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Year 2012 , Volume  44, Issue 3
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1
EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NO ON ASA-GSH CIRCULATION METABOLISM IN YOUNG LOQUAT FRUIT MITOCHONDRIA UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS
JINCEHNG WU *, JINGJING WU, JIE LIANG, JIANQIN CHEN AND LIQIN CAI

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NO ON ASA-GSH CIRCULATION METABOLISM IN YOUNG LOQUAT FRUIT MITOCHONDRIA UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on antioxidant systems under low temperature stress in young loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Jiefangzhong) fruit mitochondria were investigated in this study. Young loquat fruits were treated with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mmol L-1 of sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) under 0°C for 6-hours. The results indicated that the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was lower than the control following treatment. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) concentrations resulted in increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity relative to the control (p<0.05). Therefore, we concluded that suitable exogenous NO concentration enhanced the mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in young loquat fruits by increasing GSH and AsA concentrations, elevating APX, GR, DHAR and MDHAR activity, and reducing H2O2 concentration. As a result, oxidative damage was reduced and the cold-resistance capacity of young loquat fruits was increased under low temperature stress conditions.

847-851 Download
2
DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF FOUR HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.) CULTIVARS TO HEAT STRESS
WENRONG CHEN, WEIYA CEN, LI CHEN, LULU DI, YONGQIANG LI AND WEIDONG GUO*

DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF FOUR HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.) CULTIVARS TO HEAT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has recently been introduced into Southeast China, a typical subtropical area with a high temperature climate in summer. Understanding of the thermal tolerance among different genotypes of highbush blueberry is needed to select appropriate cultivars. Four highbush blueberry cultivars (‘Duck’, ‘Brigitta’, ‘Sharpblue’ and ‘Misty’) were exposed for 6 h to different temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C), and then various physiological parameters and ultrastructure of chloroplast were assessed. Exposure to high temperature significantly increased the level of relative electrolyte leakage (REL), contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical (O2.-) rate, and the initial chlorophyll fluorescence yield (Fo). Whereas the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (ФPS II) decreased under high temperature conditions. The most pronounced effect by high temperature stress was obtained in ‘Brigitta’, while the least effect existed in ‘Sharpblue’. Furthermore, the chloroplast ultrastructure in ‘Brigitta’ was severely damaged under heat temperature stress, whereas that of ‘Sharpblue’ was almost intact. The results indicated that the ‘Sharpblue’ was the most heat-tolerant blueberry cultivar while ‘Brigitta’ was the most sensitive to heat temperature stress, followed by ‘Duck’ and ‘Misty’. These were consistent with results observed from the field trial. This study proved that photosynthetic parameters stressed by short-term heat stress were fairly reliable to evaluate the thermal endurance in highbush blueberry.

853-860 Download
3
RESPONSE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND DROUGHT STRESS
AYUB KHAN1*, JEHAN BAKHT2, ASGHARI BANO3 AND NASRULLAH JAN MALIK4

RESPONSE OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) GENOTYPES TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was carried out to investigate the physiological (relative water content) pod dry weight, pods plant-1, pod yield (kg plot-1), shelling (%), plant height and biochemical (endogenous ABA level) traits of peanut cultivar Swat Phalli-96 under drought stress. The result showed that drought stress significantly (p<0.05) reduced relative water content (RWC), pod dry weight, pods plant-1, pod yield (kg plot-1), shelling (%) and plant height. GA and IAA applied as seed treatment or foliar spray had no significant (p >0.05) effect on various parameters under drought stress conditions. However, foliar application of ABA (10-4 M) partially ameliorated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth and yield components. Foliar application of ABA to plants when subsequently exposed to drought stress resulted in elevated levels of endogenous ABA. The endogenous ABA levels in shoot increased earlier in response to applied ABA than that of root.

861-865 Download
4
EFFECT OF OSMOPRIMING SOURCES AND MOISTURE STRESS ON WHEAT
ROOHUL AMIN1*, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1 AND IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL2

EFFECT OF OSMOPRIMING SOURCES AND MOISTURE STRESS ON WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Wheat yield in Pakistan is very low due to poor germination and poor stand establishment and optimum amount of water availability at critical growth stages. To cope with these problems experiments were planned including control and nine osmopriming sources per liter of water that is PEG (100 g), KCl (37.25 g), KNO3 (101 g), NaCl (58.5 g), NH4Cl (53.5 g), CaCl2 (55.5 g), Mannitol (20 g), Na2SO4 (71 g) and hydropriming. In the filed these were studied at three moisture stresses of 60, 70 and 80% MAD (management allowable depletion). The experiments were repeated during 2008 and 2009 and were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement replicated three times. Moisture stress was allotted to main plots and osmopriming sources to sub plots. Best combinations of moisture stress (M) and osmopriming sources (OPS) significantly affected phenological and grain yield components of wheat. Increased moisture stress showed decreased phenological life of the wheat. Hence lowest days to maturity (157.1) were noted for 80% MAD. The optimum MAD (70%) contributed to maximum grain yield (3348.6 kg ha-1). Wheat showed variation in response to osmopriming sources. Minimum days to emergence (8.1) were noted for PEG. While KNO3 osmoprimed seeds took lowest days to maturity (155.4). Highest emergence m-2 (82), thousand grains weight (39.97 g), and grain yield (3481 kg ha-1) were recorded for PEG (100 g L-1 of water). Likewise KNO3 (101 g L-1 of water) osmoprimed seeds attained highest number of grains spike-1 (51.0). From this study it was concluded that wheat seeds may be osmoprimed with PEG, Na2SO4, KNO3, CaCl2 and water along with the application of 70% MAD irrigation at critical growth stages for gaining high yield. However, due to the high prices of PEG and other osmopriming sources in the market hydropriming is recommended for gaining high net benefit and income.

867-871 Download
5
EFFECT OF SALINITY AND ABA APPLICATION ON PROLINE PRODUCTION AND YIELD IN WHEAT GENOTYPES
JEHAN BAKHT1*, MOHAMMAD JAVED KHAN2 , MOHAMMAD SHAFI3, MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4 AND MOHAMMAD SHARIF5

EFFECT OF SALINITY AND ABA APPLICATION ON PROLINE PRODUCTION AND YIELD IN WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
The present experiment was conducted at Agricultural University Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtun Khwa Pakistan, to study the response of 6 wheat genotypes to foliar ABA applications and induced salinity stress for their proline production using completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Shoot proline contents were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by genotypes, salinity levels, ABA application and their all possible interactions. Maximum proline content and yield attributes were produced by SR-40 when compared with other genotypes under study. High salinity stress (10 dSm-1) had a positive effect on proline synthesis of wheat genotypes. Exposure of plants to both salinity stress and foliar application of ABA resulted in elevated levels of proline and better yield when compared with other treatments.

