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Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 5
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1
OBITUARY - DR. JAFFAR HUSSAIN MIRZA - (8 July 1936 to 01 June 2011)
ABDUL GHAFFAR

OBITUARY - DR. JAFFAR HUSSAIN MIRZA - (8 July 1936 to 01 June 2011)
ABSTRACT:
Dr. Jaffar Hussain Mirza s/o Mirza Safdar Husain Qazilbash, an eminent Plant pathologist, died of heart attack on 01 June 2011. May God almighty shower His blessings upon the departed soul and may his soul rest in peace in heaven (Ameen).

2241- Download
2
NEW COMBINATIONS IN CAMPANULA SECT. QUINQUELOCULARES FROM TURKEY
EMİNE ALÇITEPE

NEW COMBINATIONS IN CAMPANULA SECT. QUINQUELOCULARES FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Campanula lyrata Lam. and C. sorgerae Phitos, C. betonicifolia Sm. and C. karadjana Bocquet are taxonomically problematic. In the present study, their morphology, leaf surface anatomy and palynological characters were thoroughly analysed. Photographs, illustrations, useful differential morphological characters, pollen structure and a distribution map obtained or developed in the course of the study were presented. Problems of nomenclature and synonymy were also discussed. A new combination and status nov. Viz., C. betonicifolia subsp. karadjana (Bocquet) Alçıtepe comb.& stat.nova has been proposed. C. sorgerae Phitos was reduced to a synonymy of C. lyrata Lam. subsp. lyrata.

2243-2254 Download
3
ANGELICA KAGHANICA (APIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM KAGHAN VALLEY, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ*, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI AND ZERQA NAWAZ

ANGELICA KAGHANICA (APIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM KAGHAN VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Angelica kaghanica M.Ishtiaq & R.A.Qureshi sp.nov. from Kaghan valley is described, photographed and fruit vittae distribution pattern illustrated. It is closely related to Angelica roylei (Lindley) P.K. Mukharjee & Constance from which it differs in leaf division pattern, bracts and bracteoles and mericarp features.

2255-2258 Download
4
A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS LACTUCA L. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ROOHI BANO AND M. QAISER*

A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS LACTUCA L. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revsion is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In fews cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano & Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano & Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given.

2259-2268 Download
5
MANGLIETIA KAIFUI (MAGNOLIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA
XIAO-MIN HU 1,2,3, QING-WEN ZENG 1,*, LIN FU 1 AND FU-WU XING1

MANGLIETIA KAIFUI (MAGNOLIACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM YUNNAN, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Manglietia kaifui Q.W. Zeng & X. M. Hu, a new species of Manglieta Bl. (Magnoliaceae) from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. The new species was found growing only in the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests at 1300–2000 m of Mount Huanglianshan, Luchun County, Yunnan Province, China. Notes are also presented on the phenology, pollen morphology and conservation status of the new species. It is closely related to M. fordiana Oliv. and M. hainanensis Dandy, but differs from its closest allies by its glabrous twigs, glabrous upper and lower surfaces of leaves, more tepals (12–20) and more carpels (75–90).

2269-2275 Download
6
TAXONOMIC APPLICATION OF FOLIAR ANATOMY IN GRASSES OF TRIBE ERAGROSTIDEAE (POACEAE) FROM SALT RANGE OF PAKISTAN
FAROOQ AHMAD1, MIR AJAB KHAN, MUSHTAQ AHMAD, MANSOOR HAMEED1, RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN2, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR AND ASMA JABEEN3

TAXONOMIC APPLICATION OF FOLIAR ANATOMY IN GRASSES OF TRIBE ERAGROSTIDEAE (POACEAE) FROM SALT RANGE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Foliar anatomical investigations of some members belonging to tribe Eragrostideae (Poaceae) were carried out. In total of 8 species belonging to 6 genera were collected in wild from Salt Range region of Pakistan for anatomical studies. Maximum length of long cells was observed in genus Eragrostis. Macrohairs are found absent in all species except Eragrostis papposa. Acrachne racemosa is identified by dumb bell shaped or cross shaped silica bodies while saddle shaped silica bodies are present in other species. Desmostachya bipinnata is distinct by having a tall girder of bulliform cells, from adaxial to abaxial side. Microhairs with hemispherical distal cell, saddle shaped silica bodies and bulliform cells deeply penetrating the mesophyll are the diagnostic characters, which justify all the species in the same tribe.

2277-2284 Download
7
MOLECULAR MARKERS ASSISTED GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SELECTED WILD POACEAE SPECIES
AYESHA ZEB1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD1*

MOLECULAR MARKERS ASSISTED GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SELECTED WILD POACEAE SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity of ten selected wild species belonging to family Poaceae was assessed by using RAPD markers. The species consisted of Tragus roxburgii, Eragrostis poaeoides, Brachiaria distachya, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Setaria glauca, Setaria verticillata, Chrysopogon aucheri, Heteropogon contortus, Saccharum spontaneum and Themeda anathera. In total 10 primers of OPC series were used, of which 9 primers gave reproducible amplifications. Out of 139 bands produced, 92 bands were shown to be polymorphic leading to 66% polymorphism across the species. NTSYS cluster analysis showed 59% similarity among the selected species indicating their common phylogenetic origin and more genetic stability during evolution. The genetic similarity index value ranged from 0.51 to 0.89. The results indicated high level of genetic diversity among grass species on the basis of RAPD technique. There is need to study other members of family Poaceae from different populations by using other molecular markers.

2285-2288 Download
8
ASSESSMENT OF RELOCATION OF TRIGONELLA CYLINDRACEAE L. AND T. POLYCERATIA (L.) TRAUTV. TO GENUS MEDICAGO AS INFERRED BY RAPD AND RFLP ANALYSES
REAM I. MARZOUK1 AND EL-BAKATOUSHI R.2*

ASSESSMENT OF RELOCATION OF TRIGONELLA CYLINDRACEAE L. AND T. POLYCERATIA (L.) TRAUTV. TO GENUS MEDICAGO AS INFERRED BY RAPD AND RFLP ANALYSES
ABSTRACT:
The taxonomic relocation of both Trigonella cylindraceae and T. polyceratia either to Trigonella or Medicago was assessed based on two molecular markers, RAPD and RFLP. Through RAPD analysis

2289-2294 Download
9
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CRYPTOLEPIS BUCHANANII, TYLOPHORA HIRSUTA AND WATTAKAKA VOLUBILIS
TARIQ MAHMOOD1*, ADEEBA TARIQ1, NAZIA NAZAR1, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI2 AND S. M. SAQLAN NAQVI3

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CRYPTOLEPIS BUCHANANII, TYLOPHORA HIRSUTA AND WATTAKAKA VOLUBILIS
ABSTRACT:
Asclepiadaceae is an economically important family with great medicinal value. However, very little work has been carried out on the genetic variability of Asclepiadaceae members especially on some medicinally important species like Tylophora hirsuta, Wattakaka volubilis and Cryptolepis buchananii. Keeping in view the importance of these species, a study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of these 3 species of Asclepiadaceae and the plant material was collected from Quaid-i-Azam university campus, Islamabad. To assess the genetic variability and polymorphism among these species, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used. Sixty RAPD primers from OPA, OPC, OPF and OPG series were used; only 8 primers of OPC series gave amplification. Maximum polymorphism at interspecific and intraspecific levels was shown by OPC9 and minimum polymorphism was observed in OPC5. The data was analyzed using NTSYS software pc version 2.02. Low genetic diversification was observed at intraspecific and interspecific level. Moreover, during cluster analysis Tylophora hirsuta and Wattakaka volubilis were found to be present in the same cluster showing a close relationship whereas Cryptolepis buchananii appeared in a separate cluster.

