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Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 1
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1
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF A RED ALGA SOLIERIA ROBUSTA, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES IN MANAGING THE ROOT DISEASES AND GROWTH OF SOYBEAN
VIQAR SULTANA1, GHULAM NABI BALOCH2, AMBREEN1, JEHAN ARA3, M. RAJPUT TARIQ4 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE2

COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF A RED ALGA SOLIERIA ROBUSTA, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES IN MANAGING THE ROOT DISEASES AND GROWTH OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Application of seaweed as soil amendment for the control of soilborne plant diseases has increased in recent years due to their environment friendly role. In screen house study, a red seaweed Solieria robusta used as soil amendment showed better suppressive effect on root rotting fungus Fusarium solani than Topsin-M, a fungicide, but was found less effective than Topsin-M against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on soybean. Solieria robusta showed similar suppressive effect on root knot nematode as did carbofuran, a nematicide. Seaweed showed slightly better effect on plant growth than urea or potash by producing taller plants, better root length and number of flowers per plant. However, mixed application of S.robusta and Topsin-M produced greater number of flowers per plant and tallest plants.

1-6 Download
2
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RACE-SPECIFICITY OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. GLYCINEA
FARHATULLAH1*, MARK M. STAYTON2 AND ROBIN W. GROOSE3 MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN4

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RACE-SPECIFICITY OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. GLYCINEA
ABSTRACT:
The reactions of soybean cultivars to known races of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Psg) in the light of known avirulence (avr) genes and their corresponding resistance genes were reevaluated to predict if new avr genes and corresponding resistance genes exist. The cloned avrD gene from tomato pathogen induced a unique pattern on these lines and elicits hypersensitive reaction on those lines which carry disease resistant gene Rpg4. None of the known races of psg carries avrD gene that elicit the resistant reaction on soybean carrying the disease resistant gene Rpg4.

7-13 Download
3
DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY FRAGILARACEAE (BACILLAROPHYCOTA) IN THE REGION OF MULTAN, PAKISTAN
B. GHAZALA* AND ARIFA HABIB

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY FRAGILARACEAE (BACILLAROPHYCOTA) IN THE REGION OF MULTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eleven species of Bacillariophycota were collected from various freshwater habitat of Multan Pakistan. The present paper describes the taxonomy and distribution of 11 freshwater pennate diatoms belonging to freshwater bodies such as ponds, lakes and fish farms of Multan from April to November 2009. All these 11 species belonging to family Fragilaraceae have been described for the first time from these areas.

15-27 Download
4
BIDIRECTIONAL GENE SEQUENCES WITH SIMILAR HOMOLOGY TO FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS OF ALKANE DEGRADING BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS FREDRIKSBERGENSIS DNA
AHMED ABDEL-MEGEED1,2,3

BIDIRECTIONAL GENE SEQUENCES WITH SIMILAR HOMOLOGY TO FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS OF ALKANE DEGRADING BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS FREDRIKSBERGENSIS DNA
ABSTRACT:
The potential for two overlapping fragments of DNA from a clone of newly isolated alkanes degrading bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis encoding sequences with similar homology to two parts of functional proteins is described. One strand contains a sequence with high homology to alkanes monooxygenase (alkB), a member of the alkanes hydroxylase family, and the other strand contains a sequence with some homology to alcohol dehydrogenase gene (alkJ). Overlapping of the genes on opposite strands has been reported in eukaryotic species, and is now reported in a bacterial species. The sequence comparisons and ORFS results revealed that the regulation and the genes organization involved in alkane oxidation represented in Pseudomonas frederiksberghensis varies among the different known alkane degrading bacteria. The alk gene cluster containing homologues to the known alkane monooxygenase (alkB), and rubredoxin (alkG) are oriented in the same direction, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase (alkJ) is oriented in the opposite direction. Such genomes encode messages on both strands of the DNA, or in an overlapping but different reading frames, of the same strand of DNA. The possibility of creating novel genes from pre-existing sequences, known as overprinting, which is a widespread phenomenon in small viruses. Here, the origin and evolution of the gene overlap to bacteriophages belonging to the family Microviridae have been investigated. Such a phenomenon is most widely described in extremely small genomes such as those of viruses or small plasmids, yet here is a unique phenomenon.

29-39 Download
5
ZYGOSPORIUM GIBBUM VAR. MANGIFERA VAR.NOV. ON MANGIFERA INDICA FROM SHUJABAD PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1, ALIA ABBAS2 AND FARHAT F. JAMIL1

ZYGOSPORIUM GIBBUM VAR. MANGIFERA VAR.NOV. ON MANGIFERA INDICA FROM SHUJABAD PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Zygosporium gibbum var. mangiferae var. nov. is described. Illustrated and compared with with other species of Zygosporium on Mangifera indica from Shujabad, Pakistan.

41-46 Download
6
POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY AND MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN IN PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS (STOCKS) PANGOLA (CUCURBITACEAE)
ANJUM PERVEEN AND SHAUKAT ALI

POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY AND MAINTENANCE OF POLLEN IN PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS (STOCKS) PANGOLA (CUCURBITACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination of Praecitrullus fistulosus L., of the family Cucurtbitaceae was examined in fresh and stored pollen upto 48 weeks at different temperatures i.e., -30°C refrigerator (+4°C), freezer (-20° C, -30°C) and freeze drier (-60°C). Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage as compared to pollen stored at +4°C and fresh. Pollen stored at -30°C (freezer) showed the highest germination percentage.

47-50 Download
7
FIRST REPORT OF B.N. RHIZOCTONIA FROM TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.) IN SAMSUN, TURKEY
CEM TOLGA GURKANLI* AND IBRAHIM OZKOC

FIRST REPORT OF B.N. RHIZOCTONIA FROM TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.) IN SAMSUN, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study

51-57 Download
8
FUNGITOXIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTUS ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS-ASCOCHYTA RABIEI
SHAZIA SHAFIQUE, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE, RUKHSANA BAJWA, NOSHEEN AKHTAR AND SANA HANIF

FUNGITOXIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTUS ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS-ASCOCHYTA RABIEI
ABSTRACT:
The In vitro fungitoxic potential of Tagetes erectus L. was scrutinized against Ascochyta rabiei, the causal agent of chickpea blight disease. The pathogen was exposed to various concentrations (1

59-64 Download
9
EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FUNGICIDES AND HOT WATER QUARANTINE TREATMENT ON POSTHARVEST DISEASES AND QUALITY OF MANGO FRUIT
ABDUL JABBAR 1, A.U. MALIK1*, ISLAM-UD-DIN2, R. ANWAR1, M. AYUB1, I. A. RAJWANA1, M. AMIN1, A. S. KHAN1 AND M. SAEED1

EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FUNGICIDES AND HOT WATER QUARANTINE TREATMENT ON POSTHARVEST DISEASES AND QUALITY OF MANGO FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
Postharvest diseases and disorders reduce mango fruit quality and cause severe losses, sometime yielding completely unmarketable fruit. Further, the risk of fruit fly presence has made it mandatory to use hot water quarantine treatment (HWQT) as a pre-requisite for market access to countries like China and Iran. In this study, different fungicides and hot water quarantine treatments combinations were evaluated for their effects on mango fruit cv. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa, which were stored for 21 days at (13±1°C, 85±5%RH). Application of Topsin-M @ 1 g L-1 as field dip for 1 min (pre-transport) followed by HWQT @ 48°C for 60 min., significantly suppressed postharvest diseases. HWQT generally led to increased internal discoloration as compared to control, and hot water injury was higher in fruit subjected to Iran protocol (45°C for 75 min) compared to China protocol (48°C for 60 min). NaOCl alone or with HWQT, caused higher internal discoloration of fruit. All physical treatments induced some degree of soft nose but combination of NaOCl with HWQT was found to accelerate the problem compared to control. Fruits subjected to NaOCl @ 2.5 g 10L-1 and Topsin-M @ 1 g L-1 both followed by + HWQT @ 48°C for 60 min showed higher levels of total titratable acidity. However, non-significant effects of the treatments were observed on fruit colour, total soluble solids, total and non-reducing sugar contents and organoleptic acceptability of the fruits. Overall, postharvest, pre-transport application of Topsin-M @ 1 g L-1 followed by HWQT (48°C for 60 min) helped reduce incidence of postharvest diseases, besides fulfilling market access criteria. The higher degree of soft nose development in HWQT fruits; and generally poor post-storage peel colour development warrant further studies.

65-73 Download
10
SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF Β-GLUCOSIDASE BY CO-CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND A. ORYZAE
FAREEHA RAZA, NASREEN AKHTAR RAZA†, UZMA HAMEED, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND I. MARIAM

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF Β-GLUCOSIDASE BY CO-CULTURE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND A. ORYZAE
ABSTRACT:
Microbial consortium represents an important new frontier for biotechnology. It has been employed in many fields of biotechnology but its application for the production of β-glucosidase is yet to be explored. Therefore, present work has been aimed for the selection of co-culture of Aspergillus sp., and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of β-glucosidase by solid state fermentation. For this purpose, mono and co-cultures of Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and A. oryzae were tested and co-culture of A. niger and A. oryzae gave comparatively better production of β-glucosidase. The enzyme production was optimal when agricultural by-product wheat bran (10 g) was used as solid substrate for fungal growth. Among 10 different diluents tested, M-2 containing (g/l, w/v) KH2PO4 2.0, (NH4)2SO4 1.4, urea 0.3, MgSO4.7H2O 0.3, ZnSO4.7H2O 0.0014, FeSO4.7H2O 0.005, MnSO4 0.0016, CoCl2 0.002, CaCl2 0.002, polypeptone 1.0 and Tween-80 2.0 ml gave relatively higher enzyme production. The maximum production of β-glucosidase (2975±5.3 U/g/min) was obtained after optimization of cultural conditions such as incubation period (72 h), initial pH (5.5), substrate to diluent ratio (1:1) and inoculum size (2 ml of spore suspension i.e., 3:1 ratio of A. niger and A. oryzae).

