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Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue SI
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1
DNA BARCODING AS A MEANS FOR IDENTIFYING MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
M. SCHORI* AND A.M. SHOWALTER

DNA BARCODING AS A MEANS FOR IDENTIFYING MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or “barcode” that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry.

1-4 Download
2
EFFORTS ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1 AND M. QAISER2

EFFORTS ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Since the beginning of civilization, and perhaps as early as Neanderthal man, people have used plants as medicine. Evidence indicates that people used plants to cure themselves, e.g. Chinese Emperor (2800 BC); Babylon (1770 BC); Ancient Egypt (1550 BC). Islamic and Indian physicians also wrote many works prior to 1100 AD and the Seals from the Harappan site in Pakistan (2000 BC) also indicate use of plants. New aspects of medicinal plants need to be studied. For example, we should address the question “why plant diversity declines, when plants with weedy traits become more abundant”. This is consequently followed by, species that have traits permitting their persistence in degraded and species-poor ecosystems which are likely to carry high pathogen and vector burdens. Indigenous communities of Pakistan play a vital role in conservation of medicinal plants. Intentionally or unintentionally, people have evolved strategies for doing so in the form of rituals, beliefs and taboos. Various traditional harvesting methods described in one of the study suggest that they were efficient to utilize the natural resources. Our efforts are towards not only providing food security, nutrition and health care to the tribal people, but also to recover, record and diffuse local botanical knowledge and wisdom.

5-10 Download
3
MEDICINAL PLANT COLLECTION AND TAXONOMIC IDENTIFICATION
S. I. ALI

MEDICINAL PLANT COLLECTION AND TAXONOMIC IDENTIFICATION
ABSTRACT:
All the world over, plants and plant products have been used for the treatment of human sufferings and diseases. Problems involved at the level of collection, storage, over-exploitation, cultivation of medicinal plants by conventional methods and through in vitro cultures are discussed. The significance of the voucher specimens and above all the reliability of the identification of medicinal plants is pointed out.

11-13 Download
4
WATER STRESS MEDIATED CHANGES IN GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES OF DESI AJWAIN (TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI L.)
NAZILA AZHAR1, BILAL HUSSAIN1, MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF2 AND KARIM YAR ABBASI1

WATER STRESS MEDIATED CHANGES IN GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES OF DESI AJWAIN (TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI L.)
ABSTRACT:
Biotic and abiotic stresses exert a considerable influence on the production of several secondary metabolites in plants; water stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors. This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of drought stress on growth, physiology and secondary metabolite production in desi ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Plants were grown in pots and three drought levels (100%, 80% and 60%) of field capacity were created. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Data on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were recorded and analyzed statistically. Physiological parameters like transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly with increasing water stress levels, but internal CO2 concentration increased. The photosynthetic rate showed non-significant reduction from 100% field capacity to 80% field capacity but increased at 60% field capacity. Growth parameters including plant height, herb fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly with increasing stress levels, while total phenolic contents and chlorophyll contents increased under water stress conditions. These results suggest that cultivation of medicinal plants like desi ajwain under drought stress could enhance the production of secondary metabolites.

15-19 Download
5
IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION IN SINAPIS ALBA AND EVALUATION OF ITS RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY
BILAL HAIDER ABBASI1*, ABDUR RASHID1, MUBARAK ALI KHAN1, MOHAMMAD ALI1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1, NISAR AHMAD1, TARIQ MAHMOOD2

IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION IN SINAPIS ALBA AND EVALUATION OF ITS RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
Feasible regeneration protocols and the antioxidant activity of regenerated tissues of an economically important plant, Sinapis alba, were evaluated and compared with seed-derived plantlets. Shoot regeneration was achieved from four-week-old seed-derived leaf explants, cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with several plant growth regulators (PGRs). Optimum (89%) callogenic response was observed for 1.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) followed by other PGRs. After three weeks of culture, subsequent sub-culturing of callus into MS medium with similar concentrations of PGRs induced shoot regeneration. Highest shoot regeneration frequency (85%) was recorded for 5.0 mg/l BA after six weeks of sub-culture. Highest (6.3) shoots/explant were recorded for 2.0 mg/l BA. Incorporation of 1.0 mg/l NAA into MS medium containing 5.0 mg/l BA produced shoots 5.8 cm long. In this study, BA was found to be the optimal PGR for induction of callus and shoot regeneration in Sinapis alba. Rooted plantlets from elongated shoots were transferred into MS medium containing different concentrations of indole butyric acid (IBA). Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of regenerated tissues was evaluated by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. Regenerated shoots showed significantly higher radical scavenging activity than other tissues tested. This study contributes to a better understanding of the different mechanisms involved in morphogenesis and production of biologically active components in Sinapis alba.