2295-2300 Download
10
MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS BY THE INHABITANTS OF KHUNJERAB NATIONAL PARK, GILGIT, PAKISTAN
BABAR KHAN1

MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS BY THE INHABITANTS OF KHUNJERAB NATIONAL PARK, GILGIT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
2 , ABLIMIT ABDUKADIR1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3 AND GHULAM MUSTAFA2

2301-2310 Download
11
EREMURUS PERSICUS, A NEW SOURCE OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS
SALEHA SULEMAN KHAN1*, VIQAR UDDIN AHMAD1, NIKHAT SABA2 AND RASOOL BASHKH TAREEN3

EREMURUS PERSICUS, A NEW SOURCE OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS
ABSTRACT:
Phytochemical investigation of Eremurus persicus collected from the Kirbi Kuch Ziarat, Pakistan led to the isolation of an antimalarial compound 2-acetyl-1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylnaphthalene, (compound 1,) and helminthosporin (Compound 2), a derivative of anticancer agents, from ethyl acetate fraction. Their structures were established by a combination of spectral methods (UV, IR

2311-2313 Download
12
VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN USING ORDINATION METHODS
SHEIKH SAEED* AHMAD AND QURATULANN

VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN USING ORDINATION METHODS
ABSTRACT:
Present study was conducted in Ayubia National Park which was declared as a protected/National Park. The study classified the species abundance and its distribution. A total of 59 species that belonged to 32 families were recorded. Overall two major communities were identified using TWINSPAN. Major group 1 comprised of Hedera nepalensis and Adiantum caudatum and major group 2 comprised of Plantago major and Rumex nepalensis. The species data was subjected to Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling, specially used for extracting nonlinear gradients in species composition. The overall data was analyzed by Monte-Carlo test to access the stress in relation to dimensionality. Furthermore overlay matrix was carried out for only two dominant species that is Adiantum caudatum and Hedera nepalensis to show a relationship in relation to score on a particular axis. The study identifies and highlights the critical need for the protection and conservation of local/native flora in Ayubia National Park.

2315-2321 Download
13
VARIABILITY OF VEGETATION OF TEMPORAL PONDS ALONG GRADIENTS OF STAGNANT WATER AND ALTITUDE IN SOUTH-WEST ANATOLIA
URBAN ŠILC1, ALI KAVGACI2, ANDRAŽ ČARNI1, 3, SAIME BAŞARAN2, MEHMET ALI BAŞARAN2, PETRA KOŠIR1, 4 AND ALEKSANDER MARINŠEK1

VARIABILITY OF VEGETATION OF TEMPORAL PONDS ALONG GRADIENTS OF STAGNANT WATER AND ALTITUDE IN SOUTH-WEST ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
Vegetational zonation within temporal ponds in the western Taurus Mountains of South – West Anatolia, Turkey and changes along altitudinal gradients was studied. Two gradients show different filtering effects and magnitude of influence on the floristic composition of Mediterranenan temporal pools. Classification gave five clusters that represented ecologically meaningful communities according to moisture gradient classified into Ranunculo argyrei-Tanacetea argentei (Sedo nani-Convolvuletalia galactici), Stellarietea mediae (Thero-Brometalia) and Molinio-Arrhentheretea (Potentillo-Polygonetalia). Multivariate analyses were used to explore gradients in the floristic composition and the revealed importance of two groups of explanatory variables: the first is related to mean ground surface elevation (microtopography of the site), clay and carbonate content amount, and the second corresponds to the area of temporal pond and other soil variables. Microtopography (relative elevation within temporal pools) proved to be most important factor influencing species composition.

2323-2330 Download
14
PLANT DISTRIBUTION IN RELATION TO SOIL CONDITIONS IN HANGZHOU BAY COASTAL WETLANDS, CHINA
TONGGUI WU, MING WU, MUKUI YU*, AND JIANGHUA XIAO

PLANT DISTRIBUTION IN RELATION TO SOIL CONDITIONS IN HANGZHOU BAY COASTAL WETLANDS, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Plant group classification relation to soil environmental characteristics was monitored in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetland, China. 18 taxa, belonging to 17 genus and 7 family were recorded, and classified into five groups by TWINSPAN viz A, Scirpus mariqueter group, B, Spartina alterniflora group, C, Phragmites communis group, D, Tamarix chinensis - P. communis group, and E, Salix matsudana - Imperata cylindrica group, respectively. Soil salinity and moisture in group A, B and C were significantly higher than group D, E, while higher pH values was found in group E, A and B. From the intra-set correlations of the soil factors with the first 2 axes of DCCA, it can be noted that DCCA axis 1, was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with soil salinity and moisture, represented soil salinity and moisture gradient. Axis 2 of the DCCA was clearly negatively correlated to soil pH, and called as soil pH gradient.

2331-2335 Download
15
SPECIES AND COMMUNITY DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR FLORA ALONG ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENT IN NARAN VALLEY: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH THROUGH INDICATOR SPECIES ANALYSIS
SHUJAUL MULK KHAN1*, DAVID HARPER1, SUE PAGE2 AND HABIB AHMAD3

SPECIES AND COMMUNITY DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR FLORA ALONG ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENT IN NARAN VALLEY: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH THROUGH INDICATOR SPECIES ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of floristic diversity at species level along environmental gradients were measured using a randomly stratified design for identifying major plant communities of Narran Valley, Pakistan. Data was collected at 144 sampling stations along 24 altitudinal transects

2337-2346 Download
16
SOME PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PLANTS AND POLLUTANT LEVELS ALONG PINDI BHATTIAN-FAISALABAD MOTORWAY (M-3) (PAKISTAN)
KHALID FAROOQ AKBAR1, SABAH MAQBOOL1, IFFAT ASHRAF1, TARIQ MAHMOOD ANSARI2* AND SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD3*

SOME PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PLANTS AND POLLUTANT LEVELS ALONG PINDI BHATTIAN-FAISALABAD MOTORWAY (M-3) (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
The roadside verges of M-3 were surveyed to investigate their floristic composition and the levels of heavy metals in their soils. For this purpose, the floristic data from 102 quadrats, each 1x2 m in size were collected and their associated soils were analyzed for total lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc. These quadrats were distributed on three zones (border, verge, and fence) within the M-3 verges. Fifty eight plant species were recorded. By considering their frequency and abundance values, Cynodon dactylon, Anagallis arvensis, Imperata cylindrica, Trifolium alexandrianum and Sonchus oleracea were the most frequent and abundant species of M-3. The mean concentrations of total Cu, Cd, Zn, Mn, Pb and Fe in the roadside soils of M-3 were 14.0 µgg-1

2347-2350 Download
17
RUELLIA LINEARIBRACTEOLATA: CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGIES TO AVOID EXTIRPATION
HAIDER ABBAS1* AND M. QAISER2

RUELLIA LINEARIBRACTEOLATA: CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGIES TO AVOID EXTIRPATION
ABSTRACT:
The conservation status of Ruellia linearibracteolata Lindau (Acanthaceae), originally considered as endemic to Pakistan, was assessed after four years (2005-2008) of extensive field studies strictly following IUCN categories and criteria 2001. Information was collected and analysed in connection with the distribution range, nature of habitat, population size, mode of reproduction and anthropogenic activities. On these parameters, the conservation status of Ruellia linearibracteolata has been classified as rare and endangered (EN) species in Pakistan. Conservation strategies have also been suggested avoiding its extirpation.