873-878 Download
6
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT VARIETIES TO WATER STRESS AT BOOTING AND ANTHESIS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
ABDUL AZIZ KHAKWANI1,2*, M.D. DENNETT2, M. MUNIR3 AND M. ABID4

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF WHEAT VARIETIES TO WATER STRESS AT BOOTING AND ANTHESIS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT:
Plants of 6 bread wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were subjected to 2 treatments i.e., control treatment (100% field capacity) and stressed treatment (20 days water stress was given during booting stage and 20 days water stress after anthesis). The findings revealed highly significant differences among means of wheat varieties in all physiological and yield traits. Almost all varieties showed their best adaptation under stressed environment however Hashim-8 and Zam-04 behaved exclusively and indicated higher relative water content (RWC), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) whereas stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) was estimated at its lowest, as these traits are recognised beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selection of a stress tolerant variety. Similarly, total grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index was also higher in the same wheat varieties that put them as good candidates for selection criteria in wheat breeding program for drought resistant.

879-886 Download
7
THINNING INTENSITY AFFECTS THE YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APRICOT cv. TREVETT
ABDUR RAB1, JAVED RAHMAN2, SAIDAJAN ABDIANI3, ABDUL QADIM3 MANSOOR KHAN KHATTAK4 AND KHALID NAWAB5

THINNING INTENSITY AFFECTS THE YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APRICOT cv. TREVETT
ABSTRACT:
The effect of thinning on yield and fruit quality attributes of apricot cv. Trevett was investigated during 2007-08 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan The experiment consisted of eight treatments i.e., 0 (Control)

887-890 Download
8
SILICON TREATMENT TO RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. cv ‘GOPUMBYEO’) PLANTS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PERIODS AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD
YOON-HA KIM1, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1,2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, DUCK-HWAN KIM1, MUHAMMAD WAQAS1, MUHAMMAD KAMRAN1 AND IN-JUNG LEE1*

SILICON TREATMENT TO RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. cv ‘GOPUMBYEO’) PLANTS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PERIODS AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Silicon (Si) has been considered a beneficial element for plant growth. We have assessed the effects of Si application on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and its grain yield at field level. For this, we performed two experiments. In experiment 1, we applied Si of three different concentrations (liquid Si-10

891-897 Download
9
THE EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CONTENTS IN CUMINUM CYMINUM L.
MOZHGAN FARZAMI SEPEHR1*, MAHLAGHA GHORBANLI2 AND FERESHTE AMINI3

THE EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CONTENTS IN CUMINUM CYMINUM L.
ABSTRACT:
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth

899-903 Download
10
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM [L.] R.BR.) IRRIGATED WITH TREATED EFFLUENT FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT, ATIF SHAHZAD AND HAMDA ARIF

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM [L.] R.BR.) IRRIGATED WITH TREATED EFFLUENT FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
ABSTRACT:
Shortage of fresh water is a worldwide problem, particularly in the tropics. Treated wastewater can be utilized not only as irrigation water but also to serves as a liquid fertilizer. The effect of treated effluent from waste stabilization ponds and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth, yield and nutritive quality of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) was investigated under field conditions. The N, P and K levels in treated effluent were monitored over the entire experimental period. Treated effluent significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index and the dry matter yield per hectare. By contrast, basal fertilizer did not significantly improve these parameters. Among the nutritive characteristics, only crude protein content was markedly increased by the effluent. Other nutritive qualities remained uninfluenced by both treated effluent and the basal fertilizer. The study demonstrated that treated effluent can be successfully used for unrestricted irrigation in the water deficient tropical and subtropical areas thereby saving huge quantities of fresh water.

905-910 Download
11
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SHADED CONDITIONS AND WATER DEPTHS ON THE GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGY OF VALLISNERIA SPINULOSA
LONG-YI YUAN1,2, WEI LI2,3*, GUI-HU A. LIU3 AND GUANG DENG3

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SHADED CONDITIONS AND WATER DEPTHS ON THE GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGY OF VALLISNERIA SPINULOSA
ABSTRACT:
The occurrence and growth of submerged macrophytes mainly depends on a suitable light environment. Nowadays, however, lake eutrophication increasing phytoplankton and epiphyton overgrowth has caused shading habitats. This change influences light quantity and quality under lake water. The decrease of light availability will play a spectacular and unusual role on the establishment, growth and survival of submerged macrophytes. So the effects of four shaded treatments and three water depth treatments on the growth and reproductive strategy of Vallisneria Spinulosa were carried out to investingate how light availability imposed an adverse influences on the growth and reproduction of submerged macrophytes. This study confirmed that both light quality and quantity affected by shaded treatments and water depth treatments had negative impacts on growth, reproduction and the associated morphological traits of V. spinulosa. Compared to shaded treatments, the effect of water-depth gradient on sexual reproduction was less significantly different. The treatments of sunshades associated light attenuation played a determinant role in the growth and reproductive strategy of macrophyte V. spinulosa, while the depth gradients had a scaling effect. In addition, length of the total stolons, number of inflorescences, stolon biomass, seed biomass, total biomass, and resource allocation ratios of seeds and ratios between above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass per plant were relatively insensitive to light quantity and quality affected by water depth treatments. Resource allocation ratios of tubers was less changeable to light quantity and quality affected by shaded treatments. So the effects of irradiance decrease has been suggested to be the main reason for the disappearance of submerged macrophytes from eutrophic waters owing to shaded effects.

911-918 Download
12
ASSESMENT OF CORN (ZEA MAYS L.) GENOTYPES IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION UNDER IRRIGATED CROPPING CONDITIONS IN TURKEY
HAYRIYE IBRIKCI1*, AHMET CAN ULGER2, GOKHAN BUYUK3, KURSAT KORKMAZ4, JOHN RYAN5, EBRU KARNEZ6, BULENT CAKIR7, GONUL OZGENTURK3 AND OMER KONUSKAN8

ASSESMENT OF CORN (ZEA MAYS L.) GENOTYPES IN RELATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION UNDER IRRIGATED CROPPING CONDITIONS IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in crop production is based on supplying adequate amounts of the nutrient for optimum economic yield, while minimizing losses to the environment. Exploiting genotypic differences in N use is an additional consideration in achieving nutrient-use efficiency. Thus, in order to identify N-efficient corn genotypes, we established N-response field trials at 2 locations (University Research Farm, and Cutaem) for 2 years (1999

919-925 Download
13
NORTH-SOUTH FACING VEGETATION GRADIENTS IN THE VILLÁNY MOUNTAINS: A CASE STUDY ON THE POPULATION AND THE COMMUNITY LEVEL
LÁSZLÓ ERDŐS*, ÁGNES MÉRI, ZOLTÁN BÁTORI, RÓBERT GALLÉ AND LÁSZLÓ KÖRMÖCZI

NORTH-SOUTH FACING VEGETATION GRADIENTS IN THE VILLÁNY MOUNTAINS: A CASE STUDY ON THE POPULATION AND THE COMMUNITY LEVEL
ABSTRACT:
The study of gradients can provide basic information about the ecology of plant populations as well as about community organization. In this study, north-south facing vegetation gradients were investigated in a submediterranean region of South Hungary. Vegetation was examined along five contiguous belt transects, each 200 m long, crossing the mountain ridge or plateau. Plant community sequences were identified visually during field studies. Moreover, community boundaries were delineated objectively, using the moving-split window analysis. In addition, number and size of the population patches were analyzed. This study revealed that mesic forest communities of the northern slopes are replaced by shrubforests and closed rock swards near the ridge, whereas mosaics of shrubforests and open rock swards occur on the southern slopes. Number of significant community boundaries was higher on the southern slopes than on the northern ones. Southern slopes support much more plant species. They have more population patches, which are significantly smaller than patches of the northern slopes. Community sequences along north-south gradients in the Villány Mts are similar to those of the nearby mountainous areas, with one fundamental difference of the xeric grasslands near the ridge. The conclusion of the present paper is that this sequence represents a transitional type between the submediterranean-subcontinental and the continental types. In addition, southern slopes support higher biodiversity and are more patchy than northern ones.

