-3421 Download
51
RESPONSE OF ADVANCED LINES OF CHICKPEA AGAINST CHICKPEA BLIGHT DISEASE
M. USMAN GHAZANFAR1*, SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1, NAZIR JAVED1 AND WAQAS WAKIL2

RESPONSE OF ADVANCED LINES OF CHICKPEA AGAINST CHICKPEA BLIGHT DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
In order to have resistance material 277 advanced lines of chickpea received from various research organizations were screened during the rabi season 2005-06 for the source of resistance against chickpea blight disease by artificial inoculation of the germplasm with pycniosspore suspension of the pathogen. The screening revealed 02, 38, 39, 49 and 149 lines to be highly resistant (immune), resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible. Out of 126 lines received from Pulses Research Institute, (PRI) Faisalabad, none of the lines responded highly resistant or resistant while 12 lines such as 06025, 06026, 06027, 06031, 06035, 06040, 06041, 06056, Vinhar, Bitter-98, Pb-2000 and Paidar-91 responded to be moderately resistant. Out of 83 lines received from Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology, (NIAB) Faisalabad, 7 lines viz., 06223, 06224, 06270, 06271, 06272, 06277 and 06278 displayed resistant response while other 7 lines such as 06214, 06217, 06218, 06220, 06225, 06237, and 06279 exhibited moderately resistant response. Out of 36 advanced lines of National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC) Islamabad

3423-3430 Download
52
SPATIOTEMPORAL ASPECTS OF PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN OPEN SCRUB RANGELANDS OF SUB-MOUNTAINOUS HIMALAYAN PLATEAUS
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF 1,2, M. YASIN ASHRAF3 AND MANSOOR HAMEED1

SPATIOTEMPORAL ASPECTS OF PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN OPEN SCRUB RANGELANDS OF SUB-MOUNTAINOUS HIMALAYAN PLATEAUS
ABSTRACT:
Six ecologically diverse study sites were studied for changes in the structure of open scrub-type plant community over space and time. Ecological data were recorded using Fixed Quadrat Sampling Method and analyzed by using pRDA technique. Results revealed that enough moisture, suitable temperature and availability of macronutrients during summer lead to the maximal complexity of all communities which was follows by autumn and spring. However, the reverse was true during winter. Similarly, the study of different sites also revealed significant variation in plant communities that seemed to be highly associated with the soils physico-chemical properties. For example, most of the species were found to be dominant in soils containing higher macronutrients with high field capacity (Khabeki, Khoora and Knotti Garden sites). Salt and drought tolerant species were dominant in saline soil with steep slopes and at higher elevation (Jallar site). In contrast, moisture loving species were closely associated with the springs and water channels (Knotti Garden and Dape Sharif sites). In conclusion, the spatio-temporal variations in plant communities of this area were found to be a result of the moisture contents, filed capacity, soil macro-nutrients and type and composition of the soil and elevation of selected sites.

3431-3440 Download
53
MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF TURF GRASSES TO WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS
ATIF RIAZ1*, ADNAN YOUNIS, MANSOOR HAMEED1 AND SIDRA KIRAN

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF TURF GRASSES TO WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Turf grasses are the most important cover plants in the world. Knowledge of relative drought resistance among the turf species/cultivars is important for selecting turf grasses that persist during drought stress. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the morphological and biochemical responses of Bermuda grass cultivars (Khabbal, Dacca and Fine Dacca) to water deficit conditions. Four drought levels at 100% (control), 75%, 65% and 55% field capacity were maintained throughout the experiment. Morphological characters including fresh and dry weights (g) of roots and shoots, root and shoot length (cm), root/shoot ratio for fresh and dry weight, leaf thickness (mm), leaf width (cm), leaf area (cm2), percentage of leaf firing, turf quality and shoot recovery percentage, as well as chlorophyll contents were measured. Over all turf quality of all cultivars decreased with the progression of drought stress but “Khabbal” performed best as compared to other two grass cultivars for all attributes studied.