75-83 Download
11
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COLONIZATION IMPROVES REGROWTH OF BERMUDAGRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON L.) AFTER CUTTING
JIN WU1, BIN SUN2, YUTAO WANG1, GUORONG XIN1,*, SHAOPING YE1 AND SHAOLIN PENG1

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COLONIZATION IMPROVES REGROWTH OF BERMUDAGRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON L.) AFTER CUTTING
ABSTRACT:
The interations of plant regrowth, non-structural carbonhydrate (total soluble carbohydrate, glucose, surcose, fructose and starch) concentrations and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was examined in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cv. Banana) at 0

85-93 Download
12
STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF CHEMICAL AND NON CHEMICAL TREATMENTS TO CONTROL MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH CHILLI SEED
UZMA SITARA AND NUSRAT HASAN

STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF CHEMICAL AND NON CHEMICAL TREATMENTS TO CONTROL MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH CHILLI SEED
ABSTRACT:
A total 19 genera and 38 species of fungi were isolated by using standard blotter and deep freezing method from chilli seeds. Of these Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawiinesis, Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum and F. solani were more frequently isolated. Seed treatments with 8 fungicides viz., Metalaxyl + Mancozeb (72% w/w), Mancozeb (80% w/w Dithiocarbamate), Aliette (80% WP Fosetyle aluminium), Derosol (60% WP Carbendazim), Ridomyl Gold (68% WP), Thiophonate methyl (70% WP), Antracol (70%WP Propineb) and Copperoxychlorite (50% WP) and four seed powders of herbicides viz., asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida), black cumin (Nigella sativa), neem ( Azadirachta indica ) and mustard ( Brassica campestris) were used @ 0.5%, 0.15% & 0.25% . Out of these 8 fungicides; Ridomyl Gold @ 0.15 & 0.25% inhibited the growth of all fungi whereas asafetida and Nigella sativa powder @0.25% were found to be more efficacious however showed little fungicidal activity toward Fusarium moniliforme.

95-110 Download
13
ENHANCED AMYLOGLUCOSIDASE BIOSYNTHESIS THROUGH MUTAGENESIS USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER
SHAZIA MALIK1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2* AND IKRAM UL HAQ1

ENHANCED AMYLOGLUCOSIDASE BIOSYNTHESIS THROUGH MUTAGENESIS USING ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
In the present study the selected strain of Aspergillus niger was subjected to physical and chemical mutagenesis. Alternate treatments of Ethidium bromide and EMS were also given to the parental strain. The mutant strain M4 (120 min) produced an increased amount of amyloglucosidase (18.84 U/ml/min).

111-119 Download
14
ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS BY THE PEOPLE OF KADHI AREAS OF KHUSHAB, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1,*, MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD2, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1 AND ABDUL KHALIQ CHAUDHRY3

ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS BY THE PEOPLE OF KADHI AREAS OF KHUSHAB, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present research work was designed to gather indigenous knowledge of medicinal plant species, which are being utilized by the local inhabitants of arid (Kadhi) areas of Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 45 genera and 32 families have been recorded which are being used for treating 45 different diseases/ailments during February-March

121-133 Download
15
COMPARISON OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF SCORZONERA L. (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM NORTH EAST ANATOLIA
SERDAR MAKBUL1*, KAMIL COSKUNCELEBI2, ZAFER TÜRKMEN3 AND OSMAN BEYAZOGLU2

COMPARISON OF FOLIAR ANATOMY OF SCORZONERA L. (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM NORTH EAST ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the leaves of 18 Scorzonera L. (Asteraceae) taxa were studied by LM in order to assess anatomical variations that may serve as distinguishing characters and to evaluate their significance for the genus by numerical analysis. All the investigated species can be divided into distinct groups according to mesophyll and midrib structure. Firstly they can be divided in two groups based on presence/absence of cavity on midrib. Secondarily two main vascular bundle types can be identified in transverse sections according to the presence or absence of secretory cells in phloem. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that width of the palisade tissue beneath the upper epidermis, rate of spongy to the mesophyll (w/w), average number of epidermal cells for both sides and average number of stomata on upper side are the most important characters in explaining the total variations.

135-155 Download
16
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OPEN POLLINATED AND HYBIRD POPULLATION OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
MOHAMMAD NISAR1, SHAH HUSSAIN1, NAUSHEEN1, NASRULLAH KHAN2* AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI2

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OPEN POLLINATED AND HYBIRD POPULLATION OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower is the world fourth most important sources of edible oil. A lot of work has been done for varietals improvement through conventional breeding in Pakistan. Sunflower is the cash crop and is easily adapted to many region of Pakistan, genetic and agronomical improvement was needed so that economically valuable crop could be harvested. In the present work

157-163 Download
17
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WHEAT AND TRITICALE
FIDA MOHAMMAD1*, IJAZ AHMAD1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, KHURRAM MAQBOOL1, AYSHA NAZ1, SALMA SHAHEEN2 AND KHALID ALI3

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WHEAT AND TRITICALE
ABSTRACT:
Triticale (Triticosecale), a new man made cereal, is known to be more drought tolerant and high yielding. An experiment comprising eight genotypes each of wheat and triticale was conducted at the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during 2002-2003. The experiment was planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two replications. Data were collected on plant height, spikelets spike-1, spike length and harvest index. Data for all the traits were statistically analyzed. All genotypes were observed to be significantly different for plant height, spikelets spike-1 and spike length but non-significantly different for harvest index. Heritability estimates for plant height, spikelets spike-1 and spike length were 90%, 98% and 84%, respectively. Significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations were detected between plant height with spike length and spikelets spike-1, while non-significant correlations were found between spikelets spike-1, spike length and plant height. Morphologically, triticale appeared to be better than wheat, but the experiment needs to be repeated for getting more explicit conclusions.

165-170 Download
18
NUMERICAL TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME TRIBES OF COMPOSITAE (SUBFAMILY ASTEROIDEAE) FROM EGYPT
A. K. OSMAN

NUMERICAL TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME TRIBES OF COMPOSITAE (SUBFAMILY ASTEROIDEAE) FROM EGYPT
ABSTRACT:
A systematic study of 25 taxa belonging to 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae of Compositae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on 19 main pollen grains characters. On the basis of UPGMA (Unpaired Group Method off Averaging) clustering and PCO (Principal Component Analysis), two main groups and five subgroups are recognized.

171-180 Download
19
RESPONSE OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS TO EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM
F.R. SHAH1, N. AHMAD1, K.R. MASOOD2 D.M. ZAHID3 AND M. ZUBAIR3

RESPONSE OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS TO EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of synthetic wastewater containing various concentrations of cadmium and chromium on Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Six month-old seedlings of E. camaldulensis were treated with Cd (II) and Cr (VI) for 18 months. Treatments were; T0: (Tap water, control), T1: 0.05 +1.0 mg L-1, T2: 0.10+2.0 mg L-1, T3: 0.20+4.0 mg L-1 and T4: 0.40+8.0 mg L-1 of Cd and Cr respectively. Maximum growth in terms of shoot length (248.33 cm), collar diameter (1.78 cm), number of branches (20), number of leaves (504), root diameter (1.3 cm), leaf fresh weight (166.33 g), stem fresh weight (353.33 g), root fresh weight (201.33 g), leaf oven dry weight (73.67 g), stem oven dry weight (166 g) root oven dry weight (100 g) and root/shoot ratio (0.3) was recorded at T1 treated plants beyond that a gradual decline in growth was observed with a maximum reduction of 10.5

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20
STUDY ON CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN LOCAL CULTIVARS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR RAFIQUE1*, HAMID RASHID2, M. F. CHAUDHARY1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3 AND N.M. CHEEMA4

STUDY ON CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN LOCAL CULTIVARS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Callogenesis and organogenesis studies were carried out for three important cultivars of rice i.e., Basmati-370, DR-82 and IR-6. 2,4-D @ 2.0 mg l-1 on MS medium proved to be the best for callus formation in all cultivars. Maximum callus was produced by DR-82 followed by Basmati-370 and IRRI-6, respectively. In order to get maximum regeneration frequency, different factors (age of calli and addition of GA3 in regeneration medium) were optimized. Different concentrations and combinations of hormones i.e., NAA 1.0 mg l-1, BAP 2.0-5.0 mg l-1 and GA3 0.5 mg l-1 or kinetin 0.5-2.0 mg l-1 were used on MS medium. Calli were shifted to different regeneration media to evaluate the plant regeneration frequency in tested rice cultivars as an interaction with all the cultivars. Basmati-370 showed regeneration efficiency (40.0%) on RM3 (NAA 1.0 mg l-1 + BAP 5.0 mg l-1 + GA3 0.5 mg l-1) while 80.0% and 65.0% was observed on the same medium in DR-82 and IRRI-6, respectively. Maximum plant regeneration as a whole on different regeneration media was noted in IRRI-6, followed by DR-82 and Basmati-370, respectively. It was also observed that 25 days old calli had more plantlet formation as compared to 17

191-203 Download
21
RESPONSE OF MAIZE CULTIVARS TO VARIOUS PRIMING SOURCES
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2, RAHMAT SHAH2, RAZIUDDIN3 AND IQBAL MUNIR1

RESPONSE OF MAIZE CULTIVARS TO VARIOUS PRIMING SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to study the effect of seed priming on germination and yield of different maize varieties at the Department of Agronomy and Malakandher Research Farms KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar Pakistan. Seeds of four maize varieties viz., Azam, Sarhad white, Pahari and Sarhad yellow were primed with 5 different priming sources i.e. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), Potassium nitrate (KNO3), Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and Water (H2O) for 17 hours. Various priming sources and maize varieties had a significant (p<0.05) effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, 50% tasseling, 50% silking, maturity, growing degree days and grain yield. Seed germination and emergence occurred 2 days (48-51 h) earlier in primed seeds than unprimed. Azam germinated and emerged earlier than the rest of the varieties. Maximum germination (99%) and emergence (6 m-2) were recorded in seeds primed with PEG compared with other treatments. Among varieties, Azam gave maximum germination (99%) and emergence (6.5 m-2). Maximum seedling dry weight (0.61 g) was observed in seeds primed with Na2S2O3 Minimum days to tasseling (54), silking (61) and maturity (98) were observed in seeds primed with water or KNO3. Among varieties, maximum days to tasseling (59), silking (65) and maturity (99) were recorded in Sarhad yellow. Maximum grain yield (3498 kg ha-1) was recorded in Na2S2O3. Similarly, grain yield was more (3666 kg ha-1) in Sarhad yellow compared with other varieties.