927-932 Download
14
PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEXES OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA LEAVES FROM DIFFERENT CANOPY POSITIONS IN THE LOWER REACHES OF TARIM RIVER
PUJIA YU1,2,HAILIANG XU1*,WEI SHI1,SHIWEI LIU1,2,QINGQING ZHANG1, XINFENG ZHAO1 , WEI ZHENG2 AND PENG ZHANG1

PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEXES OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA LEAVES FROM DIFFERENT CANOPY POSITIONS IN THE LOWER REACHES OF TARIM RIVER
ABSTRACT:
Populus euphratica have serious degeneration under the long-term stress in the lower reaches of Tarim River and many trees began to wither from upper canopy to lower canopy. In this paper, differences in physiological indexes of Populus euphratica leaves between upper canopy, middle canopy and lower canopy, which response to the external stress were studied. The results showed that the contents of water (RWC), soluble sugar (SS), free proline (Pro) and the activities of peroxidase (POD) decreased from lower canopy to upper canopy, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the ratio of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b (Chl a/b) increased. These results indicated that the external stress on the upper canopy was higher than the middle and lower canopy. That may be the main reason resulting in the death of the upper canopy. The contents of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total chlorophyll (Chlt) were slightly higher in the middle canopy than in other canopies, indicating the ability of absorbing light was same in canopies. These findings from this study will contribute to the best management of Populus euphratica.

933-938 Download
15
EFFECTS OF SLOPE ASPECTS AND STAND AGE ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L.) ON THE LOESS PLATEAU
YUAN ZHENG1

EFFECTS OF SLOPE ASPECTS AND STAND AGE ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L.) ON THE LOESS PLATEAU
ABSTRACT:
2, ZHONG ZHAO2*, HUI ZHOU2 AND JING-JING ZHOU2

939-948 Download
16
THE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE EVENTS ON THE SUBMERGED BRYOPHYTE VEGETATION IN THE STREAMS OF THE TATRA MOUNTAINS SLOVAKIA
ŠOLTÉS RUDOLF*, ČERVINKOVÁ DANA, GURA ONDREJ AND CIRIAKOVÁ ANNA

THE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE EVENTS ON THE SUBMERGED BRYOPHYTE VEGETATION IN THE STREAMS OF THE TATRA MOUNTAINS SLOVAKIA
ABSTRACT:
Submerged bryophytes are often important constituents of stream vegetation. Almost the whole area of the Tatra mountains (The West Carpathians

949-954 Download
17
EFFECT OF CUTTING AND POST-CUTTING INTERVALS ON HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN SORGHUM FORAGE GROWN UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS
ADNAN ZAHID1, AZRA KHANUM2*, MUHAMMAD ANSAR3 AND MUHAMMAD AZIM MALIK3

EFFECT OF CUTTING AND POST-CUTTING INTERVALS ON HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN SORGHUM FORAGE GROWN UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Sorghum forage either green or dry is the main source of livestock feed in dry areas of Pakistan. However, a lethal risk of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is associated with this forage. Therefore, a study was carried out under rainfed conditions to assess HCN contents in three commonly grown sorghum cultivars viz., JS-2002, Chakwal Sorghum and Local Cultivar at three growth stages i.e. 3rd leaf (GS1), pre-booting (GS2) and 50% heading stage (GS3) and at three post cutting intervals i.e., 06

955-960 Download
18
MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TWO CALMODULIN GENES ENCODING AN IDENTICAL PROTEIN FROM CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
BAOMING WANG1

MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TWO CALMODULIN GENES ENCODING AN IDENTICAL PROTEIN FROM CAMELLIA OLEIFERA
ABSTRACT:
2, XIAOFENG TAN1

961-968 Download
19
CORRELATION STUDIES OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS FOR HIGHER SUGAR YIELD IN SUGARCANE
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, SAJIDA BIBI, SHAFQUAT YASMIN, ABDULLAH KHATRI, NIGHAT SEEMA AND SHAFIQUE AHMED ABRO

CORRELATION STUDIES OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS FOR HIGHER SUGAR YIELD IN SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Twelve sugarcane clones were used in this study. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the plant characters. Highest cane yield (144 t/ha) was recorded in clone NIA82-1026P5 and highest Pol % (20.82) and CCS % (16.45) were observed in CP84-1198. Correlation coefficient results indicated that cane yield was positively correlated with cane girth, weight per stool, sugar yield, tiller numbers and purity % whereas Pol % and CCS % showed negative correlation with cane yield. Sugar yield showed non significant correlation with cane girth.

969-971 Download
20
CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE GENE INVOLVED IN JASMONATE BIOSYNTHESIS FROM TORENIA FOURNIERI
YAN LIU†, XIAO-MEI ZHAO†, YAN HUANG, RU-YAN SUN AND JIN-HUA BIN*

CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE GENE INVOLVED IN JASMONATE BIOSYNTHESIS FROM TORENIA FOURNIERI
ABSTRACT:
Jasmonates are phytohormones that play important roles in plant defense and development. Allene oxide cyclase (AOC; EC 5.3.99.6) catalyzes a crucial step in the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway that forms the stereoisomeric precursor cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AOC was isolated from Torenia fournieri Lind., designated as TfAOC (GenBank accession no. JF417978). The cDNA was 954 bp in length. The 723 bp open reading frame encoded a protein of 240 amino acids with a putative chloroplast targeting sequence. The predicted molecular mass and the isoelectric point of the protein were 26.16 kDa and 8.60, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TfAOC belongs to the AOC superfamily and is highly homologous to AOC proteins from other plant species. RT-PCR analysis revealed that TfAOC mRNA was expressed in all organs of plants, with highest expression in leaves and lowest in roots. High expression level was also detected in pistils and anthers. The level of methyl jasmonate was correlated with the expression of TfAOC mRNA. These results suggest that JA is involved in the pistil and anther development in T. fournieri.

973-980 Download
21
EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] GROWN IN QUETTA
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI1*, HABIBULLAH2, BASHARAT HUSSAIN SHAH3 AND MIRZA ABDUL WAHID4

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH OF MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK] GROWN IN QUETTA
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth respose of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cultivars subjected to different levels of applied N fertilizer. To achieve the aim, an experiment conducted in the experimental field of Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Quetta. The soil of the study area was basic in reaction, salt free, medium textured having low organic matter & total N contents. Four different cultivars of mungbean viz., NM-92, NM-98, M-1, and NCM-209 grown in kharif season for two consecutive years i.e.

