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Year 2010 , Volume  42, Issue 6
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1
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED POLYGONUM L. SPECIES (POLYGONACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
GHAZALAH YASMIN1*, MIR AJAB KHAN1 AND NIGHAT SHAHEEN1

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED POLYGONUM L. SPECIES (POLYGONACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 12 species belonging to the genus Polygonum L., (Polygonaceae) from Pakistan has been investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Polygonum L., is an eurypalynous genus and four types of surface ornamentation (granulate, granulate-coarsely reticulate, dimorphic exine and variable pattern of ornamentation in polar and equatorial view) have been observed under scanning electron microscope. The variation in exine ultrastructure makes it possible to distinguish four pollen types (Patulum type, Plebijum type, Cognatum type and Avicularia type). Pollen morphology within the genus proved to be useful for the specific delimitation.

3693-3703 Download
2
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON FRESH MATURE LEAVES OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA (ROXB) PLANCH
SHAUKAT MAHMUD, HUMA SHAREEF, MARYAM AHMAD, SHAHNAZ GOUHAR AND GHAZALA H. RIZWANI

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON FRESH MATURE LEAVES OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA (ROXB) PLANCH
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants which are found on earth have renowned medicinal significance and their usage are increasing day by day in our daily life. Different researches are going on to explore the beneficial, pharmacological and medicinal properties of herbal drugs. The present investigation has been carried out on fresh mature leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch., used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, gastritis, dyspepsia, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wound healing, leprosy, diabetes, hemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea and rheumatism. The present studies deals with the pharmacognostic and preliminary Phytochemical investigations of mature leaf Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic and physical parameters. Preliminary Phytochemical screenings of the extracts of leaf have been performed and results are recorded and discussed. In conclusion the macroscopic and microscopic characters, physico- chemical determination and preliminary phytochemical screenings have been used as a diagnostic tool in the identification of the Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch and also to establish the quality and purity of this valuable drug.

3705-3708 Download
3
NEW SPREAD OF DWARF MISTLETOE (ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI) IN JUNIPER FORESTS, ZIARAT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ATTA MOHAMMAD SARANGZAI1*, NASRULLAH KHAN2 MUHAMMAD WAHAB2 AND ASMATULLAH KAKAR1

NEW SPREAD OF DWARF MISTLETOE (ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI) IN JUNIPER FORESTS, ZIARAT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Juniperus excelsa (DC.) M. Bieb. (Cupressaceae) is long-lived tree that provides many benefits to regional ecosystems and local economies of surrounding communities. However, relatively little is known about the insects, diseases and other factors that affect the health and productivity of Juniper forests in Ziarat district of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. In this study the incidence of wide spread threat to J. excelsa by obligate parasite Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC.) M. Bieb (Viscaceae) is reported. This disease has been recently discovered in four new locations in Ziarat forest. In the infested regions of Salam Valley, trees were severely infected, the majority having a DMR (Dwarf Mistletoe Rating) of 6. In contrast, severity of infection in the Ziarat valley was light, the majority having a DMR of 1. In the infested portions of Salik Sakhobi, infection was moderate. 50% of the infected trees were severely infected (DMR 6) and an equal percentage were less infected (DMR 1 or 2). The most effected area was Narai Valley that contained the most severely infected trees. In this area DMR of infected trees were high (4-6). It is therefore concluded that the infection was recent because we did not observe trees in the sampling area that had been completely killed by A. oxycedri. The spread by wind, birds and small mammals is the most likely vector of rapid spread of this parasite. A. oxycedri infestation in the newly infected areas appeared to be the extensions of the main area of infestation in Chasnak and Sasnamana Valleys.

3709-3714 Download
4
FRUIT CHARACTERIZATION OF PAKISTANI DATES
GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND1*, ADEL A. ABUL-SOAD2, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1,3 AND NISAR AHMED KANHAR4

FRUIT CHARACTERIZATION OF PAKISTANI DATES
ABSTRACT:
Fruit of 85 varieties of Pakistani dates were collected throughout the harvest season. Appropriate Performa was designed to write the scientific and commonly used properties. These properties included fruit color at Khalal stage, shape, size (length & diameter), color & height of perianth, fruit group (soft, semi-dry, dry), edible stage and the micropyle position and split (wide, narrow, deep). Furthermore, pictures of the whole fruit, longitudinal and transverse sections and dorsal & ventral sides of seed have been taken. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of different Pakistani dates. Aseel variety is considered as one of the predominant and commercial varieties in Pakistan. It is elliptical in shape like most of the Pakistani dates. A few of the evaluated varieties have good properties. The majority of Pakistani dates fall in the semi-dry group. Most of the varieties, if not all are sensitive to monsoon rains, which synchronizes with ripening/harvest season. The harvest season of dates in Khairpur, Pakistan starts from the end of June until the mid of August. Urgent and rapid demand is being required for the high quality varieties. Whether, this demand can be achieved by means of micropropagation of offshoots of these evaluated and selectable varieties by the tissue culture or to import offshoots of best quality dates from abroad for propagation needs.

3715-3722 Download
5
THE FIRST ANATOMICAL REPORT AND MORPHOLOGICAL REEXAMINATION OF PSILOTUM NUDUM L., IN IRAN
HASSAN NAZARIAN1*, RAZIEH TAGHAVIZAD2 AND ESMAEIL KHOSRAVI1

THE FIRST ANATOMICAL REPORT AND MORPHOLOGICAL REEXAMINATION OF PSILOTUM NUDUM L., IN IRAN
ABSTRACT:
Psilotum nudum L., is of considerable importance in palaeobotany considering its age of evolution i.e. Devonian. It has also been recognized as a medicinal herb. In 2003, one sample of this species was identified just by morphological research and introduced as a new record. This research aims at introducing other samples discovered through other anatomical research besides morphology. P. nudum grows on the trunks of old trees of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., in the form of epiphyte, as suspended, in North Iran. The plant is 30 cm long and aerial shoot has dichotomic branches. There are prominent longitudinal lines, tiny scaly leaves with spiral phyllotaxy and bifid bracts of synangia on aerial shoot. Synangia are configured spirally on the stem and each contains three connected sporangia. Stele in P. nudum L., is protostele. In rhizome it is of actinostele type. However, it is of siphonostele type in aerial shoot.

3723-3728 Download
6
MORPHOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND INDUMENTUM CHARACTERISTICS OF RHODODENDRON LUTEUM SWEET (ERICACEAE)
SEVİM ALAN1*, MİNE KÜRKÇÜOĞLU2, FATİH GÖGER2 AND K. HÜSNÜ CAN BAŞER2

MORPHOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND INDUMENTUM CHARACTERISTICS OF RHODODENDRON LUTEUM SWEET (ERICACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
This report concens morphological, chemical and indumentum characteristes of Rhododendron luteum Sweet collected from Ordu province. A detailed description of the species has been prepared and compared with that published in the Flora of Turkey of Davis in a tabular form. The description in supported by drawings and original photographs. Chemical composition of the head space odour of the plant material was elucidated. Indumentum characteristics were investigated and their SEM photographs were taken. R. luteum is a deciduous plant growing up to 3-4 m, in North and Eastern Anatolian mountains. It is a posonous plant known as ‘’Zifin, Sifin, Cifin, Sarı ormangülü, Eğri çiçeği, Sarı ağu’’. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, strigose glandular hairs on both surfaces. Flowers are yellow, main odour components were found as β-caryophyllene (34.0%), methyl benzoate (11.7%), (E)-β-ocimene (10.4%) and α-pinene (10.0%).

3729-3737 Download
7
GERMINATION OF SOME IMPORTANT WEEDS INFLUENCED BY RED LIGHT AND NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
DONG-SHENG TANG1◦, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN2◦, ABDUL LATIF KHAN3,4, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI5, YOON-HA KIM3, SANG-MO KANG3, JOON-HEE LEE3, CHAE-IN NA6, YASMIN NAWAZ7, KEE-KYUNG KANG8 AND IN-JUNG LEE3*

GERMINATION OF SOME IMPORTANT WEEDS INFLUENCED BY RED LIGHT AND NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
ABSTRACT:
Seed dormancy is a major constraint in the eradication of weeds from agriculture fields. Seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinocloa crus-galli and Digitaria adscendens were collected from cultivated fields, dried and then treated with different nitrogen containing compounds i.e., potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Some seeds were kept under dark while others were irradiated with red light for 10 min., after 12 hr of inhibition. The N-compounds were applied @ 1, 5

3739-3745 Download
8
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF WOUND HEALING HERBS AMONG THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN HIMALAYA RANGES DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, PAKISTAN
ARSHAD MEHMOOD ABBASI1, MIR AJAB KHAN1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, SARWAT JAHAN3, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR1 AND SHAZIA SULTANA1

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF WOUND HEALING HERBS AMONG THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN HIMALAYA RANGES DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present paper reports therapeutic uses of medicinal plants for wounds healing by the tribal communities of Northern Himalayan Range, district Abbottabad which was recorded during January 2007 to April 2009. A total of 27 plant species belonging to 23 families are identified which are being used by the people of the study area. One hundred informants of different age (35 to 90 years old) were interviewed to extract ethnomedicinal data using semi-structured questionnaire. Present study provides baseline data on wound healing properties of native plants that can be exploited by pharmaceutical industry for screening new active compounds.

