Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 08/06/2019 Uploaded: 22/04/2019
Uploaded: 28/03/2019

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 3
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE VICIA L. (SECTION VICIA) BY USING SDS-PAGE
İRFAN EMRE1*

DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE VICIA L. (SECTION VICIA) BY USING SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
The interspecific and intraspecific variations in some taxa of Vicia is explained by SDS-PAGE method. In this study, nine Vicia L. Taxa, collected from different regions of Turkey have been studied for the analysis of seed storage protein profiles to examine their relationship. The differences among species were observed and all nine taxa were clearly identifiable from the protein patterns. Electrophoretic data were documented by using a gel documentation system (Bio-Rad, USA) and analysed by using Quantity 1-D analysis software and a dendogram has constructed with 4.0 % tolerance in UPGAMA (Unweighed Pair-Group Arithmetic Mean). The dendogram from SDS-PAGE analysis showed that all studied taxa constituted two clusters. The first one consisted of V. noeana var. noeana, V. noeana var. megalodonta, V. truncatula, V. peregrina, V. michauxii and V. grandiflora second one by V. mollis, V. hybrida, and V. assyriaca. Present results showed that all studied species have similar total protein content. But V. truncatula (86.837 μg/ml) and V. hybrida (83.209 μg/ml) have highest total protein content. Whereas V. grandiflora (65.860 μg/ml) has low total protein content.

1429-1432 Download
2
MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED MENTHA SPECIES
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1, SIDRA SULTAN2 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD2

MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED MENTHA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted with the objective of finding out the concordance between morphological data and molecular data of Mentha spicata and Mentha royleana. Moreover the study was aimed to investigate the relationship between and within the two species. Mentha species were collected from QAU, Shadara, Chattar, Donga gali and Qarshi industries, Hattar. For molecular study Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA was performed which was efficient in detecting polymorphism and genetic variation within and between Mentha species. Random primer OPC-9 generated a total of 63 bands sharing 93.6% polymorphism in Mentha spicata whereas OPC-4 generated 30 bands showing 100% polymorphism in Mentha royleana.The morphological and molecular data were analysed using softwares NTSYS pc version 2.02. The results indicated a considerable level of morphological and molecular diversity between the species.

1433-1436 Download
3
PETIOLE ANATOMY OF SOME LAMIACEAE TAXA
ÖZNUR ERGEN AKÇIN¹, M. SABRI ÖZYURT² AND GÜLCAN ŞENEL³

PETIOLE ANATOMY OF SOME LAMIACEAE TAXA
ABSTRACT:
In this study, anatomical structures of the petiole of 7 taxa viz., Glechoma hederacea L., Origanum vulgare L., Scutellaria salviifolia Bentham, Ajuga reptans L., Prunella vulgaris L., Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum, Salvia verbenaca L., Salvia viridis L., Salvia virgata Jacq., belonging to the Lamicaceae family were examined and compared. In all the studied taxa, some differences were found in the petiole shape, arrangement and number of vascular bundles, hair types and the presence of collenchyma. G. hederaceae, S. virgata and O. vulgare consist of a total of 3 vascular bundles, with a big bundle in the middle of the petiole and a single small vascular bundle in each corner. P. vulgaris has 5 vascular bundles. S. verbenaca has a total of 11 vascular bundles, with a big bundle positioned in the middle. L. purpureum L. var, purpureum consists of 4 vascular bundles. S. salviifolia has 3 vascular bundles. A. reptans has a total of 9 vascular bundles, with 1 big bundle in the middle. S. viridis consists of 7 vascular bundles. Petiole has glandular and eglandular hairs. Eglandular hairs consist of capitate hairs, whereas peltate hairs are only found in S. salviifolia

1437-1443 Download
4
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SOME PLANTS OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY, DISTRICT BUNER, PAKISTAN
ZAMAN SHER1, ZAHEER UD DIN KHAN2 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN3

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SOME PLANTS OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY, DISTRICT BUNER, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotanical information was collected on 216 plant species from Chagharzai Valley, District Buner, Pakistan. These plants were classified for their traditional medicinal and economic uses. Of the 89 families, 77 families were Dicots; 7 Monocots and 3 Pteridophytes. Asteraceae had 21 species. which was followed by Papilionaceae (12 spp.); Lamiaceae (10 spp.); Poaceae and Rosaceae (each with 9 spp.); Ranunculaceae (7 spp.); Moraceae (6 spp.); Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Apiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Polygonaceae (each with 5 species); Chenopodiaceae and Papaveraceae (each with 4 species); Asclepiadaceae, Betulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fagaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Oleaceae, Rhamnaceae and Salicaceae had 3 species each. The remaining families had less number of species. Gymnosperms and fungi were represented by one family each. Among overall plants

1445-1452 Download
5
MEDICINAL FOLK RECIPES USED AS TRADITIONAL PHYTOTHERAPIES IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN, KPK, PAKISTAN
SARFARAZ KHAN MARWAT¹*, FAZAL-UR-REHMAN2, MIR AJAB KHAN3, MUSHTAQ AHMAD3, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR3 AND SAID GHULAM4

MEDICINAL FOLK RECIPES USED AS TRADITIONAL PHYTOTHERAPIES IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN, KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This paper is based on the results of an ethnomedicinal research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), Pakistan, during May 2006 to March 2007. The study was focused for documentation of traditional knowledge of local people about the use of medicinal folk recipes of native plants. During field survey, questionnaires were used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants. In total 40 new medicinal folk recipes of 26 plant species, belonging to 19 families were recorded. These folk recipes are used as traditional phytotherapies in the area. Plant specimens were identified, preserved and vouchers were deposited in the Department of Botany, Quaid-i-University Islamabad for future references. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by medicinal folk recipes. English name, local name, family name and voucher no., were listed in the Table 1.

1453-1462 Download
6
ASSESMENT OF IRON, COBALT AND MANGANESE IN SOIL AND FORAGE: A CASE STUDY AT A RURAL LIVESTOCK FARM IN SARGODHA, PAKISTAN
ASIA FARDOUS1, KAFEEL AHMAD1*, SUMAIRA GONDAL1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, ABID EJAZ1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM4

ASSESMENT OF IRON, COBALT AND MANGANESE IN SOIL AND FORAGE: A CASE STUDY AT A RURAL LIVESTOCK FARM IN SARGODHA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This investigation was carried out at a rural livestock farm in district Sargodha, Pakistan to assess the effects of different seasons on the flow and status of some essential minerals from soil to forage. Soil and forage samples were taken concurrently for four months after one month interval and analysed for Fe, Co, and Mn levels after wet digestion. The results showed that there was a non-significant effect of sampling periods on soil Co, Fe, and Mn with an inconsistent variation in Co and Fe, and a consistent variation in soil manganese at sampling intervals. All mean values of soil Fe and Mn were higher than the requirements of forage crops, while the reverse was true for soil Co in this investigation. The effect of sampling periods on forage Fe and Co was found to be non-significant, while the reverse was true for forage Mn with a consistent increase in forage Fe and decrease in Co and Mn with the time of sampling. The higher transfer factor from soil to forage for Fe and Mn in December and Co during the month of January was observed during this study. From this pattern of nutrient transfer from soil to forage, a toxic range of these nutrients is possible for the animals at any time during the year. So supplementation with a specific balanced mineral mixture containing minerals which antagonize Co, Mn and Fe in animal’s digestive tracts is immediately warranted at this animal farm.

1463-1465 Download
7
EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON GROWTH, PROTEIN CONTENT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN PEA PLANTS
KHADIJEH BAVI1, BAHMAN KHOLDEBARIN2 AND ALI MORADSHAHI3

EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON GROWTH, PROTEIN CONTENT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN PEA PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
In this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5

1467-1470 Download
8
EFFECT OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, FAZAL JALAL1, MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN3, AND SABIR GUL KHATTAK4

EFFECT OF NITROGEN APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)
ABSTRACT:
The present research was aimed to study the effect of different levels of inorganic fertilizer N on the yield and yield components of barley varieties at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements. Barley varieties (local and sterling) were sown in the main plots whereas different nitrogen levels (i.e. 0

1471-1475 Download
9
IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS OF QUETTA CITY ON SOME OILSEED CROPS OF PAKISTAN: EFFECTS ON BIOMASS, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
SAEED-UR-REHMAN KAKAR1*, ABDUL WAHID2, RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN1, SIRAJ AHMAD KAKAR3 AND 4RUKHSANA JABEEN

IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS OF QUETTA CITY ON SOME OILSEED CROPS OF PAKISTAN: EFFECTS ON BIOMASS, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Impact of municipal wastewaters of Quetta city on two cultivars viz., SF-187 and SH-3322 of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was assessed during 2005 growth season. Wastewaters effluents were not fit for irrigation purposes due to extremely high mineral contents and heavy metals. In addition, effluents were highly alkaline in nature with much higher EC, BOD, COD, SAR, ESP values. Both cultivars of sunflower were grown in pots and received different effluent concentrations (20%:T1; 40%: T2; 60%: T3; 80%: T2; 100%: T5) for their complete growth period. Control (T1) plants were irrigated with normal tap water. Plants grown in effluents treatments showed stunted growth and development from seedling stage to maturity leading to reduced biomass (50-60%) as compared to the control plants which were lush green with more expanded leaves, fresh and dry weights of shoot and roots. Reduced biomass of treated plants was mainly due to altered physiological process. Stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and photosynthesis rates were reduced by approximately 46%, 58% and 64%, respectively in both the cultivars. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a & b) were also appreciably reduced in different pollutant treatments compared with control. Reproductive growth of sunflower cultivars was drastically affected by the application of sewage waters. Number of seeds per plant in T5-treated plants was reduced by 53-58%, while seed weight was reduced by 65-69% compared with control. 100-seed weight and harvest index was also reduced significantly from 50-54%, and 29-33% respectively in cultivars SF-187 and SH-3322. Present research work has reported remarkably high reductions in biomass and yield of sunflower plants primarily due to reduced performance of physiological attributes of treated-plants irrigated with deteriorating quality of wastewaters effluents. The results are undoubtedly alarming as the untreated municipal wastewater is being used for irrigation purposes to crops and fruit gardens of Quetta city which is a matter of serious concern and a hidden threat to the farmers and ultimately to the country’s economy.

1477-1484 Download
10
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PHOTOPERIODS ON FLOWERING TIME OF QUALITATIVE LONG DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1, M. MUNIR2, M. ABID3 AND M. IQBAL1

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PHOTOPERIODS ON FLOWERING TIME OF QUALITATIVE LONG DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
ABSTRACT:
Present study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during the year 2005. Seeds of five qualitative LDPs (Pot Marigold cv. Resina, Annual Phlox cv. Astoria Magenta, Cornflower cv. Florence Blue, Oriental Poppy cv. Burning Heart, Flax cv. Scarlet Flax) were sown on 1st March 2005. The experiment was designed to study flowering response under four distinct controlled photoperiods (11

1485-1490 Download
11
MORPHOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CHAKSU (CASSIA ABSUS L.) TO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA)
KHALID HUSSAIN1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2, KHALID NAWAZ, ABDUL MAJEED AND KHIZAR HAYAT BHATTI

MORPHOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF CHAKSU (CASSIA ABSUS L.) TO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA)
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphochemical response of chaksu (Cassia absus L.) to different levels of IAA. Different concentrations of IAA were applied thirty days after germination. IAA was applied as a foliar spray and experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD). Indole acetic acid significantly increased all the growth parameters as shoot and root lengths, shoot fresh and dry weights, number of leaves and yield per plant in chaksu. Similarly, NPK concentrations were increased with IAA. It is concluded that IAA was useful for the increase of growth and yield of chaksu. IAA concentrations of 50-100 mg/L showed significant effect on plant growth and yield as compared to control.

1491-1493 Download
12
WHEAT SEED ENHANCEMENT BY VITAMIN AND HORMONAL PRIMING
MUHAMMAD BISMILLAH KHAN1*, MADHIA AMAN GURCHANI1, MUBSHAR HUSSAIN1, SHOAIB FREED2 AND KHALID MAHMOOD1

WHEAT SEED ENHANCEMENT BY VITAMIN AND HORMONAL PRIMING
ABSTRACT:
Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radicle and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5

1495-1499 Download
13
COMBINED EFFECTS OF PECTIC ENZYMES ON THE DEGRADATION OF PECTIN POLYSACCHARIDES OF BANANA FRUIT
GUIPING CHENG1

COMBINED EFFECTS OF PECTIC ENZYMES ON THE DEGRADATION OF PECTIN POLYSACCHARIDES OF BANANA FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
2, YUEMING JIANG2, YULONG CHEN2, SHAOYU YANG2, SHENGGEN HE1, HONG LIANG1 AND XUEWU DUAN2,*

1501-1505 Download
14
EFFECTS OF STRATIFICATION AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES ON THE EMBRYO DIFFERENTIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARIS POLYPHYLLA VAR. YUNNANENSIS SEEDS
YU YE, SHU-YING CHEN, LI WANG*, YAN-QIONG YANG AND CHANG-LING ZHAO

EFFECTS OF STRATIFICATION AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES ON THE EMBRYO DIFFERENTIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARIS POLYPHYLLA VAR. YUNNANENSIS SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Effects of stratifications at 6 temperatures on the embryo differentiation and development of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using photomicrography based on paraffin section. The results indicated that there were striking differences among the differentiating and developing processes of the embryos of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds stratified under different temperatures. The stratifications alternating between 15oC and 20oC promoted the embryo differentiation and development best, next are the stratifications at 15oC and 20oC, the stratification at 10oC did not display obvious effects and the stratifications at 5oC and 25oC showed inhibiting effects to some extent. Additionally, the embryos differentiated and developed slowly under natural conditions. This research could provide a basis for the dormancy-breaking of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

1507-1512 Download
15
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SOME ESSENTIAL MINERALS ON TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) PLANT GROWN UNDER TWO DIFFERENT SALINITY REGIMES
MOHAMMAD AZEEM AND RAFIQ AHMAD

FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SOME ESSENTIAL MINERALS ON TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) PLANT GROWN UNDER TWO DIFFERENT SALINITY REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculetum var. Avinash, F1 hybrid) was grown under two different regimes of irrigation water (0.2% Sea salt ECiw = 2.9 dS m-1 and 0.4% Sea salt ECiw = 5.8 dS m-1) and subjected to foliar application of Potassium, Iron and Boron. Their growth was monitored on some vegetative, reproductive and biochemical parameters. Ripe fruits were collected and total yield was determined in terms of their number, circumference and weight. Reduction in growth was found proportional with increasing salinity of irrigation at all the parameters but foliar application of above mentioned essential minerals minimized the deleterious effects of salinity up to various extents. The significant improvement was observed in the number of fruits, circumference and weight of fruits, chlorophyll and protein contents of leaves, due to the foliar application of Potassium, Iron and the combined treatment of (K+Fe+B) under both non saline and saline conditions. Foliar spray of Boron was not found much effective to improve all the growth parameters. Reason of the growth promotion was assigned to the availability of these essential minerals for growth through foliar spray, as presence of excessive sodium in rooting medium would have reduced their uptake due to ion antagonism.

1513-1520 Download
16
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF THE LEAVES OF VERBASCUM WIEDEMANNIANUM FISCH. & MEY. TO CADMIUM
YASEMİN OZDENER* AND H. GÜRAY KUTBAY1*

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF THE LEAVES OF VERBASCUM WIEDEMANNIANUM FISCH. & MEY. TO CADMIUM
ABSTRACT:
The effect of cadmium (Cd) on the root and seedling lengths, chlorophyll a, b and proline content, lipid peroxidation and peroxidase activity of Verbascum wiedemannianum has been examined. Plants grown in Van Waes-Deberg culture medium were treated with 0.00 (control), 0.01 mM and 0.025 mM cadmium root and shoot growth was remarkably decreased against 0.01 and 0.025 mM Cd as compared to control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is an index of lipid peroxidation, and guaiacol peroxidase activity (POD) increased approximately as twice as control group in leaves of plants treated with 0.025 mM Cd. Although chlorophyll a and b contents were decreased in response to the increasing of Cd concentration but statistically significant differences were not found in this respect. However, proline content was significantly increased in response to increasing Cd.