3441-3448 Download
54
GENETIC MANIPULATION OF LENTIL THROUGH INDUCED MUTATIONS
J.A. FAZAL ALI, M.A. ARAIN AND N.A. SHAIKH

GENETIC MANIPULATION OF LENTIL THROUGH INDUCED MUTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Induced mutation in crops improvement plays an important role in manipulating the genetic structure of plant. Drought is considered to be the major environmental stress that limits lentil yields. Genetic diversity in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) was developed in a local variety Masoor-85 and exotic cultivar ICARDA-8 by treating with gamma rays ranging from 100–600 Gy. Desirable segregants were isolated in M2 for high yield, earliness and improved 100 grain weight. These mutants were confirmed for their yield, yield components and growth behaviour in M3 generation. True breeding lines were evaluated for yield potential under residual moisture of rice crop in the field and to screen out suitable drought resistance genotypes which can cope with the prevailing water shortage in Sindh. The promising mutant strains giving better yield potential were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in different station yield trials. Mutant strain AEL23/40 produced highest grain yield in zonal trials conducted under different agro-ecological zones in Sindh province. Observing its better performance AEL 23/40 was promoted to National yield trials, where it ranked first in the province of Sindh and second on Pakistan basis. In this paper performance of lentil mutant strains evaluated under residual moisture of rice crop and enhancement of genetic potential for drought resistance is discussed.

3449-3455 Download
55
CONTRIBUTION TO THE ALGAL FLORA (CHLOROPHYTA) OF FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT. N.W.F.P., PAKISTAN
ASGHAR ALI1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND FAZLI MALIK SARIM3

CONTRIBUTION TO THE ALGAL FLORA (CHLOROPHYTA) OF FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT. N.W.F.P., PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In this study 138 Chlorophycean species belonging to 56 genera

3457-3462 Download
56
ETHNOMEDICINAL POTENTIAL OF PLANTS OF CHANGA VALLEY DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
A. RAZAQ1, A. RASHID1, HAIDAR ALI2, H. AHMAD3 AND M. ISLAM3

ETHNOMEDICINAL POTENTIAL OF PLANTS OF CHANGA VALLEY DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Comprehensive field studies were conducted to elaborate the ethnomedicinal plant potential of Changa valley district Shangla, Pakistan. The study revealed that a total of 50 taxa, belonging to 32 families are used for medicinal purposes. Out of which 2 species are Pteridophyte i.e. Adiantum venustum D. Don, A. capillus-veneris L. and one Fungi i.e. Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers ex Fr. Furthermore, the number of perennial herbs, annual herbs, shrubs, trees and biennial herbs were 28, 9, 7, 5 and 1 respectively. As majority of the locals still rely on these plant resources, especially for curing various ailments through indigenous medicine system, therefore loss of these plant resources will, to a certain extent, hamper the existing healthcare system in the area. Therefore measures for conservation of these plant resources are urgently needed.

3463-3475 Download
57
NUTRIENT REMOVAL, PERFORMANCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.)
IHSANULLAH DAUR1, HASAN SEPETOĞLU2, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT3 AND MİTHAT NURİ GEVEREK2

NUTRIENT REMOVAL, PERFORMANCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.)
ABSTRACT:
A study on 12 faba bean genotypes was conducted for 2 years to evaluate its growth, nutrient removal, yield and yield components. The genotypes were KITIKI-2003, ERESEN-87, FİLİZ-99, SEVİL, SAKIZ, 95 ETA 225, 95 ETA 249, 95 ETA 276, 97 ETA 718, 97 ETA 727, 98 ETA 296 and 98 ETA 329. In each year mostly significant differences were observed among genotypes for growth, nutrients removal, yield and yield components. In the study on the average of two years across the 12 faba bean genotypes 301 kg ha-1 nitrogen, 30.0 kg ha-1 phosphorus

3477-3484 Download
58
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK GERMPLASM
GHULAM ABBAS, MUHAMMAD JAWAD ASGHAR*, TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH AND BABAR MANZOOR ATTA