3747-3753 Download
9
THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE MANGROVE KANDELIA OBOVATA IN CHINA REVEALED BY ISSR ANALYSIS
SHAO-BO CHEN1,2,3, WEN-YONG DING 2,3, JIAN-BIAO QIU3*, GUANG-YIN WANG2,3 , ZHI-MIN ZHOU3, JIAO-FEI CHEN2, WEI-MING AI2,

THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE MANGROVE KANDELIA OBOVATA IN CHINA REVEALED BY ISSR ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
CHENG-YI WANG2,3 AND QI-LANG XIE2,3

3755-3764 Download
10
SCREENING OF MUTATED POPULATION OF SUGARCANE THROUGH RAPD
SAJIDA BIBI, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, SHAFQAT YASMIN, NIGHAT SEEMA, SHAHID AFGHAN* AND M.A. ARAIN

SCREENING OF MUTATED POPULATION OF SUGARCANE THROUGH RAPD
ABSTRACT:
Variability obtained from mutation breeding (gamma rays) was examined through molecular marker techniques (RAPD). A total of 73 loci were amplified with 13 primers, out of which 75.34% were polymorphic and 24.66% were monomorphic. Fragments size ranged from 275bp-2.2kb and fragments produced by various primers ranged from 3-9 with an average of 3 fragments per primer. The highest number of loci 9 was amplified with primer B-09, while the lowest number 3 with primer B-02 and B-08. Results revealed that mutant P2(30Gy) contained three specific segment of 421bp

3765-3773 Download
11
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SOME TUNISIAN BARLEY LANDRACES BASED ON RAPD MARKERS
RAOUDHA ABDELLAOUI1*, KARIM KADRI2, M’BAREK BEN NACEUR3 AND LEÏLA BETTAIB BEN KAAB4

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SOME TUNISIAN BARLEY LANDRACES BASED ON RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The genetic diversity analysis of 15 barley landraces was carried out using RAPD markers. These landraces were collected from various bioclimatic Tunisian zones. The amplification products varied from 4 to 11 bands ranging between 250 pb and 3000 pb. On 698 fragments counted, 578 are polymorphic showing a high level of polymorphism (82.8%). The relationship between the studied landraces was evaluated according to (UPGMA) method that classified barley landraces in 4 homogeneous groups. Among which, the group D included the majority of the landraces with the introduced variety ‘Martin’. The genetic distance between these landraces is reduced, may be because of the presence of a common ancestor which led to a narrow genetic diversity.

3775-3782 Download
12
GENOTYPE INDEPENDENT IN VITRO REGENERATION SYSTEM IN ELITE VARIETIES OF SUGARCANE
SAFDAR ALI1, JAVED IQBAL3 AND MUHAMMAD SARWAR KHAN2*

GENOTYPE INDEPENDENT IN VITRO REGENERATION SYSTEM IN ELITE VARIETIES OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Nine sugarcane genotypes were tested for callus induction and subsequent regeneration on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of hormones. Genotype-independent plant regeneration was developed from calli induced from young leaf roll discs on MS medium supplemented with seven different levels (1-5mgl-l) of 2, 4-D. Further, five levels (1-5mgl-l) of 2, 4-D alongwith 1 mgl-1 of Kinetin for callus induction were used. All the genotypes responded well to 2, 4-D alone as well as in combination with Kinetin. Nevertheless, high percentage of regeneration was observed on MS medium supplemented with 500mg l-l casein hydrolysate. Regenerated shoots developed profused roots on NAA (4-5mgl-l) and casein hydrolysate (500mgl-l)-containing MS medium which were otherwise delayed on a medium containing full as well as half strength MS salts.

3783-3790 Download
13
GENETIC VARIATION FOR SEED PROTEIN IN BARLEY GERMPLASM
ZAHEER AHMAD AND SHAHEENA YASMIN

GENETIC VARIATION FOR SEED PROTEIN IN BARLEY GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Barley accessions collected from three regions of Pakistan were evaluated for seed protein (%) for two seasons. A wide range of variation (9 to 21%) was found in the germplasm studied during both seasons. Maximum accessions exhibited protein 12.1 ~ 16.0% protein whereas few accessions produced more than 18.0% protein. Correlation between two seasons’ data was highly significant indicating the influence of genetic component. Germplasm were classified on the basis of regions. Accessions from Northern areas possessed average higher protein percentage followed by NWFP, Baluchistan and check varieties. Classification on the basis of altitude showed that the accessions collected from 200-800 masl had low protein while those collected from 2601-3000 masl had high protein. This study provides information on important protein sources of germplasm.

3791-3797 Download
14
CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF SEED COTTON YIELD WITH SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
SHAZIA SALAHUDDIN1, SAIFULLAH ABRO2, A. REHMAN3 AND KHALID IQBAL1

CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF SEED COTTON YIELD WITH SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Correlation and regression studies of cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L., were analysed for quantitative characters. Results revealed that highly significant positive correlation (r=0.567) was displayed by sympodial branches with seed cotton yield, which showed that seed cotton yield was greatly influenced by sympodial branches. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.321) revealed 32.1% variation in the seed cotton yield per plant, due to its relationship with sympodial branches per plant. Regression coefficient (b=5.66) showed that a unit increase in sympodial branches per plant resulted into a proportional increase of 5.66 gms in seed cotton yield per plant, whereas bolls per plant exhibited strong positive association with seed cotton yield (r=0.959). The coefficient of determination (r2=0.92) revealed 92% of the total variation in seed cotton yield attributable to the variation in number of bolls per plant. The regression coefficient (b=3.37) indicated that for a unit increase in bolls per plant, there would be a proportional increase of 3.37 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. Boll weight displayed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.597) with seed cotton yield per plant. The coefficient of determination (r2=0.356) determined that boll weight was responsible for 35.6% variation in seed cotton yield per plant. The regression coefficient (b=53.479) indicated that a unit increase in boll weight resulted into corresponding increase of 53.48 gms in seed cotton yield per plant. However, the plant height and monopodial branches per plant showed non significant association with the yield per plant.

3799-3805 Download
15
EVALUATION OF HIGH YIELDING CANOLA TYPE BRASSICA GENOTYPES/ MUTANTS FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN*, M.Y ASHRAF1, S.M. MUJTABA, M.U. SHIRAZI, M.A. KHAN, A. SHEREEN, S. MUMTAZ, M. AQIL SIDDIQUI AND G. MURTAZA KALERI

EVALUATION OF HIGH YIELDING CANOLA TYPE BRASSICA GENOTYPES/ MUTANTS FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of various water regimes on growth and yield of canola genotypes/mutants using physiological indices as screening tool, in the year 2007-08. Three canola type genotypes viz., Con-III, Hyola-42 and Shiralee (Check) and two mutants of Rainbow viz., Rainbow-1 (R-75/1) and Rainbow-2 (R-100/6) (including Rainbow-Parent) were selected for the study. The mutants of Rainbow were developed by the Brassica Group of NIA, Tandojam. The experiment comprised of four water regimes i.e., W1 (300 mm), three irrigation of 100 mm each at flowering, siliquae formation and at maturity stage; W2 (200 mm), two irrigations of 100 mm each at flowering and siliquae formation stage; W3 (100 mm), single irrigation of 100 mm at flowering stage and W0 (no irrigation) except soaking one. Relative water contents (RWC), Osmotic potential (OP) and potassium contents were generally decreased whereas total greenness (Spad value) and proline contents increased under various water regimes as compared to control. The present study showed that the genotype Con-III and the mutant Rainbow-2 (R-100/6) were relatively tolerant to drought stress as compared to all other genotypes/mutants.

3807-3816 Download
16
DIRECT PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAVES OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCK GF-677 (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS X P. PERSICA)
SYED ZIA UL HASAN, TOUQEER AHMAD, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ* AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

DIRECT PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAVES OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCK GF-677 (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS X P. PERSICA)
ABSTRACT:
The effect of two culture media viz., Murashige & Skoog (MS) and Lepoivre (LP) supplemented with 1.0

3817-3830 Download
17
DENSITY AND PLANTING DATE INFLUENCE PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ASSIMILATE PARTITIONING AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF FABA BEAN
SHAD K. KHALIL1*, A. WAHAB1, A. REHMAN1, FIDA MUHAMMAD2, S. WAHAB3, A. Z. KHAN1, M. ZUBAIR4, MIR KALAN SHAH5, I. H. KHALIL2 AND R. AMIN1

DENSITY AND PLANTING DATE INFLUENCE PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ASSIMILATE PARTITIONING AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF FABA BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Phenological development determines the period of vegetative and reproductive growth, assimilate partitioning and dry matter production. Planting time and density are the major factors affecting phenological development, assimilate partitioning and yield of faba bean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenological development, assimilate partitioning and yield of faba bean. Faba bean was planted on eight dates from September 20 to December 27

3831-3838 Download
18
CHARACTERIZATION OF BREEDING LINES OF COMMON BEAN AS REVEALED BY RAPD AND RELATIONSHIP WITH MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS
ATILLA DURSUN1*, KAMIL HALILOGLU2 AND MELEK EKINCI1

CHARACTERIZATION OF BREEDING LINES OF COMMON BEAN AS REVEALED BY RAPD AND RELATIONSHIP WITH MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
Different type of data can be used to estimate genetic diversity. In this work, genetic diversity among common bean breeding lines by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, and morphological traits to analyze differences among common bean breeding lines were studied and usability of RAPD markers for estimation of genetic diversity among common bean breeding lines in comparison with morphological traits were evaluated. Eight RAPD markers generated polymorphic patterns, yielding a polymorphism rate of 80%. The average genetic similarity among the common bean breeding lines was 0.55 with values ranging from 0.19 between H-166 and H-212 and 0.67 between H-212 and H-128 breeding lines, having the highest genetic similarity. In the principal component analysis (PCA), the first three principal components explained about 81% of the variation in morphological traits. A Mantel’s test showed low correlation between RAPD and morphological data distance matrices.