1521-1525 Download
17
DROUGHT TOLERANCE INDICES AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH YIELD IN EXOTIC WHEAT GENOTYPES
JAVED ANWAR, GHULAM MAHBOOB SUBHANI*, MAKHDOOM HUSSAIN, JAVED AHMAD, MUJAHID HUSSAIN AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR

DROUGHT TOLERANCE INDICES AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH YIELD IN EXOTIC WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Performance of nineteen exotic genotypes along with local check variety was studied during 2009-10 at Wheat Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted under two field conditions i.e., stress and irrigated conditions. In case of water stress experiment, only soaking irrigation was applied for seed bed preparation and no further irrigation was applied up to maturity. While, four irrigations were applied at critical growth stages to the second experiment (irrigated). At maturity, grain yield was recorded in both experiments (stress Ys and irrigated Yp). From grain yield data, some drought tolerance/resistance indices such as tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility index (SSI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI) and modified stress tolerance index (k1STI & k2STI) were calculated. Genotypic correlation, genetic components and heritability were also calculated for grain yield and all indices. Significant differences among genotypes were observed for Yp, Ys and all other drought tolerance indices. Moderate to high heritability and genetic advance were observed for Yp, Ys and all drought tolerance indices. Grain yield under irrigated environment (Yp) was positively and significantly correlated with MP, HM, GMP, STI and k1STI. Similarly, positive and significant association has also been observed between grain yield under stress condition (Ys) and MP, HM, GMP, STI, YI and k2STI so they were the better predictor of potential yield Yp and Ys than TOL, SSI and YSI. According to Fernandez model; genotypes No. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 13 have uniform superiority under both conditions (stress and irrigated). Genotypes No. 1

1527-1530 Download
18
INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONE ON THE ORGANOGENESIS OF SUGARCANE
NIGHAT SEEMA, FATEH CHAND OAD*, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN, *SHAMSSUDDIN TUNIO, MOHAMMAD AQUIL SIDDIQUI SHAFQUAT YASMIN, ABDULLAH KHATRI AND SAJIDA BIBI

INFLUENCE OF PHYTOHORMONE ON THE ORGANOGENESIS OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Three sugarcane (Saccharum sp. Hybrid) varieties viz., AEC82-1026, NIA-98 and BL4 were used in this study in order to compare their response to different concentration of phytohormones (Dicamba 2,4D and Picloram). Best callus induction was observed using dicamba fallowed by 2,4-D whereas best proliferation was achieved with dicamba. The maximum callus formation, and plantlets regeneration were recorded in AEC82-1026 and minimum in BL4.The growth regulators dicamba and 2,4D induced more genetic variability as compared to picloram. After regeneration, the plantlets were transferred on eight different rooting medium and best rooting was observed on media containing 2mg/l IBA with 4% sugar. The AEC82-1026 produced maximum number of roots secondary roots followed by NIA 98. The well rooted plantlets were transferred to the green house and than into the field for evaluation.

1531-1534 Download
19
RELATIONSHIP OF COLEOPTILE LENGTH AND PLANT HEIGHT IN WINTER WHEAT ACCESSIONS
ŽILVINAS LIATUKAS* AND VYTAUTAS RUZGAS

RELATIONSHIP OF COLEOPTILE LENGTH AND PLANT HEIGHT IN WINTER WHEAT ACCESSIONS
ABSTRACT:
Climate change prognoses suggest more unpredictable and less favourable conditions for cereal crop establishment in Europe. The development of varieties possessing long coleoptiles could improve winter wheat environmental adaptability. A total of 564 winter wheat control varieties and breeding lines developed basically using European winter wheat germplasm were screened for coleoptile length and plant height during 2004-2009. The filter paper towel method showed significant differences among the accessions. Most of the accessions (50.8%) possessed a coleoptile length ranging between 3.00 and 6.00 cm. The correlation between coleoptile length and plant height was weak in 2005 and 2006 (respectively, r=0.485* & 0.468*, p≤0.01), but medium (respectively, r=0.578* - 0.625*) in 2004

1535-1540 Download
20
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES
ABSTRACT:
1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ2, RUKHSANA JABEEN3AND IKRAM UL HAQ1

1541-1545 Download
21
EVALUATION OF IRON CONTENT IN A POTENTIAL FODDER CROP OAT (AVENA SATIVA L.) GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH SUGARCANE FILTER CAKE
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, KAFEEL AHMAD1, SHAHNEELA KASHAF1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, 3, F. AL-QURAINY, MUHAMMAD DANISH4, ASIA FARDOUS1, SUMAIRA GONDAL1, ABID EJAZ1 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5

EVALUATION OF IRON CONTENT IN A POTENTIAL FODDER CROP OAT (AVENA SATIVA L.) GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH SUGARCANE FILTER CAKE
ABSTRACT:
The effects of different doses of sugarcane filter cake (SFC) on iron concentrations in the leaves of varying age of a potential fodder crop oat (Avena sativa L.) are reported in this study. Nine different treatments of SFC used were: 0 (control), 600, 900

1547-1550 Download
22
ROOT ZONE TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND USE IN MAIZE
SHAHID HUSSAIN* AND MUHAMMAD AAMER MAQSOOD

ROOT ZONE TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND USE IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Root-zone temperature (RZT) changes with season, geographical location and global warming. Nutrient accumulation and use behaviour of two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes were evaluated under low (22.4 ± 5°C) and high (28.8 ± 5°C) root-zone temperatures. In greenhouse study, hybrid maize (FHY-396) and indigenous variety (EV-7004) were sown in calcareous loam soil filled in pots. Shoot and root dry matter yield of both the genotypes was significantly (p<0.05) increased at the higher RZT. On an average, shoot dry matter at the higher RZT was 38% more for hybrid and 52% for indigenous variety (EV-7004). Concentration and uptake of estimated nutrients (P, K, Cu and Zn) was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by RZT. At the higher RZT, shoot concentrations of both Cu and Zn were increased by about 30%. There was 1.5-fold increase in P

1551-1556 Download
23
GROWTH COMPARISON OF EXOTIC SPECIES FOR GREEN FORAGE
MOHAMMAD AKMAL1*, UZMA FARID1, M. ASIM2 AND FARHATULLAH3

GROWTH COMPARISON OF EXOTIC SPECIES FOR GREEN FORAGE
ABSTRACT:
Growth of exotic fodder crops (grasses and clovers) were compared in pots at Agronomy Research Farm, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa Agricultural University, Peshawar. Initially 20 seeds was planted on 22.10.2005 and thinned out after emergence by leaving 10 seedlings pot-1 (30 x 50 cm). Clover’s seeds were soaked overnight (>14 h) before sowing. Compound fertilizer (100, 60, 30) and (30, 60, 30) kg ha-1 N, P, and K were applied to grasses and clovers, respectively after thinning. Pots were manually irrigated. Biomass of pots was periodically harvested for dry matter after taking measurements of green leaf area index (GLAI) and light interception. Crop growth rate (CGR) was derived as ratio of dry matter and time-taken as growing degree days (GDD OC). LAI was measured non-destructively using LI-2000, LI-COR, USA. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from weather data and measurements made during the crop growth. The highest dry matter (1685 g m-2) was observed for Lolium multiflorum, followed by Lolium perenne (791 g m-2) and Dactylis glomerata (631 g m-2). GLAI were also recorded the highest for the species Lolium multiflorum (4.07) and Lolium perenne (3.93) with non-significant difference from each other. The highest dry matter of the grasses was in agreement to higher CGR and RUE. Grass species Lolium multiflorum yielded the highest CGR (1.06 g DM OC GDD) and RUE (3.41 g DM MJ-1 PAR absorbed) with strong positive relationship (r2 = 0.95). Lolium perenne was next to yield 0.47 g DM GDD-1 (OC) and RUE 1.63 g DM MJ-1 PAR absorbed. Rests of the grass species were found un-comparable for any observed parameter. Among the clovers, Trifolium repense was higher in dry matter (510 g m-2) yielded 1.10 g DM GDD-1 and RUE 0.71 g DM MJ-1 PAR absorption. From the study, it can be concluded that ryegrasses has potential to plant as green fodder in mix cultivation with local clovers on irrigated rangelands. Moreover, slow growth of fodder on arable land in early winter months can be improved through selection of an appropriate exotic grass/clover to be sown in combination with local types for the area.

1557-1561 Download
24
COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN
M. ZIA-UL-HAQ1, S. AHMAD2*, M. ASLAM SHAD3, S. IQBAL4, M. QAYUM5, A. AHMAD6, D. L. LUTHRIA7 AND R. AMAROWICZ8

COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Four improved lentil cultivars viz., Masoor 85, Masoor 93, NIAB Masoor 2002 and NIAB Masoor 2006 grown and consumed in Pakistan have been systematically analyzed to determine and compare their nutritional and compositional properties. Proximate analysis, anti-nutritional contents, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of the oil extracted along with mineral content from all four cultivars were investigated. Mineral composition showed that sufficient amounts of Ca, P, K, Cu, Zn and Mg were present to meet the macro and micro-nutrients demand in human diets. Despite variations, potassium and manganese were noted as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulfur containing amino acids as limiting amino acids. Fatty acid profile indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, all four lentil cultivars can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and trace minerals to meet the demand of population of Pakistan.

1563-1567 Download
25
SUSTAINING RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES I: EFFECT OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES ON RICE YIELD AND SOIL QUALITY
ZAHIR SHAH1*, S. RASHID AHMAD2 AND HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN3

SUSTAINING RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES I: EFFECT OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES ON RICE YIELD AND SOIL QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
This study was aimed to attempt if we can fit a green manure legume in the gap between wheat harvest and rice plantation for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa) -wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. The effect of six green manure legumes viz. mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), soybean (Glycine max), sesbania (Sesbania rostrata), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was assessed on rice yields and soil organic fertility in rice-wheat system for three consecutive years (2001/02-2003/04) at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar (Pakistan). The paddy and straw yields of rice were significantly increased by all green manure legumes during all the three years. However, on average, the greatest paddy and straw yields were recorded for cowpea and sesbania. The N uptake in rice was also significantly increased by legumes. However, the greatest N uptake occurred in the sesbania plot. Significantly positive effects of green manure legumes were also observed on soil organic matter, total N and mineral N relative to the fallow-based rice-wheat system. Our results suggest that the gap between wheat harvest and rice plantation can be effectively used to grow any green manure legume in general and sesbania or cowpea in particular in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for sustainable rice-wheat system. Although this technology was tested in Peshawar valley, it has equal applications any where in the rice-wheat system.