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22
EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM THE NEGLECTED POCKETS OF NORTHWEST PAKISTAN AT KALAM (SWAT)
AMANULLAH* AND ASIM MUHAMMAD

EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM THE NEGLECTED POCKETS OF NORTHWEST PAKISTAN AT KALAM (SWAT)
ABSTRACT:
An experiment consisted of 33 germplasm of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and neglected pockets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were evaluated at the sub-Research Station, Kalam (Swat) during summer 1999-2000. Based on the grain yield potential, these germplasm were divided into three groups. Germplasm CB-9 ranked first by producing maximum grain yield of 3310 kg ha-1, while germplasm CB-6 with 3188 kg ha-1 ranked second, while the lowest grain yield (333 kg ha-1) was produced by germplasm CB-23. Average grain yield in groups decreased in descending order from 2701 kg ha-1 in group I to 1553 kg ha-1 in group II and then further decreased to 750 kg ha-1 in group III. Maturity period varied from 76 to 96 days, plant height 39 to 96 cm, branches per plant 4 to 7, pod length 5.7 to 14.3 cm, seeds per pod 4.9 to 7.6, pods per plant 9 to 39, dry matter yield 1334 to 6666 kg ha-1

213-219 Download
23
COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES OF SOME YIELD AND QUALITY RELATED TRAITS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ZAHID AKRAM1, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL1, KHALID SAIFULLAH KHAN2, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3 AND MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR4

COMBINING ABILITY ESTIMATES OF SOME YIELD AND QUALITY RELATED TRAITS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability effects and variances for yield and quality related traits were carried out in an 8x8 diallel cross of spring wheat. The general combining ability effects were significant for all the characters except days to maturity, whereas specific combining ability effects were significant for most of the characters except grain yield, flag leaf area, number of spikelets spike-1, protein contents and lysine contents. The part of variance due to SCA was greater than GCA for most of the characters indicating the importance of non-additive gene action. The parental varieties, Chakwal 97 and Kohistan 97, proved as the best general combiners for grain yield plant-1. Shahkar 95 proved to be better combiner for plant height, number of tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. MH 97 was shown to be the best general combiner for protein contents. The cross Pothowar 93 x Kohistan 97 gave the highest SCA values for 1000 grain weight and protein contents. For grain yield plant-1 the cross Pak 81 x Kohistan 97 showed maximum SCA values.

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24
ESTABLISHMENT OF GENETIC FIDELITY OF IN-VITRO RAISED BANANA PLANTLETS
SAIFULLAH KHAN1, BUSHRA SAEED2* AND NAHEED KAUSER1

ESTABLISHMENT OF GENETIC FIDELITY OF IN-VITRO RAISED BANANA PLANTLETS
ABSTRACT:
A simple and routine method for the analysis of tissue culture-derived banana plants for somaclonal variations is a prerequisite for precise monitoring of quality control during rapid mass micropropagation. This study reports on the use of RAPD-PCR and SSR for the detection of genetic variations in micropropagated banana plants. Thirteen varieties of the cultivated banana, procured from INIBAP, Belgium, were screened using RAPD-DNA markers. Only three RAPD primers (among 20 tested) were chosen as producing polymorphic DNA bands differentiating the investigated cultivars. Based on those identity markers, the genetic fidelity between various subculture levels were determined. Although minor morphological variations were recorded in the leaves of some clones, the developed RAPD and SSR profiles of different micropropagated clones were typical to that of the donor mother plants up till eight subculture levels.

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25
EFFECT OF MUTAGENS ON CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.)
TAMINA BEGUM AND TAPASH DASGUPTA

EFFECT OF MUTAGENS ON CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Three diverse sesame genotypes viz., Rama, SI 1666 and IC 21706 were treated with both physical (γ-rays) and chemical (EMS) mutagens separately. Three doses of γ-rays (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy) and four doses of EMS (0.5%

243-251 Download
26
GENETIC VARIATION AND INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF SOME MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM (L.) DESF.)
OĞUZ BİLGİN1, KAYIHAN Z. KORKUT1, İSMET BAŞER1, ORHAN DAĞLIOĞLU2, İRFAN ÖZTÜRK3, TURHAN KAHRAMAN3 AND ALPAY BALKAN1

GENETIC VARIATION AND INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF SOME MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM (L.) DESF.)
ABSTRACT:
In this study which was performed with 20 durum wheat genotypes at three locations during two crop seasons. The relative large variations were observed for the characters except test weight and days to 50% flowering. The highest heritability and expected genetic advance values were estimated in plant height (92.8%-9.84) and 1000 grain weight (90.2%-5.96). The lowest value of heritability and expected genetic advance were obtained for grain yield (51.4%-0.94) and test weight (63.8%-2.41). Grain yield was positive and significantly correlated with grain weight/spike, test weight, plant height, grains/spike, spikelets/spike

253-260 Download
27
IDENTIFICATION OF ELITE SUGARCANE CLONES THROUGH TRAP
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN1*, SAJIDA BIBI1, SHAFAQT YASMEEN1, NIGHAT SEEMA1, ABDULLAH KHATRI1, M. AQUIL SIDDIQUI, G.S. NIZAMANI AND S. AFGHAN2*

IDENTIFICATION OF ELITE SUGARCANE CLONES THROUGH TRAP
ABSTRACT:
Sugarcane is being recognized as major source of sugar in the world. Identification of high sucrose clones endowed with other agronomic traits can be speedup with the help of specific molecular markers target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP). Results revealed that clone AEC81-0819 possesses high sucrose gene, tolerant to cold conditions and dehydrating conditions followed by L116. High activity of soluble acid invertase was observed in NIA98 and minimum was recorded in LRK-2001. Agronomic data showed that clone AEC81-0819 out yielded all clones in trial for commercial cane sucrose percent (CCS).

261-269 Download
28
INTER-VARIETAL VARIATION IN THE COMPOSITION OF OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L.) SEED OIL
FAROOQ ANWAR1,*, UMER RASHID2, ZAHID MAHMOOD1 TAHIRA IQBAL1 AND TUFAIL H. SHERAZI3

INTER-VARIETAL VARIATION IN THE COMPOSITION OF OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L.) SEED OIL
ABSTRACT:
The seeds from two varieties namely Sabz Pari and Punjab-8 of Okra (Hibiscus esculentus), grown under similar environment, exhibited oil content 11.72 and 13.42%, respectively. Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were found to be 20.00

271-280 Download
29
ISSR DIVERSITY AND GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF ANCIENT TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS VAR. ASSAMICA) PLANTATIONS FROM CHINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRECIOUS TEA GERMPLASM CONSERVATION
P.Z. JI 1,2# , H. LI1#, L.Z. GAO3, J. ZHANG2 , Z.Q. CHENG4 AND X.Q. HUANG1*

ISSR DIVERSITY AND GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF ANCIENT TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS VAR. ASSAMICA) PLANTATIONS FROM CHINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRECIOUS TEA GERMPLASM CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Over 10 centuries, ancient cultivated tea populations (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) are still planted merely in Yunnan province of China. Genetic diversity and differentiation were examined in 10 ancient tea plantations by using ISSR markers. The average genetic diversity within populations, estimated with Nei's genetic diversity (HE), was approximately 0.2809, while Shannon indices (HO) was 0.4179. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the 10 populations ranged from 56.5% to 90.91%. We found a moderate level of genetic differentiation among population as evidenced by the coefficients of gene differentiation (Gst) of 0.3911 and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 39.70%. The result could be explained by the nature of highly out crossing in the tea species as well as serious habitat fragmentation. Finally, conservation strategies were discussed to protect these ancient tea populations, including in situ reserve settings and ex situ germplasm sampling.

281-291 Download
30
GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED BREAD WHEAT LINES ACROSS DIFFERENT SITES OF PAKISTAN
M. YAQUB MUJAHID*, ZAHEER AHMAD, M. ASHRAF, M. ANWAR KHAN, M. ASIF AND MAQSOOD QAMAR

GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED BREAD WHEAT LINES ACROSS DIFFERENT SITES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ten advance bread wheat lines along with local check were evaluated at seven diverse sites. The environment accounted for 79% of total sum of squares while GxE interaction variance was found 8% and for genotypes 2%. Cluster analysis showed that genotypes and environments could be separated into 5 and 4 respectively of different response pattern across environments and across genotypes. The genotypes NR-310 and NR-314 were different from the remaining genotypes in their response across the environments. The genotypes NR-305 and NR-306, being in the bottom right quadrant, gave the highest average yield and were defined as widely adapted for the sites. This study provides valuable information about the performance of elite wheat lines at different sites of the country to be considered potential breeding material.