21-27 Download
6
ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES, GENETIC AND CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS OF A MEDICINAL PLANT, JUSTICIA ADHATODA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS CONSERVATION
SYED ABDULLAH GILANI1*, YOSHIHARU FUJII2, AKIRA KIKUCHI1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3 AND KAZUO N. WATANABE1

ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES, GENETIC AND CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS OF A MEDICINAL PLANT, JUSTICIA ADHATODA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Justicia adhatoda from Kohat Plateau was selected for genetic diversity studies, due to its fragmented habitat, importance in traditional and pharmaceutical medicine and a lack of population structure studies. We had two hypotheses: that habitat loss posed a greater threat to populations than loss of genetic diversity, and that chemical diversity would be higher among different populations than within populations. Genetic diversity within and among populations was evaluated using PBA (P450 based analogue) markers. AMOVA analysis revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within populations (90%) than among populations (10%). No genetic drift was observed, i.e., genetic diversity within populations was maintained despite fewer numbers of individuals in fragmented populations. Surveys of J. adhatoda populations revealed that they were growing in harsh conditions and were imperiled due to extensive harvesting for commercial and domestic purposes. Chemical diversity was evaluated by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry) analysis of 90% methanol and 1:2 chloroform:methanol extracts. GC-MS analysis of both the extracts showed nine and 18 chemical compounds, respectively, with higher chemical variations among populations. It is therefore recommended that efforts for the conservation of severely fragmented populations of J. adhatoda must be carried out along with sustainable harvesting.

29-37 Download
7
MEDICINAL FLORA OF THE CHOLISTAN DESERT: A REVIEW
MANSOOR HAMEED1,*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2, F. AL-QURIANY2, TAHIRA NAWAZ1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1, ADNAN YOUNIS3,, NARGIS NAZ1

MEDICINAL FLORA OF THE CHOLISTAN DESERT: A REVIEW
ABSTRACT:
The Cholistan desert can be divided into two distinct regions on the basis of topography, soil type and texture, and vegetation structure: the northern Lesser Cholistan and southern Greater Cholistan. The desert is characterized by large saline compacted areas with alluvial clay, sandy ridges and dunes, and semi-stabilized to frequently shifting dunes. The climate is sub-tropical, harsh, hot and arid, and influenced by seasonal monsoons. Vegetation cover on the sand dunes is comprised by a few tussock-forming grasses including Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum turgidum and Lasiurus scindicus, along with perennial shrubs Calligonum polygonoides, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Aerva javanica. Interdunal flats are dominated by grasses, mainly Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Sporobolus ioclados, Panicum antidotale, and Ochthochloa compressa, and tall shrubs Calligonum polygonoides and Capparis decidua. Vegetation of saline patches is specific, dominated by halophytes mainly belonging to family Chenopodiaceae (Amaranthaceae). Many plants of the Cholistan desert, including Neurada procumbens, Aerva javanica, Capparis decidua, Cleome brachycarpa, Dipterygium glaucum, Gisekia pharnacioides, Suaeda fruticosa, Achyranthes aspera, Aerva javanica, Alhagi maurorum, Calotropis procera, Capparis decidua, Zaleya pentandra, Mollugo cerviana, Ziziphus mauritiana, Boerhavia procumbens, Cressa cretica and Crotalaria burhia, are frequently used by the local inhabitants to cure chronic and acute diseases. A variety of medicinally important chemical compounds have been extracted and identified from the plants of the Cholistan desert, including terpenes and triterpenoids, sterols and steroids, phenolics, flavonoids, gums and resins, quinones, anthocyanidines, saponins, antioxidants and fatty acids. Habitat degradation, intensive agricultural practices and overexploitation of resources pose a serious threat to the diversity of ethnobotanically important plant species. Allopathic medicines are generally highly priced and out of reach for many of the desert inhabitants. Herbal medicines are preferentially used by local people because they are cheaper than allopathic medicines and have relatively few side effects. Therefore, it is imperative to devise strategies to meet the increasing demand for medicinal plants, not only for the local inhabitants but also for international markets. Institutional support, therefore, can play a decisive role in improving the medicinal plant sector while providing financial support, cultivation and conservation of some important medicinal plants and promoting the domestic and international market systems.