1569-1574 Download
26
GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
JASMINA ZDRAVKOVIĆ1*, NENAD PAVLOVIĆ1, ZDENKA GIREK1, MILKA BRDAR-JOKANOVIĆ1, DUBRAVKA SAVIĆ2, MILAN ZDRAVKOVIĆ1, AND DEJAN CVIKIĆ1

GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
Tomato yield depends on two components viz., fruit weight and number of fruit per flower branch. These traits are quantitative and therefore influenced by multiple genes. The objective of this study was to estimate the main gene effects (additive, dominant and digenic epistasis) and to determine the mode of inheritance for yield components and yield in three tomato cross combinations by generation mean analysis. The trial included genotypes differing in morphology and yield: line DAT, cultivar SP-109 and local population KGZ. The analyzed genotypes belong to tomato germplasm collection of the Institute for Vegetable Crops, Smederevska Palanka, Serbia. Six families per hybrid, including parents, have been tested. Besides, the additive and dominance gene effects, non-allelic gene interactions have been detected for yield components and yield. Duplicate type of epistasis was confirmed for fruit weight and yield in all cases characterized by significant dominance and dominance/dominance effects, which diminishes the effect of dominant genes and makes breeding for yield increase more difficult. Therefore, number of fruits per flower branch increase would be the most efficient strategy for increasing tomato yielding ability.

1575-1580 Download
27
EFFECTS OF GRAPE (VITIS LABRUSCA B.) PEEL AND SEED EXTRACTS ON PHENOLICS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND ANTHOCYANINS IN GRAPE JUICE
KASHIF GHAFOOR1*, FAHAD AL-JUHAIMI1 AND YONG HEE CHOI2*

EFFECTS OF GRAPE (VITIS LABRUSCA B.) PEEL AND SEED EXTRACTS ON PHENOLICS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND ANTHOCYANINS IN GRAPE JUICE
ABSTRACT:
Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, antiradical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability.

1581-1586 Download
28
MODULATION OF PLANT GROWTH, WATER STATUS AND ANTIOXIDANTIVE SYSTEM OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAY L.) CULTIVARS INDUCED BY EXOGENOUS GLYCINEBETAINE UNDER LONG TERM MILD DROUGHT STRESS
ZHANG LI XIN1*, GAO MEI1, LI SHIQING2, LI SHENGXIU2 AND LIANG ZONGSUO1

MODULATION OF PLANT GROWTH, WATER STATUS AND ANTIOXIDANTIVE SYSTEM OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAY L.) CULTIVARS INDUCED BY EXOGENOUS GLYCINEBETAINE UNDER LONG TERM MILD DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Modulation of lipid per-oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity, water status and plant growth induced by glycinebetaine (GB) applied foliarly was investigated in the plants of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar i.e. drought-tolerant Shaandan 9 (S9) and -sensitive Shaandan 911 (S911) under long-term mild drought stress (LMDS). Long-term mild drought stress was found to decrease dry matter (DM), grain yield (GY) and leaf relative water content (RWC), but to increase malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulationin in leaves of both cultivars. The patterns of rises initially and declines afterward in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7), and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) were closely dependant on cultivar and growth stage. Dry matter, GR, RWC and these antioxidative enzymes activities were greater but MDA concentration was lower for S9 than those for S911 under LMDS. Additionally, exogenous GB application increased DM, GR, RWC and antioxidant enzymes activities measured, but reduced MDA accumulation in both cultivars under LMDS unlike well-watered control, which exhibited no such obvious effect with GB. The modulation induced by GB applying was more pronounced in S911 than that in S9 under LMDS. The greatest positive role of GB seemed to be found in the plants subjected to the largest MDA accumulation at mature stage. It is, therefore, concluded that GB may protect cells against oxidative damage and alleviate the negative effect of DS on water status and plant growth, particularly in this drought sensitive cultivar and imposed to more serious damage from DS environment.

1587-1594 Download
29
EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SSP. TURKESTANICA) FRUITS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION
FARHAT BATOOL1*, AISHA KAMAL1, MADIHA SATTAR1, ASAD HUSSAIN SHAH2, SYED DILNAWAZ AHMED2, ZAFAR SAIED SAIFY3 AND DARAKHSHAN JABEEN HALEEM1

EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SEA BUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES L. SSP. TURKESTANICA) FRUITS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION
ABSTRACT:
Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess antidepressant properties and may be useful adjuncts in helping the management of depression in humans. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of aqueous fruit extract of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica) in animal models of depression. In first phase of study test rats were treated with long term oral administration of Sea buckthorn (40 mg/kg P.O.) and controls received an equal volume of fresh water for two weeks. In the second and last phase of study, two groups of animals were exposed to repeated restraint stress (one group from water treated and other group from SBT-FE treated) for next one week All groups of animals were separately submitted to forced swim test (FST), open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests for the bio-screening of fruit extract with antidepressant profile. Results revealed that the immobility time in the FST was significantly (p<0.05) reduced and prolong struggling (numbers of jumps) was observed particularly in rats orally administered with SBT-FE (40 mg/kg P.O.) following one week stress when compared with their respective controls. Open field ambulation was also significantly (p<0.05) increased in a similar manner. Number of entries in open arms (OA) and % time spent in OA were also significantly increased (p<0.01) and were more pronounced in SBT-FE treated rats following exposures to repeated restraint stress when compared with their controls. Thus, it is suggested that aqueous fruit extract of Sea buckthorn exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression and may be served as a potential resource for natural psychotherapeutic agent, against depression.

1595-1599 Download
30
IMPACT OF DIFFERENT MULCHES ON WEED FLORA AND YIELD OF MAIZE
IJAZ AHMAD KHAN1*, Z. ULLAH1, G. HASSAN1, K. B. MARWAT1, AMANULLAH JAN2, S. M.A SHAH3 AND SHERAZ A. KHAN3

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT MULCHES ON WEED FLORA AND YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field study was conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar during Kharif 2007 to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design, having eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were wheat straw, saw dust, polyethylene (white), polyethylene (black), newspaper, Primextra Gold 720SC @1.0 lit ha-1, hand weeding and weedy check were also included in the studies. Data were recorded on number of kernels cob-1

1601-1602 Download
31
IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON WEED MANAGEMENT AND GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE
BAKHTIAR GUL, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT, MUHAMMAD SAEED, ZAHID HUSSAIN AND HAIDAR ALI

IMPACT OF TILLAGE, PLANT POPULATION AND MULCHES ON WEED MANAGEMENT AND GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Peshawar, using open pollinated maize variety “Azam” in RCB design with split-split plot arrangements having three factors viz., tillage, maize populations and mulches. The tillage levels (zero and conventional) were assigned to main plots, populations (90000, 60000 and 30000 plants ha-1) to sub-plots and the mulches (weeds mulch, black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and mungbean as living mulch), a hand weeding and a weedy check were allotted to sub-sub plots. Data were recorded on fresh weed biomass (kg ha-1), grains cob-1

1603-1606 Download
32
DIVERSITY IN MAJOR SEED STORAGE PROTEINS OF RICE LANDRACES OF PAKISTAN
ZAHIDA HASSAN PERVAIZ1*, SADIA TEHRIM1, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2, M.S. MASOOD2 AND SALMAN A. MALIK1

DIVERSITY IN MAJOR SEED STORAGE PROTEINS OF RICE LANDRACES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Grain proteins from 173 rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) were electrophoretically separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Densitometric scanning of the electrophoretic profiles permitted the estimation of the relative concentration of 25 polypeptide fractions, which were used as variables for the calculation of similarity coefficients between these accessions. A considerable variation was observed in glutelin subunits and Wx gene product. Very low variation was observed in prolamin subunits. Lower genetic distance based on total seed protein profile may be attributed to narrow genetic base. This electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphism in rice grain can be used in further breeding proposes and variety development. Our results suggest that screening of landraces on the basis of variation in seed storage protein profile using SDS-PAGE could be highly effective tool to identify valuable rice genetic resources.

