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Year 2012 , Volume  44, Issue 1
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1
POPULATION STRUCTURE, SPATIAL PATTERN AND REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF TWO SEMI-DESERT UNDERSHRUBS SENNA HOLOSERICEA AND FAGONIA INDICA IN SOUTHERN SINDH, PAKISTAN
S. SHAHID SHAUKAT1, SEEMI AZIZ1, WAQAR AHMED2 AND ATIF SHAHZAD2

POPULATION STRUCTURE, SPATIAL PATTERN AND REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF TWO SEMI-DESERT UNDERSHRUBS SENNA HOLOSERICEA AND FAGONIA INDICA IN SOUTHERN SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Size class distribution is important in understanding population structure, demography and stability of populations. In this study, the size structures of two semi-desert under-shrub populations, soil characteristics of habitats, spatial pattern of plant populations and reproductive capacity of the populations of two plant species i.e., Senna holoceracea and Fagonia indica were examined in two different sites. Size class distribution of both species were positively skewed, having greater frequencies in the smaller classes that represents adequate recruitment. This shows adequate recruitment in the populations of both the species. The examination of spatial pattern, using sample plot and plotless methods, disclosed aggregated pattern of both the species populations. Soil characteristics were also found spatially variable, showing higher fertility (organic matter, nitrogen, Ca, Mg and K) underneath the selected plants and lower in the gaps, which is one of the principal cause of aggregation in species populations. Fecundity of the two plants were also found to be different, particularly differences were found in the fecundity of same plant at the two sites which was presumably due to difference in plant size.

1-9 Download
2
ANALYZING THE HERBACEOUS FLORA OF LOHI BHER WILDLIFE PARK UNDER VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD* AND HUMA EHSAN

ANALYZING THE HERBACEOUS FLORA OF LOHI BHER WILDLIFE PARK UNDER VARIABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted in Lohi Bher Wildlife Park, to identify the species grouping in relation to environmental factors. The floristic composition was analyzed using multivariate analysis technique Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). A total of 35 herbaceous plant species from 66 quadrats were recorded. The study demarcated the vegetation structure and its relationships to selected environmental factors. The most important factor influencing the herbaceous vegetation was soil moisture. Linear model response curve justified the fact that Cymbopogon jwarancusa showed least stress against soil moisture. Whereas with reference to maximum stress the species showed diverse response, indicating that soil moisture plays a major role in species assemblage. This study provides the basic information to preserve and improve the roadside vegetation, of for reservation native flora.

11-14 Download
3
PHYTODIVERSITY AND ENDEMIC RICHNESS OF KARAMBAR LAKE VEGETATION FROM CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH-HIMALAYAS
HAMAYUN SHAHEEN1* AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

PHYTODIVERSITY AND ENDEMIC RICHNESS OF KARAMBAR LAKE VEGETATION FROM CHITRAL, HINDUKUSH-HIMALAYAS
ABSTRACT:
The Hindukush Himalayas (HKH) is one of the world’s richest biodiversity region hosting 4 global biodiversity hotspots, 60 ecoregions and 488 protected areas. More than 2500 out of total 10700 Himalayan plants are reported in HKH including the important endemic taxa like Androsace, Viola, Rhododendron, Saxifraga, Gentiana, Primula, Lentopodium and Saussurea. HKH region in North Pakistan has received limited attention due to its remoteness and inaccessibility. Current study was undertaken to get information about alpine vegetation structure and community distribution in Karambar lake surroundings, North Pakistan at 4200 m.a.s.l. A total of 108 plant species belonging to 27 families were recorded from the area in four identified plant communities. Communities showed an average species diversity of 2.18; evenness, 0.68; and species richness of 29. Asteraceae (19%), Leguminosae (13%), Capprifoliaceae (11%), Rosaceae (7%), Primulaceae (7%) and Poaceae (5%) constituted bulk of the flora of Karambar Lake. TWINSPAN and Deterrended Correspondence Analyses (DCA) revealed aspect based moisture gradient as the major limiting factor governing the distribution of plants in the area.

15-20 Download
4
ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GRASSLAND FLORA IN THE RIPARIAN ZONE OF OKANJ OXBOW LAKE (VOJVODINA, SERBIA)
A. KNEŽEVIĆ1, D. DŽIGURSKI1, B. LJEVNAIĆ-MAŠIĆ1 AND D. MILIĆ2

ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GRASSLAND FLORA IN THE RIPARIAN ZONE OF OKANJ OXBOW LAKE (VOJVODINA, SERBIA)
ABSTRACT:
The flora of the grassland surrounding Okanj oxbow lake, located in the vicinity of the village of Elemir (the Vojvodina Province, Serbia), was found to comprise 182 plant taxa. Of these 182 taxa (166 species, 7 subspecies and 2 varieties, 6 forms and 1 lusus naturae)

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5
CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DELPHINIUM NORDHAGENII (RANUNCULACEAE)
HAIDAR ALI1, M. QAISER2 AND K.B. MARWAT3

CONTRIBUTION TO THE RED LIST OF PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF DELPHINIUM NORDHAGENII (RANUNCULACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Delphinium nordhagenii Wendelbo (Ranunculaceae) is endemic to District Chitral, Pakistan. This taxon was previously known from 2 localities of Barum Gol and Sher Ghora. After three years of continuous field studies during 2005-2007, five new localities were discovered. According to its population size and number of localities reported, 624 mature individuals were found in 5 localities in 2005

27-31 Download
6
TRICHOME MICROMORPHOLOGY OF EGYPTIAN BALLOTA (LAMIACEAE) WITH EMPHASIS ON ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATION
A.K. OSMAN

TRICHOME MICROMORPHOLOGY OF EGYPTIAN BALLOTA (LAMIACEAE) WITH EMPHASIS ON ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
Trichomes of 5 taxa of the genus Ballota were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The indumentum shows considerable variability among different species, and therefore, affords valuable characters in delimitation of species. The characters of taxonomic interest were presence of glandular and non-glandular trichomes, number of cells (uni-, bi-, tri- or multi-cellular), presence of multicellular branched trichomes and existence of branched (dendroid and stellate) trichomes. Two basic types of trichomes can be distinguished: glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes can in turn be subdivided into two subtypes: stalked and sessile. The stalks of the glandular trichomes can be uni-, bi-, tri- or multi-cellular. In addition to presence of epidermal prickles, the non-glandular trichomes are classified also according to number of cells into uni-, bi-, tri-, multicellular, stellate and dendritic trichomes. Some of non-glandular trichomes may be branched or unbranched. Two keys are constituted according to both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Overall, trichome micro-morphology is more useful in separation of Ballota species.

33-46 Download
7
EVALUATION OF SORGHUM VARIETIES/LINES FOR SALT TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
Abida Kausar1*, M. Yasin Ashraf2, Iftikhar Ali1, M. Niaz1 and Qaiser Abbass1

EVALUATION OF SORGHUM VARIETIES/LINES FOR SALT TOLERANCE USING PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES AS SCREENING TOOL
ABSTRACT:
Salinity is a major threat to irrigated agriculture in Pakistan as it is adversely affecting growth and yield of crops to various extents. So, different strategies have been adopted to overcome this problem of low productivity. Growing of salt tolerant crops is a good option to obtain economical yields from saline areas for which quick method to screen salt tolerant plants, particularly in early stages of their growth is important. For this purpose some green-house studies using some physiological parameters i.e., germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and biomass stress tolerance index (BSI) were conducted to identify the salt tolerant lines of sorghum. On the basis of results obtained using the above physiological criteria, sorghum lines JS-2002 and Sandalbar were categorized as tolerant, Hegari- sorghum and JS-263 medium tolerant while Noor as medium sensitive and FJ-115 and PSV-4 as sensitive ones. The results also indicated that the physiological parameters tried in the present study are useful to screen large quantity of sorghum germplasm for salt tolerance leading to selection of suitable lines that can be recommended for different saline areas to improve yields.

47-52 Download
8
SALT-INDUCED VARIATION IN SOME POTENTIAL PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND PHOTOSYSTEM II EFFICIENCY
MUHAMMAD ARSLAN ASHRAF1 AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1

SALT-INDUCED VARIATION IN SOME POTENTIAL PHYSIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND PHOTOSYSTEM II EFFICIENCY
ABSTRACT:
Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photosynthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages.

53-64 Download
9
AN EVALUATION OF WATER DEFICIT TOLERANCE SCREENING IN PIGMENTED INDICA RICE GENOTYPES
SUTEE CHUTIPAIJIT1, SURIYAN CHA-UM2 AND KANOKPORN SOMPORNPAILIN1,3*

AN EVALUATION OF WATER DEFICIT TOLERANCE SCREENING IN PIGMENTED INDICA RICE GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Eight pigmented genotypes of indica subspecies were geminated and then treated by mannitol-induced water deficit stress. A change of growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, DNA content, proline content and anthocyanin accumulation in stressed seedling (100 mM mannitol) and control plant (0 mM mannitol) were calculated. Growth performances, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and DNA contents in all rice genotypes were dropped whereas proline, anthocyanin contents and the lipid peroxidation levels were enriched. The stabilization in total photosynthetic pigment concentrations of stressed-seedlings were positively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, MDA content, the increases in the percentages of drought-stressed seedlings were negatively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. The changes in biochemical, physiological and growth parameters were subjected to Ward’s cluster analysis for water deficit tolerance. These cultivars could be classified into two groups, water deficit sensitive, SY, KD, KLD and TD49 and water deficit tolerance, KS, KK1, KK2 and BSR.