2351-2357 Download
18
MAGNITUDE OF HERITABILITY AND SELECTION RESPONSE FOR YIELD TRAITS IN WHEAT UNDER TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
IKRAMULLAH1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1*, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, HIDAYAT ULLAH1 AND SHAD KHAN KHALIL2

MAGNITUDE OF HERITABILITY AND SELECTION RESPONSE FOR YIELD TRAITS IN WHEAT UNDER TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
A set of 22 F5:7 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars (Dera-98, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Ghaznavi-98 and Tatara) were evaluated as independent experiments under irrigated and rainfed environments using a randomized complete block design at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05. The two environments were statistically different for days to heading and spike length only. Highly significant genetic variability existed among the wheat lines (P<0.01) in the combined analysis across environments for all traits. Genotype × environment interactions were non-significant for all traits except 1000-grain weight indicating consistent performance of wheat genotypes across the two environments. Wheat lines and check cultivars were 2 to 5 days early in heading under rainfed environment compared to the irrigated. Plant height, spike length

2359-2363 Download
19
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE COMPETITIVE ABILITIES OF AN EXOTIC, PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L., WITH CO-EXISTING SPECIES TO DETERMINE THE IMPACTS OF ITS INVASION
SEEMAL VEHRA* AND AMIN U. KHAN1

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE COMPETITIVE ABILITIES OF AN EXOTIC, PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L., WITH CO-EXISTING SPECIES TO DETERMINE THE IMPACTS OF ITS INVASION
ABSTRACT:
Germination percentage of a newly introduced exotic plant, Parthenium hysterophorus L., that has now dominated most of the herbaceous flora, was compared with 7 annual indigenous colonizer plants, commonly found in the wastelands of Lahore, Pakistan. The percentage of germination, determined under various sets of conditions revealed that having higher and relatively constant rates of germination throughout the year, P. hysterophorus is more competitive as compared to the other co-existing colonizers. The competitive abilities of P. hysterophorus were further compared with two dominant colonizers i.e., Chenopodium album and Kochia indica, to assess the competitive abilities on both interspecific and intraspecific competition. The results based on Absolute Yield, Relative Yield Total and Relative Crowding Coefficients clearly indicated that P. hysterophorus was competitively more aggressive as compared to both co-occurring species and there is a possibility that in the long run it would eliminate them from their habitat in the irrigated plains.

2365-2372 Download
20
ALLELOPATHY BY LANTANA CAMARA L.
1FARRUKH HUSSAIN

ALLELOPATHY BY LANTANA CAMARA L.
ABSTRACT:
2SEEMA GHULAM, 3ZAMAN SHER AND BASHIR AHMAD4

2373-2378 Download
21
ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN CONTROLLING THE HORMONAL BALANCE AT BOOTING AND GRAIN-FILLING STAGES OF DIFFERENT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DROUGHT
SUMERA IQBAL1 AND ASGHARI BANO2*

ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) IN CONTROLLING THE HORMONAL BALANCE AT BOOTING AND GRAIN-FILLING STAGES OF DIFFERENT WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:
Water shortage seriously influences wheat productivity in various growing regions.The response of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions viz., 011417 and 011320 to drought and exogenously applied abscisic acid was determined in a pot study at booting and grain-filling stages to study the role of stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Changes in endogenous ABA (bound and free) and the growth promoting hormones i.e. trans zeatin ribiside (t-zr), Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) gibberellins (GA) were monitored. Sampling was done 3, 6 and 9 days after induction of water stress and at 48 and 72 h of re-watering. Marked decreases in t-zr, IAA and GA were found to be associated with an increase in the free and bound ABA content in the leaves under water stress. Sensitive accession 011320, showed the greater decrease in growth promoting hormones and less accumulation of ABA. The inhibitory effects of water stress on plant phytohormonal balance were ameliorated by exogenous ABA application specifically at booting stage and particularly in the sensitive accession 011320. There is a cultivar specific threshold ABA level, which is required to exhibit any significant ameliorating effect under water stress.

2379-2385 Download
22
EFFECTS OF PRASEODYMIUM ON FLAVONOIDS PRODUCTION AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF SCUTELLARIA VISCIDULA HAIRY ROOTS IN VITRO
WEI LEI1, XIAORONG SHUI2, YUANLIN ZHOU3, SHAOHU TANG1 AND MIN SUN*1

EFFECTS OF PRASEODYMIUM ON FLAVONOIDS PRODUCTION AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF SCUTELLARIA VISCIDULA HAIRY ROOTS IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
In the present study the effect of rare earth element Praseodymium (Pr) on flavonoids production and its biosynthesis key enzymes including Peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.1) and Phenylanlanine ammonialyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) in hairy roots of Scutellaria viscidula was investigated. After 7 days of suspension culture, activity of POD, PPO and PAL and total flavonoid production showed the same response tendency, which was ascending first and then descending with the Pr3+ elicitor increasing, and the Pr(NO3)3 concentration reaching the knee point was 15

2387-2390 Download
23
EFFECT OF FYM, POTASSIUM AND ZINC ON PHENOLOGY AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT IN RAINFED CROPPING SYSTEMS
KHALID NAWAB1*, AMANULLAH1, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, PAIGHAM SHAH1, ABDUR RAB1, M. AZIM KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ANWAR KHAN1 AND KHALID KHAN2

EFFECT OF FYM, POTASSIUM AND ZINC ON PHENOLOGY AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT IN RAINFED CROPPING SYSTEMS
ABSTRACT:
Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rainfed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rainfed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat & pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha-1) was produced by wheat fallowing mungbean. Based on two years average, it is concluded that wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dryland conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rainfed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production.

2391-2396 Download
24
EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES
AYUB KHAN1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, ASGAHRI BANO3 AND NASRULLAH JAN MALIK4

EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were carried out to investigate the physiological (dry weight of root, stem, peg, flowers plant-1, fruits sets percent, pod yield (kg plot-1)

2397-2402 Download
25
RESPONSE OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM GENOTYPES TO VARIOUS NITROGEN LEVELS
ZARINA BIBI1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, MARIA MUSSARAT3, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN3, RAFIQ AHMAD1, IMDAD ULLAH KHAN1 AND SALMA SHAHEEN1

RESPONSE OF GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM GENOTYPES TO VARIOUS NITROGEN LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Response of six different upland cotton genotypes to various nitrogen levels (0, 50

2403-2409 Download
26
CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN SIX FORAGE SPECIES IRRIGATED WITH CANAL, SEWAGE OR MIXED CANAL AND SEWAGE WATER
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, Z.I. KHAN1, A.R. BAYAT2*, M. ASHRAF3 AND Y. RIZWAN1

CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN SIX FORAGE SPECIES IRRIGATED WITH CANAL, SEWAGE OR MIXED CANAL AND SEWAGE WATER
ABSTRACT:
Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages.

2411-2414 Download
27
CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANT OF CORNUKAEMPFERIA AURANTIFLORA MOOD & LARSEN
PIYAPORN SAENSOUK

CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANT OF CORNUKAEMPFERIA AURANTIFLORA MOOD & LARSEN
ABSTRACT:
Young leaves of Cornukaempferia aurantiflora Mood & Larsen were used for the initiation of callus growth on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the light. The highest number of callus forming, percentage of callus formation and average weight of callus were obtained from young leaves cultured on the medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Shoots were successfully regenerated on the medium with concentrations of 2,4-D and BA added.

2415-2418 Download
28
MICROPROPAGATION AND CALLOGENESIS OF A RECALCITRANT SPECIES RICINUS COMMUNIS
SHAGUFTA NAZ1*, FOZIA TABASSUM, SUMERA JAVAD1, SAIQA ILYAS1, FARAH ASLAM1 NEELMA MUNIR1 AND AAMIR ALI2

MICROPROPAGATION AND CALLOGENESIS OF A RECALCITRANT SPECIES RICINUS COMMUNIS
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the micrpropagation and callogenesis of Ricinus communis, a medicinally important but recalcitrant plant species. Different media were evaluated for the micropropagation and callus induction from different explants of the plant. The best response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 18µm TDZ, where percentage of multiple shoot formation was 90%. The callus induction from cotyledonary leaves were tested using different media, the best response (90%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.5mg/l BAP + 0.5mg/l NAA where whitish brown friable callus with maximum proliferation was produced.