1607-1612 Download
33
AUTHENTICATION OF RUTA GRAVEOLENS AND ITS ADULTERANT USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SEQUENCES
OF NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA

AUTHENTICATION OF RUTA GRAVEOLENS AND ITS ADULTERANT USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
FAHAD AL-QURAINY1, SALIM KHAN1*, M. AJMAL ALI1, FAHAD M. AL-HEMAID1, MOHAMED TARROUM1 AND M. ASHRAF1,2

1613-1620 Download
34
IS PHOTOTHERMAL QUOTIENT DETERMINANT FACTOR FOR SPRING WHEAT YIELD?
M. AHMED*1, FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN1, ABDUL RAZZAQ1, M.N. AKRAM1, M. ASLAM2, S. AHMAD3 AND M. ZIA-UL-HAQ4

IS PHOTOTHERMAL QUOTIENT DETERMINANT FACTOR FOR SPRING WHEAT YIELD?
ABSTRACT:
Photothermal Quotient as combined effect of temperature and solar radiation were studied as determinant factor for spring wheat grain yield. The data obtained at anthesis and maturity for grain m-2, grain weight and grain yield were examined in experiments involving three wheat genotypes under five different environmental conditions (E) provided in the form of planting windows (PW’s) during 2008-09 & 2009-10 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The mean temperature at anthesis (T1) and maturity (T2) was calculated by averaging all temperature from germination till anthesis and maturity, respectively. Similarly, solar radiation at anthesis (SR1) and maturity (SR2) was calculated- with the Angstrom formula while Photothermal quotient (PTQ) was calculated at anthesis (PTQ1) and maturity (PTQ2). The data obtained was subjected to STATISTICA 8 software and scatter plot regression model was developed- at 95% confidence interval with crop data and climate variables (T1, T2, SR1, SR2, PTQ1 and PTQ2). The b (regression coefficient) recorded were 623.73 (GM vs T1), 0.0037 (GW vs T1), -5.97 (Y vs T1), -0.028 (GW vs T2), -1356.28 (GM vs T2), -57.86 (Y vs T2)

1621-1627 Download
35
18-06-11
EFFECT OF PLANTING METHODS ON GROWTH, PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE VARIETIES

18-06-11
ABSTRACT:
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2 HABIB REHMAN2, RAZI UDDIN3 AND SHAZMA ANWAR2

1629-1633 Download
36
PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT’S SKIN, HULL, RAW KERNEL AND ROASTED KERNEL FLOUR
MAR MAR WIN 1, AZIZAH ABDUL-HAMID1,2*, BABLISHAH S. BAHARIN1, FAROOQ ANWAR1,3, MANDUMPAL C. SABU1 AND MOHD S. PAK-DEK 1

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT’S SKIN, HULL, RAW KERNEL AND ROASTED KERNEL FLOUR
ABSTRACT:
In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of peanut’s skin, hull, raw kernel and roasted kernel flour (RKF) were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC) and individual phenolic compounds were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and high performance liquid chromatographic methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured utilizing 2

1635-1642 Download
37
GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT RHIZOBIUM SPP., IN WHEAT
IJAZ MEHBOOB1, ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR1*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, ASIF TANVEER2 AND FAROOQ-E-AZAM3

GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT RHIZOBIUM SPP., IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, large number of rhizobial strains were isolated from chickpea, lentil and mung been nodules and twenty fast growing colonies of each host legume, were selected. A series of jar experiments were executed and three most efficient isolates of each rhizobium species were screened on the basis of their growth promoting activities under axenic conditions. Results revealed that, in general, most of the isolates showed growth promoting effect but deleterious effect by some of the isolates was also observed on different parameters. The nine screened isolates were further evaluated for their growth promoting behavior in pots. The results indicated positive and increasing impact on growth and yield attributes by all the inoculants. However, in some parameters the increases were statistically same as with un-inoculated control. The isolates improved plant height (up to 18.66%), tillers per plant (up to 68.76%), straw yield (up to 35.14%), grain yield (up to 30.29%)

1643-1650 Download
38
SALINITY TOLERANCE IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.): EFFECTS OF VARYING NACL, K+/NA+ AND NAHCO3 LEVELS ON CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN TOLERANCE
K. MAHMOOD*

SALINITY TOLERANCE IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.): EFFECTS OF VARYING NACL, K+/NA+ AND NAHCO3 LEVELS ON CULTIVARS DIFFERING IN TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K+/Na+ and NaHCO3 in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO3 than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO3 even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K+ supply in saline medium increased K+ uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K+ uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO3 than NaCl salinity. Selective K+ uptake and lower Cl- in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR).

1651-1654 Download
39
CERTAIN GROWTH RELATED ATTRIBUTES OF MICROPROPAGATED BANANA UNDER DIFFERENT SALINITY LEVELS
IKRAM-UL HAQ*, FAHEEDA SOOMRO, NAZIA PARVEEN1, MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR2

CERTAIN GROWTH RELATED ATTRIBUTES OF MICROPROPAGATED BANANA UNDER DIFFERENT SALINITY LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of salinity (NaCl) was assessed on banana (Musa spp.) cv., Sindhri Banana (Basrai) propagating plantlets in aseptic condition. Four different NaCl levels [0 (control) 50

1655-1658 Download
40
SALINITY INDUCED METABOLIC CHANGES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SEEDS DURING GERMINATION
A. SHEREEN, R. ANSARI, S. RAZA, S. MUMTAZ, M.A. KHAN AND M. ALI KHAN

SALINITY INDUCED METABOLIC CHANGES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SEEDS DURING GERMINATION
ABSTRACT:
Six inbred lines of rice exhibiting differential tolerance to salinity were exposed to 0, 50, 75

1659-1661 Download
41
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF WEEDS OF KHEWRA SALT RANGE AND ATTOCK
HUMAIRA YASMIN AND ASGHARI BANO*

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF WEEDS OF KHEWRA SALT RANGE AND ATTOCK
ABSTRACT:
During the present study rhizosphere soil of four halophytic weeds viz., Chrysopogon aucheri, Lactuca dissecta, Solanum surattense and Sonchus arvensis growing in saline soil of Khewra salt range and Solanum surattense growing in arid region of Attock were used for isolating phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the abilities of phosphate solubilization, production of stress hormone ABA (abscisic acid) and bacteriocin production of isolates. Only one isolate was selected randomly from culture of each plant rhizosphere soil. The isolates were preliminary identified on the basis of their morphology and biochemical characters. The isolates were able to solubilize tricalcium phosphate in broth cultures, the isolate 2P from rhizosphere soil of Lactuca dissecta and 1P from rhizosphere soil of Chrysopogon aucheri being more efficient. Least amount of phosphorous was solubilized by isolate 5P from rhizosphere soil of Solanum surattense growing in arid soil of Attock. Among all isolates maximum abscisic acid production was recorded in isolate 2P while least amount of ABA was produced by 1P. Bacterial isolates were also observed for bacteriocin production. Isolates 2P and 3P were able to produce bacteriocin

1663-1668 Download
42
VEGETATION ANALYSIS AND WINTER SEASON CARRYING CAPACITY OF SUB-TROPICAL, SUB HUMID RANGELANDS OF DHRABI WATERSHED, PAKISTAN
SANA-UL-HAQ1. S.N. MIRZA1, S.M. NIZAMI1, A. KHALIQ CHAUDHRY1, I.A. KHAN1 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2*

VEGETATION ANALYSIS AND WINTER SEASON CARRYING CAPACITY OF SUB-TROPICAL, SUB HUMID RANGELANDS OF DHRABI WATERSHED, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Quantitative vegetation assessment of Dhrabi watershed Chakwal, Pakistan was conducted to determine the productive potential and carrying capacity during winter 2008-09. Twelve sites of watershed were selected on the basis of variation in altitude using stratified sampling with line transect method. Overall, average grasses cover was 64.09% in the area with the highest value (73.41%) in the upper zone and lowest (56.33%) in the lower zone. Average trees and shrubs cover was 19.74% with highest value (29.72%) in the middle zone followed by upper (21.54%) and lower zone (7.95%). The range was found in good condition with overall carrying capacity of 2.41 ha/AU/4month. The main dominating plant species found in the area were Heteropogon contortus (Sariala ghaas), Cynodon dactylon (Khabbal ghaas), Desmostachya bipinnata (Dab ghaas) and Acacia modesta (Phulai).

1669-1672 Download
43
CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION TO ITS EDAPHIC FACTORS: A CASE STUDY OF LAHORE-ISLAMABAD MOTORWAY (M-2)
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD*

CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION TO ITS EDAPHIC FACTORS: A CASE STUDY OF LAHORE-ISLAMABAD MOTORWAY (M-2)
ABSTRACT:
A survey of roadside vegetation and soils along Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M-2) was undertaken and the data were subjected to Canonical Correspondence Analysis to investigate the vegetation structure and its relationships to the selected edaphic variables. In addition, the patterns of plant species distribution in the whole study area and its different regions were also determined. CCA ordination was performed on a matrix containing % age cover value for all species (n = 227 species) on 397 sampled plots. This relationship was determined by ordination analysis. The environmental variables selected for analysis were organic matter, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total nitrogen and trace elements like lead, zinc, nickel, cadmium, chromium and iron. In CCA analysis of all the quadrats, chromium, zinc, lead, nickel, sodium and potassium were the most important variables influencing the quadrats distribution. The study also provides basic information for the implementation of conservation oriented planning and management to preserve and improve the road verges of M-2.