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity was studied in diversified mungbean germplasm by using Metroglyph analysis. Forty mungbean genotypes originating from Pakistan, Thailand and India were used in the present study. Different morphological and economic traits like plant height, clusters per plant, pods per plant, hundred seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index exhibited considerable genetic variability. Metroglyph analysis distributed mungbean genotypes into 8 groups. Group I and II, consisted of only one genotype each and were found to be distant from all other groups. Groups VII and VIII were the largest groups consisting of 10 genotypes each. The range of total mean index score varied from 12.6 to 17.0. Maximum index scores were obtained by groups I, II and III. In all the three groups, biological yield and seed yield contributed more to index scores. Highest index score of 18 was attained by NM 6368(46-40-4) (Genotype No. 13, Group VIII) and VC 3945A (Genotype No. 35, Group VII) followed by Mung-88 (Genotype No. 8, Group II) and VC-3476 (Genotype No. 33, Group III) with index score of 17. Lowest index score of 10 was attained by 3 genotypes viz., KPS-2, VC2984B and NM-94. VC-6369(53-97) (Genotype No. 39, Group I) of Thailand origin and Mung-88 (Genotype No. 8, Group II) of Pakistan origin were identified as the most important genotypes exhibiting an index score of 16 and 17, respectively. On the basis of this grouping it may be concluded that an effective hybridization program may include the genotypes of group I, II, VII and VIII to produce better segregants that may be used for the development of high yielding mungbean varieties.

3485-3495 Download
59
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF VARIOUS WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY
M. A. KHAN*, E. ISLAM1, M.U. SHIRAZI, S. MUMTAZ, S.M. MUJTABA, M. ALI KHAN, A. SHEREEN, M.Y. ASHRAF2 AND G.M. KALERI

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF VARIOUS WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY
ABSTRACT:
Effect of NaCl stress on yield and various physiological parameters (leaf area, osmotic potential, glycine-betaine, total sugars and chlorophyll contents) was studied in 7 wheat genotypes (Lu-26s, Sarsabz, Bhittai, KTDH22, Khirman, B-7012 and Bakhtawar) grown under two salinity levels (NaCl 1.5 and 12 dS/m) in the cemented tanks having river sand. Seeds were allowed to germinate under normal condition and salinity treatments were imposed after one week of germination. Salinity was imposed by irrigating the crop at an interval of two weeks or whenever required with 1/4th Hoagland nutrient solution having respective NaCl concentrations. Salinity reduced the grain yield, leaf area and chlorophyll contents however it resulted in an increase in the osmotic potential, glycine-betaine and total sugar contents. The results clearly indicated that under salt stress, genotypes with higher leaf area, osmotic potential, glycine-betaine, total sugar and chlorophyll contents, had more grain yields as compared to the genotypes with lower values for these attributes. On the basis of yield reduction, four genotypes viz., Lu-26s, Sarsabz, Bhittai and KTDH-22 were found to be salt tolerant whereas genotypes V-7012, Khirman and Bakhtawar were designated as sensitive ones. The tolerant genotypes also maintained higher leaf area, osmotic potential, glycine-betaine, total sugar and chlorophyll contents under saline conditions.

3497-3505 Download
60
KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS MUTANT
IKRAM-UL-HAQ*, MUHAMMAD MOHSIN JAVED, UZMA HAMEED AND FAZAL ADNAN

KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS MUTANT
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation deals with the purification and characterization of enzyme α-amylase from a mutant strain of Bacillus licheniformis EMS-6. A laboratory scale stirred fermentor of 7.5 L capacity was used for the enzyme production under optimal conditions. The enzyme was purified up to homogeneity level by Ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The specific activity of the enzyme increased 4-5 times while the yield was found to be 40.4%. The purification fold by RESOURCE-S was recorded to be 3.58. The molecular weight was found to be 55 KDa. In the present research work, the Vmax (2778 U/mg/min) and Km (8.3mg/ml) of α-amylase were derived from the Lineweaver Burke plot. Thermodynamic parameters for soluble starch hydrolysis, Ea, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG of α-amylase from B. licheniformis EMS-6 were found to be 25.14 KJ/mol

3507-3516 Download
61
EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON WATER STATUS, ELECROLYTE LEAKAGE AND ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA) UNDER SALINE CONDITION
ALI MASOUMI1, MOHAMMAD KAFI2, HAMIDREZA KHAZAEI2 AND KAMRAN DAVARI2