3839-3845 Download
19
CLONING AND PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION OF A COMPLEMENTARY DNA GENE FOR CYCLOPHILIN FROM CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
XIAOFENG TAN1*, BAOMING WANG1, LIN ZHANG1, MINGWANG SHI1

CLONING AND PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION OF A COMPLEMENTARY DNA GENE FOR CYCLOPHILIN FROM CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
ABSTRACT:
2, LUSHAN XIE1 AND FANGMING HU1

3847-3855 Download
20
GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE OF GLYCINE MAX VARIETIES IN TEXTILE AND PAPER INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS
IMRANA YOUSAF1, SYEDA MARIA ALI2 AND AZRA YASMIN1*

GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE OF GLYCINE MAX VARIETIES IN TEXTILE AND PAPER INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation was carried out to assay the effects of industrial effluents on different varieties of soybean. For that purpose Textile effluent and Paper & Board effluent were chosen. Concentrations used for both the effluents were 0

3857-3863 Download
21
AGRONOMIC, FIBER AND SEED QUALITY TRAITS OF NATURALLY COLOURED COTTONS IN EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY
LALE EFE*, A. SEFER MUSTAFAYEV AND FATIH KILLI

AGRONOMIC, FIBER AND SEED QUALITY TRAITS OF NATURALLY COLOURED COTTONS IN EAST MEDITERRANEAN REGION OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out during 2002-2005 in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras province), at the experimental field of Agricultural Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University. Four naturally coloured cotton lines (light brown, dark brown, cream and green) (G. hirsutum L.) brought from Azerbaijan National Academy, Genetic Resources Institute and white linted cotton varieties of Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.) which are of standard varieties of the region were used as test material. Four year’s field trials were established according to randomized block design with four replication. According to four year’s results, investigated coloured cotton lines have given lower yield and ginning outturn than standard varieties. However cream and light brown lines were similar to standards for plant height, sympodia, boll number per plant, seed cotton weight per boll, fiber quality characteristics, kernel oil and protein content. From results it may be concluded that cream and light brown lines are remarkable lines a those may be used for further breeding programs for improvement of desired trais.

3865-3873 Download
22
INTER SPECIES TESTING OF BRASSICA MICROSATELLITES AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC DOMAIN AND THEIR POTENTIAL UTILIZATION FOR COMPARATIVE GENOMICS IN CRUCIFERAE
MUNAZZA SADIA1*, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI2, M. SHAHID MASOOD2, S.R. PEARCE3 AND SALMAN A. MALIK1

INTER SPECIES TESTING OF BRASSICA MICROSATELLITES AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC DOMAIN AND THEIR POTENTIAL UTILIZATION FOR COMPARATIVE GENOMICS IN CRUCIFERAE
ABSTRACT:
Many of the microsatellites available in the public domain have been used successfully or tested on species other than that from which they were originally isolated. In this study we report on the distribution of more SSR loci within Brassicaceae species. A selection of available primer pairs was screened against a panel of Brassica rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus and B. nigra lines. PCR conditions were kept uniform to facilitate high throughput genotyping. Initial screening comprised of separation of PCR products on 3.5% metaphor agarose gels and visualization by staining with Ethidium bromide. The PCR products were assessed on the basis of polymorphism and number of fragments amplified. Those with a small number of fragments (1-4) that showed polymorphism either within or between species were then screened again using a larger panel of lines. All the primer pairs that could be used successfully in B. rapa were examined in other Brassica and Cruciferous species. More than 90% of the primer pairs successfully amplified the corresponding microsatellite regions in the Brassica species tested. Based on these results, we concluded that the selected microsatellites have a high potential for the development of DNA markers that could contribute to the genetic analysis of Brassica and other Cruciferae.

3875-3885 Download
23
SELECTION OF DROUGHT TOLERANT AND HIGH WATER USE EFFICIENT RICE CULTIVARS THROUGH 13C ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE
J. AKHTER1 , P. MONNEVEUX2, S.A. SABIR1, M.Y. ASHRAF1*, Z. LATEEF3 AND R. SERRAJ4

SELECTION OF DROUGHT TOLERANT AND HIGH WATER USE EFFICIENT RICE CULTIVARS THROUGH 13C ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been suggested as an indirect tool for selecting plants having higher water use efficiency (WUE) and yield potential. Enhancing WUE is an important breeding objective as water scarcity is increasing with every passing day. This study was undertaken to assess the genotypic variation and relationship between leaf, straw, grain D, grain yield and WUE in eight aromatic rice cultivars grown in lysimeters under three water regimes, in absence of drainage and runoff. Highly significant positive correlations were found between above-ground biomass and WUEB, and grain yield and WUEG, due to the low variation in water consumed by different cultivars. Leaf, straw and grain D showed a consistent variation across treatments and cultivars. Under water stress conditions, both leaf and straw D were positively correlated to grain yield and WUEG. In all the water treatments, WUEG was positively correlated to harvest index and negatively to plant height. All the mutants from Basmati 385 had significantly higher D values as compared to the mutants from Basmati 370. It was concluded that the new cultivar, Basmati 385, represents a better genetic source for D improvement than the old cultivar, Basmati 370.

3887-3897 Download
24
MULTI-ENVIRONMENT RESPONSE IN SEED YIELD OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL], GENOTYPES THROUGH GGE BIPLOT TECHNIQUE
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*, ZAFAR IQBAL2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD3 ABDUL WAHEED3, MUHAMMAD ASAD GLUFRAN4, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2 AND DOULAT BAIG5

MULTI-ENVIRONMENT RESPONSE IN SEED YIELD OF SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL], GENOTYPES THROUGH GGE BIPLOT TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Multi-environment data of 7 different locations for seed yield of 182 soybean diverse genotypes were analyzed. The objectives were to find out the 1) homogenous groups of similar genotypes and similar environments through cluster analysis 2) genotypic main effects and genotype environment interaction (GGE) in graphic display which make able visual evaluation of both genotypes and environments and 3) performance of genotypic groups across environments and environmental groups over genotypes through biplot. Analysis of variance of seed yield revealed 13.12% genotypic and 47.93% environmental effect. While, partitioning into groups of each genotype, environment and their interaction effects were observed 80.84%, 95.8% and 60.86% respectively. Maximum (means) seed yield 15.94 + 0.18g plant-1 was observed for Grp-8 followed by Grp-9 with the value of 14.90 + 0.97g plant-1 while, minimum seed yield 7.53 + 0.48g was observed for Grp-10. The fusion level of 7 environments revealed 3 location (Islamabad, Mingora and Mansehra) in main group A and 4 locations (Faisalabad, Quetta, Gilgit and Tandojam) were in main group B. Fifteen genotypic groups derived from 182 genotypes have 3 main groups A, B and C. Genotypic group having large distance from origin has a large genotype plus interaction as Grp-9 and Grp-3. Coordination of three dimensions biplot for any one G or E showed small angle for similar type and large for dissimilar to each other, while larger projection of a genotypic group on an environment vector has more and this genotypic group deviates from the average in the environment.

3899-3905 Download
25
IMPACT OF PLANT POPULATIONS AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON MAIZE
MUHAMMAD ARIF, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN, HABIB AKBAR, SHAD ALI KHAN, M.J. KHAN, AHMAD KHAN, IQBAL MUNIR, MUHAMMAD SAEED AND AQIB IQBAL

IMPACT OF PLANT POPULATIONS AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
To study the impact of plant population and nitrogen levels on maize, an experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006.The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having four replications. Plant populations (4, 6 and 8 plants m-2) were kept in the main plots while nitrogen levels (0

3907-3913 Download
26
GENETIC VARIABILITY, TRAIT ASSOCIATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
AQSA TABASUM*, MUHAMMAD SALEEM AND IRUM AZIZ

GENETIC VARIABILITY, TRAIT ASSOCIATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variability, heritability along with genetic advance of traits, their association and direct and indirect effects on yield are essential for crop improvement. Ten mungbean genotypes were studied to assess variability and degree to which various plant traits associate with seed yield. Primary and secondary branches, pods per cluster and pod length showed lesser variability while clusters per plant

3915-3924 Download
27
CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN THREE GENOTYPES OF BRASSICA JUNCEA AFFECTED BY EXPLANT SOURCE
RAISA BANO1, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1, HAMID RASHID1*, RAHAM SHER KHAN2, IQBAL MUNIR2, ZAHOOR AHMED SWATI2 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3

CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN THREE GENOTYPES OF BRASSICA JUNCEA AFFECTED BY EXPLANT SOURCE
ABSTRACT:
In vitro studies of Brassica juncea is indispensable for evaluating its response to different biotic and abiotic stresses and its improvement through biotechnological techniques. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the In vitro response of the three different explants (cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots) of three genotypes of Brassica juncea (UCD-635, RL-18 and NIFA-RAYE). The explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of the auxins (NAA and IAA) and cytokinin (BAP and KIN). All the explants responded significantly to all the hormonal concentrations for different parameters. Cotyledons of all the three genotypes were efficient in producing shoots whereas less number of calli were produced by the cotyledons. BAP 2.0 mgL-1/NAA 0.2 mgL-1, BAP 3.0 mgL-1/NAA 0.5 mgL-1 and Kin 2.0 mgL-1/IAA 0.2 mgL-1 and Kin 3.0 mgL-1/IAA 0.5 mgL-1 produced shoots efficiently from the cotyledon explants of the two genotypes, UCD-635 and RL-18. Hypocotyls were found efficient for callus production while their response for shoots formation was slower as more number of days were taken by hypocotyls to produce shoots. Roots were efficient for callus and root formation but neither of the root explants produced shoots on any of the used hormonal concentration. Based on our study, hypocotyls and roots could be the preferred explants when more and vigorous callus formation is required, while cotyledons could be the preferred explants where regeneration is needed such as in genetic transformation experiments.

3925-3932 Download
28
EVALUATION OF POTASSIUM STATUS OF RAMS: THE USE OF PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA AS INDICATORS UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, KAFEEL AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, SYED ALI HASSAN NAQVI1, SHAHNEELA KASHAF1, ABID EJAZ1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

EVALUATION OF POTASSIUM STATUS OF RAMS: THE USE OF PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA AS INDICATORS UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to assess the potassium (K) status of soil, forage, and blood plasma of male sheep (rams) at Livestock Experimental Station, Khizerabad, Sargodha, Pakistan. Soil, forage, and blood samples were obtained on monthly basis and analyzed after wet digestion to determine the sampling period effect on K in these variables, in addition to the transfer of K in soil-, forage-animal system during this investigation period. The K levels of soil, forage and blood plasma were significantly influenced by the sampling periods and these were found to be above the critical value established for these markers. The forage was deficient in K particularly in the beginning of the growth stage. Plasma had adequate level of K for the normal requirement of rams being reared at this livestock farm, but deficiency of K may be expected during the early season because of deficient level of K in forages. Occasional supplementation of K with locally accessible feed sources and mineral mixture having high availability of this element may alleviate the deficiency if occurs at any time at this animal farm.