1673-1677 Download
44
FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF PIR MEHR ALI SHAH ARID AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FARM AT KOONT AND ITS SURROUNDING AREAS
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, G.R. BHATTI2 AND GHULAM SHABBIR3

FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF PIR MEHR ALI SHAH ARID AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FARM AT KOONT AND ITS SURROUNDING AREAS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present study was to provide botanical inventory of the study area. For this purpose, floristic survey was carried out during April

1679-1684 Download
45
CONVOLVULUS SCINDICUS: CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGIES TO AVOID EXTIRPATION
HAIDER ABBAS1* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER2

CONVOLVULUS SCINDICUS: CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGIES TO AVOID EXTIRPATION
ABSTRACT:
The conservation status of Convolvulus scindicus Stocks in Pakistan, was assessed according to IUCN red data categories and criteria. After three years (2006-2008) of extensive field studies based on population size, distribution range, nature of habitat and anthropogenic activities, the conservation status of Convolvulus scindicus has been classified as an endangered (EN) species. Conservation measures are also suggested avoiding its extirpation.

1685-1690 Download
46
BREEDING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HOMOKARYOTIC HETEROPLASMIC MALE STERILE LINES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA)
QIMING MEI1,2 RONG XIE3, CHENGYUAN LIU3, XICHANG ZHOU2 AND YINGGUO ZHU1

BREEDING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HOMOKARYOTIC HETEROPLASMIC MALE STERILE LINES IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA)
ABSTRACT:
Twelve different Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile (CMS) lines were crossed with 18 rice varieties. From the hybrid with japonica rice Nongken 58, twelve homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines were developed in B7F1 after successive backcrossing and selection for stable male sterility and desirable agronomic traits such as flowering habit and high outcrossing rate. The experimental results demonstrated that expression of the CMS factors were influenced by the corresponding nuclear genes. Three pollen abortion types, including the typical, the spherical and the stained abortion, were observed in the homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines. Formation of the aborted pollen grains was influenced by the interaction among specific cytoplasmic and the corresponding nuclear genes. As the CMS carriers, these homokaryotic-heteroplasmic lines will have significant impact on the utilization of multiple types of CMS in hybrid rice breeding. What is more important is that these CMS lines are the invaluable materials for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of CMS formation in rice.

1691-1694 Download
47
INHERITANCE OF LODGING COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
G. S. S. KHATTAK1*, I. SAEED AND S. REHMAN

INHERITANCE OF LODGING COMPONENTS IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Inheritance of lodging related traits in mungbean i.e., average inter-nodal length and average circumference of the main stem were studied using Triple Test Cross (TTC) technique. Both traits showed highly significant differences among treatments and between first (P1) and second parent (P2) of a cross ML-5 x Ramzan used as third tester in the TTC combination. The traits showed significant total epistasis. (i, and j + l types). Additive x additive (i type) interactions were non-significant whereas additive x dominance and dominance x dominance (j and l types) interactions were highly significant for both traits. This shows the complex nature of inheritance of lodging components in mungbean. Diverse genetic background of lines is indicated by the significant epistatic effect contributed by individual lines for average inter-nodal length and average circumference of the main stem. In case of average inter-nodal length, the genotypes Var. 6601 and Chakwal 97 contributed major portion of negative and positive non-allelic interaction, respectively, to the total epistasis of average inter-nodal length. Genotypes NFM 13-1 and NM 92 imparted major portion of positive and negative non-allelic interaction, respectively to total epistasis of average circumference of the main stem. Improvement in mungbean lodging resistance through breeding for short inter-nodal length and thick/more circumference of the main stem, bi-parental hybridization between suitable recombinants in F2 generation is suggested to produce better genetic combinations through which the accumulations of desired genes could be achieved for selection in advanced generation.

1695-1697 Download
48
COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROTIC STUDIES THROUGH LINE × TESTER IN LOCAL AND EXOTIC UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES
HUSEYIN BASAL1*, ONER CANAVAR1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2 AND CEM SERDAR CERIT1

COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROTIC STUDIES THROUGH LINE × TESTER IN LOCAL AND EXOTIC UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Combining ability is mostly used by breeders to select appropriate parental cultivars to produce the larger progeny of new combinations through their hybridization. The objectives of this research were to estimate general combining ability of parents and specific combining abilities of F1 hybrids, to identify suitable parents and hybrids for yield and its contributing traits, fiber quality parameters and also determine the heterosis in F1 populations. In this study, 35 F1 hybrids obtained by crossing five local lines (Turkey) with seven exotic testers (USA, Pakistan, Greece and Israel) in line × tester mating system during 2008 and were planted in randomized complete block design with four replications during 2009. Analysis revealed significant GCA and SCA mean squares for all the traits, however, non-additive gene action was predominant. Among parents, Sahin 2000 and Tamcot-22 were the best general combiners for yield and its components, and Carmen was the best general combiner for improvement in fiber quality. The best specific combinations were S-2000 × SJ-U86 and GSN-12 × NIAB-999 for boll number; BA-119 × DPL90 for boll weight; S-2000 × NIAB-999 for seed cotton yield; GSN-12 × Eva for fiber length; GSN-12 × AZ-31 and BA-119 × Tamcot-22 for fiber strength. In F1 hybrids, the highest heterosis was observed for yield, boll number, boll weight and lint % with values of 79.8

1699-1706 Download
49
REACTION OF EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS CAPSICUM GENOTYPES AGAINST PAKISTANI ISOLATES OF CHILI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS
HUSSAIN SHAH*, TAHIRA YASMIN, MUHAMMAD FAHIM, SHAHID HAMEED, IRFAN-UL-HAQUE1, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2 AND KHALIL AHMED KHANZADA3

REACTION OF EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS CAPSICUM GENOTYPES AGAINST PAKISTANI ISOLATES OF CHILI VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS
ABSTRACT:
Viral diseases are considered to be the major limiting factor in chili pepper production. Chili veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the important viruses, which decrease yield by 50%. Screening of 32 (exotic and indigenous) chili pepper germplasm against ChiVMV through symptomatology and serology (DAS-ELISA) under glasshouse conditions showed that all local cultivars (12) except Rawala and Gola Peshawari, are susceptible to ChiVMV, however, Asian Vegetable Research Center (AVRDC) lines CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, CV-7. CV-11 and CV-12 were found highly resistant to both Sindh and Punjab isolates under controlled conditions.

1707-1711 Download
50
GENETIC POTENTIAL AND HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SOME POLYGENIC TRAITS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
MUSHTAQ AHMAD1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, SHERAZ AHMED KHAN1, IQBAL MUNIR2, ZARINA BIBI3 AND SALMA SHAHEEN3

GENETIC POTENTIAL AND HERITABILITY STUDIES FOR SOME POLYGENIC TRAITS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The research work comprising genetic potential and heritability in a 6 × 6 F1 diallel cross of upland cotton was conducted during 2008 and 2009 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The parental cultivars used in the diallel crosses were CIM-473, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-554 and CIM-707. Genotypes manifested significant variations for plant height, monopodia plant-1, sympodia plant-1, bolls sympodia-1, bolls plant-1 and seed cotton yield plant-1. On average, the F1 hybrids manifested significant increase over parents for plant height (11.5%), sympodia plant-1 (6.34%), bolls sympodia-1 (4.83%), bolls plant-1 (9.95%) and seed cotton yield plant-1 (26.07%). Broad sense heritability was high with expected response to selection being for plant height (0.81 & 17.85 cm), monopodia plant-1 (0.95 & 0.49), sympodia plant-1 (0.92 & 4.00), bolls sympodia-1 (0.90 & 0.74), bolls plant-1 (0.90 & 9.45) and seed cotton yield plant-1 (0.76 and 38.84 g), respectively. Seed cotton yield exhibited significant positive correlation with all traits except monopodia plant-1. Parental cultivars CIM-506 and CIM-554 performed better in their specific cross combinations and revealed reasonable mean performance. The F1 hybrids CIM-506 × CIM-554, CIM-473 × CIM-554, CIM-554 × CIM-506 and CIM-554 × CIM-707 manifested best genetic potential for majority of the traits. Results also revealed that the above four F1 hybrids have the potential to be used for hybrid cotton production and can also be studied in segregating generations for further improvement and stability in their genetic potential for seed cotton yield and its components.