2419-2422 Download
29
PLANT REGENERATION FROM IRRADIATED EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS OF SUGARCANE
SHAFQUAT YASMIN, IMTIAZ A. KHAN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, NIGHAT SEEMA, M. AQUIL SIDDIQUI AND SAJIDA BIBI

PLANT REGENERATION FROM IRRADIATED EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Three sugarcane clones viz., NIA-98, NIA-0819 and BL4 were used for induction of genetic variability through In-vitro mutagenesis. Apical meristametic region was used for callus induction on 4mg/l 2,4-D. Actively growing callus was treated with four different doses of gamma rays (10Gy

2423-2426 Download
30
IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS IN BANANA AND VARIANT SCREENING THROUGH ISSR
ABDULLAH KHATRI1, SAJIDA BIBI1, MAHUMMAD UMAR DAHOT2, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN1 AND GHULAM SHAH NIZAMANI1

IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS IN BANANA AND VARIANT SCREENING THROUGH ISSR
ABSTRACT:
An efficient culture medium for In vitro clonal propagation of banana cultivars was established. Meristamtic tips of Basrai and GCTCV-215 were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays viz., 0

2427-2431 Download
31
WHEAT GROWTH AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER AND ZINC AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN SALINE-SODIC CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1,2,*, GHULAM MURTAZA1, MUHAMMAD ARIF ALI1,3, MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ1, CAMILLE DUMAT4 AND NIAZ AHMED3

WHEAT GROWTH AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER AND ZINC AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN SALINE-SODIC CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Nutrient disorders in saline-sodic soils can adversely affect crop growth. In order to evaluate the growth response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Cu and Zn and the phytoavailability of these essential elements, a pot experiment was conducted in three different textured saline-sodic soils [sandy loam (SL), sandy clay loam (SCL) and clay (C)] having an ECe 8.63, 8.80, 8.98 dS m–1 and SAR 21.66

2433-2439 Download
32
THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDE DICHLORVOS IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) SEEDLINGS
HALİL ERHAN EROĞLU 1 *

THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDE DICHLORVOS IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
The cytogenetic effects of dichlorvos on Hordeum vulgare L. seeds were investigated. Seeds of H. vulgare were treated with different concentrations of dichlorvos and applied for increasing concentrations of dichlorvos (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) and increased treatment period (10-

2441-2443 Download
33
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND EXPLANT TYPE ON CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN INDICA RICE
AMNA NOOR1, HAMID RASHID2, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN2 AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY3

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND EXPLANT TYPE ON CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN INDICA RICE
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of the research study is to select the best rice explant and variety for Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation studies. In vitro callus induction and regeneration frequency of two explants i.e. immature embryo and mature grains of 9 rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated by culturing explants source on N6 media supplemented with 2, 4-D at 2mg/l for callus induction. Results indicated that mature seed explant produced significantly high number of calli as compared to immature embryo. Two types of calli were distinguished, designated as type-I calli and type-II calli. Regarding the quality of callus, type-I calli (produced from scutellum of mature grains) which were embryogenic produced higher plant regeneration frequency than type-II calli which were non-embryogenic. Mature-seed scutella calli and immature embryo-derived calli (after three weeks of culture) of rice varieties were transferred on regeneration medium i.e., MS salts and vitamins, 3% sucrose, 3% sorbitol

2445-2449 Download
34
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-V. BALSAMINACEAE
RUBINA ABID, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-V. BALSAMINACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 11 taxa of the genus Impatiens L. belonging to the family Balsaminaceae, was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variation in macro and micro morphological characters in seeds was found quite significant for the taxonomic delimitation at specific and infraspecific levels.

2451-2456 Download
35
EFFECT OF SALINITY AND SILICON APPLICATION ON OXIDATIVE DAMAGE OF SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH.]
MOHAMMAD KAFI*, JAFAR NABATI, ALI MASOUMI AND MOHAMMAD ZARE MEHRGERDI

EFFECT OF SALINITY AND SILICON APPLICATION ON OXIDATIVE DAMAGE OF SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH.]
ABSTRACT:
Application of silicon (Si) to soil is considered as an alternative approach to alleviate salinity stress in crop plants. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Si application [control (without Si)

2457-2462 Download
36
MODULATION IN ACTIVITIES OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN SALT STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PLANTS RAISED FROM SEED TREARTED WITH TRIACONTANOL
SHAGUFTA PERVEEN1, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

MODULATION IN ACTIVITIES OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN SALT STRESSED AND NON-STRESSED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) PLANTS RAISED FROM SEED TREARTED WITH TRIACONTANOL
ABSTRACT:
2

2463-2468 Download
37
WINTER DROUGHT VARIATIONS BASED ON TREE-RING DATA IN GAOLIGONG MOUNTAIN, NORTHWESTERN YUNNAN, CHINA, A. D. 1795–2004
ZongShan Li1

WINTER DROUGHT VARIATIONS BASED ON TREE-RING DATA IN GAOLIGONG MOUNTAIN, NORTHWESTERN YUNNAN, CHINA, A. D. 1795–2004
ABSTRACT:
2*, Chunming Shi1, 3, Yongbo Liu1 , Jinlong Zhang1, Qibing Zhang1 and Keping Ma1

2469-2478 Download
38
DROUGHT TOLERANCE STUDIES THROUGH WSSI AND STOMATA IN UPLAND COTTON
MUHAMMAD JURIAL BALOCH1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, WAJID ALI JATOI1, GUL HASSAN2, ABDUL AZIZ KHAKHWANI3, ZAHOOR AHMAD SOOMRO1 AND NASREEN FATIMA VEESAR1

DROUGHT TOLERANCE STUDIES THROUGH WSSI AND STOMATA IN UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Water stress susceptibility index (WSSI) and stomatal conductance were used to determine the stress tolerance of 10 upland cotton cultivars during 2009 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in spilt plot design with irrigations as main plots and cultivars as sub-plots. Two irrigation treatments were used i.e. one has two irrigations (water stress) and other has eight irrigations (non-stress). Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences about WSSI for all the traits. Non-significant interaction between irrigations and cultivars for seed cotton yield and boll weight exhibited varietals stability over irrigation regimes, whereas significant interactions between above parameters for plant height and bolls per plant suggested genotypic instability over irrigation treatments for these traits. Overall, cultivars mean performance for all the traits in stress conditions was poor as compared to non-stress conditions, nevertheless some cultivars exhibited nonsignificant mean differences in both irrigation regimes, thus showing higher stress tolerance. The WSSI values of seed cotton yield as displayed in biplot revealed that cultivars CRIS-477, CRIS-483 and CRIS-486 were found highly susceptible to water stress. Cultivars CRIS-476, CRIS-482, CRIS-487 and NIAB-78 were characterized as highly susceptible with minimum production even under optimum irrigation conditions. Cultivar CRIS-9 was moderately tolerant as produced low production. However, cultivars CRIS-485 and CRIS-484 were found highly stress tolerant because of minimum WSSI value and lower stomatal conductance. Negative correlations between water stress and WSSI for seed cotton yield and plant height revealed that any increase in the degree of stress caused a corresponding decrease in WSSI.