65-72 Download
10
MOLECULAR ANALYSES OF GLADIOLUS LINES WITH IMPROVED RESISTANCE AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
IDREES AHMAD NASIR1*, ARSHAD JAMAL1, ZIAUR RAHMAN1 AND TAYYAB HUSNAIN1

MOLECULAR ANALYSES OF GLADIOLUS LINES WITH IMPROVED RESISTANCE AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT
ABSTRACT:
The genetic changes/variations taken place during the process of in-vitro selection for improvement of Fusarium resistance in the susceptible Gladiolus cultivar were assessed. The selected cell lines showing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum were analyzed with total of 29 amplified reproducible RAPD fragments. The number of fragments per primer ranged from 4 in S13 and R8 to 10 fragments in S19. The total size of the amplified products varied from 200bp to 1800bp. All the primers were found to be polymorphic and produced different percentages of polymorphism. The average number of fragments per primer was 6 from which 62% were found to be polymorphic fragments. Similarity indices were generated from RAPD data. Since all morphological characteristics of the resistant lines were non significant when compared with control therefore, it can be concluded that the phylogenetic differences among various groups are because of the activation of tolerance level in the highly susceptible Gladiolus cultivar against Fusarium wilt.

73-79 Download
11
FOLIAR UREA APPLICATION AFFECTS NITRIC OXIDE BURST AND GLYCINEBETAINE METABOLISM IN TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS UNDER DROUGHT
LIXIN ZHANG1,2*, XIFENG ZHANG1, KAI WANG1, YONGGUI ZHAO1,YOUYA ZHAI1, MEI GAO1, ZHENFENG AN1, JIANCHAO LIU1AND JINJIANG HU1

FOLIAR UREA APPLICATION AFFECTS NITRIC OXIDE BURST AND GLYCINEBETAINE METABOLISM IN TWO MAIZE CULTIVARS UNDER DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:
Foliar urea has been proved to act a better role in alleviation of the negative effects of drought stress (DS). However, the modulation mechanism of foliar urea are not conclusive in view of nitric oxide (NO) burst and glycinebetaine metabolism and their relationship. Two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars (Zhengdan 958, JD958, Jundan 20, ZD20) were grown in hydroponic medium, which were treated with spraying of urea concentration of 15 g L-1 and two water regimes (non-stress and DS simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG

81-86 Download
12
VIGNA RADIATA ROOT ASSOCIATED MYCORRHIZAE AND THEIR HELPING BACTERIA FOR IMPROVING CROP PRODUCTIVITY
TAHIRA YASMEEN1,2*, SOHAIL HAMEED2, MOHSIN TARIQ1,2 AND JAVED IQBAL2

VIGNA RADIATA ROOT ASSOCIATED MYCORRHIZAE AND THEIR HELPING BACTERIA FOR IMPROVING CROP PRODUCTIVITY
ABSTRACT:
Arbuscualr mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and symbiotic bacteria have a pervasive effect upon plant form and function. We investigated the possibility of enhanced grain yield in Vigna radiata, by applying Bradyrhizobium and Agrobacterium in combination with mycorrhizae as inoculum. A Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of bacterial and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculants on biomass, nodulation, total grain yield, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in grain of Vigna radiata. A Significant increase in the biomass, nodulation, total grain yield, nitrogen and phosphorus contents was observed with the application of bacterial and arbuscular mycorrhizal consortium, reflecting the existence of synergistic relationships among the inoculants. Another set of experiment was carried out under controlled environmental conditions of growth room, to localize the bacterial cells in roots and nodules, through ultrastructure studies. Co-occupancy of mycorrhizae with Bradyrhizobium and Agrobacterium in Vigna radiata plant roots and root nodules was also evaluated in this study. This study illustrates that arbuscular mycorrhizae with bacterial inoculants as well as bacterial inoculants alone led to a significant increase in biochemical and physiological characteristic and this tripartite association can be exploited to be used as mix inoculum for enhanced legume crop production.

87-94 Download
13
THE INHIBITION OF POLYMERIZATION OF GLUCOSE IN CARBOHYDRATE UNDER CU STRESS IN VIGNA RADIATA
RAFIA AZMAT* AND SANA RIAZ1

THE INHIBITION OF POLYMERIZATION OF GLUCOSE IN CARBOHYDRATE UNDER CU STRESS IN VIGNA RADIATA
ABSTRACT:
This study was planned to explore the effect of Cu on polymerization of glucose into carbohydrate under Cu stress in seedlings of 15 day old Vigna radiata in relation with photosynthetic pigments. Copper is an important trace metal in carbohydrate metabolism, it effects on the sugar contents when in excess. The interaction of Cu with photo-inhibitory and sugar metabolism showed a direct relation in between carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis. A decrease in glucose contents may be attributed with Cu toxicity which inhibits the fixation of CO2 that in turns related with formation of first organic complex. A drastic decrease in carbohydrate contents may be related with Cu interference in polymerization of glucose into carbohydrates. Relative growth rate (RGR) and leaf mass ratio (LMR) of stressed plants were significantly lower than that of control plants. Copper was shown to restrain the growth of the seedlings as it is most important immobile micronutrient that inhibits new root growth. A radical disorder in soluble reducing and non reducing sugars like, glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate with decrease in chloroplast pigments can be associated with reduction in leaf photosynthesis and also growth reduction is more likely due to a reduction in whole plant leaf area. Reduced leaf expansion with reduced photosynthetic activity may be related with fewer K contents in seedlings which play a crucial role in leaf expansion.

95-98 Download
14
EVALUATION OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON THREE CULTIVARS OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) BY USING ETHYLENEDIUREA
ABDUL WAHID1, SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD2*, Yuechun Zhao3 AND J.N.B. Bell4

EVALUATION OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON THREE CULTIVARS OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) BY USING ETHYLENEDIUREA
ABSTRACT:
Study was conducted in the suburbs of Lahore city of Pakistan to ascertain the protective effects of ethylene diurea (EDU) on three cultivars of sesame plants against ambient air pollutants. Seasonal mean 10 hr pollution levels at the site remained very high (O3: 91 ppb; NO2: 38 ppb; SO2: 10 ppb). It was found that plants treated with highest EDU concentration (500 ppm) showed increases in stomatal conductance (52%), transpiration rate (53%) and net photosynthesis rate (61%) compared with non-EDU treated plants. EDU treated plants depicted luxurious vegetative growth with reduced rate of leaf senescence compared to control plants. EDU protection was remarkable on different biochemical attributes with increases recorded in total chlorophyll by 31%, carotenoids by 15%, protein by 62%, and ascorbic acid by 65%. Total dry biomass was increased from 147-197% and root/shoot ratio from 29-37% in EDU-treated plants compared to plant in non-EDU. Seed yield was greater by 33-43% in different sesame cultivars treated with highest EDU concentration than non-EDU plants demonstrating the efficacy of EDU in preventing air pollutants induced yield losses. The results have wider implications in understanding the injurious effects of air pollutants on agroeconomic husbandry in Pakistan.

99-110 Download
15
EFFECTS OF VARIED IRRADIANCE ON FLOWERING TIME OF FACULTATIVE LONG-DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1*, M. MUNIR2, M. ABID3 AND M. IQBAL1

EFFECTS OF VARIED IRRADIANCE ON FLOWERING TIME OF FACULTATIVE LONG-DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of five Facultative long day plants (FLDPs) i.e. Moss Rose cv. Sundance, Pansy cv. Baby Bingo, Snapdragon cv. Coronette, Petunia cv. Dreams and Annual Verbena cv. Obsession were sown into module trays containing homogeneous leaf mould compost. After germination, saplings of each cultivar were shifted into four light intensity chambers (42, 45, 92 and 119µmol.m-2.s-1) for a duration of 8h (from 08:00 to 16:00h). The findings of this study showed that Facultative LDPs grown under high irradiance (92 and 119 µmol.m-2.s-1) flowered earlier. However, there was a non-significant difference between 42/45µmol.m-2.s-1 and 92/119µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance levels. Although FLDPs under 119µmol.m-2.s-1 flowered few days earlier than those received 92µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance but the quality of plants (plant height and leaf size/appearance) was inferior. It is therefore concluded that for better plant quality and early flowering FLDPs should be grown under 92µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance.

111-117 Download
16
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENTS ON STORAGE LIFE OF PEACH FRUITS CV. ‘FLORDAKING’
MUHAMMAD JAVED TAREEN, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI* AND ISHFAQ AHMAD HAFIZ

EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENTS ON STORAGE LIFE OF PEACH FRUITS CV. ‘FLORDAKING’
ABSTRACT:
In order to determine the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on postharvest life and quality of peach fruits, four different concentrations (0.5

119-124 Download
17
DIFFERENT GROWING CONDITIONS AFFECT NUTRIENT CONTENT, FRUIT YIELD AND GROWTH IN STRAWBERRY
LEYLA DEMIRSOY1,2, HÜSNÜ DEMIRSOY1 AND GÜLDEN BALCI1

DIFFERENT GROWING CONDITIONS AFFECT NUTRIENT CONTENT, FRUIT YIELD AND GROWTH IN STRAWBERRY
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crown diameter, leaf, root dry weight in ‘Sweet Charlie’ and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars (‘Camarosa’ and ‘Sweet Charlie’), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in ‘Camarosa’ while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in ‘Sweet Charlie’ in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in ‘Sweet Charlie’ in terms of Fe in leaf.

125-129 Download
18
EFFICACY OF BIO-K FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND SUGAR CONTENT OF SUGARCANE PLANTS
S. TAHIR ABBAS1, RAHILA NAZLI1*, BUSHRA NAWAB1 AND R.M. TARIQ2

EFFICACY OF BIO-K FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND SUGAR CONTENT OF SUGARCANE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sulphate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using –K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7%sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment.