3933-3938 Download
29
SELECTION CRITERION TO ASSESS WHEAT BORON TOLERANCE AT SEEDLING STAGE: PRIMARY vs. TOTAL ROOT LENGTH
MILKA BRDAR-JOKANOVIĆ1*, IVANA MAKSIMOVIĆ2, EMILIJA NIKOLIĆ-ĐORIĆ2, MARIJA KRALJEVIĆ-BALALIĆ2 and BORISLAV KOBILJSKI1

SELECTION CRITERION TO ASSESS WHEAT BORON TOLERANCE AT SEEDLING STAGE: PRIMARY vs. TOTAL ROOT LENGTH
ABSTRACT:
Excess boron may exhibit detrimental effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An effective technique for assessing the response of wheat genotypes to excess boron is required to create high yielding tolerant cultivars. Filter paper assay, based on seedling’s primary root length reduction in the presence of excess boron, is commonly used for distinguishing tolerant and sensitive genotypes. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of excess boron on both primary and lateral root length, number of roots, number of days from imbibition to germination and germination percentage on the sample of 25 wheat cultivars, differing in origin and boron tolerance. The experiment included control and three boron treatments. On average, excess boron reduced root length and number and had no effect on number of days from imbibition to germination and germination percentage; however, significant differences have been found among the genotypes. The imposed boron treatments demonstrated 5.2% stronger effect on lateral root length in comparison to primary root length. In 10 out of 25 cases, boron tolerance estimated from primary root length reduction was not consistent with the estimation from lateral root length reduction; therefore, total root length reduction may be more valuable selection criterion for boron tolerance in wheat.

3939-3947 Download
30
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GERMINATION PATTERN IN SELECTED COTTON GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN
ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ*, MUHAMMAD NAVEED AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GERMINATION PATTERN IN SELECTED COTTON GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The genetic diversity in 18 cotton varieties of Pakistan was assessed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Three RAPD primers: OPO-19, OPQ-14 and OPY-2 revealed amplifications at 470bp, 325bp and 1070bp with a selection efficiency of 27.7, 61.1 and 44.4 % respectively. Marker assisted screening revealed two cotton varieties CIM-240 and CIM-443 to have resistance against CLCuV. For all varieties days to germination and germination success were recorded. Based on the data three groups were identified with 13 varieties characterized as slow responding, 3 as good responding and 2 varieties as non-responding. Furthermore plant height and leaf area have been studied as an indicator of biomass production. Based on the pooled data 2 genotypes i.e., CIM240 and CIM443 have been identified as potential genotypes to be used in future cotton breeding.

3949-3956 Download
31
PRIMARY CALLUS INDUCTION, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND REGENERATION STUDIES IN SELECTED ELITE WHEAT VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
MEHMOODA MUNAZIR1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1,*, GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI2, UMER RASHID2, SABAHAT NOOR, KHALID MEHMOOD1, SHOUKAT ALI2 AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1

PRIMARY CALLUS INDUCTION, SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND REGENERATION STUDIES IN SELECTED ELITE WHEAT VARIETIES FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators including 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and Kin (kinetin) was investigated for primary callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of two elite wheat varieties viz., Sahar and GA-02. Mature seeds were used as explants for primary callus induction. Different concentrations of 2, 4-D were investigated to study its effect on callus induction and callus growth frequency (CGF). Compact, whitish, healthy and fluffy calli were induced in Sahar and GA-02 in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l and 4 mg/l 2, 4-D respectively. The calli produced were subjected to somatic embryogenesis and regeneration studies. For this purpose, MS Medium was supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators like IAA and BAP. Maximum embryogenic callus formation was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA in combination with 1.5 mg/l BAP and it resulted in 73.51% and 62.33% embryogenic callus formation in Sahar and GA-02 respectively. These optimum concentrations of IAA and BAP were further experimented with different concentrations of Kin for efficient regeneration and it was observed that 1 mg/l Kin was optimum for this purpose. Such studies help in understanding the response of wheat to tissue culture conditions and ultimately promise in improving yield by employing various biotechnological techniques.

3957-3965 Download
32
A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CLIMATE CHANGE CAUSING DECLINE IN FOREST COVER AREA IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD*, ANUSHA SHERAZI AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR ALI SHAH

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CLIMATE CHANGE CAUSING DECLINE IN FOREST COVER AREA IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The analysis of species density and species distribution based on the analysis of land cover characteristics is an important aspect in the process of understanding forest ecology. Therefore in the present study a GIS based approach was followed to produce different scale vegetation maps for a study area in district Chakwal. The prime forest areas in district Chakwal were identified for the study by integrating the areas of land cover change derived for the change in climate in the years 2005-6 and 2009-10 by the use of GIS mapping. Results show that the minimum temperature of the district increased from 9.4oC to 9.9oC during the period of 2005-06 to 2009-10, and the maximum temperature increased from 33.8oC to 35oC. The humidity changed from 69.1% to 70.3% followed by the rainfall decrease from 872mm to 557mm. These distinguished changes in the climate caused the decline in the forest area of the region. The total forest area was found to be around 698Km2 in the year 2005-06, which declined to about 625 Km2 in 2009-10. The study further demonstrates the utility of GIS technique for the assessment of land cover change areas particularly in the regions where significant climate change conditions are occurring and forests are being lost.

3971-3979 Download
33
IMPACT OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BODY TISSUES OF SPODOPTERA EXIGUA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
MUHAMMAD RIZWAN-UL-HAQ1, MEI YING HU1*, MUHAMMAD AFZAL2, MUHAMMAD HAMID BASHIR3, LIANG GONG1 AND JIANJUN LUO1

IMPACT OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BODY TISSUES OF SPODOPTERA EXIGUA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
ABSTRACT:
The plant extracts from Zygophyllacae and Euphorbiaceae are well known in the human history for medicinal use but their use to control insect pests is still in preliminary stage. In this study the effects of extracts from Peganum harmala and Ricinus communis on the glutathione S-transferase activity in the fat body as well as midgut tissues of Spodoptera exigua are documented at different exposure times. At the sub lethal concentrations (0.24 and0.49 mg ml-1) the highest GST value in fat body tissue (73 nmol CDNB/min/mg protein) was found on the 8th day of combined treatment with ricinine and harmaline while in midgut the highest value (69 nmol CDNB/min/mg protein) was noticed on 6th day after being treated with ricinine individually. At the lethal concentrations (0.37 and 0.71 mg ml-1), the highest GST value (62 nmol CDNB/min/mg protein) was found on the 4th day against combined treatment of ricinine and harmaline in fat bodies. In the midgut the highest GST value (59 nmol CDNB/min/mg protein) was observed on the 2nd day of combined treatment with ricinine and harmaline. The protein values in all the treatments were significantly lower in treated insects as compared to control.

3971-3979 Download
34
PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF SWEET SORGHUM UNDER DIFFERENT WATERING REGIMES
XIE TINGTING1*, SU PEIXI1 AND SHAN LISHAN2

PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF SWEET SORGHUM UNDER DIFFERENT WATERING REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has been recognized as an important ethanol crop which can be planted in marginal lands in China, but little is known about its photosynthetic characteristics in this environment. We investigated gas exchange parameters and biomass yield under different watering regimes along the oases chain of the Hexi Corridor in China. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) exhibited a mid-day depression under serious drought stress (SD). However, during the soft dough stage, the diurnal changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, PSII (Fv/Fm) showed an obvious decline, indicating the existence of photoinhibition. Under normal water (NW) and moderate drought stress (MD) conditions, there was a unimodal pattern except in the jointing stage under MD, and there was no evidence of photoinhibition. The highest water use efficiency (WUE) occurred under MD in the early and middle growth stages, while it was highest under SD in the late growth stage. With increasing drought stress, the light compensation point (LCP) increased, whereas the light saturation point (LSP), the apparent quantum yield (AQY) and dark respiration rate (Rd) declined. The stem fresh biomass was highest under MD (77 t·hm-2). The main conclusion of the study was that SD caused photoinhibition of sweet sorghum and decreased WUE and stem biomass. Under NW, photoinhibition was avoided and stem biomass increased, however, WUE decreased. As a result, the highest WUE and stem biomass of sweet sorghum was achieved under MD.

3981-3994 Download
35
QUANTIFICATION OF VARIOUS METALS AND CYTOTOXIC PROFILE OF AERIAL PARTS OF POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM
MUHAMMAD SAEED1, HAROON KHAN1, MURAD ALI KHAN2, FARIDULLAH KHAN3, SAEED AHMAD KHAN1 AND NAVEED MUHAMMAD1

QUANTIFICATION OF VARIOUS METALS AND CYTOTOXIC PROFILE OF AERIAL PARTS OF POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the current study was to ascertain the concentration of various micronutrients using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and macronutrients using flame photometry and evaluation of cytotoxicity of the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum. Based on the results, the crude extract and its various fractions contained marked concentrations of both micronutrients and macronutrients. The predominant micronutrients were Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr and Ni. It was noticeable that Ni concentration in hexane (1.80 ppm) and ethyl acetate (2.40 ppm) fractions were beyond the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) for plants and Zn concentration in butanol fraction (60 ppm) was also beyond the permissible limit for plants (50 ppm). Outstanding concentrations of macronutrients were possessed by all solvent fractions with Ca, Na and K ranges from 100–220 ppm

3995-4002 Download
36
CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF OSC3H33, OSC3H50 AND OSC3H37 GENES IN RICE UNDER SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD JAMIL1*, WAQAS IQBAL1, ASIA BANGASH1, SHAFIQ UR REHMAN2, Q. MUHAMMAD IMRAN1 AND EUI SHIK RHA3*

CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF OSC3H33, OSC3H50 AND OSC3H37 GENES IN RICE UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Abiotic stress is a major problem around the world causing huge losses to cultivated crops. Salinity, low temperature and drought are the most destructive abiotic stresses worldwide. A study was designed to understand the effect of salt stress (control, 50,100

4003-4009 Download
37
TILLAGE AND SEED RATES EFFECT ON WEED BIOMASS, GRAIN AND BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF DRYLAND CHICKPEA
AMANULLAH JAN1, IHSANULLAH DAUR1, KHALID ALI1 AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN2

TILLAGE AND SEED RATES EFFECT ON WEED BIOMASS, GRAIN AND BIOLOGICAL YIELD OF DRYLAND CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of conventional tillage (CT) or no Tillage (NT) systems using three seed rates (40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) of chickpea. Aim of the experiment was to develop management strategy for control of weeds and increase yield of chickpea under rainfed condition. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having tillage system as main plot and seed rate as sub plot. CT was more effective in controlling weeds, enhancing grain and straw yields as compared with NT. Plots seeded @ 80 kg ha-1 though had higher weeds biomass and lower straw yield as compared with 120 kg ha-1 seed rate, its grain yield was significantly higher than both higher and lower seed rates used in the experiment. Seed rate of 80 kg ha-1 under CT seems to the promising combination for rainfed chickpea.