2479-2484 Download
39
GRAIN QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT LINES HAVING DIFFERENTIAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY UNDER PROLONGED DROUGHT STRESS
FARYAD ALI1, NAEEM IQBAL1*, MAKHDOOM HUSSAIN2 AND JAVED ANWAR2

GRAIN QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT LINES HAVING DIFFERENTIAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY UNDER PROLONGED DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty wheat lines were tested for drought tolerance in terms of relative chemical composition and physical properties of grains. These wheat lines were selected on the basis of maintaining their photosynthetic potential under drought stress. There were two treatments of drought stress, normal irrigation and no irrigation throughout crop growth period. Exposure of wheat plants to continuous drought stress (rain fed) led to an increase in total proteins and gluten contents in grain. Grain zeleny concentration of water stressed plants was significantly lower than those of normally irrigated plants. Average grain diameter differed non-significantly but grain hardness decreased significantly in plants experiencing long term drought compared with drought untreated ones. A wheat lines had a differential response to water limited environment in terms of grain quality attributes and their performance was not dependent on their photosynthetic potential.

2485-2489 Download
40
DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF DIFFERENT BARLEY GENOTYPES GROWN IN KHYBER PAKHTUN KHWA PROVINCE USING RAPD MARKERS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MEHNAZ GHAFFAR2, MOHAMMAD SHAFI3 SALEEM KHAN2 AND BDUL LATIF4

DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF DIFFERENT BARLEY GENOTYPES GROWN IN KHYBER PAKHTUN KHWA PROVINCE USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Plant breeders in Pakistan mostly relied upon phenotypic traits as indices of genetic variation among different varieties which may genotypically be closely related or vice versa. The main objective of the current study was to determine genetic diversity among 12 different barley genotypes grown in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan, The results indicated that different barely genotypes showed various levels of polymorphism for the loci detected by seven RAPD primers. A total of 205 alleles were observed giving an average of 17.08 bands genotype-1. Among the seven primers used in the current study, primers C06 yielded on an average maximum number of bands (3.3) genotype-1. While primer G05 produced on an average minimum number of bands (1.75) genotype-1. Range of genetic distance observed was 0 to 60%. Maximum genetic distance was observed for genotype serial number 4 and 11 while 11 and 12 showed no genetic distance. Total average genetic distance calculated for all seven RAPD primers was 41.26%. Three major groups with at least two sub-groups were identified among these barely genotypes. Genotype serial number 3, 4 and 5 were found to be genetically related with a genetic distance of 13.0% and genotype serial number 4 and 11 were genetically very distant with 60% genetic distance. On the basis of dendrogram, these genotypes were grouped into three groups.

2491-2495 Download
41
TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) CULTIVARS TO THE MAJOR CHICKPEA HERBICIDES
M.I. KHAN1, G. HASSAN1, I. KHAN1, K.B. MARWAT1, N.U. KHAN2 AND R. GUL2

TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) CULTIVARS TO THE MAJOR CHICKPEA HERBICIDES
ABSTRACT:
Growing chickpea in sustainable systems requires the use and development of more adaptable genotypes which can adjust to the package of technology in vogue. Legumes are poor competitors with weeds. Hence repeated experiments were undertaken for quantifying the tolerance of chickpea cultivars with pre emergence herbicide pendimethalin 330E and post emergence herbicide fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 75 EW each at four doses. The chickpea varieties tested for tolerance were KC-98, Sheenghar, Lawaghir, KK-1, KK-2, SL-01-13, SL-02-13, SL-02-20, SL-02-22, SL-02-29, SL-03-29 and SL-04-29. Data were recorded on fresh and dry biomass of the germplasm. Sheenghar variety produced the best fresh weight (13.7 g) fol1owed by KC-98, Lawaghir and KK-1 (13.1

2497-2501 Download
42
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIVE LOQUAT GENOTYPES AT TRET, MURREE, PAKISTAN
AZHAR HUSSAIN, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ AND SYED ZIA UL HASAN

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIVE LOQUAT GENOTYPES AT TRET, MURREE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Five loquat genotypes were studied at Horticultural Research Sub-station Tret, Murree, Pakistan. Randomized Complete block Design was used and data was analysed statistically. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes in terms of fruit length, fruit width, width length index, fruit weight, flesh seed ratio, number of fruits / bunch, days from full bloom to maturity, number of seeds / fruit, individual seed weight and seed content / fruit. Tret4 was observed to be the best genotype having largest fruit (38.77g), highest flesh seed ratio (2.80) and yield / plant (54.93 kg). Tret5 remained at bottom with reference to flesh seed ratio of 2.11 and 33.71 kg yield / plant.

2503-2505 Download
43
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN RADISH GERMPLASM FOR MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI1*, ASIF JAVAID1, MUHAMMAD IQBAL2, OBAID ULLAH SAYAL2, M. SHAHID MASOOD1 AND SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI1

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN RADISH GERMPLASM FOR MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variation of forty-nine local and exotic radish genotypes including two checks was studied for morphological traits and seed storage protein electrophoresis using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) markers. A high variation in germplasm for root shape, root length, root colour (internal and external), flesh texture and root type was observed. Among these genotypes, the genetic variation was apparent for most of the characters like plant biomass, root weight, leaf length, root length and root diameter that indicated the potential for crop improvement in these traits through simple selection. Exotic germplasm exhibited higher variation for plant biomass, root weight and root length which could be utilized through breeding programme. Cluster analysis on the basis of genetic diversity for seven quantitative traits resulted into four clusters. No clustering was found on the basis of origin. Low level of variance was observed for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis that suggested acquisition of more germplasm. On the basis of high yield and crispy root texture some genotypes (10076

2507-2512 Download
44
PROBING GENETIC DIVERSITY TO CHARACTERIZE RED ROT RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE
ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ1*, DUR-E-NAYAB1, MUHAMMAD JAVED IQBAL2 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

PROBING GENETIC DIVERSITY TO CHARACTERIZE RED ROT RESISTANCE IN SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity was assessed in a set of twelve sugarcane genotypes using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of thirty-two oligo-primers were employed, sixteen of them revealed amplification at 149 loci, out of which 136 were polymorphic. The genotype SPSG-26 showed the highest number of polymorphic loci, followed by CSSG-668 and HSF-242. Pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 67.2% to 83.3%. The UPGMA cluster analysis resolved most of the accessions in two groups. The clustering pattern did not place all resistant varieties in one or related group which depict diverse resistance source in the present set of sugarcane varieties. Ten primers revealed genotype specific bands among which four primers (K07, H02, K10 and F01) produced multiple genotype specific bands that aid genotype identification especially those with red rot resistance. The present study not only provided information on the genetic diversity among the genotypes but also revealed the potential of RAPD-PCR markers for genotype identification and therefore could be utilized in marker assisted selection for red rot resistance in sugarcane.

2513-2517 Download
45
PHYSICAL AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF Ph1 GENE REGION ON THE LONG ARM OF CHROMOSOME 5B IN WHEAT AND RELATED CEREALS
UMMARA WAHEED KHAN AND MOHAMMAD MAROOF SHAH*

PHYSICAL AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF Ph1 GENE REGION ON THE LONG ARM OF CHROMOSOME 5B IN WHEAT AND RELATED CEREALS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic activity of Ph1 (pairing homoeologous) gene on the long arm of chromosome 5B, blocks chromosome pairing during meiosis in related genomes thus hindering the improvement in wheat on one hand but guaranteeing stability of the genome during its evolution on the other hand. Efforts have been made to clone this gene; however, complex nature of the wheat genome and low density of markers in the region may have been the prime reasons for no or low success in cloning this important gene. We aimed to enrich Ph1 gene region by identifying more markers through comparative mapping approaches. Twenty nine genetic linkage and 12 physical maps in Triticeae (oat, rice, rye, sugarcane, wheat, and barley) were used for comparative mapping. Thirteen anchored markers that were previously mapped in the Ph1 gene region were used to identify additional markers in and around the Ph1 gene region across Triticeae. Consensus physical and genetic linkage maps were generated in wheat and related species for the region. Using comparative mapping approaches, a total of 76 markers were identified in a rather larger gene rich region (GRR) ‘5L0.5’ that contains the Ph1 gene region. Of these 76 fifty six (56) were putatively mapped in 5L0.5 GRR whereas 33 were mapped in the Ph1 gene region. By comparing individual consensus physical and genetic linkage maps it was observed that the region is conserved among Triticeae and Poaceae from a poor to fairly high density. Saturation mapping in the Ph1 gene region will lead to eventually clone the gene which will have greater impact in biological processes of life systems.