981-987 Download
22
EVALUATION OF THE BIOSEQUESTERING POTENTIAL OF MICROALGA KIRCHNERIELLA CONTORTA IN THE REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION: BATCH AND CONTINUOS FLOW FIXED-BED COLUMN BIOREACTOR STUDIES
ASMA SAEED1, MUHAMMAD IQBAL1,2*, KASHIF IQBAL SAHIBZADA3 AND SHOUKAT PARVEZ4

EVALUATION OF THE BIOSEQUESTERING POTENTIAL OF MICROALGA KIRCHNERIELLA CONTORTA IN THE REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION: BATCH AND CONTINUOS FLOW FIXED-BED COLUMN BIOREACTOR STUDIES
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the adsorption capacity of free and loofa sponge-entrapped microalga Kirchneriella contorta to remove Cr6+ from aqueous solution was investigated. This is the first reported study of biosorption by K. contorta. The effects of the experimental conditions, such as pH, initial Cr6+ concentration, sorbent-sorbate contact time, and quantity of sorbent mass, on Cr6+ removal efficiency were studied. The Cr6+ sorption on K. contorta was found to be highly pH dependent and the maximum uptake capacity was achieved at pH 1.0. The adsorption isotherms study showed the maximum sorption capacity of the loofa sponge-immobilized biomass of K. contorta (LIBKC) of 100.84 mg g-1, which was much higher than 80.61 mg g-1 of the free biomass of K. contorta (FBKC). The adsorption equilibrium data showed a better fit on the monolayer Langmuir adsorption isotherms model with the regression coefficient (r2) greater than 0.99 for both FBKC and LIBKC. The rate of Cr6+ removal followed the pseudo second-order kinetics equation. The LIBKC on treatment with NaOH resulted in 97% Cr6+ recovery and its complete regeneration. The regenerated LIBKC was reused in five repeated cycles without appreciable loss of its metal sorption ability. The potential of LIBKC in a fixed-bed continuous flow column bioreactor for the sorption of Cr6+ from the metal contaminated water was also investigated.

989-998 Download
23
ASSESSMENT OF PHENOTYPIC VARIABILITY IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
SADIA TEHRIM1*, ZAHIDA HASSAN PERVAIZ1, M. YASIN MIRZA2, M. ASHIQ RABBANI3 AND M. SHAHID MASOOD3

ASSESSMENT OF PHENOTYPIC VARIABILITY IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Sixty-eight commercial and primitive cultivars belonging to aromatic (basmati), non-aromatic (coarse) and japonica type were used during present investigation. A considerable level of polymorphism was observed among aromatic, non-aromatic and japonica cultivars for the majority of the morphological characters measured. Cluster and principal component analyses were used to classify rice cultivars on the basis of phenotypic traits. Dendrogram was generated for the Euclidean distance and phenotypically all the cultivars were classified into three major groups corresponding to the forms of indica rice cultivated in Pakistan, i.e., aromatic (Basmati) and non-aromatic (Non-basmati) with few exceptions. Clustering of the cultivars did not show any pattern of association between the morphological characters and the origin of the cultivars. Instead cultivar groups were associated with their morphological similarities and type of indica rice cultivated in various regions of Pakistan. Regardless of the limitation in estimating total genetic variation, the current study indicated that agro-morphological traits were helpful for preliminary characterization and can be used as a broad-spectrum approach to assess genetic diversity among morphologically distinguishable rice cultivars.

999-1006 Download
24
A COMPARATIVE CHROMOSOMAL COUNT AND MORPHOLOGICAL KARYOTYPING OF THREE INDIGENOUS CULTIVARS OF KALONGI (NIGELLA SATIVA L.)
RUKHSANA JABEEN1, T. IFTIKHAR2*, TAHIRA MENGAL1 AND MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK3

A COMPARATIVE CHROMOSOMAL COUNT AND MORPHOLOGICAL KARYOTYPING OF THREE INDIGENOUS CULTIVARS OF KALONGI (NIGELLA SATIVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
In the present study karyotypic analysis of three cultivars of Nigella sativa L., has been carried out to determine chromosomal position by using “Feulgen stain”. The diploid chromosomes were twelve in numbers, characterized in six pair of chromosomes. All the cultivars had similar chromosomal formula 2n = 12 = 10 m + 2T. The total length of chromosomes among the land races of Kohat, (10.84µm to 4.50 µm), Faisalabad (10.00µm to 4.50µm) and Kashmir (4.66 µm to 8.16 µm) were calculated. Based on the centromeric position, there is a slight variation in the total length of the chromosome complements of Kohat and Faisalabad, whereas cultivars of Kashmir was found with much smaller chromosomal length. The variation in centromeric position and chromosomal length among these cultivars may be attributed to genetic recombinations.

1007-1012 Download
25
HETEROTIC STUDIES AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN F2 POPULATIONS OF UPLAND COTTON
MARIA KHAN PANNI1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, FITMAWATI3, SUNDAS BATOOL2 AND MARYAM BIBI2

HETEROTIC STUDIES AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN F2 POPULATIONS OF UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:
To study the genetic potential, heterotic effects and inbreeding depression, 8 × 8 F2 diallel populations with parental lines of upland cotton were grown during crop season 2010 in a randomized complete block design at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p≤0.01) variations were noticed among parental lines and F2 populations for all the traits. According to genotypes mean performance for various traits, plant height varied from 101.60 to 126.30 cm and 98.60 to 140.60 cm, bolls plant-1 (12.87 to 19.53; 12.13 to 22.60), boll weight (3.80 to 5.01 g; 3.04 to 5.38 g) and seed cotton yield plant-1 varied from 55.74 to 85.47 g and 45.57 to 96.05 g in parental cultivars and their F2 populations, respectively. However

1013-1020 Download
26
MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY WITH BIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCES OF HIGH 1000-GRAIN WEIGHT SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS
ALVINA GUL KAZI1, AWAIS RASHEED2*, TARIQ MAHMOOD2, ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI3

MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY WITH BIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCES OF HIGH 1000-GRAIN WEIGHT SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS
ABSTRACT:
Accumulation of favorable characteristics from the genetic resources of Triticeae and their exploitation for bread wheat improvement has always been the main thrust of wheat breeding programs. Harnessing the genetic diversity for yield contributing characteristics has recently diverted the attention of wheat breeders to utilize synthetic hexaploids (SHs) in their programs where one factor being exploited is the high thousand grain weight diversity present in SHs. This requires generating a wide array of data for economically important descriptors which will ultimately permit the acceptance of the synthetic hexaploids with favorable traits. In the present investigation synthetic hexaploids having higher grain weight are characterized and their genetic diversity elucidated to prove that synthetics with higher 1000-grain weight had different genetic makeup to substantiate the view that utilization of SHs for yield improvement will widen the genetic base of the bred derivatives leading to future varietal development. Of the morphological parameters days to flowering/days to physiological maturity and plant height are important for plant selection and progeny advance. Coupled with 1000 kernel weight diversity with these parameters synthetics have been identified for breeding utilization to cover both irrigated and rainfed (drought) cultivation areas. All the synthetics studied had karnal bunt resistance and 62% possessed resistance to prevailing strains of stripe rust which make them available to improve the yield potential of bread wheat in areas where these two biotic stresses are wheat production constraints. Further the utilization approach of synthetic hexaploids for wheat improvement is also discussed.