131-134 Download
19
EFFECT OF PICKING DATES ON SEED GERMINATION, GIN TURN-OUT, SEED INDEX AND STAPLE LENGTH IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ZAHEER AHMED DEHO, S. LAGHARI, S.ABRO, M.A.ARAIN, M.HUSSAIN, S.A. ABRO AND FAKHRUDDIN

EFFECT OF PICKING DATES ON SEED GERMINATION, GIN TURN-OUT, SEED INDEX AND STAPLE LENGTH IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The cotton seed germination is significantly affected in the humid agro-ecological zone of southern Sindh. Present investigations were carried out to determine the impact of different picking dates on traits like seed germination percentage, lint ratio, staple length (mm) and seed indices under fluctuating levels of temperature and humidity. Results of different picking dates revealed that seed cotton picked on dates i.e.

135-137 Download
20
RADIATION AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCIES OF C3 WINTER CEREALS TO NITROGEN SPLIT APPLICATION
S. AHMAD1*, H. ALI1, M. ISMAIL1, M.I. SHAHZAD1, M. NADEEM1, M.A. ANJUM2, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ3, N. FIRDOUS4 AND M.A. KHAN5

RADIATION AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCIES OF C3 WINTER CEREALS TO NITROGEN SPLIT APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
Three field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan during the winter season 2010-11 to study the response of 3 winter cereal crops viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to nitrogen split application in terms of growth, final yield, radiation and nitrogen use efficiencies (R&NUEs). There were 2 variables; 3 cultivars each of wheat (Sahar-2006, Lasani-2008 and AARI-2010), oat (CK-1, F-411 and Ravi) and barley (Jao-87, Haider-93 and BO-7022) crops and 4 nitrogen split applications i.e., NS1 = whole N at sowing, NS2 = ½ N at sowing + ½ N at 1st irrigation, NS3 = 1/3 N at sowing + 1/3 N at 1st irrigation + 1/3 N at 2nd irrigation and NS4 = ¼ N at sowing + ¼ N at 1st irrigation + ¼ N at 2nd irrigation + ¼ N at 3rd irrigation). The wheat cv. Sahar-2006, oat cv. CK-1 and barley cv. BO-7022 out yielded other cultivars by producing total dry matter 574 to 722 g m-2, 429 to 533 g m-2 and 455 to 555 g m-2, respectively. Similarly, the respective grain yield values for these cultivars were 265 to 350 g m-2

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21
EVUALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GENOTYPES UNDER SWAT VALLEY CONDITIONS
AYUB KHAN1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, ASGHARI BANO3 AND NASRULLAH JAN MALIK4

EVUALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GENOTYPES UNDER SWAT VALLEY CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Forty-nine exotic groundnut geramplasm were screened for their physiological efficiency for future breeding program of groundnut. Our results indicated that genotype ICGS 31 had the highest harvest index of 31.43% with dry pod yield of 4556 kg ha-1 and was considered as physiologically the most efficient genotype in term of total assimilate partitioning into haulm and pod. Genotype ICGV 90120 exhibited maximum photosynthetic efficiency i.e., haulm yield of 59222 kg ha-1 with a significant lowest harvest index of 2.64 %. Significantly (p<0.05) positive correlation (r = + 0.167) was found between dry pod yield and harvest index, whereas significantly (p<0.05) negative correlation (r = -0.359) was recorded between haulm yield and harvest index.

151-155 Download
22
APPRAISAL OF TEMPORAL VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE IRON AND ZINC IN A PASTURE UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
KAFEEL AHMAD1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2 AND ABID EJAZ1

APPRAISAL OF TEMPORAL VARIATION IN SOIL AND FORAGE IRON AND ZINC IN A PASTURE UNDER SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation we determined the effect of sampling periods on iron and zinc contents of soil and forage of a pasture from Sargodha (Pakistan) consisting of plants mainly of Brassicaceae. Soil and plant samples were taken six times at a regular interval of 15 days. They were then wet digested and analyzed for Fe and Zn. The data showed that there was no significant influence of sampling periods on both soil and forage Fe and Zn contents. However, there was statistically non-significant variation in mineral contents of soil and forage showing an inconsistent pattern of fluctuation with sampling periods. The highest value of soil Fe was found at the 3rd period and the lowest at the 5th period of sampling. Mean values of soil Fe varied from 7.5-7.7 mg/kg at different periods of sample collection. The highest value of forage Fe was found at the 1st period and the lowest at the 6th period ranging from 57.85-64.67 mg/kg across all sampling times. Mean values of soil Zn varied from 0.36-0.15 mg/kg at different sampling periods. Forage shoot Zn concentration was the highest at the 1st period and the lowest at the 5th period during the whole investigation period. Forage Zn ranged from 13.22 to 23.92 mg/kg in leaves/shoots. There was an inconsistent variation in its concentration at different sampling periods. The concentration of Zn both in soil and forage were at severe deficient levels indicating the need of soil amendment with zinc containing fertilizers to enhance the Zn contents of the pasture soil and in turn availability of Zn to forage from soil. These Fe concentrations were within the marginal and severe deficient levels for the ruminant requirements. The naturally upset balance of Fe offers a potential hazard not only for both pastures, but also the Fe status of grazing ruminants therein.

157-160 Download
23
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) SEEDLINGS BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER AMENDMENTS AT KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABDUL HAMEED SOLANGI1 ­AND M. ZAFAR IQBAL2

PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) SEEDLINGS BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER AMENDMENTS AT KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers amendments on the growth parameters of coconut seedlings in field at the Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Karachi. The seedling height and number of leaves were significantly high in treatment T7 (Neem seed powder) (27.62 ± 8.74) and treatment T5 (NPK) (27.18 ± 8.60). The maximum number of the roots was observed in T1 (NPK + Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (2.26 ± 0.71) and T3 (NPK + Gliricidia sepium) (1.69 ± 0.53), where as minimum roots was recorded in T8 (Control) (0.94 ± 0.29). The maximum number of leaves was observed in T4 (Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (1.49±0.47) and T1 (1.31±0.41). The results showed the beneficial effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on seedlings. The work indicated morphological diversity of seedlings at the nursery stage to help the growers in choosing planting materials for their gardens in coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan.

161-164 Download
24
ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF FRESH AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L. FOR GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABDUL MAJEED, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY AND ZAHIR MUHAMMAD1

ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF FRESH AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L. FOR GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Chenopodium album L. is an annual weed of cultivated fields. In order to determine its allelopathic potentials, water soluble leaf extracts at different concentrations (25, 50 and 75 %) were tested on growth and yield related attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a pot culture experiment. Results showed that application of concentrated extracts had detrimental effects on plant height, number of tillers and spike length which corresponded to significantly lower grain yield. However, lower concentration (25 %) of the extract promoted these parameters. Results of this study reported significantly suppressive effects of higher concentrations (50 and 75 %) on plant height of T. aestivum L. corresponding to lower grain yield.

165-167 Download
25
OPTIMIZATION OF DILUTE ACID PRETREATMENT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS OF RICE POLISH
ZAHID ANWAR1, MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ1, MUHAMMAD IMRAN1, M. JAVAID ASAD1, AFTAB IQBAL SHAFI1, PERVEZ ANWAR1 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2,*

OPTIMIZATION OF DILUTE ACID PRETREATMENT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS OF RICE POLISH
ABSTRACT:
Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and a renewable resource for the production of biofuel (bioethanol) by using fermentative organisms (Sacchromyces cervesiae & Fusarium oxysporum). Rice polish is a cheaper agro-waste for bioethanol production. The conversion of biomass into maximum yield of glucose, an important step for the bioethanol production, requires optimum dilute acid treatment. Inhibitory compounds reduce the ethanol production; therefore an attempt has been made in the present study to select suitable dilution by using Response surface methodology (RSM) design and to minimize the effects of inhibitory compounds during sulphuric acid (H2SO4) dilution. The treatment of biomass with H2SO4 (1.5%) at 100°C for 30 minutes exhibited optimum results. During enzymatic hydrolysis 16.52 mg/mL glucose was obtained by using 1 mL of enzymatic load at 50oC after 72 hours of hydrolysis. The Glucose thereafter converted to 5.21g/L and 3.69 g/L of ethanol during fermentation process by using Sacchromyces cervesiae and Fusarium oxysporum respectively.

169-176 Download
26
SUBSTRATES EFFECTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF ROSA HYBRIDA L.
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1,*, M. ASLAM KHAN1, M. QASIM1, M. SHAHZAD ZAFAR1 AND RASHID AHMAD2

SUBSTRATES EFFECTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF ROSA HYBRIDA L.
ABSTRACT:
The effects of various growing substrates, combinations of soil, silt, sand, press mud (PM) and rice hulls (RH) on plant growth, yield and quality of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cvs. Kardinal, Anjlique and Gold Medal, were studied to standardize substrates for cut rose production and develop better management and quality production protocol. Plant height, number of leaves branch-1, leaf area, number of flowers flush-1 plant-1, bud diameter, flower diameter, fresh and dry weight of a flower, flower quality, stem length and stem diameter were maximum when plants were grown in a medium containing combination of Soil + PM + RH followed by Silt + PM and PM + RH. Moreover, plants raised in Soil + PM + RH produced early flowering. PM + RH contributed maximum leaf K contents while Silt + PM produced highest leaf Ca and Mg contents. Soil + Silt and Soil + Sand (traditional media used in the country for rose production) resulted poor plant growth and yield. Among cultivars, ‘Kardinal’ responded better to different substrates, while ‘Gold Medal’ was not affected. This study revealed that incorporation of agricultural by-products in traditional medium would help improve the yield and quality of cut roses.