2519-2525 Download
46
TRANSGENIC TOBACCO WITH RICE FAE GENE EXHIBITS HIGHER WATER USE EFFICIENCY
KHIZAR HAYAT BHATTI1,2,*, AMIN SHAH3, QAISER MEHMOOD4, SARDAR KHAN5, WUJIA HE2 AND HE CHAOZU2

TRANSGENIC TOBACCO WITH RICE FAE GENE EXHIBITS HIGHER WATER USE EFFICIENCY
ABSTRACT:
The rice FAE encodes protein for fatty acids elongation to form very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which are the intermediates for wax biosynthesis. Agrobacterium- mediated transgenic tobacco plants bear rice fatty acid elongation gene (OsFAE), which has been incorporated into their genome. Amino acids multiple sequences alignment analysis reveals that rice FAE protein has sequence similarity with other fatty acids elongation and wax related proteins, especially corn FAE. Phylogenetic tree, a bioinformatics tool shows that OsFAE has a close evolutionary origin with that of maize FAE. Sense sequence of rice FAE gene incorporation to transgenic rice has consequently resulted into relatively more cuticular wax on leaf surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) illustrates that transgenic tobacco leaves have phenotypically higher cuticular waxes than of control. Our findings also suggest that the transgenic tobacco exhibits more water use efficiency (WUE) at both the 90% and 35% field capacity (FC) levels under non-stress and stressful conditions, respectively.

2527-2533 Download
47
AN APPRAISAL OF RESISTANCE OF OLD AND NEW WHEAT GENOTYPES TO RED FLOUR BEETLE (TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST)
M.S. KHANZADA1, G.H. ABRO1*, T.S. SYED1, S.R. KHANZADA1, KHALIL A. KHANZADA2, SHAHJAHAN1, S. D. KHANZADA3 AND AKHLAQ AHMED4

AN APPRAISAL OF RESISTANCE OF OLD AND NEW WHEAT GENOTYPES TO RED FLOUR BEETLE (TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST)
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation, 30 varieties of wheat were used to study their resistance against Red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).The grains of all these varieties were obtained from Plant Breeding and Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam. Experiment was conducted in the laboratory at 29±2oC and 65±5% R.H. The standard of the samples of each variety used in the experiment was 1000 grains, kept in plastic jars (15 x 6 cm). Ten pairs of newly emerged adult flour beetles (both sexes in equivalent numbers) of uniform age from laboratory stocked culture were released in each jar. The results were evaluated on the bases of adult population development, percent grain damage and frass production, revealed that none of the genotype was completely resistant to the infestation of T. castaneum. All the varieties suffered losses, but their degree of resistance varied significantly. On the bases of pest population development, percent damage and frass production, the least damage was noted in variety Barani-70 and Bhittai and the highest damage was recorded in T21 and T16; hence these varieties were designated the most tolerant and the most susceptible varieties, respectively. The comparative resistance displayed by the wheat varieties, could be placed in the following order :< Barani-70 < Bhittai

2535-2541 Download
48
GENETIC DISPARITY AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG QUANTITATIVELY INHERITED YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN DIALLEL CROSSES OF UPLAND COTTON
MARYAM BIBI1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, FIDA MOHAMMAD1, ROZINA GUL1, ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI2, OBAID ULLAH SAYAL2, IJAZ AHMAD KHAN1 AND MUHAMMAD IDREES1

GENETIC DISPARITY AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG QUANTITATIVELY INHERITED YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN DIALLEL CROSSES OF UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
In quantitative genetics, development of high yielding genotypes from parental cultivars of same ancestry is some what confusing as compared to genetically diverse parents. However, sufficient recombinations through allelic variations in mating of closely-related populations result in superior agronomic performance. Development of improved cotton genotypes is one of the prime objectives of any cotton breeding programmes. Genetic divergence and yield potential of parental cotton genotypes versus their diallel hybrids, relationship of yield with various morpho-yield traits and their heritability were studied in 8 × 8 F1 diallel hybrids and their parental cultivars in Gossypium hirsutum L. during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p≤0.01) differences were observed among parental genotypes and F1 populations for all the traits. Results revealed that F1 hybrids i.e., CIM-506 × CIM-554, CIM-473 × CIM-554, CIM-446 × CIM-496 and CIM-446 × CIM-554 produced significantly higher number of sympodia, bolls per plant and seed cotton yield. Some F1 populations showed incredible performance for plant height, locules per boll and seeds per locule. Seed cotton yield manifested positive association with morpho-yield traits which also accounted for greater genetic variations to yield being dependent trait. Heritabilities (broad sense) were moderate to high in magnitude for all traits. Results revealed that F1 populations with larger genetic potential, positive relationship between yield and yield contributing traits and moderate to high heritability can guide intensive selection and improvement per se in segregating populations.

2543-2550 Download
49
ASSESSMENT OF PLANKTONIC DIVERSITY IN RIVER CHENAB AS AFFECTED BY SEWAGE OF MULTAN CITY
MUHAMMAD ISMAIL CHUGHTAI1,2, KHALID MAHMOOD1 AND ABDUL RASUL AWAN1

ASSESSMENT OF PLANKTONIC DIVERSITY IN RIVER CHENAB AS AFFECTED BY SEWAGE OF MULTAN CITY
ABSTRACT:
A study was carried out to investigate the monthly variations in planktonic life of river Chenab as affected by sewage of Multan City by analyzing frequency of occurrence, relative abundance and diversity index of plankton life. Density and diversity of plankton was used as a measure of water quality. Phytoplankton were abundant as compared to Zooplankton. Of the 86 Phytoplankton genera recorded

2551-2555 Download
50
CAUSES OF YIELD REDUCTION BY DELAYED PLANTING OF HEXAPLOID WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
MOHAMMAD AKMAL1, S.M. SHAH1, MUHAMMAD ASIM2 AND M. ARIF1

CAUSES OF YIELD REDUCTION BY DELAYED PLANTING OF HEXAPLOID WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Soil moisture availability at planting time of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is critical and can delay sowing if moisture is insufficient in a typical rainfed area. Shortening of vegetative growth (post emergence to pre flowering) by delay sowing can cause yield losses. We compared growth and yield of four wheat varieties viz., Inqilab 91, Bakhtawar 92, Nowshera 96 and Fakhre Sarhad planted at different dates; starting from Oct. 24 to Dec.11 with 15 days interval at the Research Farm, KP Agricultutal University Peshawar, Pakistan. Uniform cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. Fakhre Sarhad ranked the best (p<0.05) variety, followed by Nowshera 96, Bakhtawar 92 and Inqilab 91 for seed yield. However, each delay in sowing from Oct. 24 onwards decreased (p<0.05) seed yield. Emergence and tiller number by late sowing decreased. Rate and duration of linear growth stage (LGS) along with time of peak periods also differed for the varieties and sowing dates. The LGS duration among varieties differed from 28 to 54 for Inqilab 91, 30 to 60 for Bakhtawar 92, 48 to 75 for Nowshera 96 and 45 to 65 for Fakhre Sarhad by delaying sowing time which created significant differences in seed and biomass production. It was observed that crop growth rate and its duration in the LGS are in close association with dry matter and seed losses. Breeding efforts need to improve LGS of wheat variety to be recommended as rainfed variety for the area.