4011-4016 Download
38
POTENTIAL OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF NICKLE (Ni) AND LEAD (Pb) CONTAMINATED WATER
SAIMA MUKHTAR1*, HAQ NAWAZ BHATTI1, MUHAMMAD KHALID2, M. ANWAR UL HAQ2 AND SHER MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD3

POTENTIAL OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF NICKLE (Ni) AND LEAD (Pb) CONTAMINATED WATER
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metals are contaminants of much environmental apprehension, as they are hazardous to human being and other biota. Buildup of heavy metals in crop plants is of great concern due to the probability of food contamination through the soil-root interface. For this purpose, a hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower plant to phytoremediate Pb and Ni contaminated water in the absence and presence of synthetic chelator. Results showed that application of Ni and Pb reduced the dry weights of shoot and root (up to 55.1 and 38.3%; 50.5 and 33.6%), shoot and root length (up to 64.5 and 58.1%; 64.1 and 55.8%), chlorophyll content (up to 63.8 and 54.4%), and photosynthetic activity (up to 66.1 and 62.7%), respectively with EDTA as compared to control. While, maximum concentration of Ni and Pb in shoot and root (up to 18.43 and 20.73 mg kg-1; 12.82 and 18.67 mg kg-1), total accumulation (up to 55.82 and 72.28 mg kg-1), and proline content (up to 128.2 and 98.3%) were recorded in the presence of EDTA respectively as compared to control. Generally, it was observed that concentration and total accumulation of Pb was more than Ni in sunflower plant. The study concludes that the use of synthetic chelator increased the uptake and translocation of heavy metals in plant biomass that could enhance the phytoremediation of Ni and Pb from contaminated water.

4017-4026 Download
39
FLORAL MORPHS AND MODE OF POLLINATION IN OXALIS CORNICULATA L., FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID

FLORAL MORPHS AND MODE OF POLLINATION IN OXALIS CORNICULATA L., FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Homostylous populations of Oxalis corniculata L., are recorded from Pakistan (stigmas at the level of long stamens) rarely mixed with semihomostylous flowers (stigmas slightly below the long stamens) or flowers with stigmas at the level of short stamens. A variety of insects visited the flowers in search of nectar and pollen but insects did not give preference to any morph as all the insects were interested either in nectar only or nectar and pollen. Breeding experiments and pollen-ovule ratio indicated the facultative autogamous nature of the taxon which was also supported by the higher fruit set in selfing compared to the crossing.

4027-4033 Download
40
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND OSMOTIC STRESS ON GERMINATION INDUCTION OF DIFFERENT CASTOR BEAN CULTIVARS
NASIR MAHMOOD CHEEMA1*, M. AZIM MALIK2, GHULAM QADIR2 M. ZUBAIR RAFIQUE3 AND NAZAKAT NAWAZ4

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND OSMOTIC STRESS ON GERMINATION INDUCTION OF DIFFERENT CASTOR BEAN CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Among the different factors temperature and moisture are considered very important for germination, crop maturity and productivity. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to determine the effect of temperature and moisture stress on the speed and total germination of four Castor bean cultivars (DS-30, PR-7/1, PR-101 and Local) obtained from two locations viz., Attock and Chakwal. The seeds were conditioned to different moisture content ranging from 0 to -14 bars and temperature ranging from 0 to 35°C in hot air chamber/oven. The highest value indicated the fastest germination that was obtained from Attock location (3.992), in comparison with value (3.933) obtained from Chakwal when the Castor bean cultivars were incubated at 25oC. The maximum GRI was recorded at the osmotic pressure of 0 bar (control), whose value in case of Attock seed location was 3.857 and Chakwal seed location (4.788). The interaction effects of moisture, temperature and cultivars were found significant for GRI. The cultivars performed differently under different temperature and moisture conditions.

4035-4041 Download
41
IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY CO-CROPPING OF WHEAT AND CHICKPEA
M. AKHTAR*, M. YAQUB, Z. IQBAL, M.Y. ASHRAF, J. AKHTER AND F. HUSSAIN

IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY CO-CROPPING OF WHEAT AND CHICKPEA
ABSTRACT:
Soil fertility and organic matter in our soils are on decline. Legume intercropping and manuring are important measures to sustain fertility and enhance productivity of soil. Four wheat cultivars Inqlab-91, WL-886

4043-4049 Download
42
LEVELS AND TIME OF PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION INFLUENCE GROWTH, DRY MATTER PARTITIONING AND HARVEST INDEX IN MAIZE
AMANULLAH1*, MUHAMMAD ZAKIRULLAH1, MUHAMMAD TARIQ3, KHALID NAWAB4, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, FARHATULLAH2, ZAHIR SHAH3, AMANULLAH JAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, MUHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, M. SAJID5, ZAHID HUSSAIN1 AND HIDYAT-UR-RAHMAN2

LEVELS AND TIME OF PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION INFLUENCE GROWTH, DRY MATTER PARTITIONING AND HARVEST INDEX IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Phosphorus (P) levels and its time of application is considered some of the most important factor affecting crop growth, dry matter accumulation and harvest index in maize (Zea mays L.). Research on the interactive effects of levels into time of P application is lacking in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A field experiment was therefore conducted to investigate impact of P levels (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and time of P application [40, 30

4051-4061 Download
43
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW LEAVES
MUHAMMAD NISAR*1, WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM2, MUGHAL QAYUM2, ABRAR HUSSAIN4, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ5, IHSAN ALI1 AND M. I. CHOUDHARY3

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew leaves were screened for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Antibacterial bioassay was performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi . Ethyl acetate fraction showed good antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilus (16mm zone of inhibition) and Staphylococcus aureus (18 mm zone of inhibition). The antifungal activity of these extract performed against 6 fungal strains viz., Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata indicated non significant results. Similarly neither of the fractions showed any cytotoxicity while n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction showed moderate (40 %) insecticidal activity. All fractions and crude extract showed significant (60-90 %) phytotoxicity.

4063-4069 Download
44
ENHANCEMENT IN SEED GERMINABILITY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BY PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT WITH NITRIC OXIDE (NO) UNDER SALT STRESS
NOMAN HABIB1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2,* AND MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1

ENHANCEMENT IN SEED GERMINABILITY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) BY PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENT WITH NITRIC OXIDE (NO) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress.

4071-4078 Download
45
RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF ZnSO4 UNDER THAL DESERT ENVIRONMENT
GHULAM ABBAS1, GUL HASSAN2, MUHAMMAD ANJUM ALI3, MUHAMMAD ASLAM1 AND ZAFAR ABBAS1

RESPONSE OF WHEAT TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF ZnSO4 UNDER THAL DESERT ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Effect of Zn as Zinc sulphate on wheat crop cultivar ‘AS-2002’ was investigated through field experiments laid out at Adaptive Research Farm and Farmer’s fields under arid environment of Thal desert at Karor district Layyah during Rabi 2005-06 and 2006-07. Levels of ZnSO4 (33%) applied were 0, 7.5

4079-4085 Download
46
RAPID IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF ACACIA NILOTICA SUBSP. HEMISPHERICA, A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ENDEMIC TAXON
HAIDER ABBAS1*, MUHAMMAD QAISER2 AND BEENA NAQVI3

RAPID IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF ACACIA NILOTICA SUBSP. HEMISPHERICA, A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ENDEMIC TAXON
ABSTRACT:
Acacia nilotica Willd. ex Delile subsp. hemispherica is an endangered and endemic taxon reported from Southern Pakistan. Hence an urgent conservation strategy is required due to exposure of the taxon to habitat loss and its over-exploitation. A micropropagation system was developed for Acacia nilotica by comparing MS and B5 media effects on growth. Fresh seeds were collected from the wild, germinated in vitro and these seedlings were used as an explant source. The efficiency of B5 and MS medium was thoroughly examined by augmenting with various levels of BAP along with 0.5 mg/l NAA. MS media proved more appropriate than B5 medium and produced the highest number (4.23) of shoots with 43.2% shoot regeneration frequency in the presence of 2.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA. IAA (3.0 mg/l) produced maximum number (2.80) of roots along with the highest rooting frequency (95%).