1021-1028 Download
27
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE LOCALLY COLLECTED BRASSICA SPECIES OF PAKISTAN BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
NAUSHAD ALI TURI1,*, FARHATULLAH1, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI2 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE LOCALLY COLLECTED BRASSICA SPECIES OF PAKISTAN BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity among 120 different accessions of Brassica species were characterized with the help of SSR markers. These species include Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus. 39 SSR primers were used and they produced 162 scorable bands in which 105 were polymorphic. The average rate of polymorphic loci was 46%, which indicates high genetic diversity among the accessions. The UPGMA cluster analysis revealed two main clusters and nine sub-clusters. From the gene pool of the collected Brassicas considerable variation was observed among the B. rapa accessions, which clearly differentiate the B. rapa of northern part of the country from the B. rapa of rest of the country. Groupings also reflected geographical similarities and suggested misidentification of certain accessions in the germplasm collection. Based on our study, SSR analysis proved to be a useful tool in assessing the genetic diversity of leafy Brassica germplasm.

1029-1035 Download
28
EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND DORMANCY BREAKING IN AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT OCHRADENUS ARABICUS CHAUDHARY, HILL C. & A.G. MILL.
MOHAMMAD NADEEM*1, FAHAD AL-QURAINY1, SALIM KHAN1, MOHAMAD TARROUM1 AND M. ASHRAF2

EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION AND DORMANCY BREAKING IN AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT OCHRADENUS ARABICUS CHAUDHARY, HILL C. & A.G. MILL.
ABSTRACT:
The seeds of Ochradenus arabicus, a medicinally important plant endemic to Saudi Arabia, become dormant and thus do not germinate easily. An attempt was made to improve seed germination and break the dormancy. The seeds were subjected to 2 plant growth regulators [GA3 (25-500 µM) and BAP (25-350 µM)] and two chemicals (KNO3 and thiourea) at 0.1-0.5% concentrations. Germination of seed was recorded after 20 days of sowing the seed in different treatments. Maximum germination was obtained by GA3 at 100µM, however, decline in germination was observed at higher concentrations of GA3. The germination of seeds was found to be improved upon storage for 6 and 12 months. In general, all treatments showed increased germination compared to that of control. This might have occurred due to the slow release of an inhibitory dormancy factor with different exogenously applied treatments. It was also interesting to note that the asynchronous germination lasted to 25 more days. This may be a survival adaptation of O. arabicus to harsh climatic conditions prevalent in a desert.

1037-1040 Download
29
NEMATICIDAL POTENTIAL OF CULTURE FIL­TRATES OF SOIL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RHIZOSPHERE AND RHIZOPLANE OF CULTIVATED AND WILD PLANTS
SHAMIM A. QURESHI1, RUQQIA1, VIQAR SULTANA1, JEHAN ARA2 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE3

NEMATICIDAL POTENTIAL OF CULTURE FIL­TRATES OF SOIL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH RHIZOSPHERE AND RHIZOPLANE OF CULTIVATED AND WILD PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Several fungi are known to regulate the nematode densities in soil by exhibiting a range of antagonistic activity including production of nematoxic compounds. Since fungi and nematodes occur together in the rhizosphere, the toxic metabolites naturally produced by fungi may be responsible for keeping a low level of nematode populations. In this study culture filtrates of several isolates of fungi, isolated from rhizosphere and rhizoplane of cultivated and wild plants exhibited significant nematicidal activity on Meloidogyne javanica, by killing 2nd stage juveniles at varying degrees. Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. ustus, Cephalosporium sp., Chaetomium flavum, C. globosum, Cladosporium sp., Memnoniella echinata, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium aspermum, P. citrinum, P. purpurogenum, P. raistrickii, Scopulariopsis brumptti, Stachybotrys atra, S. parvispora, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride and Verticillium chlamydosporium (Pochonia chlamydosporia) showed highest nematicidal activity. However, different isolates of same species of fungi showed variation in their nematicidal potential. Secondary metabolites from fungi associated with rhizopshpere and rhizoplane of crop plants offer an exciting area of research for the discovery of potential nematicidal compounds.

1041-1046 Download
30
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC PROXIMITY AND GENETIC SIMILARITY AMONG THE NATURAL POPULATIONS OF PINUS BRUTIA TEN.: ITS IMPLICATION ON GENETIC CONSERVATION
NURAY KAYA* AND BEHİYE BANU BİLGEN

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC PROXIMITY AND GENETIC SIMILARITY AMONG THE NATURAL POPULATIONS OF PINUS BRUTIA TEN.: ITS IMPLICATION ON GENETIC CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Genetic variation in five natural populations of Pinus brutia Ten., was determined with isoenzyme analyses. Isozymes from nine enzyme systems extracted from haploid female gametophytes of the seeds were separated by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. In the nine enzyme systems

1047-1052 Download
31
WHEAT-WILD OATS INTERACTIONS AT VARYING DENSITIES AND PROPORTIONS
IJAZ AHMED KHAN1*, GUL HASSAN1, SHERAZ AHMED KHAN2 AND S.M.A. SHAH2

WHEAT-WILD OATS INTERACTIONS AT VARYING DENSITIES AND PROPORTIONS
ABSTRACT:
Wild oats is a worst weed infesting winter cereals throughout the world. Pot experiment was conducted in the Weed Research Laboratory, Department of Weed Science, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during 2004-05 to quantify the mutual effects of the two species. Wheat and wild oats were planted in pots in the densities of 0 to 8 plants pot-1 of each species in the Replacement Series. The data were recorded on some morphological, physiological and agronomic traits of both species. The data indicated the density related decline in all the parameters of either species. A single plant of wild oats inflicted 10% decrease in Tillers plant-1of wheat whereas 1.22 plants of wheat induced the same reduction in wild oats. Similar reduction in No. of leaves plant-1 in wheat was observed with the competition of 1.8 oat plants pot-, while only 1.3 wheat plants caused 10% reduction in wild oats No. of leaves plant-1. Wild oats density of 2.8 plants reduced 10% spikelets per spike in wheat, whereas only half than that wheat plants induced 10% damage in wild oats. The data thus indicate that wheat as well as wild mutually inhibits their growth in mixture, but the inhibition is slightly more by wheat to the wild oats than the wild oats to wheat. Thus, wheat if planted at higher seeding rates under the wild oats infested situations can mitigate the damage caused to wheat by the wild oats. The observed suppression of wheat by wild oats also warrants its effective management strategies for harvesting potential yield of wheat.

1053-1057 Download
32
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VII. GERANIACEAE
AFSHEEN ATHER, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER*

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VII. GERANIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 19 taxa belonging to the family Geraniaceae, was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Seed macro and micro morphological characters were found useful for the taxonomic delimitation as all the taxa clearly distinguished at the generic, specific as well as at the infra specific level.