177-185 Download
27
EVALUATION OF MAIZE S2 LINES IN TEST CROSS COMBINATIONS II: YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
H. RAHMAN1*, ARIFUDDIN1, Z. SHAH2, S.M.A. SHAH1, M. IQBAL3 AND I. H. KHALIL1

EVALUATION OF MAIZE S2 LINES IN TEST CROSS COMBINATIONS II: YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to test the performance of maize S2 lines derived from maize variety Azam, using line x tester analysis. Test crosses developed from 24 S2 lines, and crossed to three different testers were used in the study. Maximum ear length (16 cm) was observed for TC-19, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for ear length was recorded to be 0.8. Maximum ear diameter (5 cm) was observed for TC-8, using OPV lalal as tester, while SCA for ear diameter was recorded to be 0.1. Maximum kernel rows ear-' (15) were observed for TC-30, using WD 2x8 as tester, while SCA was recorded to be -0.5. Maximum 100 kernel weight (34 g) was observed for TC-36, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for grain yield was 901 and 4.2 for kernel weight. Highest grain yield (6765 kg ha1) was recorded for testcross TC-26, using WD 3x6 as a tester. Moreover, lines TC-ll, TC-8, TC-20, TC- 26, TC-9, (using WD 2x8 as a tester), TC-10, TC-7 (using WD 3x6 as a tester), TC-10, T.C-6 (using Jalal as a tester) were found good combiners. Test crosses TC-ll, using WD 2x8 as a tester, TC-26 and TC-7, using WD 3x6 as a tester had the highest SCA, GCA, and mean for important traits like grain yield, hundred kernel weight, ear diameter and ear length. These testcrosses are recommended to be included in future breeding programs for developing maize hybrids with higher yield potential accompanied with other desirable parameters of interest.

187-192 Download
28
MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF A NPR1 GENE FROM SUGARCANE
JIAN-WEN CHEN1, JIAN-FEI KUANG2, GANG PENG2, SI-BAO WAN3, RUI LIU1, ZHAN-DUAN YANG1 AND HAI-HUA DENG1*

MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF A NPR1 GENE FROM SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
The NPR1 genes play a pivotal role in systemic acquired resistance in plants. In the present work, a full-length sugarcane NPR1 gene, designated as ScNPR1, was isolated and identified. The full-length cDNA was 2184 bp in length with a 1758 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a 586 amino acids protein with an estimated molecular mass of 65.17 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 5.88. Homology analysis suggested that the ScNPR1 protein was significantly similar to maize ZmNPR1, and shared common features with NPR1 from other plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that the expression of ScNPR1 was obviously up-regulated after treatment with salicylic acid (SA) and inoculation with the smut disease fungus Ustilago scitaminea. Its expression level was reduced after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethylene treatment. In addition, higher levels of ScNPR1 transcripts were observed in the leaf and sheath tissues of sugarcane cultivars resistant to the smut disease. These results clearly demonstrated that the ScNPR1 gene was likely to be involved in SA-mediated signaling pathway and might play a role in the defense response to sugarcane smut disease.

193-200 Download
29
DETERMINATION OF PROCESSING AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ATRIBUTES OF POTATO GENOTYPES IN PAKISTAN
GHULAM ABBAS, I. A. HAFIZ*, N.A. ABBASI AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

DETERMINATION OF PROCESSING AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ATRIBUTES OF POTATO GENOTYPES IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The acceptability of potatoes for processing as french fries is largely dependent on the quality of the end products. Processing industry is totally dependent on the quality parameters of tuber to satisfy the increasing demand of customers. Thirty two potato genotypes for processing and yield quality traits were assessed for screening. Significant differences in all the quality parameters and various characteristics were found, while the genotypes; 394021-120, 9625, Kiran, NARC 2002-1, NARC 1-2006/1 and VR 90-217 gave the highest results regarding yield and quality of potato tubers except kiran, which has a high yield but low quality characters. The tuber sizes and weight was also significantly different among genotypes except weight of big size tubers. Variations existed among genotypes in tuber characteristics (skin color, tuber shape, eye depth, flesh color and general appearance). The results regarding correlation studies indicated that french fry color exhibited negative correlation with reducing sugar (r = -0.7046), total sugars (r = -0.6659) and positive correlation with dry matter (r = 0.5013).This screening is helpful to the ongoing efforts to select the best genotype for the emerging processing industry of Pakistan.

201-208 Download
30
FRUIT QUALITY PARAMETERS AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME LOQUAT ACCESSIONS
AYDIN UZUN1*, UBEYIT SEDAY2 AND CENGIZ TURKAY2

FRUIT QUALITY PARAMETERS AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME LOQUAT ACCESSIONS
ABSTRACT:
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), one of the firstly harvested fruit in spring is important fruit for Turkey and other Mediterranean countries because it can be supplied to market during shortage of fresh fruit. Genetic diversity within the loquats comes from seeds obtained from open pollinated trees or budspots which occur very often within the genus. The objectives of this study were to determine variations for some fruit quality characters and genetic markers among 10 foreign cultivars, 3 selected local cultivars and two change seedlings. For fruit weight the largest cultivar was ‘Kanro’ with 46.2 g. Concordantly with its large fruits the highest fruit length and width also were measured in ‘Kanro’. Seed number of accessions studied varied between 1.22 and 3.17. The highest flesh ratio was obtained from ‘Baffico’ (90%) whereas ‘Seedling 1’ had the lowest flesh ratio (75%). There were high level of variation for total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity of accessions studied. Total soluble solids (TSS) of cultivars were determined between 14.0 and 9.9%, acidity varied between 0.39 and 1.99%. Molecular analysis, as assessed with 21 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers indicated that all of accessions were distinguished. Using unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis of RAPD data detected that similarity values among the loquats were between 0.69 and 0.92. In the dendrogram the accessions nested in two main groups. First group consisted of ‘Hafif Cukurgobek’, ‘Uzun Cukurgobek’, ‘Tanaka’ and ‘Sayda’ whereas rest of 11 accessions nested in other group. Wide range of genetic diversity was determined in loquat accessions and it considered as advantage for breeding programs.

209-213 Download
31
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOMACLONAL VARIANTS AND INDUCED MUTANTS OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) CV. DIAMANT USING RAPD MARKERS
HUMERA AFRASIAB1* AND JAVED IQBAL2

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOMACLONAL VARIANTS AND INDUCED MUTANTS OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) CV. DIAMANT USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this work was to genetically analyze somaclonal variants and gamma induced mutants of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Diamant using RAPD-PCR technique. In the present work, callus was induced from nodes, internodes and leaf explants in MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) and plants were regenerated from 14-20 weeks old calli. For gamma irradiation, ten-week old well proliferating calli were exposed to doses ranging from 5-50 Gy. All the four selected somaclonal variants and five gamma induced mutants were differentiated by banding patterns obtained from 22 primers that generated 140 polymorphic bands. The presence of polymorphic bands in variants and mutants suggest that genetic variation occurred in all the treatments as compared to control. Similarity and clustered analysis were conducted using Jaccard’s coefficients and the un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. The results summarized in a dendrogram, show genetic diversity among the variants and mutants. The study shows that RAPD markers were efficient in discriminating somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato.

215-220 Download
32
EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION ON THE GROWTH AND PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS BY MAIZE GROWN IN OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI1, MOJEED OLAIDE LIASU2 AND OLADELE JOHNSON POPOOLA2

EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION ON THE GROWTH AND PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS BY MAIZE GROWN IN OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of AM (Glomus mosseae) fungi inoculation (M) on the growth of maize and phytoextraction of selected heavy metals from a soil contaminated with crude oil (C). Four soil treatments, each with three replicates i.e., C+M+, M+, C+ and control (without oil and inoculum) were conducted. Half of the pots with the soil treatments were planted with singly sown (SS) and the other half with densely sown i.e., four maize seedlings (DS). Various plant growth attributes were measured at weekly intervals Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ in the soil, root and shoot of maize plants were determined separately. Inoculation by AM promoted the vegetative growth attributes in both treatments viz., C+M+ and M+. AM inoculation also promoted the hyperextraction of heavy metals from C+M+ soils, but inhibited by soils treated with M+. High planting density i.e., DS also promoted phytoextraction of heavy metals from uncontaminated (M+) soils, but had minimal effect on phytoextraction from oil contaminated soils (C+). Planting density complemented the promotive effect of AM inoculation on phytoextraction of heavy metals from C+ soils. The hyperextraction of selected metals from soil is more favored by planting density in C+ soils, whereas AM inoculation tends to exclude heavy metals from potted plants. However, in case of C+M+ soils, AM inoculation promotes the hyperextraction of metals more than planting density. While the combination of the two phenomena act synergistically to promote metal hyperextraction from C+M+ as well as M+ soils.

221-230 Download
33
NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF AFLATOXINS, ZEARALENONE AND TRICHOTHECENES IN MAIZE GROWN IN PAKISTAN
SALMA KHATOON1,2, NAFEESA QUDSIA HANIF2*, IFFAT TAHIRA2, NIGHAT SULTANA2, KISHWAR SULTANA3 AND NAJMA AYUB1

NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF AFLATOXINS, ZEARALENONE AND TRICHOTHECENES IN MAIZE GROWN IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A total of 65 maize grain samples , from 7 maize producing areas of Pakistan, were assayed for 14 toxicologically significant mycotoxins viz., aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), aflatoxin B2 (AfB2), aflatoxin G1 (AfG1), aflatoxin G2 (AfG2), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3A-DON)

231-236 Download
34
GENETIC ANALYSIS AND HYBRID VIGOR STUDY OF GRAIN YIELD AND OTHER QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN AUTOTETRAPLOID RICE
MUHAMMAD QASIM SHAHID1,3, XU HAI-MING2, LIN SHUN-QUAN3, CHEN ZHI-XIONG1, MUHAMMAD NAEEM1, LI YA-JUAN1 AND LIU XIANG-DONG1*

GENETIC ANALYSIS AND HYBRID VIGOR STUDY OF GRAIN YIELD AND OTHER QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN AUTOTETRAPLOID RICE
ABSTRACT:
Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of autotetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive × additive model. It was shown that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of autotetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set, grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight were mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive × additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive × additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (Hpm) and better parent (Hpb), whereas Hpm and Hpb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F1 and F2 generations. The results indicated that autotetraploid hybrids 96025 × Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 × Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun × Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific autotetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-subspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids and autotetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application.