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON WATER STATUS, ELECROLYTE LEAKAGE AND ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA) UNDER SALINE CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is considered as the main factor of yield limitations in arid and semi-arid areas, where drought and salinity stresses are usually combined. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characters. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station (36°15´N, 59°28´E) of Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran in 2008, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage (recovery treatment) and no irrigation at reproductive stage for one month (stress treatment)), and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd) were allocated as main and sub-plots, respectively. Relative water content (RWC), membrane permeability and antioxidant enzymes were assayed at the beginning of anthesis. Stress treatment caused a significant decrease in the leaf RWC and increase in electrolyte leakage compared with control and recovered conditions. Furthermore, stress treatment caused a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activities except of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX). The Birjand ecotype was significantly more tolerant to drought than Borujerd ecotype. According to the results, there were no difference between recovered plants and control treatment, therefore, Kochia can recover quickly after removing drought stress. Kochia showed high tolerance against drought and salinity stresses and different antioxidant enzymes had different behavior under stress conditions.

3517-3524 Download
62
DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUNGUS FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE
ZAFAR IQBAL1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM PERVEZ2, SALMAN AHMAD1, YASIR IFTIKHAR1, MUHAMMAD YASIN1, ALI NAWAZ3, M. USMAN GHAZANFAR1 ALTAF AHMAD DASTI4 AND AHMAD SALEEM5

DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST FUNGUS FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE
ABSTRACT:
Eight fungicides were evaluated for their In vitro effect on the colony growth of Fusarium mangiferae after 3, 8 and 16 days of inoculation in pre-amended Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The fungicides showed variable response in inhibiting the colony growth of the pathogen according to their nature and specificity at different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Benlate 50 WP and Carbendazim proved to be the best fungicides giving 100% suppression of the colony growth. When decrease of colony growth over control was examined, Benlate and Carbendazim showed 100% decrease over control after 3, 8 and 16 days of inoculation. The fungicides Score 250 EC, Daconil W 75 and Captan 50 WP proved to be comparatively less effective. The fungicides were classified into three types i.e., I, II and III in reference to the sensitivity of F. mangiferae. Fungus proved highly sensitive to type-I fungicides (Benlate 50 WP, Carbendazim, Topsin-M 70 WP and Copper oxychloride 50 WP) with 100% suppression at tested MICs. The studies will be helpful to devise suitable control strategy to curb malformation in mango orchards.

3525-3532 Download
63
HIGH YIELDING KABULI MUTANT CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) VARIETY "CM 2008"
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH*, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA, S. SARWAR ALAM, HINA ALI, MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ AND MAHMUDUL HASSAN

HIGH YIELDING KABULI MUTANT CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) VARIETY "CM 2008"
ABSTRACT:
Air dried seeds of local variety Punjab-1 were treated with 0.2% and 0.3% solution of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) and planted in the field during Rabi 1996-97 to raise M1 generation. The subsequent generations were raised alongwith parents and standard check varieties from 1996 to 2000 and selections were made on the basis of high yielding, bold seeded and wilt resistance. The wilt resistance was checked and confirmed by growing the mutants in natural wilt sick plot. During 2000-01, twelve mutants were evaluated in the yield nursery and eight high yielding mutants were selected. The potential of the mutant line CM94/99 alongwith parent (Pb-1) and check variety (CM2000) was evaluated for yield and adaptation in station and multilocational yield trials conducted from 2001-02 to 2007-2008. CM2008 is a high yielding variety (30% higher yield than check CM2000 and 34% higher yield than Pb-1). The major improvement in CM2008 is manifested in the form of increase in the seed size. The bold seed size (24.0 g) as compared to parent variety Pb-1 (16.5 g) was the main contributing factor towards increase in seed yield. It is resistant to Fusarium wilt and tolerant to Ascochyta blight. Its average yield is 1800 kg/ha and yield potential is 3000 kg/ha. Punjab Seed Council approved CM94/99 variety as a commercial variety under the name of "CM2008" for general cultivation in Punjab. This resistant variety will greatly help to stabilize the chickpea production in the country.