39-50 Download
8
CHEMISTRY OF SOME SPECIES GENUS LANTANA
HIDAYAT HUSSAIN1*, JAVID HUSSAIN1,2*, AHMED AL-HARRASI1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

CHEMISTRY OF SOME SPECIES GENUS LANTANA
ABSTRACT:
This review presents the currently known phytochemical constituents of the genus Lantana; a total of 160 natural compounds have been included. Lantana is free from diterpenoids and rich in essential oils. Monoterpenes, triterpenes, flavones coumarin, steroids, iridoid glycosides, and caffeic acid derivatives are reported from Lantana. Triterpenes and flavones are the more common secondary metabolites in Lantana. Lantana plants are used in folk medicine in many parts of the world. The genus Lantana also produces a number of metabolites in high quantities and some have been shown to possess useful biological activities. The ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicity of Lantana are considered. The biological activities exhibited by some of the metabolites are discussed and the results of recent studies on the triterpene inhibitors of human a-thrombin discovered in this plant are presented.

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9
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND DPPH-SCAVENGING ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR HERBAL FORMULATION IN PAKISTAN
HINA FAZAL1, 3*, NISAR AHMAD2 AND MIR AJAB KHAN1

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND DPPH-SCAVENGING ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR HERBAL FORMULATION IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The active parts of 11 medicinal plants were analyzed for physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical determination and antioxidant activity. The physico-chemical evaluation revealed that highest water soluble extractive was from Origanum vulgare (38%), highest chloroform extractive was from Psoralea corylifolia (21%); highest ethanolic extractive was that of Acorus calamus (11%) and the highest hexane extractive value was for Arnebia nobilis (9.8%). The total ash content evaluation indicated that Achillea millefolium yielded (20.2 %) and Rauvolfia serpentina yielded (41.6%); these values are much higher than the standard ash values for these plants indicating that these drugs are highly adulterated and substandard. The highest essential oil was yielded by Acorus calamus (3.2%). The highest saponin percentage was analyzed in Acorus calamus (8.9%), while the alkaloids percentage was determined at 21% in Peganum harmala. Among all the plants assessed for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the maximum activity was shown by Paeonia emodi (85.8%), followed by Achillea millefolium (81.7%) and Origanum vulgare (80.3%).

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10
SEASONAL VARIATION IN SOME MEDICINAL AND BIOCHEMICAL INGREDIENTS IN MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) HUDS.
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD2*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2 AND MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF4

SEASONAL VARIATION IN SOME MEDICINAL AND BIOCHEMICAL INGREDIENTS IN MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) HUDS.
ABSTRACT:
Shoots of Mentha longifolia, collected during different seasons from a natural habitat (Knotti Garden in the Soone Valley of the Salt Range), were evaluated for some key medicinal/biochemical ingredients. Plant samples were analyzed for dry matter, fiber, fat, protein, net free energy (NFE), nitrogen free extractable substances (NFES), macro- (Na, N, Ca, K, P) and micro-nutrients (Zn, Mg, Fe, Cu), and alkaloid, flavonoid and phenolic contents. Total fats, proteins, NFE, NFES, macronutrients (Na, N, Ca, K and P), alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolics generally increased while dry matter, fiber, total minerals, and micro-nutrients (Zn, Mg, Fe and Cu) decreased with increasing maturity of plants in autumn followed by winter. The multivariate analysis (RDA) revealed a significant correlation of most of the biochemicals analyzed such as fat, protein, NFE, phenolics, flavonoids and certain minerals such as N, P and Ca with the winter season. In contrast, dry matter, total mineral, total fiber, and Cu and Fe were strongly influenced by the summer season. However, Mg and Zn contents were similarly affected by both autumn and summer. The autumn season had the least effect on the biochemical ingredients of Mentha and only moisture, K and alkaloid contents were associated with this season. The NFES and Na contents showed a slight correlation with each of the seasons as they were almost uniformly influenced by autumn as well as winter. Such temporal variations in biochemical ingredients appeared to be correlated with plant maturity, soil moisture contents and temperature effects during different seasons. It was concluded that the best harvesting season for maximum medicinal ingredients was winter followed by summer and the autumn season was least effective in this regard.