293-299 Download
31
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE ON HERITABILITY AND SELECTION RESPONSE OF MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN
HIDAYAT ULLAH1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1*, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, FIDA MUHAMMAD1, IBNI AMIN KHALIL1 AND SHAD KHAN KHALIL2

ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE ON HERITABILITY AND SELECTION RESPONSE OF MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN MUNGBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Thirty mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) genotypes were evaluated at two locations of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan during 2007 and 2008 using randomized complete block design with three replications. Highly significant differences (p≤0.01) were observed among the genotypes for morpho-physiological traits across years at both locations as well as across years and locations. Location × year effect was highly significant (p≤0.01) for days to flowering, plant height and nodes plant-1. Genotype × location interaction was highly significant (p≤0.01) for days to flowering, maturity, plant height and leaf area, indicating differential performance of mungbean genotypes over the two test locations. Means for flower initiation, physiological maturity, plant height, leaves plant-1, nodes plant-1 and leaf area at Peshawar and Swat were 47.2 vs 50.5 days, 86.5 vs 84.2 days, 55.5 vs 52.3 cm, 8.1 vs 8.5

301-310 Download
32
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW STEM
MUHAMMAD NISAR1*, WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM2, MUGHAL QAYUM2, INAMULLAH KHAN MARWAT2, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ4, IHSAN ALI1 AND M. I. CHOUDHARY3

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW STEM
ABSTRACT:
Crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew stem were screened for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Antibacterial bioassay performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi indicated that neither crude extract nor any of subsequent fraction exhibited antibacterial potential. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions screened against five fungal strains viz., Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata indicated non significant results. Similarly neither of the crude or subsequent fractions showed any cytotoxicty or insecticidal activity. However crude extract and fractions showed significant phytotoxicity at higher doses.

311-317 Download
33
LOSSES IN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS CAUSED BY APHIDS TO LATE SOWN BRASSICA NAPUS L., BRASSICA JUNCEA L. AND BRASSICA CARRINATA A. BRAUN AT MULTAN, PUNJAB (PAKISTAN)
MUHAMMAD RAZAQ*, ARSHAD MEHMOOD, MUHAMMAD ASLAM1, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL, MUHAMMAD AFZAL2 AND SARFRAZ ALI SHAD

LOSSES IN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS CAUSED BY APHIDS TO LATE SOWN BRASSICA NAPUS L., BRASSICA JUNCEA L. AND BRASSICA CARRINATA A. BRAUN AT MULTAN, PUNJAB (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
Cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L., and turnip aphid, Lipahis eyrsimi Kalt., are the regular insect pests of Brassica crops in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Population development of and losses to yield and yield components due to these two aphid species were examined on late sown crops of Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Brassica carinata A. Braun under sprayed and unsprayed conditions during 2007-08 at Mulatn. Populations of both the species of aphids were statistically similar on three species of Brassica in unsprayed plots. Losses to yield, plant height, numbers of pods per plant, pod length, numbers of seeds per pod and pod weight were statistically similar across all the three species in untreated plots, those of thousand seeds weight was different . B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata suffered 75.06, 77.25 and 81.86% losses from aphids in yield where insecticides were not applied. Pod weight, pods per plant and yield per ha., was significantly increased by application of insecticides for all the three species. Due to heavy losses in yield and yield components we recommend insecticide application for reducing losses due to aphids.

319-324 Download
34
INTERACTIVE ACTIVITY OF ASPHODELUS TENUIFOLIUS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVIUM L.) AND SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.)
NASIRA JABEEN¹, MOINUDDIN AHMED¹ AND SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT²

INTERACTIVE ACTIVITY OF ASPHODELUS TENUIFOLIUS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVIUM L.) AND SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.)
ABSTRACT:
The allelopathic interactions of weed specie (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cavase) were investigated using two test crop i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in a greenhouse experiment. The growth of A. tenuifolius (Weed) was suppressed by Sorghum bicolor, which acted as an allelopathic crop. By contrast, in second test crop i.e., Triticum aestivum, the germination and growth were suppressed by Asphodelus tenuifolius. The possible mechanisms of allelopathic effects were discussed.

325-331 Download
35
EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND SALINITY ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS PARAMETERS OF BRASSICA SPECIES
RAZIUDDIN1*, FARHATULLAH1, GHULAM HASSAN1, M. AKMAL2, S. SALIM SHAH1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, M. SHAFI2, JEHAN BAKHT3 AND WEIJUN ZHOU4*

EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND SALINITY ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS PARAMETERS OF BRASSICA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the sole and combined effects of cadmium and salinity on growth and photosynthesis of Brassica napus (cultivar Abasin) and Brassica juncea (cultivar NIFA-Raya). Cadmium (as CdCl2; 3 and 6 µmol L-1) and NaCl (100 and 200 mM) were added either alone or in combination in Hoagland solution along with non-treated controls. Cd and NaCl treatments imposed significant negative effects (p≤0.05) on shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot and root water content, number of leaves plant-1, chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthesis and stomatal conductance compared to control. The lone application of either Cd or NaCl on these parameters had comparatively less drastic effects than the combined application of both. Of the two species tested, B. juncea was found comparatively less influenced by Cd and NaCl.

333-340 Download
36
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF RAIN LEACHATES AND ROOT EXUDATES OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND BOTHRIOCHLOA PERTUSA (L.) A. CAMUS
FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, IHSAN ILAHI, SAEED AHMAD MALIK2, ALTAF AHMAD DASTI2 AND BASHIR AHMAD3

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF RAIN LEACHATES AND ROOT EXUDATES OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. AND BOTHRIOCHLOA PERTUSA (L.) A. CAMUS
ABSTRACT:
Studies on the allelopathy of Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus showed that simulated and natural rain leachates from shoots and root exudates were inhibitory to various test species. The rain leachates and root exudates had differential toxicity against the Brassica campestris, Lactuca sativa, Setaria italica and Pennisetum americanum in various bioassays. Low concentration of inhibitors were either non inhibitory or were stimulatory to the germination and/or growth of tested species. Chromatography revealed the presence of chlorogenic, ferulic, caffeic, p-OH-benzoic, p-coumaric, vanillic, syringic and gentisic acids in natural rain leachates, all being proven allelopathic agents. It is concluded that the phytotoxicity was depending upon the concentration of rain leachates and root exudates, test species involved, and physiological parameters measured. Germination appeared to be a poor indicator of phytotoxicity than radicle growth.

341-350 Download
37
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF SCARLET PIMPERNEL (ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS) ON SEED GERMINATION AND RADICAL ELONGATION OF MUNG BEAN AND PEARL MILLET
IRAM US SALAM, MOINUDDIN AHMED AND SYED TARIQ-ALI

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF SCARLET PIMPERNEL (ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS) ON SEED GERMINATION AND RADICAL ELONGATION OF MUNG BEAN AND PEARL MILLET
ABSTRACT:
The green house based experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany FUUAST, Karachi to study the allelopathic effects of root and shoot leachates of Anagallis arvensis on the two test species viz., bajra and mungbean. The percentage of seed germination, speed of germination and radical elongation of the test species were recorded after 10 days. Both leachates have no effect on seed germination and speed of germination of the test species. Radical elongation of two test species showed different response. Mung radical growth was significantly reduced while bajra radical growth was significantly enhanced by the root leachate of weed.

351-355 Download
38
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MEAT (KERNEL) AND NUT WATER OF MAJOR COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) CULTIVARS AT COASTAL AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI1 AND M. ZAFAR IQBAL2

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MEAT (KERNEL) AND NUT WATER OF MAJOR COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) CULTIVARS AT COASTAL AREA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature & immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively.

357-363 Download
39
EXPLORING THE HIDDEN THREAT OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS USING RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS IN PAKISTAN
A. WAHID1 SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD2*, ZAHID ALI BUTT3 AND MAQSOOD AHMAD4

EXPLORING THE HIDDEN THREAT OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS USING RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Three rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (Basmati-Pak, Basmati-370 and IRRI-9) of Pakistan were grown for their entire life cycle in open top field chambers to investigate the impacts of ambient ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the biomass, growth physiology, and yield. The treatments were charcoal filtered air (FA), unfiltered air (UFA) and ambient air (AA). O3, NO2, and SO2 concentrations recorded at the experimental site were 75

365-382 Download
40
STAINING EFFECT OF DYE EXTRACTED FROM DRY LEAVES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LINN (HENNA) ON ANGIOSPERMIC STEM TISSUE
HIKMAT ULLAH JAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1* AND ASHFAQ ALI KHAN2

STAINING EFFECT OF DYE EXTRACTED FROM DRY LEAVES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LINN (HENNA) ON ANGIOSPERMIC STEM TISSUE
ABSTRACT:
A natural dye lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) was isolated from dry leaves of Lawsonia inermis L., by extraction with clove oil, ethyl alcohol, water and its effectiveness as staining agent for angiospermic stem tissue was studied. Lawsonia revealed meta-chromatic property of staining. A 10%w/v crude extract of Lawsonia inermis L., leaves in ethyl alcohol and water were used for staining stem cross section of angiospermic plants like Helianthus annuus L., and Zea mays L. Dye extracted from Lawsonia inermis leaves in ethyl alcohol profusely stained vascular bundle (sclerenchyma) of the angiospermic stem cross section of Helianthus annuus L., however, ground parenchyma was stained very lightly Dye extracted from Lawsonia inermis leaves in 10%w/v water though stained the sclerenchyma of Zea mays stem cross section more effectively than parenchyma in Helianthus annuus, but not as profusely as result of Lawsonia inermis in ethyl alcohol. Within each vascular bundle xylem cells were stained very effectively but the cortex and medulla were stained less effectively. However staining power of the extracted dye of Lawsonia inermis L., with respect of different stem tissue was apparently variable according to the solvent used, but the extracted dye of Lawsonia inermis L., proved to be weak staining agent for parenchyma of angiospermic stem tissue in both the species of Helianthus annuus L., and Zea mays L., as members of dicot and monocot respectively. This open a new avenue of research and further probes to discover better method of extraction of the dyes in concentrated form in more different solvents and better method of preparing stains from them, will finally prove their validity and will be useful addition in botanical staining materials.

383-389 Download
41
EFFECT OF FOLIAR AND SOIL APPLICATION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM ON YIELD COMPONENTS OF LENTIL
MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN¹, SUMERA AFZAL KHAN2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN3,4, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI*5, NADEEM AHMAD6, YOON-HA KIM3 AND IN-JUNG LEE*3,

EFFECT OF FOLIAR AND SOIL APPLICATION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM ON YIELD COMPONENTS OF LENTIL
ABSTRACT:
Lentil is an important food supplement bearing potential nutrients. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar and soil application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) on yield component of lentil (Lens culinaris Medic). In general, best results were recorded from the plants treated with NPK through both soil and foliage. Optimal concentration of NPK for the various yield parameters was found to be 0.17% N, 0.21% P and 0.33% K for foliar and 0.35% N, 0.32% P and 0.50% K for soil application at pH 7.0. Timing of fertilizer application also affected different yield components. Multiple application of both soil and foliar application of NPK gave better results as compared to single application of NPK. Soil application produce slightly improved results compared to foliar application when applied unaided. The foliar application of nitrogen alone was more effective than NPK in producing higher number of seeds per pod.