3533-3545 Download
64
SPATIAL ASSOCIATION OF ASTHMA AND VEGETATION IN KARACHI: A GIS PERSPECTIVE
IMRAN AHMED KHAN1, MUDASSAR HASSAN ARSALAN1, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI2, SAMREEN ZEESHAN3 AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2

SPATIAL ASSOCIATION OF ASTHMA AND VEGETATION IN KARACHI: A GIS PERSPECTIVE
ABSTRACT:
A number of evidences confirm that the prevalence of asthma varies from place to place due to a variety of factors. This study focuses on the vegetation and health concerns, and assesses the utility of Geographic Information Systems, to investigate the spatial correspondence between asthma and vegetation in Karachi. Natural land-cover has both advantages and disadvantages with respect to health. Sometimes naturally growing or introduced plants can be noxious like some plants that release allergenic pollen or spores so that plant related allergy and asthma may occur. GIS is an effective computer mapping and analytical tool that permits huge quantities of information to be analyzed and explored, GIS and its associated spatial analytical techniques have been used extensively to study public health issues in recent years. The ultimate purpose of this study is not merely to present data, but also to seek association between the prevalence of asthma and plant cover (vegetation) in Landhi and Korangi towns of Karachi city, Pakistan. The populations under study were the residents of the Landhi and Korangi towns of Karachi metropolis. The study was designed to the assessment of asthma prevalence and its relation with the existing vegetation within the study area. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate desired data using a stratified random sampling design with union councils serving as strata for obtaining data with a sampling intensity of 0.1 %. The executed sample frame was based on 987 questionnaires from randomly selected households and collected information about asthma and related issues, later GIS was used for classification of Landcover of the study area with a satellite image and tabulated vegetation cover areas of different union councils, and finally the relationship of asthma and the vegetation cover was evaluated using Microsoft Excel. The vegetation cover was found to have a significant positive correlation with asthma prevalence. Such a relationship can be attributed to several possible causes. The most important one is that some of the constituent plant species may have allergenic pollen. Previous studies have attributed asthma prevalence to urban life style, with its associated industrial emissions, occupational exposure and certain items of daily use that can cause allergy and consequently affect human health. However, this study provides a direct evidence of a connection existing between the vegetation cover with the prevalence of asthma.

3547-3554 Download
65
IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF SEAWEEDS FROM KARACHI COAST ON BRINE SHRIMP
AYESHA1, HIRA1, VIQAR SULTANA1, JEHAN ARA2 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE3

IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF SEAWEEDS FROM KARACHI COAST ON BRINE SHRIMP
ABSTRACT:
Marine algal community signifies a huge source of compound endowed with ingenious structure and potential biological activities. Cytotoxicity of plant or fungal material is considered as the presence of antitumor compounds. In this study, ethanol extracts of seaweeds Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, D. hauckiana, D. indica, Iyengaria stellata, Jolyna laminarioides, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, Sargassum ilicifolium, S. lanceolatum and Ulva fasciata occurring at Karachi coast were screened for the cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality for larvae (nauplii). Out of 9 seaweeds tested, ethanol extract of eight species showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 <1000µg) on brine shrimp. Dictyota indica showed highest cytotoxic activity (LC50 =143µg).

3555-3560 Download
66
DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM HARVESTING TIME FOR VITAMIN C, OIL AND MINERAL ELEMENTS IN BERRIES SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES)
SHAZIA ARIF1, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMED1, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH1*, LUTFUL HASSAN2, SHAHID IQBAL AWAN1, ABDUL HAMID3 AND FARHAT BATOOL4

DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM HARVESTING TIME FOR VITAMIN C, OIL AND MINERAL ELEMENTS IN BERRIES SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES)
ABSTRACT:
Sea buckthorn a magic plant from Northern areas of Pakistan has multiple uses against various ailments, soil enrichment and environmental purposes. The fruit berries are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, essential oil, Phytosterol and minerals (Fe, Ca, P, Mn and K). The micronutrient like vitamin C, oil, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents in fruit berries of cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides. L. spp. sinensis) harvested at three ripening times were determined using biochemical analysis techniques. Harvesting at different stages of fruit ripening was the primary factor determining maximum expression of these biochemical constituents. Biochemical contents were determined at three fruit developmental stages i.e., unripened stage, medium stage and at full-ripened stage. During this study a decline in vitamin C contents was observed along with the fruit ripening. The oil contents in both seed and pulp increased with fruit ripening. Similarly, the mineral contents like magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents increases with the fruit ripening in sea buckthorn. The main idea was to identify the maximum expression of biochemical at different stages of fruit maturity. It is concluded that it is better to harvest fruit berries at medium stage of fruit ripening when maximum vitamin C is present. For maximum oil and mineral contents fruit must be harvested at ripening stage. The fruit mesocarp is the area where all genes related with micronutrients are active at one time i.e., when fruit is maturing, hence the characterization of gene expression activities at this stage may help in the isolation of these genes for future commercial use.