69-77 Download
11
TRADITIONAL DRUG THERAPIES FROM VARIOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CENTRAL KARAKORAM NATIONAL PARK, GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN¹,², ASGHARI BANO¹*, FAIZAN ULLAH¹

TRADITIONAL DRUG THERAPIES FROM VARIOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CENTRAL KARAKORAM NATIONAL PARK, GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m.

79-84 Download
12
ANTIOXIDANT, ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEDERA NEPALENSIS K.KOCH, AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT FROM PAKISTAN
SIMAB KANWAL1, NAZIF ULLAH1, IHSAN-UL-HAQ1, IMRAN AFZAL2 AND BUSHRA MIRZA1*

ANTIOXIDANT, ANTITUMOR ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEDERA NEPALENSIS K.KOCH, AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Hedera nepalensis is a ground-creeping evergreen woody plant growing mainly in the Himalayas and Kashmir. This plant is frequently used in folk medicines for the treatment of various ailments. The present research focused on the pharmacological evaluation and phytochemical analysis of crude methanolic extract (CME) and three fractions, n-hexane (n-HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF). The biological assays used for this study included DPPH free radical scavenging assay, DNA protection assay and potato disc antitumor assay. Maximum antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 9.834 ppm and 14.22 ppm were shown by EAF and AQF, respectively. Crude methanolic extract (CME) and the fractions also exhibited significant DNA protection activity in •OH induced DNA damage assay, at all the concentrations tested. Both EAF and AQF showed well-defined tumor inhibition in the potato disc antitumor assay, with the lowest IC50 values shown by EAF and AQF (less than 1 ppm). Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in the crude extract and its fractions. The present study demonstrated that EAF and AQF of Hedera nepalensis have potent antioxidant and antitumor activity with the presence of effective phytochemicals.

85-89 Download
13
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND TRACE MINERALS OF BLACK MULBERRY (MORUS NIGRA L.) FRESH JUICE
NAUMAN KHALID1, SARDAR ATIQ FAWAD2 AND IFTIKHAR AHMED3*

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND TRACE MINERALS OF BLACK MULBERRY (MORUS NIGRA L.) FRESH JUICE
ABSTRACT:
In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 µg/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 µg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 µmol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10µmol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals.

91-96 Download
14
RESIDUAL VALUE ANALYSES OF THE MEDICINAL FLORA OF THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS: THE NARAN VALLEY, PAKISTAN
SHUJAUL MULK KHAN1*, DAVID HARPER1, SUE PAGE2, HABIB AHMAD3

RESIDUAL VALUE ANALYSES OF THE MEDICINAL FLORA OF THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS: THE NARAN VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Statistical analyses of the medicinal flora of the Naran Valley in the Western Himalayas were performed using Moerman’s methods and Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results demonstrate that the valley’s indigenous people utilize medicinal plants in a systematic way. Sixty-eight families of plants were identified during the study, of which 52 contained one or more species of medicinal value. The standard deviation for residual values of all the 68 families was 0.993 and the results of the residual analysis revealed that seven of these plant families were overused by the local people, indicated by residual values greater than the standard deviation. Residual values obtained from a regression analysis of plant species with their medicinal uses showed that the families with the highest rank were Polygonaceae, Gentianaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, indicating their medicinal importance. By comparison, Poaceae, Boraginaceae, Primulaceae, Salicaceae, and Ranunculaceae were the lowest ranking families, containing few species of medicinal value. Although a few of the most species-rich families in the valley contained a high number of medicinal plants and hence displayed high residual values, some other species-rich families contained few or no species of medicinal value. For example, the third largest family, Poaceae, is the lowest in terms of its residual value, while the largest family, Asteraceae, contains only seven species noted as having medicinal uses. Sixteen plant families in the valley contained no species with reported medicinal use, while seven families contained only one species with medicinal value. In contrast, all of the species in several of the least species-rich families were recorded as having a medicinal use. The results of a Principal Components Analysis showed a gradient of medicinal plant use along the valley. Using robust statistical approaches, our study provides a clear indication that the indigenous people of this Western Himalayan valley utilize wild plants according to their traditional knowledge and not on the basis of plant abundance.