391-396 Download
42
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MINERAL PROFILE AND IN SITU DIGESTION KINETICS OF FODDER LEAVES OF FOUR NATIVE TREES
UZMAN BASHIR CHEEMA1, JAVED IQBAL SULTAN1, ASIF JAVAID1*, PARVIS AKHTAR2 AND MUHAMMAD SHAHID3

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MINERAL PROFILE AND IN SITU DIGESTION KINETICS OF FODDER LEAVES OF FOUR NATIVE TREES
ABSTRACT:
This study explored the nutritive value of Morus alba, Acacia nilotica, Syzygium cumuni and Ziziphus jujuba leaves. Chemical analyses revealed that dry matter (DM) ranged from 25% to 47% in M. alba and S. cumunii, organic matter was higher (94%) in S. cumuni and Z. jujuba. M. alba had higher (23%) crude protein, whereas, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in Z. jujuba (32%). Acid detergent fiber was higher in S. cumuni (23%), while, acid detergent lignin was greater (7%) in M. alba and S. cumuni. Hemicellulose (15%) and ash content (10%) were higher in Z. jujuba and M. Alba, respectively. Metabolizable energy was higher (10.5 MJ/kg) in M. alba than the other species. Among minerals, Ca and K were highest in A. nilotica, P in M. alba and Mg and Na in Z. jujuba. The concentration of total phenolics, tannins, alkaloids and saponin was within safe range. In situ DM digestibility was higher (90.2%) for M. alba, DM lag time was shorter (0.63 h) for A. nilotica, and rate of DM disappearance was lowest (5.34% per h) for S. cumuni. Extent of DM digestion (98.26%) and NDF digestibility (84.10%) were higher for M. alba. Shorter NDF lag time (0.71 h) and higher rate of NDF disappearance were evident for A. nilotica, but extent of NDF digestion was higher (96.80%) for M. alba. Based on chemical composition and in situ digestion kinetics, M. alba leaves proved the best supplement followed by A. nilotica, Z. jujuba and S. cumuni for ruminants.

397-404 Download
43
DISTRIBUTION OF CHLOROPHYLL IN THE MANGROVE SEDIMENTS OF SONMIANI BAY, PAKISTAN
SUMERA FAROOQ1* AND P.J.A. SIDDIQUI

DISTRIBUTION OF CHLOROPHYLL IN THE MANGROVE SEDIMENTS OF SONMIANI BAY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Chlorophyll content especially chlorophyll a (Chl a) is a measure of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in sediments. In this study both vertical and horizontal variations in Chl a content in mangrove forest was detected. This is the first report on the vertical distribution of Chl a in the sediments of mangrove forests at Sonmiani Bay. The stations differ in chlorophyll content in sediments and range between 0.8-4.9 Chl a μg g−1. Comparatively higher value of Chl a was obtained from Station II where nutrient loading from small ephemeral river was observed. Dry conditions, long exposure periods, and high Salinity may be responsible for low Chl a content in Sonmiani Bay mangrove sediments. The lower values of Chl a is an indication of lower standing stock of MPB and benthic primary productivity. The study provides the base line data and may be useful in the prediction of MPB abundance and benthic productivity in mangrove sediments.

405-410 Download
44
THE STATUS AND IMPROVEMENT OF VEGETATION ON EXISTING OPEN SPACES ON GREATER CAMPUS PESHAWAR
NOOR UL AMIN, MURAD ALI AND MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN

THE STATUS AND IMPROVEMENT OF VEGETATION ON EXISTING OPEN SPACES ON GREATER CAMPUS PESHAWAR
ABSTRACT:
A research study was conducted at Greater campus including NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, University of Peshawar, University of Engineering and Technology and other institutions on Peshawar university campus to analyze the existing conditions of open spaces and formulate suggestions for their maintenance and improvement. One hundred and sixty respondents of both genders were interviewed through questionnaires survey. The prime focus of the study remained on the areas such as soft & hard landscape of prevailing open spaces, roadsides & sport grounds plantation and suggestions for the improvement of these spaces in greater campus. The findings revealed that a combination of trees and shrubs grown in a single line along with provision of flowers are requested for roadside plantation whereas provision of shrubs is suggested at the boundaries of sport grounds. The use of gardens with variety of shrubs is favored for educational purposes while plantation of trees, shrubs, annual flowers and ground covers in combination is preferred at open spaces. Most of the respondents showed dissatisfaction over the existing maintenance of open spaces. Statues and water features such as water fall and fountain are suggested for open spaces as they may further facilitate the status of hardscape in the overall landscape. Proper plantation and management of softscape as well as hardscape are highly recommended which would optimistically improve the current status of the open space.

411-418 Download
45
BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY PRETREATED BIOMASS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER
AMNA JAVAID*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND TARIQ MANZOOR

BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS BY PRETREATED BIOMASS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
The present study reports the biosorption potential of chemically pretreated mycelial biomass of fungus Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem for Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous phase. Fungal biomass was pretreated with different types of alkaline/salts (NaOH, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, NaCl & CaCl2,), acids (HCl & H2SO4) and detergent. Pretreatment of biomass with Na2CO3 and NaOH were proved to increase or maintain adsorption efficiency and capacity in comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with NaHCO3, detergent, NaCl and CaCl2 significantly reduce (10-40%) metal sequestering efficiency of the adsorbent. Whereas, acid treatments resulted in drastic loss (80%) in metal uptake efficiency of the biomass. Amongst various pretreatments, Na2CO3 could be use efficiently for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using A. niger.

419-425 Download
46
NUTRIENT EVALUATION AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FOUR SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KHYBER PAKHTOON KHWA, PAKISTAN
JAVID HUSSAIN1-4*, FARMAN ULLAH KHAN1, RIAZ ULLAH1, ZIA MUHAMMAD1, NAJEEB U REHMAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, IHSAN ULLAH KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ZOHAIB1-2, IMAD-UD-DIN2 AND SYED MURTAZA HUSSAIN1

NUTRIENT EVALUATION AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FOUR SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KHYBER PAKHTOON KHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out to assess the nutritional value and mineral contents of four medicinal plants viz., Aerva javanica Burm.f, Calotropis procera Ait. f, Datura alba Nees, and Nepeta suavis Stapf., which are traditionally used as medicine in the Northwest Pakistan. Proximate analysis of plant sample determines that protein (21.353%) and ash (18.803%) was highest in Datura alba, carbohydrate (70.123 %) in Aerva javanica, energy (398.496 Kcal/100g), fats (12.595%) and fibre (40.150%) was highest in Nepeta suavis, while highest moisture (11.255%) was reported in Calotropis procera. In comparative assessment of the various species, the results showed that Nepeta suavis is the most significant species having higher concentrations of fat, fibre and energy values compared to the other species. The essential elements such as Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, Mg and Na have been analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method from the medicinal plants in variable range.

427-434 Download
47
DETECTING DIFFERENCES IN SOME ELITE WHEAT LINES FOR SALT TOLERANCE THROUGH MULTI PARAMETERS EVALUATION I. MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD PARAMETERS
MOHAMMAD AKRAM, SHAFQAT FAROOQ1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, MOHAMMAD AFZAAL, RUBINA ARSHAD AND FAROOQ-E-AZAM4

DETECTING DIFFERENCES IN SOME ELITE WHEAT LINES FOR SALT TOLERANCE THROUGH MULTI PARAMETERS EVALUATION I. MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD PARAMETERS
ABSTRACT:
Salt tolerance potential of a newly developed wheat genotype (N-9760: V3) was assessed by comparing it with a known salt tolerant line (N-1073:V2) and a commercial cultivar (Inqlab: V1) using various growth parameters measured at the vegetative and maturity stages, The objectives were to know qualitative and quantitative tolerance status and possible utilization of the new genotype as well as to examine as to whether the parameters used to assess the tolerance at vegetative and maturity stages are affected differentially by various salinity levels. The experiment was conducted in pots using four salinity levels (EC 1.5, 5

435-443 Download
48
TOLERANCE OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L) BENTH TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LEAD IN NATURAL FIELD CONDITIONS
ZIA-UR-REHMAN FAROOQI, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL, MUHAMMAD KABIR AND MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ

TOLERANCE OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L) BENTH TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LEAD IN NATURAL FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Lead produced significant effects on different growth parameters of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth such as root, shoot, seedling length, leaf area, plant circumference and seedling dry biomass in natural field conditions. Seedling growth performance of A. lebbeck showed low level of tolerance with increasing concentrations of lead treatments from 25 to 125µmol/L. Lead treatments at 25 to 125µmol/L produced significant effect on shoot, root and seedling length of A. lebbeck. Number of leaves, leaf area and circumference were significantly (p<0.05) reduced at all concentrations of lead treatments. Seedling dry biomass was significantly reduced at 100 and 125µmol/L treatment of lead. Lead treatment at 25µmol/L showed high percentage of tolerance indices while by increasing lead levels to 125µmol/L, percentage of tolerance indices was low.