1713-1718 Download
51
COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN INTRASPECIFIC F1 DIALLEL CROSS OF UPLAND COTTON
SHERAZ AHMED KHAN1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1, IJAZ AHMED KHAN2, ZARINA BIBI3 AND IMDAD ULLAH KHAN3

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN INTRASPECIFIC F1 DIALLEL CROSS OF UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
The research work comprised of combining ability and genetic variability in a 6 × 6 F1 diallel cross which was carried out during crop seasons 2008 and 2009 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The parental genotypes (CIM-446, CIM-496, CIM-499, CIM-506, CIM-554 and CIM-707) were crossed in a complete diallel fashion during 2008. The 30 F1 hybrids and their parents were grown in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications during 2009. Genotypes manifested significant (p≤0.01) differences for days to first flowering, locules boll-1, seeds locule-1, lint % and seed cotton yield plant-1. The F1 hybrids showed significant increase over parents in mean values for all the traits. The correlation of seed cotton yield was significantly positive with majority of yield traits and negative with days to first flowering and lint %. Mean squares due to general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all the traits, except locules for GCA. Mean squares due to GCA were higher in magnitude than SCA for majority of the traits and their inheritance was mainly governed by additive type of gene action and partially by non-additive. Selection in such promising hybrids could be used in segregating generations, and also some specific cross combinations can be used for hybrid cotton production to increase the seed cotton yield. The best general combiners (CIM-446 and CIM-554) followed by CIM-496 and their utilization as one of the parents produced best specific F1 hybrids (CIM-446 × CIM-499, CIM-446 × CIM-554, CIM-496 × CIM-707 and CIM-506 × CIM-554) having valuable SCA determination and remarkable mean performance for most of the traits. Reciprocal crosses having prominent maternal effects also involved one of the general combiners for majority of the traits. The promising hybrids also exhibited earliness through which the crop can escape from pests attack and soil can be vacated earlier for following crop like wheat. However, it was also concluded that we could not rely on F1s only, however, the combined performance of F1 and F2 hybrids could be a good selection criteria to identify the most promising populations to be utilized either as F2 hybrids or as a source population for further selection in advanced generations.

1719-1723 Download
52
VIRULENCE / AGGRESSIVENESS TESTING OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZA ISOLATES CAUSES BLB DISEASE IN RICE CULTIVARS OF PAKISTAN
RUKHSANA JABEEN1*, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF3 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD4

VIRULENCE / AGGRESSIVENESS TESTING OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZA ISOLATES CAUSES BLB DISEASE IN RICE CULTIVARS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In present study, virulence and aggressiveness of seven Xanthomonas oryzae hypersensitive isolates, (Xoo 20, Xoo 36, Xoo 51, Xoo 65, Xoo 74, Xoo 99 and Xoo 105) were tested on seven rice varieties (Basmati 385, IRRI 26, Basmati 386, Dilroosh 97, JP 5, Super Basmati, Basmati 2000 and Ks 282), through detached leaf, glass house and field assays Xoo 99 showed most aggressive reaction on detached leaves and Xoo 105 exhibited more aggressive reaction on glass house plant and field assay as compared to other isolates. Moreover, all rice tested cultivars showed susceptibility against isolates of BLB disease, Basmati 385 were showed more susceptible reaction.

1725-1728 Download
53
CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN TEST–CROSS POPULATIONS OF MAIZE
ZORANA SRECKOV1, ALEKSANDRA NASTASIC2, JAN BOCANSKI1, IVICA DJALOVIC2, MIRJANA VUKOSAVLJEV3 AND BOJAN JOCKOVIC2

CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN TEST–CROSS POPULATIONS OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test–cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS testcrosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both testcross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 testcrosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield.

1729-1731 Download
54
NOVEL PROTOCOL FOR ALBUMIN AND GLOBULIN DETECTION IN PISUM SATIVUM GENOTYPES USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE)
M. NISAR*1, A. GHAFOOR2, M.R. KHAN3, SADDRUDINE SIDDIQUI2, NASRULLAH KHAN4 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI4

NOVEL PROTOCOL FOR ALBUMIN AND GLOBULIN DETECTION IN PISUM SATIVUM GENOTYPES USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE)
ABSTRACT:
In the present study a novel protocol for the removal of Albumin and Globulin in 10 genotypes of Pisum sativum were developed by using Osborn solubility class protein extraction buffer (10mM Tris-Hcl buffer, pH 6.8, 0.5 M NaCl). One major allocation of protein band and one minor protein band corresponding to 10 kda and 22 kda, respectively, was detected in SDS-PAGE (untreated cases). There is a need to further improve this method so that the minor groups of albumin and globulin could also be investigated further to characterize through 2D gel electrophoresis.

1733-1734 Download
55
EVALUATION OF PAKISTANI WHEAT GERMPLASM FOR BREAD QUALITY BASED ON ALLELIC VARIATION IN HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS
AQSA TABASUM*, NAYYER IQBAL, AMJAD HAMEED AND RUBINA ARSHAD

EVALUATION OF PAKISTANI WHEAT GERMPLASM FOR BREAD QUALITY BASED ON ALLELIC VARIATION IN HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS
ABSTRACT:
Seventy six Pakistani wheat genotypes including land races were investigated for Bread quality (BQ) based on allelic variation in HMW glutenin subunits at the Glu-1 loci through SDS- polyacrylamide gel electropherosis. Twenty five different allelic combinations were detected with a total of 14 Glu-1 loci. Highest polymorphism was revealed by Glu-B locus and some single/ rare sub units were also screened out. The frequencies of dominant subunits were 50% for 2*, 42.11% for subunit pair 17+18 and 48.68% for 5+10 and 2+12 respectively. The quality scores displayed a range from 4 to 10, however generally good quality score of eight was more frequent (39. 47%). The highest quality scores of 10 and 9 were observed in 22.36% and 19.74% of genotypes respectively. The UPGMA analysis grouped genotypes into three major with two additional sub clusters for each. The cluster “a” “b” and “C” were separated at 73% genetic distance which was further differentiated at a genetic distance of 50% into their sub clusters. Pakistani wheat varieties/land races exhibited large variation in term of HMW-GS. The generated information will lead to the pyrimiding of sub units for high BQ through mission oriented marker assisted breeding programes for quality improvement of wheat.

1735-1740 Download
56
SELECTION INDEX BASED ON PERFORMANCE AND HYBRID VIGOUR OVER FOUR GENERATIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DIVERSITY IN ELEVEN CROSSES OF VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
ABDUL GHAFOOR* AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

SELECTION INDEX BASED ON PERFORMANCE AND HYBRID VIGOUR OVER FOUR GENERATIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DIVERSITY IN ELEVEN CROSSES OF VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER
ABSTRACT:
Six cultivars of blackgram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper selected from genetically diverse groups based on three years evaluation under field conditions were crossed and generations were advanced accordingly. The final experiment consisting 4 generations of 11 hybrids along with their respective parents were evaluated in four replications at N.A.R.C., Islamabad, Pakistan. The source of variation was attributed to both the factors, i.e., hybrids and generations representing high proportions of the total sum of squares. Two factors gave eigen values greater than unity and these contributed 77% of the total variability. A clear response for grouping of F1 and F2 was observed, whereas other two generations were intermixed, although a low level of separation was observed. On the basis of performance and hybrid vigour, three hybrids; Mash 3/Mash 1, BG 9012/BG 9025 and BG 9020/Mash 1 exhibited better potential. The hybrids with high mean performance and hybrid vigour are expected to give better chance for selection to develop superior cultivars of blackgram.

1741-1746 Download
57
BEARING FRUIT BY MALE CARICA PAPAYA SIMILAR TO THAT OF A FEMALE PLANT PROVIDES A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR UNDERSTANDING HOMO SAPIENS EVOLUTION
RAJPUT MUHAMMED TARIQ

BEARING FRUIT BY MALE CARICA PAPAYA SIMILAR TO THAT OF A FEMALE PLANT PROVIDES A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR UNDERSTANDING HOMO SAPIENS EVOLUTION
ABSTRACT:
The papaya plant Carica papaya (family: Caricaceae), locally known as Papita, is cultivated commonly in different parts of Sindh-Pakistan specially in Karachi. It was reported hermaphrodite. Recently it has been reported to be an important plant, due to having X and Y chromosomes. As it has been already reported that the papaya sex chromosomes have virtually all of the features that the human sex chromosomes have. In the present paper observations are made that not all the male papaya plants due to male (mM) characteristic but some of them are hermaphrodite in characteristic (mmM = XXY = mMh = XYh), exactly identical to a normal male and have been recorded bearing fruits like the female papaya plants (mm = XX). This characteristic of the male papaya plant provides a clicking source for positive understanding of Homo sapiens evolution from a male (Aadam), that how the female sex chromosomes (XX) were evolved from a hermaphrodite (XXY). This theory has been proposed as “Aadam Hypothesis”. In the present paper the theory of “Aadam Hypothesis” has been also supported by Natural Method of Propagation (NMP) of two different plant species Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe verticillata (syn K. tubiflora) having budding system for the propagation of fertile plantlets on scientific grounds.