237-246 Download
35
EXPRESSION OF GENES CONTROLLING THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE (CLCuD) IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
MANZOOR HUSSAIN1*, FAQIR MUHAMMAD AZHAR2, ASIF ALI KHAN2 AND ZULFIQAR ALI2

EXPRESSION OF GENES CONTROLLING THE INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE (CLCuD) IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Forty cotton genotypes were screened for their responses to cotton leaf curl virus symptoms through epidemiology in field and glasshouse, and grafting inoculation during 2001 and 2002. The CLCuD disease ratings, in glasshouse and field conditions, and grafting classified /categorized the variety NIAB-111 as highly resistant and the exotic genotypes NuCOTN-35B as highly susceptible parents. These two lines were hybridized to develop F1, F2, BCNu (back cross with NuCOTN-35B) and BCN1 (back cross with NIAB-111) generations to obtain information on the genetic basis of variation for CLCuD resistance through generation mean analysis. Additive- dominance model was found adequate, and the genes responsible for CLCuD resistance were, in general, dominant to their alleles responsible for CLCuD susceptibility. The narrow sense heritability (h2NS) was moderately high for CLCuD resistance, which along with the estimates of heterosis and genetic advance suggested a potential for the development of breeding material having resistance to CLCuD. However, use of rigorous selection coupled with evaluation of the resistant plants selected from segregating material under higher viral load is suggested to develop CLCuD resistance in Gossypium hirsutum L.

247-254 Download
36
CORRELATION AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AMONG BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
MUHAMMAD MOHIBULLAH1, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI2, IRFANULLAH1, MUHAMMAD IQBAL1, ZAKIULLAH1, MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK3 AND OBAIDULLAH SAYAL1

CORRELATION AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AMONG BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the genetic variability and correlation of one hundred wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions, during the growing season 2006 under the aegis of Plant Breeding and Genetics department, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa, Pakistan. The accessions were characterized for the parameters, days to emergence, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm) and number of tillers plant-1. Results depict variation for all the traits. The entry [PARC/NIAR 002303(05)] took 5 days to emergence and the entry [PARC/NIAR 002450 (01)] emerged in 17 days with 24.35% coefficient of variation. The entry [PARC/NIAR 002303(05)] took minimum 82 days to heading and maximum 129 days were taken by the entry [PARC/NIAR 002450(01)] with 7.65 % coefficient of variation. Minimum days to maturity 130 were taken by [PARC/NIAR 002450(02)] and the entry [PARC/JICA 003852(02)] took 190 days to maturity. The accession [PARC/NIAR 002828(03)] was found with shortest plant height (32 cm) and [PARC/MAFF 004276(01)] was noted with maximum plant height (199 cm) with coefficient of variation 32.46%. The accession [PARC/MAFF 004267(02)] produced maximum number of tillers plant-1. Days to emergence were found significant positive correlated with number of tillers plant-1 while significant negative correlation was noted for days to maturity with days to emergence. Days to heading were noted having significant positive correlation with plant height, while plant height was found positively significant correlated with number of tillers plant-1.

255-259 Download
37
ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION, PRESERVATION AND PATHOGENICITY TEST OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE CAUSING BLB DISEASE IN RICE
RUKHSANA JABEEN1

ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION, PRESERVATION AND PATHOGENICITY TEST OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE CAUSING BLB DISEASE IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
2*TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR AND HUMA BATOOL1

261-265 Download
38
ASSOCIATIONS OF SOME CHARACTERS WITH GRAIN YIELD IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
NİHAL KAYAN1* AND M. SAİT ADAK2

ASSOCIATIONS OF SOME CHARACTERS WITH GRAIN YIELD IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to determine relationship between yield and yield components and the effect of importance of yield component on yield in chickpea by using statistical procedures. Five statistical procedures including; path analysis, regression analysis, multivariate regression analysis, principal component analysis and dendogram analysis were used to study the relationship between chickpea grain yield and its components. Results showed that plant height, biological yield per plant and pods per plant can be considered as the most important yield variables in chickpea. High yield of chickpea plants can possibly be obtained by selecting breeding materials with high plant height, biological yield per plant and pods per plant.

267-272 Download
39
CHARACTERIZATION OF PEARL MILLET GERMPLASM FOR VARIOUS MORPHOLOGICAL AND FODDER YIELD PARAMETERS
IRFAN AHMED SHAH1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1*, SYED MEHAR ALI SHAH1, ZAHIR SHAH2, SAEEDUR RAHMAN3, IHTERAMULLAH1 AND MUHAMMAD NOOR1

CHARACTERIZATION OF PEARL MILLET GERMPLASM FOR VARIOUS MORPHOLOGICAL AND FODDER YIELD PARAMETERS
ABSTRACT:
This study was performed to evaluate and characterize 27 pearl millet accessions for various morphological and fodder yield parameters. The germplasm displayed considerable variability for days to 50 % flowering, leaf area, flag leaf area, plant height and green fodder yield. The genotypes, however, didn’t exhibit any variation for ligule presence, auricle absence and leaf midrib color. Different genotypes displayed potential for selection of the desired traits. Sel.-2(8802) was the earliest accession in terms of 50% flowering while maximum leaf area was recorded for Sel.-1(No.8802) and Sel.-2(No.8802). Sel.-4(No.8781) had the maximum plant height while Sel-3(No.8781) produced the highest green fodder yield. Cluster analysis for quantitative traits depicted five clusters at a dissimilarity level of 4.8. The first cluster consisted of four genotypes while the second cluster contained nine genotypes. Ten genotypes comprised the third cluster while the fourth cluster constituted only four genotypes. The genetic potential of Sel.-2(8802), Sel.-1(No.8802), Sel.-2(No.8802) Sel.-3(No.8781) and Sel.-4(No.8781) can be exploited in future pearl millet breeding programs. Further, these genotypes are also recommended as such for commercial cultivation to meet the fodder needs of the country.

273-279 Download
40
GENETIC EVOLUTION AND UTILIZATION OF WHEAT GERMPLASM RESOURCES IN HUANGHUAI WINTER WHEAT REGION OF CHINA
CHENG XIYONG, XU HAIXIA, DONG ZHONGDONG, CHEN FENG, ZHAN KEHUI AND CUI DANGQUN*

GENETIC EVOLUTION AND UTILIZATION OF WHEAT GERMPLASM RESOURCES IN HUANGHUAI WINTER WHEAT REGION OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding

281-288 Download
41
RATE OF NITROGEN APPLICATION INFLUENCES YIELD OF MAIZE AT LOW AND HIGH POPULATION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
M. ASIM1, MOHAMMAD AKMAL1, AHMAD KHAN1, FARHATUALAH2 AND RAZIUDDIN2

RATE OF NITROGEN APPLICATION INFLUENCES YIELD OF MAIZE AT LOW AND HIGH POPULATION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Getting maximum production from maize (Zea mays L.) lies not only to economize the N application to crop but also to maintain a desired plants density. Field experiments were conducted as spring and summer season (S) crops for two years at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Nowshera. Three plant populations (PP = 43, 53 and 67) thousands ha-1 and three nitrogen rates (N = 90

289-296 Download
42
AN IMPROVED AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM IN WHEAT
HAMID RASHID1*, MOHAMMAD HAROON KHAN1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2, RAISA BANO1 AND NAVEED IQBAL RAJA3

AN IMPROVED AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Wheat is the world’s largest volume crop traded internationally. Foliar diseases are the main biotic restriction reducing yield in wheat crops. Wheat productivity can be enhanced through controlling foliar disease through the use of resistant cultivars. Plant breeders are providing considerable attention to wheat genetic improvement from the past few years to minimize losses due to pests and pathogens and also to improve the grain yield. Genetic transformation is fundamental to wheat molecular genetics and improvement through genetic engineering. There has been significant progress in Agrobacterium transformation of wheat but it is still confined mainly to a few responsive varieties due to poor understanding of the mechanism and availability of efficient techniques. This system is influenced by a number of factors including acetosyringone concentration. In present study, the pattern of interaction in between acetosyringone concentration and transformation potential was exploited for the efficient development of Agrobacterium mediated transformation system in local cultivars of wheat (Inqilab-91 and Chakwal-97). Mature embryos were used as explant sources for callus induction, which were used later in transformation experiments. Different concentrations of acetosyringone were used and it was observed in the study that transformation efficiency increases with increase in acetosyringone concentration upto 400 µM but further increase beyond this drastically reduced the transformation frequency. Maximum transformation efficiencies of 56.0 and 52.0% were obtained with 400µM of acetosyringone from Inqilab-91 and Chakwal-97 respectively.