2561-2568 Download
51
COMBINATION OF FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF ROOT AND STEM ROT DISEASE OF SOYBEAN
D.S. MISHRA1, A.K. GUPTA2, C.R. PRAJAPATI3 AND U.S. SINGH4

COMBINATION OF FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL ANTAGONISTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF ROOT AND STEM ROT DISEASE OF SOYBEAN
ABSTRACT:
Trichoderma harzianum and plant growth promotory rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested alone and in combinations for their relative biocontrol potential against many soil-borne plant pathogens viz., Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina responsible for root and stem rot disease of soybean. Investigations under glass-house and field conditions revealed a general trend towards greater suppression and enhanced consistency against the pathogens by mixture of antagonists. Application of more than one antagonists of diverse origin is suggested as a reliable means of reducing the variability and increasing the reliability of biological control.

2569-2574 Download
52
THE INHIBITIVE EFFECTS OF GARLIC BULB CRUDE EXTRACT ON FULVIA FULVA OF TOMATO
WEI TING-TING1, CHENG ZHI-HUI1*, MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN1,2, MA QING3 AND HAN LING1

THE INHIBITIVE EFFECTS OF GARLIC BULB CRUDE EXTRACT ON FULVIA FULVA OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
The inhibitive effects of garlic bulb crude extract on Fulvia fulva in tomato were studied both In vitro and pot experiment. The results indicated that, the inhibitive rate to spore germination reached 96.08% and to mycelia growth increased to 100% when the concentrations of garlic extract reached to 40mg.mL-1 and 80mg.mL-1, respectively. The preventive and curative effects were 85.32% and 83.49% in young tomato leaves In vitro, 76.50% and 68.91% in function tomato leaves In vitro, 69.92% and 69.36% in bottom tomato leaves In vitro when the concentration of garlic was 80mg.mL-1. In pot trial, the preventive and curative effects on tomato seedlings reached 82.19% and 79.37%, respectively when garlic concentration increased to 160mg.mL-1, however, the higher concentrations of garlic bulb crude extract did not show any bad effects on growth of tomato in this experiment. In conclusion, garlic bulb crude extract is effective and environmental friendly for control of leaf mold in tomato caused by F. fulva.

2575-2580 Download
53
STUDY OF DRINKING WATER FUNGI AND ITS PATHOGENIC EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGS FROM DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
TANVEER HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ2*, ALTAF HUSSAIN2, KISHWAR SULTANA3

STUDY OF DRINKING WATER FUNGI AND ITS PATHOGENIC EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGS FROM DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pathogenic fungi of drinking water have potentially prevailing effects on human beings. Mycofloral study of drinking water of district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir was conducted through systematic sampling and temporally during the year 2009. Drinking water samples were collected from selected spots and fungal spores were grown on two different culture media viz: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and nutrient agar (NA) and identified by employing Direct Plate method (DPM) and Baiting Technique (BT). A total of 4 resources of drinking water of the area were analyzed i.e., well, spring, hand pump and tap water (water supply system). Sixteen different fungal species were frequently prevailing in the analyzed samples and among these five species were predominantly found human pathogenic. The density of identified fungal species in well’s water samples (WWS) was 11 spp. spring’s water samples (SWS) 6 spp. hand pump water samples (HWS) 8 spp. and tap water samples (TWS) 7 spp. This differential incidence in the samples might be due to variation in geography, edaphalogy, altitude, temperature, in fungal growth substrate variance and analytical difference of sampling and analysis methods. The prevalence values of mycolfora in different samples were variable with WWS Mucor fragilis (18a~LSD), SWS Brevilegnia sp. (20a~LSD), HWS Aspergillus flavus (14a~LSD) and TWS Alternaria alternata (12a~LSD). It was noted that WWS more frequently depicted mycoflora because land/well provides best environment and nourishment for growth and reproduction of fungi. The economic importance and pathogenic toxicity of various species is also measured and documented in the article.

2581-2585 Download
54
BIOSYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES BY BACILLUS SP. (MBLB-3) IN RELATION TO THE NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR*1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, M. ANJUM ZIA2, RUKHSANA JABEEN3 AND MUHAMMAD NAUMAN AFTAB4

BIOSYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES BY BACILLUS SP. (MBLB-3) IN RELATION TO THE NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the microbial biosynthesis of lipases by a strain of Bacillus sp. Fifteen strains were isolated from oily products. These strains were screened for the production of lipases by solid state fermentation in 250mL Erlenmeyer flasks. Of all the strains examined, MBLB-3 gave maximum production (20.4 ± 0.2a U/g) of lipases. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, cotton seed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal and mustard meal were used as substrates. Maximum extracellular lipase activity (33.9 ± 0.5a U/g) was observed when almond meal was used as the substrate and it was moistened with phosphate buffer (pH.8.0). The reaction was carried out by taking bacterial cells as a source of lipases in solid substrate fermentation. 0.5 % of Tween 80 was optimized for the maximum production (42.58 ± 0.8a U/g) of lipases. The above results revealed that the Bacillus lipase can be a good additive to be used in detergents.

2587-2591 Download
55
RELATIONSHIP OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS WITH TWO VIRAL DISEASES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR1*, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2 AND NASIR MAHMOOD CHEEMA3

RELATIONSHIP OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS WITH TWO VIRAL DISEASES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)
ABSTRACT:
Mungbean germplasm comprising 262 lines was evaluated for resistance and susceptibility of MYMV and ULCV. Data on 9 quantitative characters viz., branches per plant, Pod length, pods per plant, seeds per pod, grain yield per plant

2593-2595 Download
56
INFLUENCE OF HERBAL DYE EXTRACTED FROM DRY WOOD OF INDIGENOUS BERBERIS PACHYACANTHA KOCHNE IN PLANT HISTOLOGICAL STAINING
HIKMAT ULLAH JAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI*1 AND KHAN BAHADER MARWAT2

INFLUENCE OF HERBAL DYE EXTRACTED FROM DRY WOOD OF INDIGENOUS BERBERIS PACHYACANTHA KOCHNE IN PLANT HISTOLOGICAL STAINING
ABSTRACT:
The staining capacity of Berberis pachyacantha Kochne extract on histological sections of angiosperms stem was determined. A yellow pigment extracted from the powder of dried stem of B. Pachyacantha with different solvents. Staining dye was chemically extracted from the dry wood of Berberis pachyacantha Kochne in solvents like clove oil, ethanol, water, and its influence as histological staining agent for angiospermic plants was studied. The dye in 10% w/v clove oil was found more effective, showing high intensity to stain stem tissue of monocots ( Zea mays L.) section, while the dye extracted from wood of Berberis pachyacantha Kochne in 10% w/v ethanol was found highly effective and showing high intensity to stain stem tissue of dicot using Helianthus annuus L. stem cross section. Staining power of the extracted dye of Berberis pachyacantha Kochne with respect of different stem tissue was actually variable according to the solvent used, but they proved to be weak staining agent for parenchyma of both monocot and dicot stem tissue. The recognition of dynamic ingredients of dye will open a new way of research in the field of dyeing. Current research work would also be helpful to explore better solvents for the means of dye extraction. In the dye extracts further research on the analysis of the active chemical substances, improvement of colour imparting, the extracts shelf life, attribute through the preamble of mordant into the dye extract is convenient. Present breakthrough will go a long way in minimizing over-dependence on toxic, as well as synthetic, expensive and non available exotic stains in the future.

2597-2600 Download
57
GENETIC CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT, YIELD AND SOME YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1, KHALID PERVAIZ AKHTAR1, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR1, QUMER IQBAL1 AND ABDUL REHMAN KHAN1

GENETIC CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT, YIELD AND SOME YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.)
ABSTRACT:
Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F1 hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations.