4087-4093 Download
47
IMPACT OF NITROGEN LEVELS AND APPLICATION METHODS ON AGRONOMIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE TRAITS OF MAIZE FODDER
S.W. HASSAN1, F.C. OAD1, S.D. TUNIO1, A.W. GANDAHI1, M.H. SIDDIQUI2, S. M. OAD3 AND A.W. JAGIRANI4

IMPACT OF NITROGEN LEVELS AND APPLICATION METHODS ON AGRONOMIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE TRAITS OF MAIZE FODDER
ABSTRACT:
Field investigations were carried out to test the effect of varying levels of nitrogen (0, 60

4095-4101 Download
48
YIELD OF SYNTHETIC-DERIVED BREAD WHEAT UNDER VARYING MOISTURE REGIMES
FIDA MOHAMMAD1*, O.S. ABDALLA2, S. RAJARAM2, ALA’A YALJAROUKA2, SHAD K. KHALIL3, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1 AND IJAZ AHMAD1

YIELD OF SYNTHETIC-DERIVED BREAD WHEAT UNDER VARYING MOISTURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Synthetic-derived bread wheat populations are used as sources of resistance genes for biotic and abiotic stresses. This study used direct field evaluation of synthetic-derived wheat lines to assess grain yield and its associated traits under varying moisture regimes during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Tel Hadya and Breda, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. Forty synthetic-derived wheat lines and 8 check cultivars were tested in 5 experiments using alpha-lattice design with 3 replicates. Analyses of variance revealed significant (p≤0.01) differences for grain yield and its associated traits except for biomass. Interactions due to genotype and environment were significant for all traits except for 1000-kernel weight. Phenotypic correlation coefficients of grain yield with grains spike-1, plant height and harvest index were r = 0.80**, r = 0.73** and r = 0.68**, respectively. Cluster analyses of genotypes and environments clarified the effects of yield components and phenology on grain yield. Based on the shift multiplicative model (SHMM) analyses for 48 genotypes and 5 environments, grains spike-1 and harvest index were the major contributing components towards grain yield. Frequency and distribution of precipitation during the crop cycle differentiated yield potential across years. However, performance of synthetic-derived lines at various moisture levels was not significantly affected within each year at Tel Hadya and thus can act as good sources for drought-prone environments. We identified some lines bearing T. tauschii germplasm with yields equal and superior in some of the yield components to that of the high-yielding cultivars used as checks, thus providing useful material to wheat breeders.

4103-4112 Download
49
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON YIELD AND ION ACCUMULATION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1, JEHAN BAKHT2* MOHAMMAD JAVED KHAN3, MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4 AND SHAZMA ANWAR1

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON YIELD AND ION ACCUMULATION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to salinity stress. Field experiments were conducted at three different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan i.e., Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Swabi) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda) to study the performance of 11 wheat genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR-25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile i.e., Yar Hussain, EC. 3-3.5 dSm-1; Baboo Dehari, EC. 4- 4.5 dSm-1 and Khitab Koroona, EC. 5-5.30 dSm-1). Different locations and wheat genotypes had a significant (p<0.05) effect on biological and grain yield, shoot Na+ and K+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence). Maximum biological and grain yield , maximum shoot K+, and minimum Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded in genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. Our results further indicated that maximum biological and grain yield and minimum shoot K+, Na+ concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded at Yar Hussain. Maximum, K+ and Na+ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and minimum biological and grain yield were observed at Khitab Koroona.

4113-4121 Download
50
EFFECT OF VARIOUS PRIMING SOURCES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE CULTIVARS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, RAHMAT SHAH2, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2 AND MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN3

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PRIMING SOURCES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
The present field study was carried at Malakandher Research Farms KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, using randomized complete block design. Seeds of four maize varieties (viz., Azam, Sarhad white, Pahari and Sarhad yellow) were primed with 5 different priming sources i.e. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), Potassium nitrate (KNO3), Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and Water (H2O) for 17 hours. Various priming sources and maize varieties had a significant (p<0.05) effect on growing degree days, plant height, number of plants at harvest, number of ears plant-1, number of grains cob-1 , thousand grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Growing degree days were maximum (1865) in unprimed seeds. Maximum grains cob-1 (419) and biological yield (8060 kg ha-1) were recorded in KNO3 primed treatments. Among varieties, Sarhad yellow produced maximum (420) grains cob-1 and biological yield Maximum 1000 grain weight (231 g) and grain yield of 3498 kg ha-1 were recorded in Na2S2O3 primed treatments. Among varieties, maximum (239 g) 1000 grain weight and grain yield (3666 kg ha-1) were produced by Sarhad yellow.

4123-4131 Download
51
ROOTING AND SHOOT GROWTH OF STEM CUTTINGS OF SALTCEDAR (TAMARIX CHINENSIS LOUR) UNDER SALT STRESS
WEIQIANG LI1, M. AJMAL KHAN2, XIUMEI ZHANG1 AND XIAOJING LIU1*

ROOTING AND SHOOT GROWTH OF STEM CUTTINGS OF SALTCEDAR (TAMARIX CHINENSIS LOUR) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A sand culture experiment was conducted to investigate the rooting of stem cuttings and growth of Tamarix chinensis irrigated with various dilutions of saline soil solutions extract (0 to 32 g L-1) containing about 31.5% Na+. Rooting of stem cuttings was higher at lower salinity, inhibited greatly when salinity was higher than 12 g L-1, but still 43% of stem cuttings rooted at 32 g L-1 salinity treatment. Sapling growth was stimulated at 4 to 8 g L-1 salinity level and inhibited significantly by higher than 12 g L-1 salinity treatment although growth continued at 32 g L-1 salinity. Na+ content in roots, stems and leaves increased with increase in salinity, while Ca2+ and K+ content in leaves and stems decreased. The contents of Ca2+ and K+ in roots remained unaffected by various treatments. With increase in salinity Mg2+ content increased in stems and leaves but decreased in roots. Proline contents of leaf, stem and root increased with increase in salinity which became more conspicuous at the salinity level of 12 g L-1 and above. Osmotic regulation was also formed an important mechanism for Tamarix chinensis while growing under salinity.

4133-4142 Download
52
MANAGEMENT OF SALINE SODIC SOILS THROUGH CULTURAL PRACTICES AND GYPSUM
MUHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN1, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN2, AMIN ULLAH KHAN1, MOHAMMAD ARIF2 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

MANAGEMENT OF SALINE SODIC SOILS THROUGH CULTURAL PRACTICES AND GYPSUM
ABSTRACT:
Management of saline sodic soils requires combination of agronomic practices in addition to the chemical and organic amendments. However, the relative efficiency of the amendments under variable cultural practices is not well documented. We evaluated the efficiency of gypsum, farmyard manure (FYM) and cultural practices on the yield and yield components of wheat grown in saline-sodic soil during Rabi 2003-04. The soil under study was clay loam in texture containing 0.17% organic matter with 20.5% lime content and alkaline in reaction (pHe 8.8). The electrical conductivity (ECe) was 9.4 dS m-1 with sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 21.4. Seven treatments viz., conventional method, Flat bed + FYM, Flat bed + Gypsum, Raised bed + FYM, Raised bed + Gypsum, Ridges + FYM, and Ridges + Gypsum were arranged in RCB design with three replications. Gypsum was applied at variable rates dependent upon the gypsum requirements of the soil, while FYM was applied @ 20 t ha-1. Significant improvement in soil properties i.e., ECe, SAR and pHe was recorded in plots treated with gypsum in ridges and resulted 42% grain yield increase over conventional method. The significantly higher grain yield (3055 kg ha-1) may be associated with ameliorative effect of gypsum and less saline environment in ridges as irrigation next to the seed row caused movement of salts away from the seeds and into the top of the ridge. This allowed the seed to germinate and establish in less saline conditions there by increasing yield. The lowest grain yield (1781 kg ha-1) of wheat was produced in plots grown by conventional method. The soil samples analyzed after the termination of experiment showed that gypsum + ridges sown treatment significantly reduced the soil ECe, SAR and pHe at 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depths as compared to conventional method. There was a positive significant relation between wheat grain yield with leaf K+ (r²=0.70) while negative significant relationship between the grain yield with leaf Na+ (r²=0.745). This study suggests that wheat grown on ridges supplied with gypsum was the most useful management tool in saline-sodic conditions

4143-4155 Download
53
CONFIDENCE LIMITS FOR CHLOROPHYCEAN MEMBERS RECORDED FROM FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT N.W.F.P. PAKISTAN
ASGHAR ALI1*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND FAZLI MALIK SARIM3

CONFIDENCE LIMITS FOR CHLOROPHYCEAN MEMBERS RECORDED FROM FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT N.W.F.P. PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
During the present study

4157-4167 Download
54
ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON LOBOPHORA VARIEGATA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ALIA ABBAS1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON LOBOPHORA VARIEGATA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira [=Dictyota variegata Lamouroux], a fan-shaped, reddish brown alga of the family Dictyotaceae (Dictyotales, Dictyophyceae, Phaeophycota) was collected from Manora and Buleji, the coastal areas of Karachi (Pakistan) during March 2009 and February 2010. It was investigated in detail for its morphology, anatomy and reproduction. Surface cells of its thallus were studied in detail, where presence of dark coloured, horizontal or transverse lines were noticed on the thalli. During the study several new characters, such as very long cortical cells in the middle and basal portions of the thallus, horizontally elongated medullary cells which become almost cubical in the basal part, and the presence of induciate sporangia were observed.

4169-4176 Download
55
ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION IN VARIOUS THALLUS PARTS OF THREE BROWN SEAWEEDS FROM KARACHI COAST
MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION IN VARIOUS THALLUS PARTS OF THREE BROWN SEAWEEDS FROM KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
Three brown seaweeds Stoechospermum polypodioides (J.V.F. Lamourourx) J. Agardh, Jolyna laminarioides Guimarães in Guimarães et al., and Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh were collected during January 1997 and July 2002 from coastal areas near Karachi-Pakistan, dried powdered and ashed. From ashes of lower, middle and upper parts of their thalli 11 elements were quantitatively estimated. The results indicated that each species behaved differently. Average quantity tremendously increased more than 4 times in the middle part but suddenly decreased in the terminal part which was lesser than basal portion.