297-300 Download
43
EVOLUTION OF NEW WHEAT VARIETY NIA-AMBER FOR THE GENERAL CULTIVATION IN SINDH PROVINCE -A CASE STUDY
MAHBOOB ALI SIAL*, MUHAMMAD AFZAL ARAIN, KHALIL AHMED LAGHARI AND SHAMADAD KHANZADA

EVOLUTION OF NEW WHEAT VARIETY NIA-AMBER FOR THE GENERAL CULTIVATION IN SINDH PROVINCE -A CASE STUDY
ABSTRACT:
A new wheat variety NIA-Amber developed by NIA Tando Jam has been released by the Government of Sindh in the year 2010. NIA-Amber possesses semi-dwarf stature with high tillering capacity endowed with high grain yield, early maturity, better grain quality and resistance to lodging. It possesses the highest protein content (16.02%), highest wet gluten (37.1%), high dry gluten (12.0%), and high SDS value (28.5). It confirmed its superiority in grain yield in series of trials such as preliminary yield trials (PYT), advanced strains yield trials (AST), comparative yield trials, micro yield trials, zonal trials and national trials. It showed stability and wide adaptation over different environments in province of Sindh. It performed well under normal and late conditions. It showed increase in yield with addition of zinc in combination with other fertilizers NPK. The variety showed resistance against leaf rust and tolerance to yellow rust diseases. In NUWYT, it produced higher grain yield and ranked first in Sindh under late sowing conditions; whereas, it acquired 6th position in NUWYT under normal sowings. The variety has the potential yield of 6406 kg/ha. Its release will make a significant contribution to genetic diversity and enhance the stability of yield, which will ultimately improve the socio-economic conditions of the farmers of the province of Sindh.

301-306 Download
44
WALNUT BIODIVERSITY IN SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA-RESOURCE FOR PERSPECTIVE CULTIVARS
SINA COSMULESCU AND MIHAI BOTU

WALNUT BIODIVERSITY IN SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA-RESOURCE FOR PERSPECTIVE CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) germplasm from the Oltenia region, located in the South Western part of Romania, was evaluated to determine the variability in walnut germplasm and to identify the promising material. Important pomological and phenological characteristics were found in native trees which were of seedling origin. Variability found in nut weight was between 6.8-18.4g, in kernel weight between 1.7-8.79g, in weight kernel/weight nut ratio between 23.6-71.7%. Nut size, bud breaking time, nut maturity time and phenological characteristics were also evaluated. The data obtained have indicated that walnut trees studied in this region have recorded the occurrence of high variations in fruit characteristics that indicate the higher potential in selecting new genotypes of material under study.

307-311 Download
45
ADAPTATION TO POLYETHYLENE STRESS MAINTAINS TOTIPOTENCY OF CELL LINES OF ORYZA SATIVA L. CV. SWAT-1 FOR A LONGER PERIOD
AZHAR HUSSAIN SHAH 1, SAFDAR HUSSAIN SHAH1, HABIB AHMAD2, ZAHOOR AHMAD SWATI1, FIDA MUHAMMAD ABBASI2, FARHATULLAH3 AND ABRAR HUSSAIN SHAH3

ADAPTATION TO POLYETHYLENE STRESS MAINTAINS TOTIPOTENCY OF CELL LINES OF ORYZA SATIVA L. CV. SWAT-1 FOR A LONGER PERIOD
ABSTRACT:
Cell suspension cultures of rice cv Swat-1 were adapted to osmotic (polyethylene glycol, PEG) and ionic (lithium chloride) stresses to find components of stress having greater inhibitory effects on regeneration frequency of cells. In early stage suspension were in cell aggregates or in micro calli form and regeneration frequency of one month old suspensions was about 74%. One month old cultures were incrementally adapted to 20% PEG and 20 mM LiCl. After 50 repeated batch cultures the size of cell aggregates of control and LiCl adapted cell lines turned into fine suspensions, while the suspension of PEG adapted lines remained in small clusters with whitish pale coloration. The relative growth rates of adapted and unadapted cell lines were similar at respective media but the regeneration potential of unadapted and LiCl adapted lines dropped to 30% and 10 %, respectively. In contrast regeneration frequency of PEG adapted line increased to 80% with early recovery of plantlets. These data reveal that regeneration capacity of cell cultures decreases with age of cultures and with ionic stress, while osmotic stress not only maintain but enhance regeneration frequency of cell cultures over a longer time.

313-316 Download
46
SEASONAL AND CULTIVAR EFFECTS ON NODULATION POTENTIAL OF SOYBEANS
ASIM MUHAMMAD1*, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1 AND SULTAN MEHMOOD WAZIR2

SEASONAL AND CULTIVAR EFFECTS ON NODULATION POTENTIAL OF SOYBEANS
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous land races of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) have great potential for seed quality and grain yield. However information on its nodulation potential are limited. The objective of the present study was to explore its nodulation potential in comparison with improved varieties. Three indigenous land races, viz., Kulat brown, Kulat white and Mothi and two improved varieties (NARC-II, Swat-84) of soybean were planted at monthly interval from April to July in 2004 and 2005 growing season at K.P.K Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The number and fresh biomass weight of nodules plant-1 was determined. The two years average of nodules plant-1was significantly affected by years, planting dates, varieties and planting dates x varieties interaction. Maximum nodules number (24.3 plant-1) was recorded for May planted crop. The smallest number of nodules (7 plant-1) were produced by April planted crop. Kulat brown produced maximum nodules (18.4 plant-1). Land races produced greater number of nodules than improved varieties. Nodules plant-1decreased when planting was delayed from May to July. Maximum nodules weight (53.2 mg plant-1) was recorded for May planted crop. Years, varieties and planting dates x varieties interaction did not affect nodules weight plant-1. Land races exhibited greater nodulation potential than improved varieties.

317-320 Download
47
CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME TURKISH OAT GENOTYPES
ZİYA DUMLUPINAR1*, RUKİYE KARA2, TEVRİCAN DOKUYUCU1 AND AYDIN AKKAYA1

CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME TURKISH OAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
This research was carried out in 2002-03 and 2005-06 crop years in Kahramanmaras province located in East-Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with four replications. The aim of research was to determine correlation coefficients of 17 oat genotypes among grain yield (GY) and plant height (PH), grain number panicle-1 (GNP), grain weight panicle-1 (GWP)

321-325 Download
48
PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF AN ENDANGERED SPECIES CAMELLIA NITIDISSIMA AND ITS CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS
XIAO-XUE QI1, YUN-SHENG JIANG1, XIAO WEI1*, HUI TANG1, ZHONG-CHEN XIONG 1, WAN-HUI YE2, AND ZHANG-MING WANG2

PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF AN ENDANGERED SPECIES CAMELLIA NITIDISSIMA AND ITS CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Camellia nitidissima is a shrub and a famous ornamental species with golden-yellow flowers. The responses of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) to the incident intensity (PFD) and the diurnal course of variation in major physiological and environmental variables of young and mature C. nitidissima were studied with LI-6400 (Li-Cor Inc., USA) portable photosynthesis system. The results showed that the leaves of C. nitidissima had the highest photosynthetic ability in autumn, the middle level of photosynthesis in summer and spring, and a relatively lower level of photosynthesis in winter. Mature plants of C. nitidissima had both relatively high the maximum net photosynthesis rate (Pmax) and light saturation point (LSP), indicating a good adaptability to both strong and weak lights; young plants of C. nitidissima had both relatively low Pmax and LSP, indicating a good adaptability to weak light, but a depression under strong light. C. nitidissima is a shade loving plant and should be planted in shade habitat. Some suggestions for the management of the species are proposed.

327-331 Download
49
OPTIMIZATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM CHEAP RAW MATERIAL: SUGARCANE MOLASSES
UMAR FAROOQ1*, FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM2, TAHIR ZAHOOR2, SAJJAD-UR-RAHMAN3, MUHAMMD ATIF RANDHAWA2, ANWAAR AHMED4 AND KASHIF AKRAM1

OPTIMIZATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM CHEAP RAW MATERIAL: SUGARCANE MOLASSES
ABSTRACT:
Biotechnological process is advantageous over chemical one as we can utilize cheap raw materials as carbon source such as agro-industrial byproducts and can produce the pure lactic acid in a very economic way. Sugar cane molasses is available in many countries as byproduct of sucrose production, which can be used as substrate for lactic acid fermentation. Process variables were optimized for the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii using food wastes as substrates. The productivity was found to be affected by fermentation time, temperature and the level of substrate. The maximum lactic acid production was achieved after 7 days of fermentation in media containing 18% substrate level with a mean value of 7.76±0.08 g/100 ml (77.6 g/l) at 42ºC. The maximum recovery of lactic acid with respect to initial total sugar contents of the media (9.91±0.20 g/100 ml) was 78.30%.

333-338 Download
50
AXENICALLY CULTURING THE BRYOPHYTES: ESTABLISHMENT AND PROPAGATION OF THE PLEUROCARPOUS MOSS THAMNOBRYUM ALOPECURUM NIEUWLAND EX GANGULEE (BRYOPHYTA, NECKERACEAE) IN IN VITRO CONDITIONS
ANETA SABOVLJEVIĆ1, MILORAD VUJIČIĆ1, MARIJANA SKORIĆ2, JASNA BAJIĆ-LJUBIČIĆ1 AND MARKO SABOVLJEVIĆ1*

AXENICALLY CULTURING THE BRYOPHYTES: ESTABLISHMENT AND PROPAGATION OF THE PLEUROCARPOUS MOSS THAMNOBRYUM ALOPECURUM NIEUWLAND EX GANGULEE (BRYOPHYTA, NECKERACEAE) IN IN VITRO CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The study gives the first report of In vitro culture of the moss Thamnobryum alopecurum and the insight into the problems of axenicaly culturing this bryophyte and the conditions for establishment and propagation. This moss is a counterpart of many rare and endangered mosses from the same genus and date presented should be taken into account of conservation and propagation of its counterparts as well. Problems of surface sterilization are elaborated regarding sporophyte vs. gametophyte. The influence of nutrient, light length and temperature on different developmental stages is discussed. The best conditions for micro-propagation from shoots are slightly lower temperature (18-20°C), on BCD medium irrelevant of day length.