3561-3568 Download
67
EARLY AND RAPID FLOWERING COUPLED WITH SHORTER BOLL MATURATION PERIOD OFFERS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EARLY CROP MATURITY IN UPLAND COTTON
M. KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH1*, SAEED A. MALIK2, NAVEED MURTAZA3, IHSAN ULLAH4, H. RAHMAN5 AND UZMA YOUNIS6

EARLY AND RAPID FLOWERING COUPLED WITH SHORTER BOLL MATURATION PERIOD OFFERS SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EARLY CROP MATURITY IN UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
In upland cotton, crop maturity is influenced by a number of physiological, phenological, morphological and environmental factors. Selection for this complex trait in segregating populations may be misleading if proper understanding of the direct and indirect effects of these traits is not appropriately understood. Correlation and path analysis techniques were utilized to construct selection criteria to identify early maturing segregants. Results depicted higher genotypic correlations as compared to the phenotypic ones suggesting substantial environmental influence. Earliness index was observed to be negatively correlated with all the traits evaluated except with number of fruiting points on the longest sympodia. Based on path analysis two selection criteria for earliness were evident. First; early and rapid flowering coupled with shorter boll maturation period and the second; low node number of first sympodia coupled with lower number of main stem nodes. Simultaneous improvement in seed cotton yield and earliness of crop maturity required a compromise and determination of a critical point where seed cotton yield and earliness could be maximum.

3569-3576 Download
68
EFFECT OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE ON SENESCENCE AND POST-HARVEST PERFORMANCE OF RANUNCULUS ASIATICUS L. FLOWERS
WASEEM SHAHRI AND INAYATULLAH TAHIR

EFFECT OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE ON SENESCENCE AND POST-HARVEST PERFORMANCE OF RANUNCULUS ASIATICUS L. FLOWERS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of pretreatment with different concentrations of cycloheximide (CHI) on senescence and postharvest performance of isolated flowers of Ranunculus asiaticus was examined. At a particular threshold concentration CHI delays senescence and above which it prevents flower opening and promotes senescence. The fact that cycloheximide delays petal/sepal senescence demonstrates the synthesis of particular proteins probably enzymes, responsible for degradation of cellular constituents, executes the cell death programme in flower petals. Pretreatment of flowers with CHI at 0.01 and 0.05 mM concentrations was found to delay visible signs of senescence, maintain high fresh and dry mass of flowers and lower electrical conductivity of ion leachates. An increase in soluble protein content was observed with a concomitant decrease in specific protease activity and α-amino acid content, besides improving postharvest performance. Pretreatment of flowers with 0.05 mM CHI for 1h can be used as an effective treatment to improve postharvest longevity in this flower system.

3577-3585 Download
69
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND BOTHRIOCHLOA PERTUSA (L.) A. CAMUS
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, BASHIR AHMAD2 AND IHSAN ILAHI

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND BOTHRIOCHLOA PERTUSA (L.) A. CAMUS
ABSTRACT:
Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Bothriochloa pertusa (L) A. Camus are perennial range grasses growing from plains upto 1000m in hot and dry tropical and subtropical regions of the world including Pakistan. Both these grasses are preferred for pasture due to easy germination, fast growth, good palatability and better productivity. However, the pasture generally declines after few years. The present study was conducted to see if allelopathy might be responsible for the declination of pastures. Studies made with using aqueous extracts and added mulches from different plant parts indicated that extracts from various parts and mulches invariably inhibited the germination, radicle growth, dry weight and moisture contents of test species used in different bioassays and experiments. The toxicity depended upon the parts assayed, test species used, soaking duration and physiological parameter. Above ground parts, especially leaves, were more toxic than roots. The toxicity enhanced with increasing soaking duration and amount of plant material. However, the toxicity of shoots declined with constant leaching of plant material. Shoot mulches added to soil retarded the germination and dry weight of test species. It was observed that allelopathy operates through water soluble toxins. However, further study is needed to see the role of root exudates, rains leachates and to identify phytotoxins.