4177-4181 Download
56
EFFECT OF BACTERIAL CULTURE DENSITY AND ACETOSYRINGONE CONCENTRATION ON AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN WHEAT
HAMID RASHID1, ASMA AFZAL2, M. HAROON KHAN1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3 AND SALMAN A. MALIK2

EFFECT OF BACTERIAL CULTURE DENSITY AND ACETOSYRINGONE CONCENTRATION ON AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
In the present study high efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Inqilab-91 was developed by exploiting bacterial culture density and acetosyringone concentration. Agrobacterium strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pIG121Hm, containing gene for GUS activity and hygromycin resistance was used in transformation experiments. Different optical densities (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) of bacterial suspension and different concentrations (0, 50

4183-4189 Download
57
ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SESAMI AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI
SYEDA SADIQA FIRDOUS1, R. ASGHAR1*, M.I. HAQUE2, SYED NADEEM AFZAL2 , G. MURTAZA1 AND S. M. MUGHAL2

ISOLATION, PURIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SESAMI AND XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. SESAMI
ABSTRACT:
In the present study production, characterization and identification of virulence factors produced by virulent isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. sesami (Psse-08/NARC 1) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. sesami (Xcs-08/NARC) were carried out. Identification was made on the basis of earlier published reference data. Previously, toxins were detected by the phytotoxic as well as growth inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of cell free culture filtrates allowed characterizing toxins activity of a single active peak obtained from virulent isolate of Psse-08/NARC 1 that produced necrotic symptoms. In the present results, the retention time of peak obtained from Psse-08/NARC 1 was same as previously reported from mangotoxin, which causes apical necrosis of mango tree. However, there was no reference data for the active peak obtained from Xcs isolates, but the single active peak showed antibacterial activity. Later characterization of active fraction from Xcs was also performed in phytotoxic assay.

4191-4198 Download
58
EFFICACY OF FOOD GRADE LACTIC ACID PRODUCED THROUGH BACTERIAL FERMENTATION
ZULFIQAR ALI1*, FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM2, SAEED AKHTAR3 TAHIR ZAHOOR2 AND MUHAMMAD RIAZ3

EFFICACY OF FOOD GRADE LACTIC ACID PRODUCED THROUGH BACTERIAL FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The efficacy studies for lactic acid were conducted using rats to observe the toxicity of food grade lactic acid, produced in laboratory through fermentation process. The Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the evaluation of food grade lactic acid and was given in the feed to five groups of rats (A-E) at the dose of 0

4199-4206 Download
59
COMPATIBILITY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI, METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE AND PAECILOMYCES FUMOSOROSEUS WITH SELECTIVE INSECTICIDES
MUHAMMAD RAMZAN ASI1, MUHAMMAD HAMID BASHIR1*, MUHAMMAD AFZAL2*, MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ1 AND SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI1

COMPATIBILITY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI, METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE AND PAECILOMYCES FUMOSOROSEUS WITH SELECTIVE INSECTICIDES
ABSTRACT:
Investigations were carried out to evaluate influence of some selective insecticides on mycelial growth and conidial germination of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith. All insecticides significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidial germination of the fungal pathogens. Lorsban was the most toxic insecticide to mycelial growth and conidial germination followed by Lannate, Larvin and Pirate. Cascade, Match, Steward and Proclaim were comparatively less toxic to mycelial growth (36.78-48.67% inhibition) and conidial germination (40.32-49.97% inhibition) of the fungal pathogens. Conversely, Runner, Capture, Abamectin and Curacron were compatible with significantly lesser inhibition in growth (25.19-36.47%) and conidial germination (27.78-43.66%) of the fungi. Tracer was found safe to conidial germination and growth of the fungi.

4207-4214 Download
60
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TISSUE CULTURE RAISED POTATO
GHAZALA NASIM

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TISSUE CULTURE RAISED POTATO
ABSTRACT:
In the present paper the types of arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in the rhizosphere soil of the four different varieties of potato raised by meristem culturing method have been enlisted. A total of 29 species of Glomalean spores were recorded in the soil. Nineteen of these spores associated with potato crop were reported in the genus Glomus while two species each of Aculospora and Scutellospora and one each of Gigaspora and Sclerocystis were recorded. Four species could not be identified with the help of available diagnostic keys. Glomus mosseae and G. fasciculatum were scored having highest prevalence in the rhizosphere of all the progenies of four varieties studied.

4215-4227 Download
61
FRUIT BORNE MYCOFLORA OF AMLA (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA L.)
SHAISTA AKHUND, MUHAMMAD SUHAIL, ISHRAT RANI, FOZIA I MEMON AND HIDAYATULLAH ABRO

FRUIT BORNE MYCOFLORA OF AMLA (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Fungal species composition on retail Amla fruits obtained from local market of three localities of Hyderabad, Hala and Tando Allah Yar was studied. Forty-eight fruit samples were randomly picked from each locality. Using two media types, a total of 19 genera and 42 fungal species were isolated from surface sterilized and non-sterilized fruits. From fruits of all three localities, species in the genera Aspergillus (5 species), Penicillium (4 species), Fusarium (4 species), Alternaria (4 species), Cladosporium (5 species) and Curvularia (3 species) were isolated most frequently. The fungal frequency of Tando Allah Yar samples was higher. A. niger and A. flavus were the most common fungi isolated from fruits of all three localities. The fungi isolated do not appear to be recorded from fruits of Amla in Pakistan.

4229-4233 Download
62
OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF CELLULASES BY TRICHODERMA VIRIDE
SHAZIA KANWAL MALIK1, HAMID MUKHTAR1, AMMAD AHMAD FAROOQI2 AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ1

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF CELLULASES BY TRICHODERMA VIRIDE
ABSTRACT:
Present studies describe the optimization of process parameters for the production of cellulases by Trichoderma viride using submerged fermentation technique. The fermentation experiments were carried out in shake flasks using pretreated bagasse. Maximum production of cellulases (CMCase 1.57 U/ml/min, FPase 0.921 U/ml/min) was observed after a fermentation period of 72 hrs at an incubation temperature of 30ºC. Initial pH of the culture medium was also optimized and a pH of 5.5 was found to support maximum growth and enzyme production (CMCase 1.66 U/ml/min and FPase 0.932 U/ml/min) by T. viride. Different inorganic nitrogen sources were evaluated for the production of cellulases and Ammonium sulphate was found to be the best. The enzyme production was further enhanced by carrying out fermentation experiments using 25 ml of culture medium in 250 ml flask inoculated with 4% conidial inoculum.

4243-4251 Download
63
PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF STRIPE RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F.SP.TRITICI) RESISTANCE GENE IN NEW WHEAT GERMPLASM
ZENG XINGQUAN1

PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF STRIPE RUST (PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS F.SP.TRITICI) RESISTANCE GENE IN NEW WHEAT GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
2, †, WANG CHANGYOU1, †, M. ALI1,3, ZHANG HONG1, LIU XINLUN1, LI WEIYAN1 AND JI WANQUAN1,*

4253-4266 Download
64
WHEAT NITROGEN INDICES RESPONSE TO NITROGEN SOURCE AND APPLICATION TIME
MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN2, AHMAD KHAN1, MOHAMMAD ARIF1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI1 AND FARMANULLAH3

WHEAT NITROGEN INDICES RESPONSE TO NITROGEN SOURCE AND APPLICATION TIME
ABSTRACT:
The unnecessary inputs costs to farmers due to N losses can be optimized by developing a sound fertilizer strategy. The optimization for improved wheat productivity, N re-translocation, utilization and use efficiencies can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on wheat biological yield and N indices. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) applied @ 100 kg ha-1 at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium-N increased wheat biological yield and total N uptake whereas nitrogen utilization efficiency was increased with NO3-N. Split N at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased the biological yield and apparent N re-translocation, whereas total-N uptake and N harvest index was higher for full application of N at boot stage. Nitrogen application had almost double the N uptake compared to control and increased 27% N re-translocation regardless of sources and application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of N had higher wheat productivity and re-translocation, whereas full and delayed N dose increased N harvest index compared to other treatments. Thus, split N application is recommended for improved biological yield, whereas for improved quality of grains the delayed application of N at boot stage is preferable in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar.

4267-4279 Download
65
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
NOOR JAHAN*1, MANSOOR AHMAD2, MEHJABEEN3, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ2, S. MEHBOOB ALAM4 AND MAHMOOD QURESHI2

ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Methanolic extracts of Thuja occidentalis, Vernonia anthelmintica, Dryopteris chrysocoma and Trachyspermum ammi were tested In vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Shigella flexenari, Yersinia aldovae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicated that has potent activity against all microorganisms. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against six fungi, viz., Saccharomyces cereviciae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichophyton rubrum, Macrophomina, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. The extracts showed significant results against different fungal strains.

4281-4284 Download
66
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF WILD AND MUTANT STRAINS OF RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPOROUS VAR. MICROSPOROUS IIB-63 ISOLATED FROM LIPID RICH HABITATS
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR*2

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF WILD AND MUTANT STRAINS OF RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPOROUS VAR. MICROSPOROUS IIB-63 ISOLATED FROM LIPID RICH HABITATS
ABSTRACT:
1, MUBASHIR NIAZ@ AND IKRAM UL HAQ1

4285-4298 Download
67
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF FRUIT EXTRACT FROM ZANTHOXYLUM ALATUM: A COMMONLY USED SPICE FROM PAKISTAN
FARHAT BATOOL1, SYED MUBASHIR SABIR2, J.B.T. ROCHA3, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2, ZAFAR SAIED SAIFY4 AND SYED DILNAWAZ AHMED2

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF FRUIT EXTRACT FROM ZANTHOXYLUM ALATUM: A COMMONLY USED SPICE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb., is a medicinal plant which abundantly grows in the hilly areas of Pakistan. The dried fruit of the plant is used as condiment and has excellent spice value. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the Z. alatum whole fruit was evaluated by several In vitro systems e.g., lipid peroxidation

4299-4311 Download
68
SCREENING OF KILLER-SENSITIVE-PATTERN (KSP) FOR BIOTYPING YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM SLIME FLUXES OF TREES AND FLOWERS’ NECTAR
MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ, SHARFUN-NAHAR1 AND M. H. HASHMI2

SCREENING OF KILLER-SENSITIVE-PATTERN (KSP) FOR BIOTYPING YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM SLIME FLUXES OF TREES AND FLOWERS’ NECTAR
ABSTRACT:
Killer-Sensitive Pattern (KSP) was screened by cross reactions in 23 yeast species belonging to 13 genera which were previously isolated from slime fluxes of trees and 56 yeast species belonging to 23 genera from nectar of different flowers. Among the yeasts species from slime fluxes, Bullera pseudoalba, Pichia anomala and Sporidiobolus ruineniae appeared to be the most killer and Pichia strasburgensis as the most sensitive strains. Similarly among the yeasts species from flowers’ nectar Bensingtonia miscanthi and Bullera megalospora were found to be as the most killer strains, whereas Candida valdiviana, Cryptococcus laurentii, Mrakia frigida, Pichia fabianii, Pichia jadinii, Saccharomyces kluyveri and Williopsis californica were found as the most sensitive strains. The Killer-Sensitive Pattern (KSP) appeared as strain level character rather than species.