339-344 Download
51
DIRECT SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN OCHRADENUS ARABICUS, AN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANT OF SAUDI ARABIA
M. NADEEM1*, FAHAD AL-QURAINY1, SALIM KHAN1, M. TARROUM1 AND M. ASHRAF1,2

DIRECT SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN OCHRADENUS ARABICUS, AN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANT OF SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
In vitro studies were carried out with Ochradenus arabicus for rapid micropropagation from embryo explants. Direct regeneration of shoot buds of O. arabicus was observed in MS basal medium supplemented with varying levels of either benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn). Embryos produced multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS) containing 1.0 µM BA after 25 days of inoculation. Number of shoots depended on type of cytokinin and its concentrations. Maximum number of shoots (56) was derived from MS medium supplemented with 1.0µM BA, which declined with a further increase in BA concentration. Kinetin also induced multiple shoots at higher concentration (2.0µM) but the number of shoots produced was very low (15). The shoot buds elongated well on MS medium with 1.0µM BA. The shoots thus obtained were rooted on MS medium supplied with 0.5µM NAA after 20 days of culture. The plantlets so developed were transferred to soil after proper acclimatization.

345-347 Download
52
A NUMERICAL TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ROSULARIA (DC.) STAPF FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR* AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

A NUMERICAL TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ROSULARIA (DC.) STAPF FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Numerical analysis of the taxa belonging to the genus Rosularia (DC.) Stapf was carried out to find out their phenetic relationship. Data from different disciplines viz. general, pollen and seed morphology, chemistry and distribution pattern were used. As a result of cluster analysis two distinct groups are formed. Out of which one group consists of R. sedoides (Decne.) H. Ohba and R. alpestris A. Boriss. while other group comprises R. adenotricha (Wall. ex Edgew.) Jansson ssp. adenotricha , R. adenotricha ssp. chitralica, G.R. Sarwar, R. rosulata (Edgew.) H. Ohba and R. viguieri (Raym.-Hamet ex Frod.) G.R. Sarwar. Distribution maps of all the taxa, along with key to the taxa are also presented.

349-354 Download
53
BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF OILS FROM IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
MUGHAL QAYUM1*, MUHAMMAD NISAR2, MUHAMMAD RAZA SHAH3, M. ZIA-UL-HAQ4, WAQAR AHMAD KALEEM1 AND INAMULLAH KHAN MARWAT1

BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF OILS FROM IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE
ABSTRACT:
The oil sub-fractions obtained by solid phase extraction of the n-hexane fraction from aerial parts of the Impatiens bicolor Royle, were tested In vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Bacterial strains used for the experiment were Shigella flexeneri, Escherchia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus while fungal strains included Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani, Microspoum canis, Candida glaberatan and Trichophyton longifusis. The tested samples did not display any activity against above mentioned bacterial strains while in case of antifungal activity, fractions MQ-6 and MQ-7 exhibited low activity against Microsporum canis. The crude oil sub-fraction MQ-4 (81.25%) exhibited highly significant phytotoxicity in the tested concentration (1000 mg/mL) against Lemna plant. The tested samples revealed low to moderated insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum while in case of brine shrimp lethality, MQ-5, MQ-6, MQ-7 showed significant cytotoxicity at high dose 1000 µg/mL with LD50 value 170.748

355-359 Download
54
SCREENING OF COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO SPOT BLOTCH UNDER CONTROLLED AND FIELD CONDITIONS
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, SHAHZAD ASAD, ATIQ-UR-REHMAN RATTU, ANJUM MUNIR AND MUHAMMAD FAYYAZ

SCREENING OF COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO SPOT BLOTCH UNDER CONTROLLED AND FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
To determine the resistance level to spot blotch, a lab and field screening of 56 commercial wheat varieties against Bipolaris sorokiniana was conducted at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad. Out of 56 commercial varieties 12 varieties showed moderate resistance (MR) at 2 scale reaction under In vitro and at 1 scale under In vivo conditions and 2 varieties showed moderate resistance at 2 scale under both conditions. Thirty two varieties showed moderate susceptibility (MS) and susceptibility (S) under controlled conditions but had moderate resistance under field conditions, whereas, 9 varieties including Faisalabad-83, Faisalabad-85, Inqilab-91, Kaghan-93, Kirin-95, Kohinoor-83, MH-97, Rohtas-90 and Zarlashata showed moderate resistance at 1 scale under both controlled and field conditions. These lines can further be exploited in breeding program.

361-363 Download
55
ACINETOBACTER CALCOACETICUS AMELIORATED PLANT GROWTH AND INFLUENCED GIBBERELLINS AND FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMICALS
SANG-MO KANG1, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,2, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4, YOON-HA KIM1, GIL-JAE JOO5 AND IN-JUNG LEE1*

ACINETOBACTER CALCOACETICUS AMELIORATED PLANT GROWTH AND INFLUENCED GIBBERELLINS AND FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and gibberellins producing strain was investigated for the presence of organic acids in its culture and interactive effect on cucumber plant’s growth, phytohormonal levels and functional biochemicals. A. calcoaceticus culture’s analysis showed the presence of three organic acids viz. malic, succinic and citric acids. The quantity of malic acid was significantly high compared to succinic and citric acids. Besides that, the free phosphate level was highest at the fifth day of bacterial culture growth. In A. calcoaceticus and plant’s association experiment, the strain has significantly ameliorated cucumber plants to higher growth. The PGPR culture application had higher shoot length; plant biomass and chlorophyll contents compared to controls (distill water-DW and nutrient broth-NB). The bacterial culture treated plants has higher amino acid and crude protein contents compared DW and NB. In amino acid analysis, threonine, alanine and proline quantities were significantly higher in PGPR treated plants than control plants. A. calcoaceticus treated plants had low endogenous abscisic acid contents but contrarily higher GAs (GA1, GA4, GA9 and GA20) compared to controls (DW and NB). The PGPR has activated the GAs biosynthesis pathway while promoting the cucumber plant’s growth. Application of such eco-friendly PGPR can be a viable alternative to synthetic fertilizers.

365-372 Download
56
STUDY OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN MANGROVE SEDIMENTS REFERENCE TO MARINE ENVIRONMENT ALONG THE COASTAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN
MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK1*, MAHMOOD IQBAL KHATTAK2 AND MUHAMMAD MOHIBULLAH3

STUDY OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN MANGROVE SEDIMENTS REFERENCE TO MARINE ENVIRONMENT ALONG THE COASTAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this paper is to measure the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu & Fe) in Mangrove sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu & Fe) were measured in different samples of in different Mangroves sediments along the coastal areas of Pakistan and was found that concentration of heavy metals in the Mangrove sediments near to Lyari and Malir river discharge points are at much higher level than the Mangrove sediments of Port Qasim area which are not according to WHO standard and are very are very serious health hazardous. In addition to point sources, possible reasons of non point sources were also discussed.

373-378 Download
57
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM ALGAE
G. KHOLA AND B. GHAZALA*

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM ALGAE
ABSTRACT:
Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for biodiesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth’s surface is covered with water, thus algae would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative biodiesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al.

379-381 Download
58
SCREENING PAKISTANI COTTON FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE
MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN SOOMRO, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND* AND BARKAT A. SOOMRO1

SCREENING PAKISTANI COTTON FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
The drought is one of the biggest abiotic stresses for crop production in arid and semi-arid agriculture. Thus it is a challenge for plant scientists to screen and develop the drought tolerant cotton lines. In this study, 31 cotton genotypes/cultivars were evaluated under two irrigation regimes i.e., seven irrigations (Control) and two irrigations (Stress), using split plot design with four replications. The crop growth, yield and some physiological parameters were studied. There were high inter-varietal differences for all the parameters under control as well as drought stress. Although all the varieties for all parameters were significantly affected by drought but however, CRIS-9, MARVI, CRIS-134, CRIS-126, CRIS-337, CRIS-355 and CRIS-377 maintained highest performance for all the parameters studied under high drought conditions.

383-388 Download
59
ANTI-EMETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
MUHAMMAD MOHTASHEEM UL HASAN*, IQBAL AZHAR, S. MUZAMMIL, SALMAN AHMED AND SYED WASEEMUDDIN AHMED

ANTI-EMETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity.

389-391 Download
60
PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF LOCALLY ISOLATED STRAIN OF FUSARIUM SOLANI (MBL 24) FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1*, MUHAMMAD ANJUM ZIA2, MANEELA SADAF1 AND RUKHSANA JABEEN3

PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF LOCALLY ISOLATED STRAIN OF FUSARIUM SOLANI (MBL 24) FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES
ABSTRACT:
The present study is focused to exploit the indigenous strain of Fusarium solani (MBL-24) for the extracellular lipases production through solid state fermentation technique. In order to exploit the locally isolated fungal strain for the industrial usage, various parameters tested was incubation temperature, screening of substrates, incubation period, size of inoculum, volume of moistening agent, additional oils, additional carbon and nitrogen sources. Wheat bran was surprisingly found to be an ideal source for the growth of the organism and subsequently for enhanced enzyme production as compared to the other substrates. Out of various oils tested brassica oil at 1% was found to be an ideal additional source for the maximum activity (3.78±0.04a U/mL) of lipases. It was found that 2 mL of inoculum supported highest lipase enzyme (4.32±0.05a U/mL) production. Maximum activity (5.36±0.10a U/mL) was obtained when fungus was incubated for two days (48h) and at 1:3 substrate to diluent ratio i.e., (7.0 ± 0.03 a U/mL). As an additional supplement 1% CaCO3 was proved to be best for maximum extracellular lipases production. Inorganic nitrogen source seems to be better supplement as compared to organic nitrogen sources. Sodium nitrate supported maximum lipase production (5.17 ± 0.07 a U/mL). It is apparent from the optimized conditions that the strain has a good potential for the production of extracellular lipases and can be exploited for several industries keeping in view the optimized temperature and incubation period.