445-452 Download
49
PHENOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CHEMICALS ON PRE-HARVEST FRUIT DROP OF SWEET ORANGE CV. ‘SALUSTIANA’
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM1, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI1*, HAFEEZ-UR-RAHMAN2, AZHAR HUSSAIN1 AND ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ1

PHENOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CHEMICALS ON PRE-HARVEST FRUIT DROP OF SWEET ORANGE CV. ‘SALUSTIANA’
ABSTRACT:
The paper depicts the phenological behaviour of sweet orange cv. ‘Salustiana’ and to search out the solution of a serious problem of pre harvest fruit drop. Citrus plants having uniform age and size were selected and shoots were tagged on four sides of the tree. Observations including blooming time, ratio of staminate and pistillate flowers, fruit growth and fruit drop were recorded. Maximum flower drop was observed in west and north side of the canopy, while maximum fruit set was on the east and north side. June drop was highest in the southern and northern sides. To address the problem of pre harvest drop of fruit, foliar sprays of urea (0.5%

453-457 Download
50
REDUCTION AND CARBOXYMETHYLATION OF SOME OF THE GLIADIN WHEAT PROTEINS
AHMAD SAEED KHAN1* AND IHSAN ILAHI2

REDUCTION AND CARBOXYMETHYLATION OF SOME OF THE GLIADIN WHEAT PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
Pure β-Gliadin from Maris Widgeon wheat homogeneous on gel chromatography, disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and purified on ion exchange chromatography was subjected to investigation for possible presence of intermolecular disulphide bonds. The protein was reduced by β mercaptoethanol followed by alkylation. Reduced and alkylated β-gliadin was then isolated after chromatography through G-75 and G-100 Sephadex gels. PAGE electrophoresis of the two halves showed two mobility bands. The molecular weight of the proteins after reduction and alkylation was the same as the original β-gliadin before it was subjected to reduction and alkylation. It was concluded that they were not two chains of the same protein but two separate proteins.

459-465 Download
51
CALLUS INDUCTION AND CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE PRODUCTION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION STUDIES OF (–)- CARYOPHYLLENE OXIDE
SAIFULLAH* AND SAIFULLAH KHAN

CALLUS INDUCTION AND CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE PRODUCTION OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION STUDIES OF (–)- CARYOPHYLLENE OXIDE
ABSTRACT:
For biotransformational studies, Callus of Catharanthus roseus was produced from young shoot tip on Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/litre 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg/litre Kin, solidified by 8 g/litre agar at 25±1°C under complete darkness. The cultures were maintained on the same medium at 25±1 °C in the dark by subculturing after every four weeks. Suspension culture of the plant was produced from induced callus on the same medium except Kin and agar. Cell suspension culture of Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) was employed for the first time in order to study the biotransformational capability of (–)-caryophyllene oxide

467-473 Download
52
FERTILE CRESCENT REGION AS SOURCE OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE AT EARLY STAGE OF PLANT GROWTH OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L. SSP. SPONTANEUM)
KULDEEP TYAGI1, MYOUNG RYOUL PARK1, HYO JEONG LEE1, CHONG AE LEE2, SHAFIQ REHMAN3, BRIAN STEFFENSON4 AND SONG JOONG YUN1,5,*

FERTILE CRESCENT REGION AS SOURCE OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE AT EARLY STAGE OF PLANT GROWTH OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L. SSP. SPONTANEUM)
ABSTRACT:
Drought is one of the most important types of abiotic stress that affects stability and amount of yield. This study was conducted to screen for drought tolerance at early seedling stages for 318 ecogeographically diverse wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. spp. spontaneum) diversity collection (WBDC). Considerable variation was observed for all the seedling characters examined. Seedling growth was significantly reduced by 17% polyethyleneglycol-induced drought stress with significant variation among accessions. Shoot length was the most sensitive trait, however, root-shoot length ratio increased under osmotic stress. Correlation studies indicated that the root length was the most important trait, followed by shoot length and root-shoot length ratio. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed and the first two principal components (PC) explained 78.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1 (50.1%) associated with shoot length and seedling length. PC2 (28.1%) was related with root length and root-shoot length ratio. PCA showed that accessions from the Fertile Crescent particularly from Jordan and Israel showed high drought tolerance than other geographical regions at the early seedling stage. The accessions WBDC009 (Jordan), WBDC075 (Libya), WBDC211 (Uzbekistan), WBDC242 (Jordan), WBDC254 (Jordan) and WBDC289 (Israel) exhibited the highest drought tolerance index, indicating high level of drought tolerance. Consequently, these accessions showed tolerance to drought at the early seedling stage and are considered to be good sources of drought tolerance for cultivated barley improvement.

475-486 Download
53
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND SOLIDIFYING AGENTS ON CALLOGENESIS AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L) VARIETIES SUPER BASMATI AND IRRI-6
HUMERA AFRASIAB* AND RABIA JAFAR

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEDIA AND SOLIDIFYING AGENTS ON CALLOGENESIS AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM DIFFERENT EXPLANTS OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L) VARIETIES SUPER BASMATI AND IRRI-6
ABSTRACT:
In the present work, plant tissue culture conditions were optimized for In vitro germination from dehusked seeds of two varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L), Super Basmati and IRRI-6 on MS and LS medium solidified with agar and phytagel. MS medium solidified with agar was optimum for In vitro germination of Super Basmati and LS medium containing agar was best for germination of IRRI-6. For best callus induction and proliferation from mature embryos of both varieties and leaf bases of IRRI-6, MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2, 4-D was efficient, while leaf bases of Super Basmati required a higher concentration of 2,4-D. For efficient regeneration from callus, MS medium supplemented with NAA 1.0 mg/l with BAP 3.0 mg/l proved better for Super Basmati and for IRRI-6, MS medium containing NAA 1.0 mg/l and BAP 5.0 mg/l showed better results. Light conditions proved better for callogenesis and regeneration from mature seed explants of both the varieties in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2, 4- D.

487-501 Download
54
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF LBU INFLUENCES THE LEAF NITROGEN LEVEL, VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
BASHARAT A. SALEEM1*, AMAN U. MALIK2, ISHTIAQ A. RAJWANA2, AHMAD S. KHAN2, ZAFAR IQBAL3, WAQAR AHMED2, MUHAMMAD WAQAS4

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF LBU INFLUENCES THE LEAF NITROGEN LEVEL, VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ‘BLOOD RED’ SWEET ORANGE
ABSTRACT:
AND MUHAMMAD FAROOQ5

503-514 Download
55
NITROGEN METABOLISM AS A BIO INDICATOR OF CU STRESS IN VIGNA RADIATA
RAFIA AZMAT* AND NAILA KHAN

NITROGEN METABOLISM AS A BIO INDICATOR OF CU STRESS IN VIGNA RADIATA
ABSTRACT:
The possible involvement of Cu on N – metabolism in relation with protease activity, proline, amino acid contents and protein oxidation was observed. These were monitored as bio-indicators in the seedlings of Vigna radiata treated with (0–25 ppm) CuSO4 to ascertain the role of Cu in generation of oxidative stress. Copper is an essential nutrient element for the plant growth, may be toxic when in excess by their participation in redox cycles producing hydroxyl radicals (·OH) which are extremely toxic to the living cells. Cu produced a significant inhibition of growth as well as a reduction in the water contents in the roots and the leaves of the seedlings. Results showed an increase in the protease activity and decrease in the protein contents, which may be attributed with the plant defense against metal toxicity through hydrolysis of the oxidative proteins. An inverse relation between protease activity and other nitrogen compound showed the effective hydrolyzing role of protease due to which decrease in proline and total amino acid contents were observed, exhibited the highest sensitivity to excess metal, followed by the plant dry weight accumulation, leaf area formation. Decrease in proline contents support the sensitivity of Vigna radiata and weak defense of species against Cu stress.

515-520 Download
56
PATTERN OF ACCUMULATION OF INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS SUBJECTED TO SALT STRESS AND EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM1 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2

PATTERN OF ACCUMULATION OF INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) PLANTS SUBJECTED TO SALT STRESS AND EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
Influence of a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the pattern of accumulation of some key inorganic elements in salt-stressed sunflower plants was observed under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars of sunflower viz., Hysun-33 and S-278 were grown under non-saline and saline (150 mM NaCl) regimes in sand culture. After two weeks of salt treatment, all plants were subjected to four (0 (no spray)

521-530 Download
57
IN VITRO SCREENING OF METHANOL PLANT EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
TARIQ HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD, SARZAMIN KHAN, HAMID SATTAR AND MUHAMMAD SUBHAN QURESHI

IN VITRO SCREENING OF METHANOL PLANT EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation.

531-538 Download
58
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ACTIVITIES OF SOME KEY ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS IN KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA)
JAFAR NABATI1, MOHAMMAD KAFI2, AHMAD NEZAMI2, PARVIZ REZVANI MOGHADDAM2, ALI MASOUMI1 AND MOHAMMAD ZARE MEHRJERDI 1

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND ACTIVITIES OF SOME KEY ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS IN KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA)
ABSTRACT:
Soil salinity is a major constraint to food production due to its negative impact on crop yield. Kochia (Kochia scoparia) is a salinity-resistant plant that can widely be used as emergency forage for livestock by using saline waters and soils in desert ecosystems. In order to investigate physiological mechanism, antioxidants activity and potential production of Kochia in response to different levels of salinity, an experiment was performed in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Saline waters (5.2

539-548 Download
59
EFFECTS OF DOLOMITE AND BORAX ON THE QUALITY OF TAINUNG NO. 13 PINEAPPLE
YONG-HONG LIN1* AND JEN-HSHUAN CHEN2*

EFFECTS OF DOLOMITE AND BORAX ON THE QUALITY OF TAINUNG NO. 13 PINEAPPLE
ABSTRACT:
Pineapple (Ananas comosos (L.) Merr.) is one of the important fruits in Taiwan. Prior to flower-initiation, Tainung No. 13 contains generally lower concentration of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and boron (B) in leaves than Smooth Cayneen. This study was conducted to evaluate the supplement of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and boron (B) by the field application of dolomite and borax to improve the quality and reduce broken-cored disease in Tainung No.13. A randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates and nine treatments of three dolomite rates (i.e. 0

549-558 Download
60
SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF WHEAT GERMPLASM FOR YIELD, DROUGHT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF UPLAND BALUCHISTAN
SAIFULLAH KHAN, JAHANGIR KHAN, NOOR ISLAM AND MUHAMMAD ISLAM

SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF WHEAT GERMPLASM FOR YIELD, DROUGHT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF UPLAND BALUCHISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eleven wheat genotypes in Micro-plot Wheat Yield Trial including two checks (AZRI-96 and local) were evaluated for drought, yield and disease resistance in order to incorporate the high yielding and disease resistant genotypes in our wheat breeding program. The experiment was conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta under rainfed conditions during 2006-07. Micro-plot genotypes No. 1, 8 and 7 performed tremendously well as compared with the local checks. They produced significantly higher yield of 1345

559-563 Download
61
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY OF AN OPEN SCRUB TYPE RANGELAND IN THE SUB-MOUNTAINOUS HIMALAYAN TRACT OF PAKISTAN
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF3

SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY OF AN OPEN SCRUB TYPE RANGELAND IN THE SUB-MOUNTAINOUS HIMALAYAN TRACT OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
To assess the seasonal and spatial changes in the soil physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient availability, six ecologically diverse sites were evaluated during this study. Redundancy analysis revealed significant variation in soil physicochemical characteristics attributable both to sites and seasons. Field capacity and soil sodium contents did not vary significantly during different seasons. However, nitrogen and phosphorus contents were significantly higher in summer. Soil pH increased during spring whereas ECe and potassium ion (K+) contents remained higher in winter. Soil pH and ECe were closely associated with the sites having low moisture contents (Anga and Dape Sharif). Sodium (Na+) was recorded higher in clayey loam soils (Jhallar) whereas phosphorus (P) and K+ contents showed their maximum amount in clayey loam soil with high vegetation cover (Khabeki). Nevertheless, the clayey loam soils at Khabeki and Jhallar sites showed the highest field capacity. A strong correlation was observed between frequency and intensity of rainfall, parent material of the soil, vegetation of the area, and nutrient availability of soil.

565-571 Download
62
EFFECT OF DIATOMITE ON GROWTH OF STRAWBERRY
ILKER ANGIN1, MURAT KOSE2 AND RAFET ASLANTAS3

EFFECT OF DIATOMITE ON GROWTH OF STRAWBERRY
ABSTRACT:
Diatomite is a sedimentary rock primarily composed of the fossilized remains of unicellular fresh water plants known as Diatoms. However, its usage in horticulture is not common. It is mostly used as a filter material in industry. It is very finely porous, very low in density, and essentially chemically inert in most liquids and gases. These properties make diatomite an excellent growing media for horticultural applications. This study was carried out to characterize some physical and physico-chemical properties of diatomite and its potential use as a growing media for strawberry. For this aim two grades (2-4 mm (DE-I) and 4-8 mm (DE-II)) of diatomite and three amendment levels were used. Results obtained from this study have shown that diatomite is an effective amendment to improve water holding capacity of light textured soils. Among the substrates tested, the highest water retention capacity was obtained from 30% DE-I treatment.

573-577 Download
63
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AN ETHNOBOTANICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT SAUROMATUM VENOSUM (Ait.) SCHOTT. OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
MUHAMMAD AJAIB1, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1, NASRULLAH KHAN3 MUHAMMAD ATHAR ABBASI2, DURRE SHAHWAR2, MUHAMMAD WAHAB3 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SADDIQUI3

ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AN ETHNOBOTANICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT SAUROMATUM VENOSUM (Ait.) SCHOTT. OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
In order to verify the ethnopharmacological effects of local plant, Sauromatum venosum (Ait.) Schott., on scientific lines the antibacterial activity including MIC and antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of its fruits were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using well diffusion method and 2

579-585 Download
64
SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PLANT WATER STATUS OF FOUR DESERT HALOPHYTES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION OF KARACHI
IRFAN AZIZ, BILQUEES GUL, SALMAN GULZAR AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PLANT WATER STATUS OF FOUR DESERT HALOPHYTES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Halophytes in arid and semi arid zones of the world are often subjected to extremely variable drought, salinity and temperature. These fluctuations may bring about changes in their osmoregulation and gas exchange responses besides other physiological and biochemical processes. The purpose of this study was to detect temporal changes in plant water status and osmotic adjustment in four desert halophytes viz., Suaeda fruticosa, Heliotropium curassavicum, Haloxylon stocksii and Atriplex stocksii from an inland community at Karachi University Campus. During the dry period (November to January) water and osmotic potentials of all test species increased with higher values in A. stocksii (salt secretor) than those of S. fruticosa and H. stocksii (salt includer) and H. curassavicum (salt excluder). Proline increased substantially and was highest in H. curassavicum followed by A. stocksii in comparison to the two salt includers. The lowering of osmotic potential corresponded to an increase in Na and Cl, lower stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content indicating reduced gas exchange during the dry period. The increase in proline may have little role in osmoreglation but could contribute in scavenging reactive oxygen species.

587-594 Download
65
POPULATION DIVERSITY OF AELUROPUS LAGOPOIDES: A POTENTIAL CASH CROP FOR SALINE LAND
MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMED1,2, SYED ABDULLAH GILANI2, AKIRA KIKUCHI2, SALMAN GULZAR1, M. AJMAL KHAN1* AND KAZUO N. WATANABE2

POPULATION DIVERSITY OF AELUROPUS LAGOPOIDES: A POTENTIAL CASH CROP FOR SALINE LAND
ABSTRACT:
Aeluropus lagopoides is a salt tolerant grass which propagates both through genets and ramets. Six disjunct populations of A. lagopoides from Pakistan were selected to test the hypothesis that genetic diversity would be low within but higher among populations. Genetic diversity was investigated using RAPD markers. AMOVA showed higher genetic diversity within population (74%) and lower among population (26%). Furthermore, there were no genetic differences between coastal and inland populations. However, substantial (11%) genetic variation existed among populations of Sindh and Balochistan. Higher genetic diversity within populations are possibly due to physical disturbances that may provide more opportunity for establishment of seeds and increase the possibility of out crossing. Low diversity among populations or between coastal and inland populations indicates fragmentation of a single meta-population due to anthropogenic activity. Geographical barrier between Sindh and Balochistan, appears to mediate gene flow among populations of A. lagopoides.

595-605 Download
66
NUTRIENT UPTAKE, GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AS AFFECTED BY MANGANESE APPLICATION
GHULAM ABBAS1*, MUHAMMAD QASIM KHAN2, MUHAMMAD JAMIL KHAN2, MUHAMMAD TAHIR3, MUHAMMAD ISHAQUE4 AND FIDA HUSSAIN5

NUTRIENT UPTAKE, GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AS AFFECTED BY MANGANESE APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
The study was carried out for two consecutive years (2005-06 to 2006-07) to evaluate the wheat response to five different levels (0, 4, 8

607-616 Download
67
RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY AT EARLY GROWTH STAGES
S.H. GHALOO1*, Z.A. SOOMRO1, N.U. KHAN2, Z. BIBI3, I.U. KHAN3, M.S. KAKAR4, S.A. TARAN4 AND A.A. RAJPER1

RESPONSE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY AT EARLY GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Investigations on screening of wheat genotypes under different salinity (NaCl) levels were carried out at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan during winter season of 2005-2006. The seeds of 8 different wheat genotypes viz., Sarsabz, Anmol-91, Kiran-95, Mehran-89, TJ-83, Moomal, Abadgar-94 and Marvi were sown in Petri dishes in NaCl concentrations of 50

617-623 Download
68
INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT
KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT*, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN, SAIMA HASHIM, KHALID NAWAB AND ABDUL MATEEN KHATTAK

INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses.

625-633 Download
69
CROP GROWTH IN EARLY SPRING AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN ALFALFA
M. AKMAL1*, UZMA FARID2, M. ASIM3, FARHATULLAH4 AND RAZIUDDIN5

CROP GROWTH IN EARLY SPRING AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN ALFALFA
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, KP Agricultural University Peshawar. Fifteen alfalfa lines (M. sativa L.) were compared for crop growth rate (CGR), biomass yield and radiation use efficiency (RUE). The previous year experiment was defoliated on 13th March 2006 at ground levels about 5 cm height. Fertilizer to the crop was applied every year in 1st week of March to yield 30, 60, & 30 kg ha-1 N, P, & K, respectively after defoliation. Periodic samples were harvested from one meter row length at two locations and oven dried at 70OC for about 36 h. Before samples, periodic leaf area index (LAI) was recorded with LI-2000 (LI-COR, USA) and subsequently light measurements were made using data logger (LI-1400, LI-COR, USA) and light sensors LI-190 and LI-191 (LI-COR, USA). The CGR showed variation in shapes and asymptotes for the different alfalfa lines which resulted differences in both fresh and dry matters yield at final sampling harvest. Alfalfa line Gramma-2 was the highest in dry matter yield (110 g m-2) followed by Flewish-pop (107 g m-2). Alfalfa line Pumha with 74 g m-2 was the lowest in dry matter yield. Differences were observed in LAI (p<0.05). High dry matter yield of alfalfa line Gramma-2 was due to higher LAI which was associated to highest leaf fraction (38%). Differences in RUE were also observed among the lines. Flewish-pop was the highest in RUE (0.20 g DM MJ-2 PAR absorbed), followed by Gramma-2 (0.18 g DM MJ-2 PAR absorbed). Mean CGR and RUE of the different lines showed association with dry matter yield of which the lateral one showed a strong association compared with the earlier one. We conclude that higher RUE than CGR is important for the line/variety to get quality fodder production.