1059-1064 Download
33
COMPARATIVE ANATOMIC AND ECOLOGIC INVESTIGATION ON SOME ENDEMIC CROCUS TAXA (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
NEZAHAT KANDEMİR1, ALİ ÇELİK2* AND FATİH YAYLA3

COMPARATIVE ANATOMIC AND ECOLOGIC INVESTIGATION ON SOME ENDEMIC CROCUS TAXA (IRIDACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, anatomic and ecologic characteristics of 5 Crocus L. taxa (C. baytopiorum Mathew, C. biflorus Miller subsp. crewei (Hooker) Mathew, C. biflorus subsp. isauricus (Siehe ex Bowles) Mathew, C. biflorus subsp. pseudonubigena Mathew and C. cancellatus Herbert subsp. cancellatus) were compared. These taxa have both endemic (except subsp. crewei) and limited distribution in Turkey. The subsp. isauricus subsp. crewei and C. baytopiorum are flowering in early spring whereas subsp. cancellatus and subsp. pseudonubigena are flowering in autumn. In anatomical studies, the cross-sections of the stem and leaves of these taxa were examined. Moreover, arms, keel, micropapillae, mesophyll, stomata types, shape of the epidermis cells, crystal types and vascular bundles properties of the leaves were investigated. The number and the status of vascular bundles in stem, the status of mesophyll layer in leaves of these taxa were asserted as important taxonomic characters. The chemical and physical analysis of the soil samples were also determined.

1065-1074 Download
34
DETECTION OF MYCOTOXINS IN MAIZE SEED SAMPLES
ISHRAT NIAZ, SHAHNAZ DAWAR AND NAJUM-US-SAHAR

DETECTION OF MYCOTOXINS IN MAIZE SEED SAMPLES
ABSTRACT:
Present results describe the detection of mycotoxins in samples of maize seed collected from different localities of Pakistan viz., Karachi, Hyderabad, NawabShah, Sukhur, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar and Islamabad. Seed samples were analyzed quantitavely by competitive Direct Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique (CD-ELISA). Out of fifty nine samples tested, 50 samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin whereas 43 samples contained zearalenone and ochratoxin was detected from 4 seed samples. The amount of aflatoxin was detected in high quantity from five samples, while zearalenone was also detected in highest quantity from six samples and ochratoxin detected only in four samples in low quantity.

1075-1078 Download
35
SOME BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN SORDARIA FIMICOLA
HAMIT KAVAK

SOME BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN SORDARIA FIMICOLA
ABSTRACT:
Biological parameters associated with identification, isolation, proliferation, resistance and discharge of asci and ascosporous were investigated on Sordaria fimicola. As unusual habitats, the fungus was isolated from surfaces of necrotized leaf spots of Hordeum vulgare, H. spontaneum and Datura inoxia at various rates in the vegetation period of 2009 in the Şanlıurfa district, Turkey. Treatments were conducted at different temperatures and nutrition media. Together with mycelium development, the most perithecial production was observed on Potato Dextrose Agar-1 at 25ºC in shortest time. At the same temperature, the slowest mycelium growth and perithecial production was observed on Potato Dextrose Agar-2. In absence of glucose in Corn Meal Agar, perithecial production and mycelium development was also fast. Mycelia tufts of fungus were resistant to different degrees or doses of ethyl alcohol. On the mycelium appendages stored in the ethyl alcohol, the perithecium of the fungus produced. Globe, turbinate, obpyriform and clavate were respective steps in the formation of perithecium. Together with asci, ascosporous were actively thrown from bursting perithecial opening in the matured perithecium. It is considered that this fungus species may occupy the necrotized areas on living plant leaves as an alternative habitat.

1079-1082 Download
36
ANATOMICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE GENUS MOLTKIA LEHM IN TURKEY
SÜLEYMAN DOĞU1,*, MUHİTTİN DİNÇ2 AND NUR MÜVEVVER PINAR3

ANATOMICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE GENUS MOLTKIA LEHM IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The genus Moltkia Lehm., is represented by Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm., and Moltkia aurea Boiss in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of the 2 species, and to compare these features with each other. For the anatomical studies, transverse sections of stem and leaves, and the surface sections of leaves were studied. For the micromorphological studies, the pollens were examined using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the nutlets were examined using stereo-microscope and SEM. After the studies, it was pointed out that they are very distinct from each other in terms of the anatomical and micromorphological features. According to the results obtained from anatomical studies, there are lots of differences between the two species considering the structure of the cortex, vascular cambium and endodermis of the stems. The vasculer bundle and upper and lower surface of the leaves are also noticeably different in 2 species. The 2 taxa are also readily distinguishable in terms of the pollen characteristics such as pollen shape, the outline in equatorial and polar view, polarity, aperture type and distribution and tectum ornamentation. In addition, while the nutlet shape is similar in the taxa, its surface is verrucate in M. coerulea, but tuberculate in M. aurea.

1083-1090 Download
37
IMPROVEMENT IN POSTHARVEST ATTRIBUTES OF ZINNIA (ZINNIA ELEGANS CV. BENARY’S GIANT) CUT-FLOWERS BY THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWTH REGULATORS
DANISH IQBAL1, UMER HABIB1, NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI1* AND ARSHAD NAWAZ CHAUDHRY2

IMPROVEMENT IN POSTHARVEST ATTRIBUTES OF ZINNIA (ZINNIA ELEGANS CV. BENARY’S GIANT) CUT-FLOWERS BY THE APPLICATION OF VARIOUS GROWTH REGULATORS
ABSTRACT:
Zinnias are timeless and classic cut flowers, holding prestigious position in the cut flower industry for their versatility, numerous colors and low maintenance. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) play fundamental function in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant life. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic acid in nature and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes in plant body, maintains water homeostasis and triggers defense mechanism. The experiment was designed to evaluate these hormones for increase in quality and shelf life of zinnia cut flowers. Maximum water uptake 150.7 ml was observed at IAA @ 150 mg L-1 and maximum vase life of flower 11.33 days at SA @ 50 mg L-1. The maximum percentage of flower color and physical appearance (67% excellent) was recorded at NAA@100 mg L-1, however, maximum structural integrity (67% excellent) was recorded at SA@150 mg L-1. These findings are recommended results in line with other studies will be further helpful for the commercial recommendations to obtain cultivation of zinnia with good quality and better vase life. in zinnia cut flowers.