3587-3604 Download
70
SOLID STATE CULTURING OF THERMOPHILIC FUNGI FOR PHYTASE PRODUCTION
MUHAMMAD MOHSIN JAVED*, WASEEM AHMED, SANA ZAHOOR AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

SOLID STATE CULTURING OF THERMOPHILIC FUNGI FOR PHYTASE PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Seven different types of themophilic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Humicola insolens, Rhizomucor miehei-I & II, Sporotrichum thermophile, Thermomyces lanuginosus-I & II were isolated from the compost of various localities. Among all isolates, Sporotrichum thermophile was found to be the best isolate for the phytase production. Six different types of solid materials (wheat bran, rice bran, rice husk, fish meal, corn seed and corn gluten) were evaluated as growth substrate for phytase production by Sporotrichum thermophile. Of all the sources tested, wheat bran supplemented with diluent containing (g/L); (NH4)2SO4; 5.0, KH2PO4; 1.0, Yeast extract; 2.0 gave maximum production (4.16 U/mL/min) when 4% volume of the 250 mL conical flask was used after 96 hrs conidial inoculation at 45oC using solid-state fermentation.

3605-3611 Download
71
IMPROVING AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION PROTOCOL FOR INTEGRATION OF XA21 GENE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
NAVEED IQBAL RAJA1

IMPROVING AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION PROTOCOL FOR INTEGRATION OF XA21 GENE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
2, ASGHARI BANO2, HAMID RASHID3*, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY4 AND NOSHIN ILYAS1.

3613-3631 Download
72
EFFECT OF INTEGRATED USE OF NITROGEN ON YIELD AND N UPTAKE OF MAIZE CROP
AZAM SHAH1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI*2, JEHAN BAKHT3, WISAL MOHAMMAD1, MAHMOOD SHAH1, M.T. JAN2, M. J. KHAN4, ZAHIR SHAH4 AND RAZIUDDIN5

EFFECT OF INTEGRATED USE OF NITROGEN ON YIELD AND N UPTAKE OF MAIZE CROP
ABSTRACT:
The present field studies investigated the effect of the integrated use of mineral N and organic N sources (Farm yard manure, Poultry manure and Filter cake) on maize crop. Field experiment was carried out on silty clay loam soil at NIFA Tarnab Peshawar Pakistan during 2005-06. There were 17 treatments with four replications using maize variety Azam as a test material in RCB design. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that integrated application of organic N sources (farmyard manure, poultry manure, filter cake) and mineral N source (urea) resulted an upward trend in the yield of maize crop. Maximum biomass, (9554 kgha-1) and stover yield (8136 kgha-1) of maize were obtained from those treatments where 100% (FYM) was used. Maximum grain yield (1838 kgha-1 ) was recorded from treatment where 25% farmyard manure (FYM) and 75% mineral nitrogen source (urea) were used. Agronomic efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency was also found higher in the treatments where 25% N from farmyard manure (FYM) and 75% N from mineral N source (urea) was applied. It was concluded that combination of 75% mineral N source and 25% organic N sources (urea) are the best combination for sustainable yield.

3633-3638 Download
73
SELECTION OF SOME SUITABLE DROUGHT TOLERANT WHEAT GENOTYPES USING CARBON ISOTOPES DISCRIMINATION (CID) TECHNIQUE
M.U. SHIRAZI1, J.A. GYAMFI2, T. RAM3, H. BACHIRI4, B. RASYID5, A. REHMAN6, M.A. KHAN1, S.M. MUJTABA1, M. ALI1, AISHA SHREEN1 AND S. MUMTAZ1

SELECTION OF SOME SUITABLE DROUGHT TOLERANT WHEAT GENOTYPES USING CARBON ISOTOPES DISCRIMINATION (CID) TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
A pot culture experiment was conducted in glass house at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria to select suitable drought tolerant wheat genotype using carbon isotopes discrimination technique. Four wheat genotypes viz., LU-26s, Bhittai, Roshan, Taifu, were tested. There were two treatments. i. Control (normal irrigation) and ii. Drought (@ 30 % field capacity of the control treatment). Drought treatment was imposed after two weeks of germination. The experiment was continued up to 10 weeks after germination and was terminated at flowering stage. The data was recorded in terms of plant height, number of tillers, shoot dry weight and carbon isotopic ratio (δ). Results showed that there was a significant decrease in all the growth parameters. The decrease was also significant among the genotypes. The genotypes LU-26s was found to have best performance under drought condition, with minimum decrease in the growth parameters i.e., plant height, number of tillers and shoot dry weight. High corbon isotopes discrimination (CID) values were also observed in genotype LU-26s, showing close positive correlation between SDW and CID. It is therefore concluded that carbon isotopes discrimination can be an important criterion for the selection of wheat genotypes for drought prone areas.