2601-2605 Download
58
IDENTIFICATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN IRAN
KHOSROW CHEHRI, ELHAM MAGHSOUDLOU, MEHDI ASEMANI AND MOHAMMAD REZA MIRZAEI

IDENTIFICATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT IN IRAN
ABSTRACT:
In order to determine Fusarium species associated with wheat heads, 95 spike samples were collected from different geographic regions and wheat growing areas in the southwest, west, northwest and north of Iran during 2006-2008. Samples were collected from plants showing head scab symptoms. A total of 280 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified. All strains belonged to 19 Fusarium species according to morphological characters. All Fusarium strains were evaluated to test their pathogenicity on wheat which stands that F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides and F. chlamydosporum were the most pathogenic to wheat’s head. This report is the first in-depth study to identify of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Iran.

2607-2611 Download
59
IN VITRO BACTERICIDAL AND BACTERIOSTATIC POTENTIAL OF INGRIDIENTS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE OBTAINED FROM KACHA AREA (RIVER INDUS) DISTRICT D.I.KHAN, KPK, AGAINST HUMAN BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
ADNAN AMIN* AND M. AYAZ KHAN

IN VITRO BACTERICIDAL AND BACTERIOSTATIC POTENTIAL OF INGRIDIENTS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE OBTAINED FROM KACHA AREA (RIVER INDUS) DISTRICT D.I.KHAN, KPK, AGAINST HUMAN BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants obtained from kacha area of river indus, that are used as ingredients of traditional medicine for treatment of multiple infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of 5 medicinal plants of a traditional medicine were evaluated against 6 human gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcos luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogens. The disc diffusion and broth macro dilution assay was used to determine the zone of inhibitions and the minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. The ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were used as standard agents. Both aqueous and methanol fractions of all 5 tested plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active extract found was Azadirachta indica leaves which represented widest zone of inhibition of 16(±0.05) mm and minimum inhibitory concentration 0.19mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Calotropis procera leaves was found least active representing lowest Zones of inhibition 3.13(±0.05) mm and highest minimum inhibitory concentration value (20mg/ml) against test microorganisms. Over all methanol fractions of medicinal plants represented stronger biological activity against test microorganisms than aqueous extracts. A good majority of extracts were bactericidal. These results afford the ground information for potential use of crude extracts with high MIC and MBC values. Moreover a synergistic effect is expected when used in combination. For this further attempt are in progress to investigate antimicrobial potential of combination medicine.

2613-2617 Download
60
ADDITION OF A NEW GENUS FROM TURKEY INTO LIST OF FUNGI
SİNAN ALKAN*, GIYASETTİN KAŞIK AND SİNAN AKTAŞ

ADDITION OF A NEW GENUS FROM TURKEY INTO LIST OF FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
During the studies performed, a rare species known as decaying fungi was collected from Derebucak district (Konya) between 2005-2006, from altitude 1800 m. In the end of the laboratory process, this rare species was determined as Hydnocristella himantia (Schwein.) R.H. Petersen which grew particularly on died branches belonging to Abies species. The genus Hydnocristella R.H. Petersen is a new record for Turkish Mycota.

2619-2620 Download
61
DISTRIBUTION OF CELLULOLYTIC-THERMOPHILIC FUNGI ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS IN PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD MOHSIN JAVED1*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ1, IRFANA MARIYAM2 AND FAROOQ LATIF3

DISTRIBUTION OF CELLULOLYTIC-THERMOPHILIC FUNGI ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eighty seven different strains belonging to seven different types of thermophilic-cellulolytic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium thermophile var. dissitum, Humicola grisea var. thermoidea, Humicola insolens, Sporotrichum thermophile, Talaromyces duponti and Torula thermophila were isolated from different habitats of Sheikhupura, Khanewal, Sadiqabad and Jacobabad. A. fumigatus showed 88-100% frequency of occurrence in all habitats, but other cultures showed different frequency of occurrence in different habitats ranging from 33-100%. Results indicated that soil as habitat and Sheikhupura as a locality are the rich source of such fungi in Pakistan. Diversity indices showed that complete diversity exists. However

2621-2625 Download
62
EFFICACY AND PERSISTENCE OF MICOBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
FOUZIA YAQUB* AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

EFFICACY AND PERSISTENCE OF MICOBIAL ANTAGONISTS AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Sclerotium rolfsii showed significant negative effect on plant growth due to severe root colonization, whereas, presence of the microbial antagonists showed significant positive effect on plant growth by reducing the colonization of roots by S. rolfsii. Highest root colonization by S. rolfsii and significant reduction in plant growth were observed in sunflower and mungbean plants growing in soil artificially infested with sclerotia of S. rolfsii. Use of biocontrol agents in S. rolfsii infested soil showed significant reduction in Root Colonization Index accompanied by increase in plant growth. Bradyrhizobium sp., was found most effective (p<0.01) followed by Rhizobium sp., Trichoderma harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, T. polysporum and T. virens.

2627-2634 Download
63
EVALUATING BLB RESISTANCE / AGGRESSIVNESS IN RICE THROUGH BEST INOCULUM CONCENTRATION, INOCULATION AND APPLICATION METHODS
RUKHSANA JABEEN 1*, SAEED UR RAHMAN2 AND AFROS RAIS3

EVALUATING BLB RESISTANCE / AGGRESSIVNESS IN RICE THROUGH BEST INOCULUM CONCENTRATION, INOCULATION AND APPLICATION METHODS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to compare effective method of inoculation, inoculum concentration and application of agrochemicals for evaluating BLB resistance/ aggressiveness and management of BLB disease in rice susceptible varieties through detached leaf assay, Glass house assay and field assay against most aggressive isolate Xoo 105. A comparison of inoculation methods showed that pin prick method produced high infection in all cultivars than clipping and paint brush methods. The pin prick method significantly produced high lesion length on detached leaves as compared to other two methods, while clipping method of inoculation showed high infection producing large lesion in potted plant and field assays. Protective application methods of streptomycin drug showed best results as compare to curative and promising concentration of 108cfu /ml.

2635-2638 Download
64
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MOISTURE AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF MAIZE
ISHRAT NIAZ1, SHAHNAZ DAWAR1 AND UZMA SITARA2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MOISTURE AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Maize seeds with 8

2639-2643 Download
65
GIEMSA N- BANDING PATTERN IN HORDEUM MURINUM
BUSHREEN JAHAN AND AHSAN A. VAHIDY*

GIEMSA N- BANDING PATTERN IN HORDEUM MURINUM
ABSTRACT:
Giemsa N-banding pattern in some tetraploid taxon of Hordeum murinum was studied. An ideogram was developed for each studied taxon of Hordeum murinum for the description of individual N-bands. N-banded karyotype of tetraploid taxa of H. murinum had 4-6 bands per chromosome, subsp. murinum showed 5 and subsp. leporinum 6 bands per chromosome on an average. Most of the bands were intercalary. The pattern showed high levels of band heteromorphism and banding pattern polymorphism but heteromorphisms were not observed between homologous chromosomes within these taxa.

2645-2651 Download
66
GRAIN YIELD STABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) ACROSS ENVI RONMENTS
AHMAD BAKHSH1,*, LAL HUSSAIN AKHTAR2, SHAHID RIAZ MALIK1, ASIF MASOOD1, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL1 AND RAMATULLAH QURESHI3

GRAIN YIELD STABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) ACROSS ENVI RONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Genotype ´ environment interaction (G x E) is a major constraint to identify single superior genotype for a number of variable environments. In order to quantify G ´ E interaction effect on grain yield in chickpea

2947-2951 Download
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