97-104 Download
15
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS FROM NEELUM, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ADEEL MAHMOOD1, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3 AND AQEEL MAHMOOD4

ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS FROM NEELUM, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study documents the ethnobotanical values of the most commonly used plants of the Neelum Valley, AJK, Pakistan and reports on the indigenous knowledge of different communities of the study area. A total 40 plant species belonging to 31 families were found to be valuable for medicinal, food, fodder/forage, fuel, timber, shelter and agricultural purposes. Local people used indigenous plants for their common day ailments. Plant species were used to treat various ailments: stomach (25%), diarrhea, cough, cold and rheumatism (16%), piles (12.5%), asthma (11%), diabetes, jaundice and toothaches (7.5%), liver and gastric problems (5%), small tumors, hepatitis and allergies (2.5%).

105-110 Download
16
MEDICINAL PLANTS - A POTENT ANTIBACTERIAL SOURCE AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT (BLB) OF RICE
RUKHSANA JABEEN

MEDICINAL PLANTS - A POTENT ANTIBACTERIAL SOURCE AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT (BLB) OF RICE
ABSTRACT:
The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid.

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17
ANALGESIC AND ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITY OF CLEOME VISCOSA L.
SALMAN AHMED, MUNNAWAR SULTANA, MUHAMMAD MOHTASHEEM UL HASAN* AND IQBAL AZHAR

ANALGESIC AND ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITY OF CLEOME VISCOSA L.
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of Cleome viscosa are used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of many diseases in Asia. This study evaluated fixed oil from the seeds of Cleome viscosa for analgesic and antiemetic activity by using the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice (intraperitoneally) and chick emetic model (oral treatment) respectively. The results showed significant analgesic and antiemetic activities of Cleome viscosa fixed oil.

119-122 Download
18
IN VITRO INHIBITION POTENTIAL OF FOUR CHENOPOD HALOPHYTES AGAINST MICROBIAL GROWTH
SAMIULLAH1 AND ASGHARI BANO1*

IN VITRO INHIBITION POTENTIAL OF FOUR CHENOPOD HALOPHYTES AGAINST MICROBIAL GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation deals with antibacterial and antifungal activities of four selected halophytes belonging to family Chenopodiaceae. Crude methanolic extracts from leaves of Suaeda fruticosa Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel., Atriplex leucoclada Boiss., Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq.) Bunge ex Boiss., and Salicornica virginica L. were used in two concentrations (100 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml) against four bacterial (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6059, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 7221 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) and two fungal strains (Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans). These halophytes were collected from District Mardan. Plant extracts were less effective against selected bacterial and fungal strains in comparison to chloramphenicol and terbinafine. Extracts from Haloxylon salicornicum and Salicornica virginica showed less activity against bacterial and fungal species than extracts from Suaeda fruticosa and Atriplex leucoclada.

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19
SPECIES RICHNESS, ETHNOBOTANICAL SPECIES RICHNESS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALONG A HIMALAYAN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT: PRIORITIZING PLANT CONSERVATION IN PALAS VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ZAFEER SAQIB1

SPECIES RICHNESS, ETHNOBOTANICAL SPECIES RICHNESS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALONG A HIMALAYAN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT: PRIORITIZING PLANT CONSERVATION IN PALAS VALLEY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
2*, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2, MUHAMMAD IBRAR SHINWARI1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

129-133 Download
20
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF KOHAT PASS (PAKISTAN)
SHEHLA SHINWARI1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2 AND ELIAS BAYDOUN3

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF KOHAT PASS (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to collect information on how people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous plants. For this purpose, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Kohat Pass, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. The study revealed that there were 60 plants belonging to 49 genera and 30 families which are being used to overcome six use categories by the natives. Most of the species (90%) were used as cruse medicine, followed by food (31.7%) and fodder & fuel (25%). An ethnobotanical inventory along with their local names is provided in this communication.

135-139 Download
21
AUTHENTICATION OF HERBAL MEDICINE NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS.) BY USING TAXONOMIC AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
SHAZIA SULTANA, MIR AJAB KHAN, MUSHTAQ AHMAD, ASGHARI BANO, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI*

AUTHENTICATION OF HERBAL MEDICINE NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS.) BY USING TAXONOMIC AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
The quality assurance of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.), a traditional herbal drug of global importance used for the treatment of different ailments, was studied. At global, regional, national and local levels, the end users of this drug face the problem of adulteration. Two different species are commercially marketed in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent under the same trade name of Neem. One is Azadirachta indica and the other is Melia azedarach L., both belonging to Meliaceae. In this study, a commercially available drug sample of Neem was authenticated by using basic and advanced Taxonomic and pharmacognostic analysis. Authentication, quality and standardization of this drug were achieved using morphology, organoleptography, pharmacogonistic markers, UV and IR analyses, SEM of pollen and anatomical investigations. This study contributes towards the global recognition and international acceptance of Neem as an herbal drug.