4313-4327 Download
69
EFFECT OF OILSEED CAKES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH TRICHODERMA SPECIES FOR THE CONTROL OF CHARCOAL ROT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.)
MUHAMMAD ANIS, M. JAVED ZAKI AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

EFFECT OF OILSEED CAKES ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH TRICHODERMA SPECIES FOR THE CONTROL OF CHARCOAL ROT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Seed treatment with oil seed cakes like Cotton cake, Mustard cake (Black and yellow) and Taramera cake alone or in combination with Trichoderma harzianum­ and T. resei significantly reduced colonization of roots by charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina) and significantly increased growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) plants. Highest reduction in charcoal rot of sunflower was observed when seeds of sunflower were coated with cotton cake and T. resei followed by Taramera cake and T. harzianum and Mustard cake in combination with T. harzianum.

4329-4333 Download
70
NEW RECORDS OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE FROM PAKISTAN
A.R. NIAZI*, A.N. KHALID AND S.H. IQBAL

NEW RECORDS OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A contribution is made to the biodiversity of mushrooms and ectomycorrhizae from Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan with ectomycorrhizal morphotypes of Cantharellus cibarius and Tricholoma aurantium as new record from Pakistan. Ectomycorrhizae of these fungi are reported for the first time with Pinus wallichiana and Abies pindrow.

4335-4343 Download
71
MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS L.) SEEDS OF PAKISTAN
SUMMIAYA RAHIM, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND MARIUM TARIQ

MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS L.) SEEDS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Twenty one seed samples of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) collected from various localities of Pakistan viz., Karachi (12), Sukkur

4345-4352 Download
72
INFLUENCE OF GARLIC ROOT EXUDATES ON CYTO-MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATION OF THE HYPHAE OF PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI, THE CAUSE OF PHYTOPHTHORA BLIGHT IN PEPPER
MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN AND CHENG ZHIHUI

INFLUENCE OF GARLIC ROOT EXUDATES ON CYTO-MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATION OF THE HYPHAE OF PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI, THE CAUSE OF PHYTOPHTHORA BLIGHT IN PEPPER
ABSTRACT:
Studies were carried out under In vitro conditions to investigate the inhibition effect of garlic root exudates on the hyphae of Phytophthora capsici and some other specific observations were made using scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM & TEM) to detect the possible alteration in growth, shape and cell structure of the pathogen affected by the use of garlic root exudates. Four concentrations of garlic root exudates i.e., 0.02% w/v, 0.04% w/v, 0.06% w/v and 0.08% w/v were used. It was noticed that mycelial growth of P. capsici was significantly effected by garlic root exudates and reduction in mycelial growth was found directly proportional to the increase in exudates concentration. The maximum inhibition (%) in growth of P. capsici was observed at 0.08% w/v garlic root exudates when compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed cyto-morphological alteration of hyphae treated with garlic root exudates. Exudates-treated hyphae reflected alteration in their growth pattern and were found either collapsed, damaged or thinner when compared with control. During Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a general increase in vacuolization was observed with consequent reduction of cytoplasm of the treated fungal cells. These results suggest that use of garlic root exudates is a promising, effective and environment-friendly management measure against Phytophthora blight of pepper and thus, may be used in the production of organically grown vegetables.

4353-4361 Download
73
EFFECT OF DIAZOTROPHS (RHIZOBIUM AND AZATEBACTOR) ON GROWTH OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD (PB) IN DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS
FAZAL HADI1,2 * AND ASGHARI BANO1

EFFECT OF DIAZOTROPHS (RHIZOBIUM AND AZATEBACTOR) ON GROWTH OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AND ACCUMULATION OF LEAD (PB) IN DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of diozotrophs which fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions on lead (Pb) phytoextraction and their subsequent effect on the growth of maize (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in a green house study. Rhizobium leguminosarum strain TAL-102 and Azotobacter chroococcum were used as single culture as well as co-culture. In single culture inoculations, the Rhizobium showed better reponse than Azatobacter, whilst the co-inoculation treatment showed highly significant increase in growth as well as in dry biomass of plant in Pb polluted soil. Highly significant increase in Pb accumulation was found in plant co-inoculated with Rhizobium + Azatobacter as compared to control. In single culture treatments, the Rhizobium was superior than Azatobacter in enhancing Pb uptake by the plant. In roots and stem all the treatments either in single culture or co-culture inoculation showed significant increase in Pb accumulation as compared to control, however the Pb translocation into leaves was significant only in co-inoculated culture. Conclusively the co-inoculation was much better than single culture inoculations in Pb phytoextraction along with increase in plant growth and biomass.

4363-4370 Download
74
SEASONAL VARIATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EUGLENOPHYCOTA IN THE PUNJAB
SYED TARIQ-ALI1, A. ZARINA1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

SEASONAL VARIATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EUGLENOPHYCOTA IN THE PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
A long survey of different freshwater habitats was made during December 2003-July 2006 in the districts of Gujranwala, Jhang, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Sheikhupura and Sialkot in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. As a result of that distribution and diversity of 55 species belonging to three genera viz., Euglena, Phacus and Trachelomonas of the phylum Euglenphycota were observed. Most of the collected species were found to grow in summer (39.13%), they slightly decreased in autumn (27.53%) and their occurrence diminished in winter (15.94%). Largest number of species was collected from Lahore City and its neighboring areas (42.85%), which was followed by the district of Rawalpindi (35.71%), the other five districts exhibited a poor distribution of species (2.85-5.71%). Euglena Ehrenberg with its 42 species occurred most commonly (76.36%), followed by Phacus Dujardin with 11 species (20%), and Trachelomonas Ehrenberg with 2 species was the least common (3.63%), It was further observed that a vast majority of the species occurred simultaneously in planktic and benthic conditions (56.36%), while 27.27% of them were growing in purely planktic and 16.36% in epiphytic conditions.

4371-4378 Download
75
IDENTIFICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM THE LEAVES OF 11 SPECIES OF ERIOBOTRYA
YANPING HONG 1,2, SUHUA HUANG1, JINCHENG WU 3,*, SHUNQUAN LIN 2,*

IDENTIFICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM THE LEAVES OF 11 SPECIES OF ERIOBOTRYA
ABSTRACT:
Essential oils are regarded as the major bioactive compounds and exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral and antioxidant activities. The contents and components of essential oils present in plant tissues depend largely on germplasm resource. In this study, essential oils in leaves of 11 species of Eriobotrya were extracted with ethyl ether and were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 66 components were identified and the major components were benzoic acid methyl ester, heptacosane, squalene, neophytadiene and hexacosane. The species ‘Obovata leaf’ exhibited higher contents of squalene and benzoic acid methyl ester compared to other species, suggesting a higher utilization value. The clustering analysis on the basis of the essential oils indicated that the 11 species of Eriobotrya can be classified into 3 groups, i.e. the first group ‘Oak leaf’, ‘Taiwan’, ‘Bengal’, ‘Obovata leaf’, ‘Hengchun’, ‘Guangxi’ and ‘Big flower’ loquats, the second group the common loquat, and ‘Tibet’, ‘Zaozhong 6’ and ‘Daduhe’ loquats, and the third group ‘Fragrant’ loquat. The differences in contents of phytol, squalene, neophytadiene and lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 3-hydroxyl-methyl ester among the three groups indicated the oil profiles of the 11 species of Eriobotrya. The study can help to increase utilization of Eriobotrya species.

4379-4386 Download
76
NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM DISTRICT FAISALABAD PAKISTAN II
SYED QAISER ABBAS1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, NAILA SADAF1 AND ALIA ABBAS2

NEW FUNGAL RECORDS ON EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM DISTRICT FAISALABAD PAKISTAN II
ABSTRACT:
In the present paper three more fungi viz.

4387-4392 Download
77
FACTOR ANALYSIS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) TO INVESTIGATE DESIRABLE HYBRIDS
M. ARSHAD*, M. AYUB KHAN, S.A. JADOON AND AKBAR S. MOHMAND

FACTOR ANALYSIS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) TO INVESTIGATE DESIRABLE HYBRIDS
ABSTRACT:
Thirty-seven sunflower hybrids were evaluated for 8 agronomic characters under field conditions to estimate genetic parameters, correlation coefficient, path analysis and principal components analysis. Analysis of variance and mean performance for yield and its components revealed significant differences among all the hybrids for all the characters indicating the diverse nature of hybrids. Days to flower initiation, completion and days to maturity had positive correlation with plant height. Head diameter had negative association with all the traits except 100 seed weight. Seed yield had negative correlation with oil contents that is suggested to break either through conventional or novel breeding techniques to breed high yielding hybrids with maximum oil contents. Positive direct effect was observed with days to maturity, plant height and head diameter, highest being by head diameter. Among 8 characters, 5 days to flower initiation, flower completion, days to maturity, plant height and oil contents contributed for PC1, whereas

4393-4402 Download
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