1091-1094 Download
38
MICROPROPAGATION OF NIDULARIUM INNOCENTII LEM. AND NIDULARIUM PROCERUM LINDM (BROMELIACEAE)
ANDRÉ LUÍS LOPES DA SILVA1, JEFFERSON DA LUZ COSTA1, GIOVANA BOMFIM DE ALCANTARA2, DAYSE CRISTINA DE CARVALHO2, MARIANE RUZZA SCHUCK2, LUIZ ANTONIO BIASI2, GESSIEL NEWTON SCHEIDT3 AND CARLOS RICARDO SOCCOL1*

MICROPROPAGATION OF NIDULARIUM INNOCENTII LEM. AND NIDULARIUM PROCERUM LINDM (BROMELIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Nidularium procerum and Nidularium innocentii belong to the family Bromeliaceae and have ornamental and medicinal characteristics. A procedure for the micropropagation for these bromeliads is described. Seedling explants were cultured on MS media (Murashige and Skoog

1095-1101 Download
39
SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN HERBAL INDUSTRIES; THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORAGANISMS
HINA FAZAL1,3*, NISAR AHMAD2, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI2 AND NAAZ ABBASS4

SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN HERBAL INDUSTRIES; THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORAGANISMS
ABSTRACT:
Multi-drug resistant strains of fungi and bacteria are imposing the need for new drugs. Reliable natural sources with minor side effects are needed to control anti-human pathogenic invaders specially bacteria. Given the demands for natural products that are inherently safe and environmentally compatible, the advancement in antimicrobial potential has provided a better alternative to synthetic resistance antibiotics. In the present investigation such types of medicinal plants were selected for analyses that are used by local herbal practioners for multiple diseases. Thirty three extracts of Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina and Vetiveria zizanioides in chloroform, ethanol and hexane were investigated for their antimicrobial potential. These extracts were tested against eight microorganisms including four gram negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, three gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus and a fungal strain viz., Candida albicans. Majority of the extracts showed marked antimicrobial potential against the tested microorganisms.

1103-1109 Download
40
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING ERUCA SATIVA OIL: OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
MUHAMMAD WASEEM MUMTAZ1, AHMAD ADNAN1, ZAHED MAHMOOD2, HAMID MUKHTAR3, MUHAMMAD DANISH4 AND ZAHOOR AHMAD5

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING ERUCA SATIVA OIL: OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
ABSTRACT:
In the present study Eruca sativa oil (Taramira oil) was explored for the production of biodiesel by optimizing transesterification process using NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3 as catalysts. Optimization of different reaction parameters i.e., catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and alcohol to oil molar ratio was done using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The order of catalytic effectiveness regarding production of the biodisel using three different catalysts was found to be NaOCH3 > KOH > NaOH. The biodiesel was characterized following GC-MS and FTIR analyses. The fuel properties such as cetane number 59.8, density 0.871 g/cm3, specific gravity 0.889, pour point -2.97oC, kinematic viscosity 5.71 mm2/s, flash point 197.5oC carbon residue 0.01% of the biodiesel produced ascertained the suitability of oil as a potential source for biodiesel production.

1111-1120 Download
41
THE MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ENDEMIC HAPLOPHYLLUM MEGALANTHUM BORNM. (RUTACEAE)
YURDANUR AKYOL, EMİNE ALÇITEPE, CANAN ÖZDEMİR*

THE MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ENDEMIC HAPLOPHYLLUM MEGALANTHUM BORNM. (RUTACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Haplophyllum megalanthum Bornm. which has been included in the list of EN (Endangered) the IUCN threat category was investigated morphologically, anatomically and palynological. Some different morphological characteristics determined from its description given in the Flora of Turkey for the species. The pollen grains were radial symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate. Pollen shape differed from subprolate to spheroidal.

1121-1126 Download
42
COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROPROPAGATED PLANTLETS OF BANANA FROM BBTV-INFECTED EXPLANTS TO ITS NORMAL AND SALINE STRESSED CULTURES
IKRAM-UL-HAQ*, NAZIA PARVEEN 1, MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT2 AND MUHAMMAD UMAR DAHOT

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROPROPAGATED PLANTLETS OF BANANA FROM BBTV-INFECTED EXPLANTS TO ITS NORMAL AND SALINE STRESSED CULTURES
ABSTRACT:
Effects of BBTV infection and NaCl stress were assessed in banana (Musa spp.) under aseptic conditions. Micropropagation efficiency in both BBTV infected and 100 mol m-3 NaCl stressed cultures was decreased significantly. Similarly plant height and its biomass were also remained low than control cultures (p<0.05). The stress related bio-contents like proline, reducing sugars and total carotenoids were increased, while total proteins and carbohydrates including chlorophyll contents decreased among the stressed cultures (p<0.05). The POX (peroxidase) activities of its soluble and ionic forms were significantly higher in both BBTV infected and salinity stressed cultures. Each developed parameters under vagrantly stressed cultures had been involved to direct differential bio-metrics among the micro-propagated plantlets.

1127-1130 Download
43
TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON SOME MARINE CYANOBACTERIA SPECIES
NAFISA SHOAIB1*, PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI1 AND HALIMA KHALID2

TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON SOME MARINE CYANOBACTERIA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan is an agricultural country and a wide variety of pesticides are used on its cropland. Pesticides pose serious threats to the natural ecosystem. In the present study cyanobacteria (blue green algae) were used to assess the ecotoxicological effect of chlorpyrifos (organophosphate pesticide). Cyanobacteria are the base of the food web providing food resource to consumers in higher trophic level. Cyanobacteria were isolated and purified from water samples collected from Manora channel. Fast growing cultures of cyanobacteria were used to assess the toxicity of test pesticide. The Light and Dark method was used to determine the primary production of the organisms. The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was determined by calculating IC50 of the test organisms. The IC50 was found to be 0.074, 0.013, 0.08 and 0.3 ppm for Synechocystis aquatilis, Komvophoron minutum, Gloeocapsa crepidinum and Gloeocapsa sanguinea when exposed to chlorpyrifos pesticide. Laboratory experiments with cyanobacteria have demonstrated that organophosphate pesticides are potent inhibitors of photosynthesis.

1131-1133 Download
44
PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF TERKOS LAKE AND ITS INFLUENT STREAMS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
NEŞE YILMAZ* AND YASEMİN GÜLEÇAL

PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF TERKOS LAKE AND ITS INFLUENT STREAMS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Phytoplankton composition and density as well as some selected physical and chemical parameters were investigated between April 2008 and January 2009 in Lake Terkos and its inflowing streams. In total, 69 taxa were recorded belonging to 6 divisions: Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. Bacillariophyta showed the highest species richness in all the studied stations. The higher flow of Istranca Stream as well as its high contaminant load has a strong impact on the water quality of the lake. In addition, Karacaköy, Çiftlikköy and Başakköy streams, which receive untreated domestic wastewaters and animal wastes, were found to be rich in nitrate and phosphate. Therefore, in order to control water pollution in the catchment area of Lake Terkos, it is of utmost importance to provide the settlements surrounding the lake of adequate treatment plants and to rationalize the use of fertilizers, especially in the catchment area of the Istranca Stream.