1747-1751 Download
58
UTILIZATION OF CYANOBACTERIUM PHORMIDIUM SP., TO PRODUCE IMMOBILIZED HYBRID DISC BIOSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CD2+ FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
MUHAMMAD IQBAL* AND ASMA SAEED

UTILIZATION OF CYANOBACTERIUM PHORMIDIUM SP., TO PRODUCE IMMOBILIZED HYBRID DISC BIOSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CD2+ FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
ABSTRACT:
An indigenous strain of blue green microalga was entrapped within reticulated fibrous network of loofa sponge disc to produce immobilized hybrid disc biosorbent (IHDB) and successfully used for the removal and recovery of Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The two biosorbents used as the symbiotic building block to produce IHDB, were the filamentous blue green alga Phormidium sp. (B1) and loofa sponge discs (B2). Maximum biosorption capacity of B1 and B2 was noted respectively to be 37.06 and 5.32 mg Cd2+ g-1 biosorbent. However, when the two biosorbents were combined to form IHDB, the biosorption capacity (48.53 mg g-1) was increased by 30.95%, 812.21%, respectively as compared to the ability of B1 and B2 when used alone, and by14.51% than the sum of individual abilities of the two biosorbents. The kinetics of Cd2+ removal by IHDB was rapid, with 91.81% of Cd2+ biosorption occurring within first 30 min., and equilibrium was reached after 60 min of contact. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were used for mathematical description of the sorption equilibrium. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model in the studied range of concentration (5-200 mg l-1). The biosorbed Cd2+ was desorbed by washing the IHDB with dilute HCl (50 mM) and regenerated IHDB was reused in seven biosorption-desorption cycles without an apparent decrease in metal biosorption capacity. The metal removing capacity of IHDB was also tested in continuous flow fixed-bed column bioreactor and found to be highly effective in removing Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The results suggested that IHDB could be used as low-cost and environment-friendly biosorbent for the efficient removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution

1753-1758 Download
59
DIVERSITY OF THE GENERA OF CHLOROPHYTA IN FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT N.W.F.P PAKISTAN
ASGHAR ALI1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND MUHAMMAD KHAN LEGHARI3

DIVERSITY OF THE GENERA OF CHLOROPHYTA IN FRESH WATERS OF DISTRICT SWAT N.W.F.P PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Fifty six genera of green algae were collected from ten different localities of District Swat, belonging to 25 families and 9 genera of Chlorophyta from December 2006 August 2008. Family Oocystaceae with 39 species was most commonly found, next to it were families Scenedesmaceae with18 species and Desmidiaceae with 14 species. The genera Oocystis and Tetraedron were represented by 10 species and Cosmarium with 7 species occurred most commonly. Among the recorded genera 13 (23.2%) were Unicellular

1759-1764 Download
60
BACTERIAL AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN LAKES OF RIVER INDUS
HUMERAH BANO SHAFIQ1, MUNAZZA AJAZ2 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL1

BACTERIAL AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN LAKES OF RIVER INDUS
ABSTRACT:
Indus river water gets polluted through three sources viz., municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff through drainage structure. The lakes in Sindh (fed by the river Indus), constitute the important source of drinking water, recreation and fish, etc. and offer employment for many. A large number of chemicals that either exist naturally in the land dissolve in the water, or human excreta added due to human activity thereby, contaminating and leading to various diseases. In order to assess the microbial contamination, detection of pollutant indicator organisms (coliform group), using Coliform test was performed by Most Probable Number technique and total bacterial count by Pour Plate method. The level of various heavy metals (arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, selenium & zinc) and electrolytes (Cl-1, HCO3-1) was monitored in water and fish meat samples collected from Haleji and Keenjhar lakes to assess the impact of toxic pollutants. Metal concentrations in water and fish samples were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total coliform organisms were found in both the lake water samples, exceeded in 38% samples than the acceptable limits, while total average aerobic bacterial count analyzed in both the lakes was 102 CFU/ml – 1010 CFU/ml. Toxic chemical contaminants were estimated below the detection limit, while other several (essential) metal ions were found within the range set by WHO, except arsenic, cadmium and iron that exceeded slightly in 12.5% water samples. This study was designed to ensure the access of safe and potable water to urban & rural areas of Sindh. Further, the findings will help public/private enterprises and public health institutions to work for the people health friendly policies.

1765-1772 Download
61
ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME PLANTS OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE
MEHJABEEN1*, MANSOOR AHMAD2, NOOR JAHAN3, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ2, S. MEHBOOB ALAM4, ASMA WAZIR2 AND SAEEDUL-HASSAN5

ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME PLANTS OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE
ABSTRACT:
Methanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum (leaves and seeds of both black and red varieties), Elettaria cardamomum Cuscuta reflexa and Cinnamomum camphora were tested in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia aldovae indicated that investigated plants have potent activity against all microorganisms. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against six fungi, viz., Saccharomyces cereviciae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichophyton rubrum, Macrophomina, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. The extracts showed moderate as well as significant activity against different fungal strains.

1773-1775 Download
62
CHECK LIST OF AGARICS OF KAGHAN VALLEY-1
KISHWAR SULTANA1, CHAUDHARY ABDUL RAUF, ABID RIAZ, FARAH NAZ, GULSHAN IRSHAD AND MUHAMMAD IFRAN UL HAQUE

CHECK LIST OF AGARICS OF KAGHAN VALLEY-1
ABSTRACT:
The list of Agarics of Kaghan valley includes 228 species belonging to 59 genera, placed in seven orders. Out of these

1777-1787 Download
63
DIVERSITY IN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL MORPHOLOGY IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY LAMIACEAE
TANVIR BURNI1 AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN2

DIVERSITY IN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL MORPHOLOGY IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY LAMIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Present study was designed to find out the mycorrhizal status of some selected medicinal plants of family Lamiaceae growing in KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhawa). The mycorrhizal infections were present in all studied species. Typical Arum and Paris type mycorrhiza are recorded for the first time from the family Lamiaceae. The number of studied plants with Arum type was higher than Paris type while two plants were recorded with intermediate type. Variations in the percentage of general VAM infection ranged from 55-100%.

1789-1792 Download
64
QUICK DECLINE OF MANGO IN PAKISTAN: SURVEY AND PATHOGENICITY OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MANGO TREE AND BARK BEETLE
ASAD MASOOD1, SHAFQAT SAEED*1, SILVALDO FELIPE DA SILVEIRA2, CHRYSANTUS NGES AKEM3 NAZIM HUSSAIN1 AND MUHAMMAD FAROOQ4

QUICK DECLINE OF MANGO IN PAKISTAN: SURVEY AND PATHOGENICITY OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MANGO TREE AND BARK BEETLE
ABSTRACT:
Mango sudden death syndrome (MSDS) has become an increasing threat for mango production all around the world. The present study was conducted to identify the association of pathogenic fungi with mango quick decline tree and the bark beetle. During survey, the most evident symptoms of this disease were gummosis and rotting, cankers and vascular discoloration along with holes made by Hypocryphalus mangiferae. The mango varieties viz., Malda and Ratol were found to be more tolerant against this disease. From diseased tree as well as from H. mangiferae, the most frequently isolated fungi were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Phomopsis sp. The isolation of C. fimbriata from beetle on PDA was relatively at low frequency (2.0%) as compared to L. theobromae and Phomopsis (24% and 6.0%). By carrot disc technique, the isolation of C. fimbriata was significantly higher (7.33%) but L. theobromae and Phomopsis sp., were not isolated. The formers fungi were re-isolated from artificially inoculated and symptomatic mango plants. After six months of inoculations, disease symptoms i.e., wilting, oozing and black streaks were developed which showed significant differences among all treatments. Our findings suggested that C. fimbriata and L. theobromae are both pathogenic to mango causing mango quick decline in Pakistan. Both fungi were frequently isolated from diseased tree as well as H. mangiferae which may be involved in the dissemination and as a facilitating agent for the entry of the pathogens.

1793-1798 Download
65
DETECTION OF PHYTOPLASMA FROM DISEASED POTATO SAMPLE
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR AND FAUQIA FAHMEED

DETECTION OF PHYTOPLASMA FROM DISEASED POTATO SAMPLE
ABSTRACT:
The stunted and deformed potato (Solanum tuberosum) samples were received from Potato Research Station, Sahiwal at Crop Diseases Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad for diognosis of the disease. The symptoms of little leaf, stunted growth and deshaped tubers were observed in the sample which was assumed as infected by Phytoplasma. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was selected for identification of the pathogen. An amplified fragment of 550 base pair was obtained which confirmed the presence of phytoplasmal pathogen in infected tubers and plant.

1799-1800 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1461842, Today's: 1364, Yesterday's: 1136, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");