393-397 Download
61
IMPACT OF SAWDUST USING VARIOUS WOODS FOR EFFECTIVE CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
NASIR AHMAD KHAN¹, M. AJMAL¹, M. INAM UL HAQ³, NAZIR JAVED¹, M. ASIF ALI², RANA BINYAMIN¹ AND SAJID ALEEM KHAN¹

IMPACT OF SAWDUST USING VARIOUS WOODS FOR EFFECTIVE CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM
ABSTRACT:
Sawdust of different woods which included Kikar,Mango,Simbal and Kail used as substrates were investigated for cultivation of Oyster mushroom. The maximum linear mycelial growth after 5

399-402 Download
62
NEW RECORDS OF LACTARIUS SPECIES FROM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ1* AND SALEEM SHAHZAD2

NEW RECORDS OF LACTARIUS SPECIES FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lactarius pubescens and L. helvus are being reported for first time from Pakistan whereas L. obscuratus and L. piperatus have been recorded for the first time from Gilgit-Baltistan Valley. These species are characterized by cap at first convex then flattened and depressed or funnel-shaped. Stem slender, equal or Gills narrow, crowded. Test mild. Smell faint when fresh, strong when dry. Exuding milky substance when cut. Spores ellipsoid, smooth

403-405 Download
63
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VI. CARYOPHYLLACEAE
DURDANA KANWAL, RUBINA ABID AND M.QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VI. CARYOPHYLLACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed micro morphological characters of 59 species, distributed in 21 genera of the family Caryophyllaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. There is a large variety of seed characters such as seeds reniform, sub reniform and rarely elliptic pyriform, cuneate, transversely cuneate, ovate, oblong, orbicular or sub orbicular, size ranges from 0.4-3mm x 0.3-3mm. Seed morphological data is found to be slightly significant for the tribal delimitation, while it strongly supports the generic and specific delimitations in the family Caryophyllaceae.

407-424 Download
64
EFFECT OF EPHEDRA ALATA ON NUCLEIC ACIDS AND NITROGEN METABOLISM OF SEEDBORNE ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS
AL-QARAWI1*, A. A.; ABD ALLAH1, E. F. AND ABEER HASHEM2

EFFECT OF EPHEDRA ALATA ON NUCLEIC ACIDS AND NITROGEN METABOLISM OF SEEDBORNE ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS
ABSTRACT:
The antifungal mechanism of Ephedra alata against aflatoxigenic seedbrone Aspergillus flavus was studied. The sensitivity of A. flavus to E. alata was investigated via studying the alteration in some biochemical compositions of mold mycelia. It has been observed that E. alata caused significant inhibitory alterations on synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), and non-soluble nitrogen fractions (protein-N2 and total N2). The alteration in free amino acids of the experimental mold due to E. alata indicated significant increase in glutamic acid, proline, serine, leucine, and phenyl alanine. The results recorded here, clearly indicated the possibility of using the alteration in free amino acids in mycelial growth of A. flavus as sensitive monitor for the possible suggested mechanism of E. alata.

425-428 Download
65
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF LECANORA ATRA LECANORA MURALIS, PARMELIA SAXATILIS, PARMELIA SULCATA AND PARMELIOPSIS AMBIGUA
BRANISLAV RANKOVIĆ1*AND MARIJANA KOSANIĆ1

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF LECANORA ATRA LECANORA MURALIS, PARMELIA SAXATILIS, PARMELIA SULCATA AND PARMELIOPSIS AMBIGUA
ABSTRACT:
Antimicrobal activity of the acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the lichens Lecanora atra, Lecanora muralis, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmelia sulcata and Parmeliopsis ambigua was explored In vitro against to 6 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi by the disc-difusion method and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the Broth tube Dilution method. The acqueous extracts of the tested lichens didn't show any antimicrobal activity on any of the test organisms, whereas the acetone and methanol ones showed an activity related to the tested species. The bacteria were very sensitive related to the tested fungi. The strongest antimicrobal activity was found in the acetone extract of the lichen Parmelia sulcata where the least measured MIC value was 0.78 mg/ml. Generally, among the bacteria the most sensitive was the species Bacillus mycoides, and among the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Candida albicans. The bacterium Escerichia coli was resistant to all the extracts of the explored lichens. Generally, all the explored lichens had a relatively strong antimicrobal activity, which can be very important in making the food bad and in curing numerous diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.

429-433 Download
66
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, FATTY ACID PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT OIL
MUHAMMAD ASLAM SHAD*, HUMAYUN PERVEZ, ZAFAR IQBAL ZAFAR, HAQ NAWAZ AND HYDER KHAN

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, FATTY ACID PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT OIL
ABSTRACT:
The oil from seeds of 4 pea nut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties: Golden, Bari 2000, Mongphalla, and Mongphalli 334 cultivated in arid zones, was subjected to the comparative evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity. Pea nut seeds were found to be a rich source of crude fat (45.09-51.63 g/100 g dry weight). The physicochemical properties of the oil were investigated as specific gravity (0.915±0.008-0.918±0.008), acid value (3.96±0.22-4.95±0.71 mg KOH/g oil), saponification value (226.40±3.59-246.56±2.04 mg KOH/g oil) and unsaponifiable matter (3.20±0.23-4.20±0.04 g/100 g oil). The higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (82.06-85.93%) were found to be present in each variety. A significant variation (p<0.05) was observed among the varieties regarding crude oil content, saponification value, oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratios, phenolic acid content and total antioxidant content. Golden was found to be high in oil content, O/L ratio, antioxidant profile and DPPH· scavenging activity but low in iodine value.

435-440 Download
67
EFFECT OF THERMALLY COMPOSTED CULTURE MEDIA ON THE GROWTH OF HYPHAE FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF THE BASIDIOCARP OF BUTTON MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BITORQUIS (QUELET) SACC
HAROON-UR-RASHEED1, SAIFULLAH1*, FIDA MOHAMMAD2 AND KHALID NAWAB3

EFFECT OF THERMALLY COMPOSTED CULTURE MEDIA ON THE GROWTH OF HYPHAE FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF THE BASIDIOCARP OF BUTTON MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BITORQUIS (QUELET) SACC
ABSTRACT:
This research was carried out to study the hyphal growth initiation from various parts of Agaricus bitorquis on yeast extract agar media composted for different periods. Gills showed more radial growth 1.63 cm than that of all other tissues of basidiocarp followed by joint, cap and stalk with radial growth

441-443 Download
68
PRODUCTION OF ANTITUMOR ANTIBIOTIC BY STREPTOMYCES CAPOAMUS
HAMID MUKHTAR*, SIDRA IJAZ AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

PRODUCTION OF ANTITUMOR ANTIBIOTIC BY STREPTOMYCES CAPOAMUS
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the production of antitumor antibiotic by Streptomyces capoamus in batch fermentation. Antibiotic activity was tested against Bacillus subtilis by cylinder plate method. Different culture media were screened and M3 medium consisting of glucose (10.0 g/L), yeast extract (1.0 g/L), meat extract (4.0 g/L), peptone (4.0 g/L) and NaCl (2.0 g/L) was found to be the best. Optimum temperature, pH and incubation period for the production of antitumor antibiotic were found to be 30oC, 7.5 and 72 hrs, respectively. 2% maltose as carbon source

445-452 Download
69
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FUSARIUM ROOT ROT OF OKRA
ZAHOOR AHMAD1, SAIFULLAH1*, FAZLI RAZIQ1, HAKIM KHAN1AND MUHAMMAD IDREES2

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FUSARIUM ROOT ROT OF OKRA
ABSTRACT:
The effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride and three fungicides i.e. Benlate, Ridomil and Dithane M-45, was investigated on the management of Fusarium root rot in okra under screen house conditions. The disease incidence and percent mortality were significantly reduced (p≤0.05) by all the fungicides and antagonists when compared with untreated check plants. T. harzianum and Ridomil increased the yield by 83.6 and 80.2 %, respectively. Under In vitro study, Dithane M-45 proved to be more effective than Ridomil and Benlate used alone or integrated with any of the antagonists. Maximum colony diameter of the pathogen (6.9 cm) was recorded in control treatment. T. viride was less effective when used alone or with any fungicide, while T. harzianum reduced the colony diameter by 43.5 % under In vitro.

453-457 Download
70
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NICOTIANA TABACUM USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS EXTRACTS
JEHAN BAKHT1*, AZRA1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NICOTIANA TABACUM USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS EXTRACTS
ABSTRACT:
The present study investigates antibacterial activity of tobacco extracts from Nicotiana tabacum at different concentrations in different polar solvents. Six different extracts were prepared, using 5 different polar solvents viz., Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, n-Hexane, Acetone, Butanol and water. Four different concentrations (6

459-463 Download
71
ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOHORMONES PRODUCING CAPACITY OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA SSA AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ZEA MAYS L.
IRUM NAZ AND ASGHARI BANO

ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOHORMONES PRODUCING CAPACITY OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA SSA AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ZEA MAYS L.
ABSTRACT:
In this paper we reported the isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SSA from roots of Solanum surrattense Burm. f., a weed growing at arid soil of district Attock, Pakistan. The isolate was characterized for morphological and biochemical attributes and was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SSA on the basis of 16S-rRNA partial sequence analysis. The population size varied from 106 -107 cfu g-1 fresh weight of root. Phytohormones: Indole-3-acetic acid, Gibberellic acid, trans-Zeatin riboside and Abscisic acid were found in culture supernatant as measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The bacterium used as inoculants on Zea mays L. seedlings showed significant increase in the growth and proline content of root and shoot both under normal and NaCl stressed conditions.

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