141-150 Download
22
MAJOR PHENOLIC ACIDS OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC MINT GERMPLASM GROWN IN ISLAMABAD
RIFFAT TAHIRA1*, MUHAMMAD NAEEMULLAH1, FAZAL AKBAR2 AND MUHAMMAD SHAHID MASOOD1

MAJOR PHENOLIC ACIDS OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC MINT GERMPLASM GROWN IN ISLAMABAD
ABSTRACT:
Phenolic acids have gained considerable interest during the past few years, owing to their potential health benefits from antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. During this investigation, selected phenolic acid (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ferulic acid and eugenol) concentrations were determined in fifteen local and exotic mint genotypes grown in the Islamabad area, using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Statistically significant (p>0.01) differences in concentrations were observed for caffeic, rosmarinic and ferulic acid while eugenol concentrations showed non-significant variation. Rosmarinic and caffeic acid were the major phenolic acids detected in mint germplasm. Ferulic acid was also detected in considerable concentrations in local mint cultivars. The presented data suggest that mints have the potential to be used as dietary sources of caffeic, rosmarinic and ferulic acids.

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23
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN HERBAL PRODUCTS USED IN PAKISTAN
CYNTHIA WALTER1, ZABTA K. SHINWARI2, IMRAN AFZAL2 AND RIFFAT N. MALIK1

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN HERBAL PRODUCTS USED IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Antibacterial activity was examined in three herbal products and from ten selected medicinal plants: Ziziphus vulgaris, Malva sylvestris, Onosma bracteatum, Hyssopus officinalis, Ephedra gerardiana, Cordia latifolia, Althaea officinalis, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Justica adhatoda. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar well diffusion method; crude extracts were obtained by using methanol as the extraction solvent. Five concentrations (15 mg/ml

155-162 Download
24
SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ANALYSIS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC ESSENTIAL OIL
ADNAN YOUNIS*, AQSA MEHDI AND ATIF RIAZ

SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ANALYSIS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC ESSENTIAL OIL
ABSTRACT:
Jasmine essential oil is one of the most expensive oils that was used in cosmetics, the pharmaceutical industry, perfumery and aromatherapy. It has therapeutic properties and can be used as an analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic and stimulant. In the present study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was exploited to extract essential oil constituents from 20 kg jasmine flowers at closed bud and open flower stages. Results indicated that flowers harvested at the open stage yielded more absolute oil than those harvested at the closed bud stage. Slight variations in physical properties like refractive index, congealing point, optical rotation, and specific gravity were recorded in the essential oil extracted from flowers harvested at different stages. Gas chromatography of the jasmine oil was carried out to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the oil constituents. Major compounds identified were citronellol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, geranial, eugenol, farnesol, geranyl acetate, citrinyl acetate

163-168 Download
25
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS OF ECLIPTA ALBA BY WELL DIFFUSION METHOD
JEHAN BAKHT1*, AMJAD ISLAM1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS OF ECLIPTA ALBA BY WELL DIFFUSION METHOD
ABSTRACT:
The susceptibility of nine microbial species to an antimicrobial extract from Eclipta alba was screened using the well diffusion assay. Three different volumes (24, 30 and 36 µl/well) were tested. Analysis of the data revealed that all extracts from Eclipta alba showed antimicrobial activities. An N-butanol fraction showed inhibitory activities against all nine microbial species. Samples extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol or water had varying levels of inhibition against some of these microorganisms. The most resistant microbial strain was Salmonella typhi when tested against petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and water extracted samples. The most susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis, which was inhibited by all six extracts from Eclipta alba, while the most resistant Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus cereus. Erwinia carotovora was the most susceptible Gram-negative bacterium, while Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were highly resistant among the Gram-negative bacteria.