1135-1140 Download
45
RESISTANCE OF SOLANUM SPECIES TO PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS EVALUATED IN THE DETACHED-LEAF AND WHOLE-PLANT ASSAYS
KHALID PERVAIZ AKHTAR1*, MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM1, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR1, SHAUKAT ALI2, NIGHAT SARWAR1 AND MUHAMMAD TANVIR ELAHI1

RESISTANCE OF SOLANUM SPECIES TO PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS EVALUATED IN THE DETACHED-LEAF AND WHOLE-PLANT ASSAYS
ABSTRACT:
The reaction of 82 tomato genotypes belonging to 8 Solanum and a Lycopersicon species against Phytophthora infestans causing late blight was determined using detached-leaf and whole-plant assays. None of the test genotypes was immune or highly resistant. Of the 82 commercial and wild genotypes only TMS-2 (male-sterile and characterized by indeterminate growth) belonging to Lycopersicon esculentum was resistant with severity index of 2.4 in the detached-leaf assay on 0-5 scale (where 5 was highly susceptible) and percent disease index (%DI) of 23.3% under the whole-plant assay. Among the remaining genotypes, 41 were susceptible and 40 were highly susceptible under the detached-leaf assay, while 18 were susceptible and 63 were highly susceptible under the whole-plant assay. However, there was a significant difference in %DI for genotypes under the whole-plant assay. The response of whole-plants to inoculation with P. infestans in the detached-leaf assay was similar in all cases. The overall screening results indicate that TMS-2 is a good source of resistance and it can be useful for the development of tomato hybrid cultivars resistant to late blight.

1141-1146 Download
46
SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS AS A NOVEL SOURCE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RESISTANCE AGAINST YELLOW RUST
MUHAMMAD TARIQ-KHAN1*, MUHAMMAD IRFAN UL-HAQUE2, MUHAMMAD ZAMEER KAYANI2, ATIQ UR REHMAN RATTU3 AND ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI4

SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS AS A NOVEL SOURCE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RESISTANCE AGAINST YELLOW RUST
ABSTRACT:
Special subsets of synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) have been formed and one such subset is “Elite ІІ” comprising of 33 SH entries. The subset was screened against yellow rust having virulence for Yr1, Yr4, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr12, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr27, YrSp, YrSu, YrSk and YrA; collected from diverse wheat growing areas of Pakistan. Fifteen genotypes were found resistant at seedling stage by exhibiting infection type 2-4, indicating the presence of major resistant genes. Adult plant screening under field conditions showed 8 genotypes resistant, three moderately resistant and 4 susceptible. Six RAPD markers of 10-mer arbitrary sequences were applied for genetic diversity analysis of these 15 genotypes. Fifty eight amplicons were generated by 4 primers. Total 83.33% polymorphism was computed among 15 lines. Dendrogram showed 15 genotypes divided into two distinct clusters. The coefficients are in the range of 38.89% to 100% on similarity matrix. Genotypes Elite ІІ-16 and 31 were most polymorphic with 38.89% similarity. Genetic diversity and resistance identified can be exploited in wheat breeding for yield and durable resistance against yellow rust, using limited and genetically diverse SHWs for commercial bread wheat improvement.

1147-1152 Download
47
EFFECT OF PROPOLIS ON GROWTH, AFLATOXINS PRODUCTION AND LIPID METABOLISM IN ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SPEAR
ABEER HASHEM1*, E.F. ABD-ALLAH2 AND HEND A. ALWATHNANI1

EFFECT OF PROPOLIS ON GROWTH, AFLATOXINS PRODUCTION AND LIPID METABOLISM IN ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SPEAR
ABSTRACT:
The mechanism of antifungal activities of propolis (Bee glue) was investigated for the growth, aflatoxins production, and lipids (total lipids, neutral lipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids) metabolism of Aspergillus parasiticus. The results of the present study indicated that propolis caused significant decrease in conidial production and conidial germination as well as mycelial growth (both radial and dry weight) of A. parasiticus. It was also found that aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus decreased significantly with 0.2 and 0.4 (g/100 ml) concentrations of propolis, however, 0.6 (g/100 ml) concentration caused complete inhibition of all aflatoxins production. The biochemical investigation of cellular total lipids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids of A. parasiticus suggested clear catabolic repression of lipids metabolism by propolis. Gas chromatographic analysis of cellular fatty acids indicated that propolis enhanced accumulation of saturated fatty acids suggesting resistance mechanism of fungal membrane via decreasing its fluidity and elasticity.

1153-1158 Download
48
AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF MYCELIAL PROTEIN OF ENICILLIUM EXPANSUM GROWN IN ACID TREATED RICE HUSK MINERAL MEDIUM
M. YAKOUB KHAN, M. UMAR DAHOT*, S.HABIB AHMED NAQVI*

AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF MYCELIAL PROTEIN OF ENICILLIUM EXPANSUM GROWN IN ACID TREATED RICE HUSK MINERAL MEDIUM
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to analyze the amino acids composition of single cell protein of Penicillium expansum. Mycelial biomass was produced when fungus was grown in 0.6N H2SO4 pretreated rice husk mineral medium incorporated with 0.5% and 1% of nitrogen sources like potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, peptone, yeast extract, urea, corn steep liquor and ammonium sulphate. It was observed that the growth rate of Penicillium expansum increased with 0.5% sodium nitrate produces 1.390 ± 0.084g/l of mycelial biomass. In the subsequent experiment, fermentation medium was supplemented with 0.5% and 1.0% different sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, lactose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, starch, mannose, and molasses) at pH 6.0 for 240 hours at 35 ± 2°C in a fermenter. The highest amount of mycelial biomass (5.107 ± 0.169g/l) was obtained with 1% sucrose and followed by 4.953 ± 0.17g/l, 4.808 ± 0.14g/l and 4.844 ± 0.10g/l mycelial biomass using glucose, maltose and galactose, respectively. The mycelial biomass of Penicillium expansum contains essential and non essential amino acids like phospho-serine, serine, valine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, alo-lysine, halo-lysine, lysine and arginine. The glutamic acid (3355.0 ± 19.798 μmol/g mycelia) and proline (785.0 ± 9.899 μmol/g mycelia) were found in higher concentration than other amino acids produced by Penicillium expansum grown on rice husk supplemented with lactose.

1159-1165 Download
49
DEVELOPMENT OF A Na-ALGINATE-BASED BIOFORMULATION AND ITS USE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHARCOAL ROT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
MUHAMMAD ANIS, M. JAVED ZAKI* AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

DEVELOPMENT OF A Na-ALGINATE-BASED BIOFORMULATION AND ITS USE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHARCOAL ROT OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The treatment of sunflower seeds with Na-alginate in combination with Ca-carbonate and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) showed maximum increase in plant length and weight followed by seed coated with Na-alginate in combination with Ca-carbonate and gum arabic. Maximum control of Macrophomina phaseolina infection was recorded when seeds were coated with Na-alginate in combination with Ca-carbonate and gum arabic followed by Na-alginate in combination with Ca-carbonate and CMC. In another experiment when sunflower seeds were coated with Na-alginate at 1

1167-1170 Download
50
BIOSYNTHESIS OF L-PHENYLACETYLCARBINOL FROM LOCALLY ISOLATED YEASTS
MUJAHID HUSSAIN, IKRAM-UL-HAQ, SIKANDER ALI AND M.A. QADEER

BIOSYNTHESIS OF L-PHENYLACETYLCARBINOL FROM LOCALLY ISOLATED YEASTS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study

1171-1174 Download
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