3639-3644 Download
74
DETERMINATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CEDRUS DEODARA ROOT OIL AND ITS COMPOUNDS AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS
REHANA PARVEEN1, M. AHMED AZMI2, R.M. TARIQ3, S. M. MAHMOOD4, MAZHAR HIJAZI5, SHAUKAT MAHMUD6 AND S.N.H. NAQVI7

DETERMINATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CEDRUS DEODARA ROOT OIL AND ITS COMPOUNDS AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS
ABSTRACT:
Studies have carried out to investigate the antifungal activity of Cedrus deodara root oil and compounds of this oil against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Cedrus deodara oil at the concentration of 150 μg/disc showed zone of inhibition against A. fumigatus but at the same concentration did not show any antifungal activity against C. albicans. Similarly compounds of C. deodara oil such as trans-atlantone and allo-himachalol also have not shown any antifungal activity, while himachalol at the concentration of 150 μg/disc showed zone of inhibition against A. fumigatus.

3645-3649 Download
75
PARTHENIUM MANAGEMENT THROUGH AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS
ARSHAD JAVAID*, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE

PARTHENIUM MANAGEMENT THROUGH AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS
ABSTRACT:
Phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. was investigated against parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). In a laboratory bioassay, carried out in 9-cm diameter Petri plates

3651-3657 Download
76
OPTIMUM IRRIGATION AND INTEGRATED NUTRITION IMPROVES THE CROP GROWTH AND NET ASSIMILATION RATE OF COTTON (GOSSYPUM HIRSUTUM L.)
MUHAMMAD SALEEM1*, MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD2, ASIF JAVAID3, MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN4 AND TASNEEM KHALIQ2

OPTIMUM IRRIGATION AND INTEGRATED NUTRITION IMPROVES THE CROP GROWTH AND NET ASSIMILATION RATE OF COTTON (GOSSYPUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The objective was to find out the impact of different irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels on the seasonal crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of cotton. The experiments were conducted using RCBD with split plot arrangement. The treatments were four irrigation schedules (main plot) i.e. six irrigations (I1), three irrigations (I2), irrigation at 25 mm deficit (I3) and irrigation at 50 mm deficit (I4), and seven integrated nutrition levels (sub plot) viz. control (N0), 75-37.5-37.5 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 (N1), 75-37.5-37.5 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 + FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (N2), 75-37.5-37.5 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 + wheat straw @ 5 t ha-1 (N3)

3659-3669 Download
77
PHENOLOGY, LEAF AREA INDEX AND GRAIN YIELD OF RAINFED WHEAT INFLUENCED BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER
SADUR REHMAN1, SHAD K KHALIL1, FIDA MUHAMMAD2, ABDUR REHMAN1, AMIR Z. KHAN1, AMANULLAH1, AHMADUR REHMAN SALJOKI3, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR4 AND IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL2

PHENOLOGY, LEAF AREA INDEX AND GRAIN YIELD OF RAINFED WHEAT INFLUENCED BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER
ABSTRACT:
Phenology, leaf area index and grain yield are the most important traits affected by fertilizer under rainfed condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various levels of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) in combination with organic fertilizer in the form of farmyard manure (FYM) on phenology, leaf area index and grain yield of wheat under rainfed condition. Wheat variety Haider-2000 was planted during 2003-2004 and 2004-05 under rainfed condition at Cereal Crops Research Institute Pirsabak, KPK in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement replicated four times. Four levels of FYM (0

3671-3685 Download
78
CORRIGENDUM
The names of 3 authors and their affiliations were accidentally omitted from the authors list of the paper published in Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
4

3687- Download
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