169-174 Download
26
PHYTOTHERAPY: RESEARCH GAPS IN PAKISTAN
ABDUL GHAFOOR*, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI, SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI AND MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI

PHYTOTHERAPY: RESEARCH GAPS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have a long history of traditional use in Pakistan. The country has a unique and diverse herbal flora, but modern use of herbal treatments in health care is limited by many factors, including possessiveness of herbalists, superstitious mythologies, unrealistic understanding, non-consistent diagnostics, non-sharing of herbal treatments formulations, rigidness of methodologies and unethical collaborative schemes. In order to modernize and fully utilize herbal treatments, all stakeholders must work together in a concerted effort. In this manuscript, we propose a plan that outlines the gaps at three levels and provide a model to bridge these gaps. We need to have a precise research model starting from collection, following through production, and ending with medicine formulations for curing ailments. Only with such a model will Pakistan be able to develop new and effective phytotherapies from its own rich flora.

175-182 Download
27
ESTIMATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM (LEYSS. EX FR.) KARST. EXTRACTS
GHAZALA NASIM* AND MUHAMMAD ALI

ESTIMATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM (LEYSS. EX FR.) KARST. EXTRACTS
ABSTRACT:
Ganoderma belongs to a group of fungi with reported potent bioactive properties. Six different local isolates of G. lucidum were collected from Lahore. Ethanol extracts of the Ganoderma lucidum isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial potential. The extracts of the mycelia from G-1, G-3 and G-5 exhibited maximal potency against Xanthomonas sp., while G-2 and G-4 reduced the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp., respectively.

183-189 Download
28
NARC-Kalonji: An early maturing and high yielding Variety OF NIGELLA SATIVA released for Cultivation in Pakistan
MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI*, ABDUL GHAFOOR AND MUHAMMAD SHAHID MASOOD

NARC-Kalonji: An early maturing and high yielding Variety OF NIGELLA SATIVA released for Cultivation in Pakistan
ABSTRACT:
Kalonji (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant investigated recently for its potential as a crop in Pakistan. NARC-Kalonji has been developed by the Institute of Agri-Biotechnology & Genetic Resources, National Agricultural Research Center (IABGR, NARC), Islamabad. A promising line was selected from indigenous germplasm collected from the Lahore area during 2002-2003 and was given the number MP120. After preliminary screening of 32 accessions, four elite lines were selected as promising genotypes on the basis of per row seed yield. These four accessions were grown over an area of 60 m2 in plots during 2003-2004 using standard cultural practices. Significant differences in per acre yield were observed among the four accessions. Based upon two years of field evaluation at NARC, Islamabad, accession MP120 was selected for further testing for its seed yield and oil contents. Seed yield of NARC-Kalonji ranged between 290 and 333 kg/acre under field conditions at NARC, Islamabad. Seed of this accession was multiplied and trialed in diverse areas of Punjab before it was recommended as a new variety. The performance of the variety was assessed in the irrigated areas of Bahawalpur, Bhakkar, Faisalabad, Hasilpur, Lahore, Multan, and Vehari under adaptability trials conducted between 2005 and 2007. Seed yield at farmers’ fields varied from 235 to 370 kg/acre during the last three years of testing at various sites. Although fertilizer application had a positive effect on biological yield, there was no significant effect on the economic yield. It was observed that Kalonji could be successfully cultivated in most parts of the country during the months of October and November.

191-195 Download
29
EFFICACY EVALUATION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA, CALOTROPIS PROCERA, DATURA STRAMONIUM AND TAGETES ERECTA AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA
MUHAMMAD ARSHAD HUSSAIN1, TARIQ MUKHTAR2* AND MUHAMMAD ZAMEER KAYANI3

EFFICACY EVALUATION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA, CALOTROPIS PROCERA, DATURA STRAMONIUM AND TAGETES ERECTA AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA
ABSTRACT:
Different management strategies are being adopted to control root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, one of the most detrimental pests of agricultural crops. Although application of nematicides is the most commonly used practice, they cause pollution of ground water, so safe and efficient alternatives are needed. The use of antagonistic plants for the control of nematodes is a very attractive alternative. In the present study, nematicidal efficacy of four medicinal plants viz. Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br., Datura stramonium L., and Tagetes erecta L., was ascertained for the control of M. incognita. All leaf amendments at different dosages significantly improved the plant growth characteristics of okra and reduced root-knot infections compared with the untreated control. Azadirachta indica and C. procera caused the maximum reductions in number of galls, egg masses and reproduction factor (Rf) of the nematode.

197-204 Download
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