635-641 Download
70
SEED QUALITY AND VIGOR OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY CANOPY TEMPERATURE
AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, P. SHAH1, H. KHAN1, S. NIGAR2, S. PERVEEN1, M.K. SHAH2, AMANULLAH1, S. K. KHALIL1, S. MUNIR3 AND M. ZUBAIR1

SEED QUALITY AND VIGOR OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY CANOPY TEMPERATURE
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of canopy temperature on seed quality and vigor of soybean planted on different dates. An experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm of the KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, during 2003 and 2004. Determinate cultivars (Epps, maturity group [MG] V) and indeterminate cultivar, Williams 82 [MG] 111) were planted on May 1st to August 1st at one month interval during both years. Data was recorded on canopy temperature, seed quality and vigor attributes of soybean. Heat indices were calculated from canopy maximum and minimum temperatures for the periods between growth stages starting from beginning of bloom to physiological Maturity (R3-R7). Seed quality and vigor attributes were regressed on different heat indices. Canopy temperature during reproductive growth stages of R4-R5, R5-R6 and R6-R7 had pronounced effect on both seed quality and vigor of soybean. Increase in mean averaged temperature in the range of 23-30oC during growth stage of R6-R7 improved germination, field emergence, and increased seedling dry weight, protein and oil contents of soybean seed. Whereas, increase in mean temperature averaged in the range of 23 to 30oC during reproductive growth stage of seed initiation to full-seed (R5-R6) reduced germination, field emergence, protein and oil contents of soybean seed and increased electrical conductivity. Increase in maximum temperature in the range of 32 to 37oC during growth stage of full bloom to seed initiation (R4-R5) decreased seedling dry weight and oil content of soybean seed.

643-648 Download
71
CHARACTERIZATION AND INHERITANCE OF COTTON LEAF PUBESCENCE
N. N. NAWAB1, I. A. KHAN1, A.A. KHAN1 AND M. AMJAD2

CHARACTERIZATION AND INHERITANCE OF COTTON LEAF PUBESCENCE
ABSTRACT:
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes have varying densities of trichomes on the leaves. Absence of trichomes increases the attractiveness of the cotton plant to some major insect pests, thus increasing the reliance on pesticides. Leaf trichome density was quantified by two methods. Qualitative grading system is based on the visual examination of the relative density of the abaxial trichomes. Quantitative measure system counts the total trichomes in a specific unit area. Number of trichomes defined a total number of trichomes and trichome branches. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation for number of leaf trichomes in all the 6 generations of the 3 crosses. The segregation pattern for trichome counts in F2 generations indicated the discontinuous variation, which confirmed the qualitative nature for this trait. The leaves tended to become less hairy as they approach towards maturity and moreover, cotton leaf trichome counts decreased from the apex to the bottom of the same plant canopy not only in the parental populations as proposed earlier but also progressed in the similar fashion in different genetic backgrounds, which meant that the transference of the gene for hairiness in different genetic backgrounds may not effect the pattern of hairiness. There existed a strong relationship between leaf pubescence ratings and trichome counts, indicating its sound morphological basis which is a step forward in the direction of research on trichomes.

649-658 Download
72
QUANTITATIVE LOSSES AND PHYSICAL DAMAGE CAUSED TO WHEAT KERNEL (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) BY KHAPRA BEETLE INFESTATION
MUHAMMAD SHOAIB AHMEDANI1, M.I.HAQUE*2, SYED NADEEM AFZAL3, M. NAEEM4, T. HUSSAIN5 AND S. NAZ6

QUANTITATIVE LOSSES AND PHYSICAL DAMAGE CAUSED TO WHEAT KERNEL (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) BY KHAPRA BEETLE INFESTATION
ABSTRACT:
Wheat and other cereals sustain huge quantitative and qualitative losses each year all over the world due to the attack of storage pests. The damage caused by Khapra beetle is comparatively greater than other pests because of its ability to increase rapidly even under unfavourable environmental conditions. A study was therefore initiated to probe into quantitative and physical losses of stored wheat caused by Khapra beetle infestation. We observed more than 20 % loss in weight of seeds after a storage period of 6 months under natural conditions, initially infested with only 10 pairs of Khapra beetle larvae. There was found a strong positive relationship among the progeny development and number of damaged grains as well as with weight loss as depicted by values of the correlation coefficient i.e., 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. Moisture contents also exhibited a strong positive correlation with the loss in weight of wheat grains (R=0.83). The beetle larvae also showed varying levels of preference to different wheat varieties. Wafaq-2001 was found to be the most resistant among the commonly grown varieties of Pakistan. It was therefore concluded that the wheat grains of promising varieties stored for edible and seed purposes must be protected from the attack of Khapra beetle infestation to maintain nutrition, viability of wheat grains and indirectly to ensure the food security.

659-668 Download
73
MULTISTEP MUTAGENESIS FOR THE OVER-EXPRESSION OF CELLULASE IN HUMICOLA INSOLENS
MUHAMMAD MOHSIN JAVED1*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ1 AND IRFANA MARIYAM2

MULTISTEP MUTAGENESIS FOR THE OVER-EXPRESSION OF CELLULASE IN HUMICOLA INSOLENS
ABSTRACT:
The present study describes the improvement of a thermophilic fungal strain Humicola insolens for cellulase production. H. insolens TAS-13 has the potential to produce 1.00 U/ml/min CMC-ase, 0.43 U/ml/min FP-ase and 0.30 U/ml/min β-glucosidase, which was improved through UV and chemical mutagenesis like N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), nitrous acid (HNO2), ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS) or Ethidium bromide (EtBr). Two alternative mutation steps were carried out and mutants were screened for cellulase production. After first step mutation

669-677 Download
74
THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT QUALITY AND TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GERANIUMS
ABDUL MATEEN KHATTAK1, SIMON PEARSON2, KHALID NAWAB3, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN4 AND KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT4

THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT QUALITY AND TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GERANIUMS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of light quality on the growth and development of geranium (cv. Century Rose) was examined in three different glasshouse temperatures i.e.

679-688 Download
75
EFFECT OF VERNALIZATION ON GRAIN FILL DURATION AND GRAIN WEIGHT IN SPRING WHEAT
MUHAMMAD IQBAL1*, MUHAMMAD FAYYAZ2, ARMGHAN SHAHZAD1, IFTIKHAR AHMED1, GHULAM M. ALI1, SHAHID MASOOD3 AND DEAN SPANER4

EFFECT OF VERNALIZATION ON GRAIN FILL DURATION AND GRAIN WEIGHT IN SPRING WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Vernalization response genes are known to contribute indirectly to grain yield by influencing flowering time, number of tillers and spikelets in sensitive wheat genotypes. There has been no report of the effect of vernalization on grain fill duration and grain weight in wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vernalization on grain fill duration and grain weight in a set of 5 high latitude spring wheat, differing in vernalization response, and their 10 F1 hybrids obtained from a one-way diallel cross. The 15 genotypes were grown with and without 42d-vernalization treatment. Vernalization altered grain fill duration and grain weight in both sensitive and in-sensitive genotypes and no clear pattern was observed in terms of the vernalization responsiveness of the genotypes. No correlation was found between grain fill duration and grain weight in vernalized and non-vernalized treatment, indicating that the increase in grain fill duration of some of the genotypes with vernalization did not have an effect on grain weight. In order to harvest the full yield potential, vernalization sensitive genotypes may be grown in those eco-regions of high northern latitudes where growing season is relatively long and where temperatures are usually above the vernalization range.

689-694 Download
76
ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE ON THE WESTERN HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE FORESTS OF BAGH, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
HAMAYUN SHAHEEN*, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI, ZAHID ULLAH AND TAHIRA AHMAD

ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSURE ON THE WESTERN HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE FORESTS OF BAGH, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The rural population of Himalayas is strongly dependent on the forest wood and pastures to fulfill their fuel, shelter and livestock fodder demands. Due to absence of any effective conservation management policy for forests, the over exploitation of forest ecosystem is threatening its existence. Upper and lower elevation villages of District Bagh were surveyed to investigate the average wood consumption, preferred fuelwood trees and average land holding per family. Wood consumption in the higher and lower altitude villages was found to be 3.76 and 2.19 kg/capita/day respectively with an average of 2.97kg/capita/day. The present consumption level of the resources far exceeds the carrying capacity and natural regeneration rates of the local forest resources. Comprehensive conservation policy with practical implementations is utmost essential in order to conserve the rapidly depleting forest resources of the area.

695-703 Download
77
FARM FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN: AN APPLICATION OF THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR BY PROBING INTO THE MEASUREMENT ISSUES
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1*, CHRIS GARFORTH2, SYED BILAL HUSSAIN1, DIN MUHAMMAD ZAHID1, MOHAMMAD SAFDAR BALOCH3, FAZALUR RAHMAN SHAH4, INAYAT ULLAH AWAN5, MUHAMMAD AMAN ULLAH6 AND NAZIM HUSSAIN1

FARM FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN: AN APPLICATION OF THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR BY PROBING INTO THE MEASUREMENT ISSUES
ABSTRACT:
A research has been conducted over methodological issues concerning the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) by determining an appropriate measurement (direct and indirect) of constructs and selection of a plausible scaling techniques (unipolar and bipolar) of constructs: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention that are important in explaining farm level tree planting in Pakistan. Unipolar scoring of beliefs showed higher correlation among the constructs of TPB than bipolar scaling technique. Both direct and indirect methods yielded significant results in explaining intention to perform farm forestry except the belief based measure of perceived behavioural control, which were analysed as statistically non-significant. A need to examine more carefully the scoring of perceived behavioural control (PBC) has been expressed.

705-714 Download
78
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY WILD AND MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE IN STIRRED FERMENTER
ROHEENA ABDULLAH*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND MOHSIN JAVID

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY WILD AND MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE IN STIRRED FERMENTER
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals the optimization of cultural conditions for the production of alpha amylase by Aspergillus oryzae IIB-30 and its mutant derivative A. oryzae EMS-18 in stirred fermenter. The time of fermentation for enzyme production by both wild and mutant strains was studied. It was found that the time required for maximal enzyme production (608 U/ml) in case of mutant strain was reduced to 48 h compared with 64 h by wild strain for maximum enzyme production (335 U/ml). The kinetic depiction of results showed optimal fermentation period for enzyme production to be 64 h and 48 h, respectively. The other cultural conditions such as initial pH

715-723 Download
79
CORRIGENDUM
We had submitted a research paper entitled “SCREENING OF COTTON GERMPLASM AGAINST COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS” published in PJB Vol. 42

CORRIGENDUM
ABSTRACT:
5

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