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Year 2012 , Volume  44, Issue 4
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1
USES AND MANAGEMENT OF XIMENIA AMERICANA, OLACACEAE IN SEMI-ARID EAST SHEWA, ETHIOPIA
DEBELA HUNDE FEYSSA1*, JESSE T. NJOKA2a, ZEMEDE ASFAW3 AND M.M.NYANGITO2b

USES AND MANAGEMENT OF XIMENIA AMERICANA, OLACACEAE IN SEMI-ARID EAST SHEWA, ETHIOPIA
ABSTRACT:
Wild edible plants are crucial resources with multipurpose uses and indigenous people have ethnobotanical knowledge of their use and management. Ximenia americana L., is among the preferred multipurpose use wild edible plants (WEPs). These uses and managements were inadequately documented. Ethnobotanical studies can explore the uses and management of this species and associated indigenous knowledge (IK). Ethnobotanical and socioeconomic studies were carried out in Fantalle (Galcha, Qobbo, Dheebiti) and Boosat (Xadacha, Trii Bireti and Diglau Tiyo) districts in Ethiopia. The main data collection methods used were, field inspection by guided walks, focus group discussions with 14 key informants taken from transhumance pastoralists and settled framers of the two districts, and systematic field observations along six transects. Indigenous people have explained 7 major uses of X.americana (Food, medicine, fuel wood and others). Food value was the highest. Ten major threat factors have affected the species, of which agricultural expansion ranked highest. All (100%) indicated that there was no domestication of the species indicating that people collect the fruits from the wild. The indigenous people have knowledge of the use and management of X.americana. The fruits were used for food while roots and other pats of the species were used for medicine and source of income. However, because of overexploitation, the species became rare in the study area. This can lead to erosion of associated indigenous knowledge on the use and management of X.americana. Its multipurpose uses can contribute to livelihood of semiarid people and calls for urgent rehabilitation by closure of the natural habitat by complementing with domestication of the species.

1177-1184 Download
2
THE ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT, LILIUM CANDIDUM L. (LILIACEAE), DISTRIBUTED IN MARMARA REGION OF TURKEY
FAZIL ÖZEN1, HACI TEMELTAŞ2 AND ÖZLEM AKSOY1*

THE ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT, LILIUM CANDIDUM L. (LILIACEAE), DISTRIBUTED IN MARMARA REGION OF TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Lilium candidum L., was cultivated and has been used for different purposes like medical, cosmetics, commercial for thousands of years. It was naturally distributed around the city of Balıkesir (in Marmara region) and was investigated for its morphological, anatomical and phenological specifications during this study. Some of the morphological measurements were different from the measurements in Flora of Turkey. The measurements on bulb, stem leaves, basal leaves, bracte, pedicel, inner and outter tepals (separately), fruit, seed and pollen were given for the first time. Natural distribution of L. candidum in this region is the first record for the region and also the natural growth conditions for this species around Balıkesir city were determined for the first time.

1185-1192 Download
3
SCREENING OF POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM DISTRICT SAWAT SPECIFIC FOR CONTROLLING WOMEN DISEASES
SARWAT, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI* AND NISAR AHMAD

SCREENING OF POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM DISTRICT SAWAT SPECIFIC FOR CONTROLLING WOMEN DISEASES
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotany provides a scientific rationale to identify medicinally important plant species, especially for finding new drugs that play vital role in the treatment of different diseases. This ethnobotanical survey of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was carried out to identify medicinally important plant species that are traditionally used to treat gynecological disorders and infectious diseases, and to study their antimicrobial potential against pathogens that cause infections in females. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using the well diffusion method against four different bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Results showed that out of 12 plants studied, seven plants exhibited inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Erythrina variegata, Ficus religiosa and Berberis lycium showed high antifungal activity against C. albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2.5

1193-1198 Download
4
VALIDATION OF SOME OF THE ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL USES OF XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM AND DUCHESNEA INDICA
FAZLI KHUDA1*, ZAFAR IQBAL1, AYUB KHAN2, ZAKIULLAH1, FAZLI NASIR1 AND MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ KHAN3

VALIDATION OF SOME OF THE ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL USES OF XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM AND DUCHESNEA INDICA
ABSTRACT:
The antimicrobial potential of alcoholic extract and various fractions of Xanthium strumarium (XS) and Duchesnea indica (DI) against different strains of bacteria and fungi was investigated. The chloroform fraction from Xanthium strumarium was found to be the most active among the fractions, showing good activity against Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus subtilus and Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, most of the activity detected was against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The chloroform fraction exhibited significant antibacterial activity (19 mm zone of inhibition) against gram negative (Shigella flexneri), bacteria. Promising level of antifungal activity was observed in all fractions against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani and Microsporum canis. Looking to these results it may be concluded that Xanthium strumarium and Duchesnea indica can be a potential source for activity guided isolation of lead compounds with antimicrobial properties.

1199-1201 Download
5
MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS IN PESHAWAR CITY, PAKISTAN
KHANZADI FATIMA KHATTAK

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS IN PESHAWAR CITY, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants naturally harbor a variety of microorganisms. Besides, representing a direct health hazard to the consumer, these contaminated materials can cause the spoilage of pharmaceuticals and traditional preparations to which they are added. Assessment of microbiological loads of plants to assure safety and quality is therefore worth investigation. In the present study, 45 commercially available medicinal plants were evaluated for aerobic bacteria, fungi, coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella. All investigations were carried out in triplicate using standard methods. The results of the study revealed very high microbial loads and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the plant samples. The aerobic bacterial count ranged from1.3 x 102 to 5.6 x 109 cfu/g. The highest load was detected in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The coliform counts varied from 1.5 x 102 to 1.6 x 104 cfu/g. Among the selected herbs

1203-1208 Download
6
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROOT AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF LEPTADENIA PYROTECHNICA (ASCLEPIADACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
MEHMOODA MUNAZIR1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1 AND MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ2

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROOT AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF LEPTADENIA PYROTECHNICA (ASCLEPIADACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The In vitro antibacterial activity of Leptadenia pyrotechnica roots and fruits extracts was investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus by using agar-well diffusion assay. Plant samples were collected from Thal desert of Pakistan and eight different solvents viz. n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethylacetate, butanol, methanol, ethanol and water were used for the preparation of extracts. S. aureus was found highly susceptible and inhibited by all solvent extracts. Both plant parts effectively inhibited the growth of both the pathogens; however, root extracts showed a little more supremacy in this respect. Methanolic extract of both parts generated the best results by inhibiting growth of both pathogens. The activity was strongly affected by variation in solvents and concentrations of extracts. The antibacterial activity of L. pyrotechnica is reported for the first time.

1209-1213 Download
7
THE PISTIL STRUCTURE IN LOQUAT [ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA (THUNB.) LINDL.]
YAN JUAN1, WANG YONGQING2*, TAO LIAN, YANG QIN, DENG QUNXIAN AND LV XIULAN

THE PISTIL STRUCTURE IN LOQUAT [ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA (THUNB.) LINDL.]
ABSTRACT:
In this study the pistil structure of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) was investigated for the first time through free-hand section and observation on seed set under manually controlled pollination. The results showed that 5 styles with stigmas, free at base, inserted on the upper surface of the ovary. The ovary consisted of 5 fused carpels; the septums, originating from the carpellary margins, divided the ovary into 5 locules, with each locule containing a placenta to which the 2 ovules attached; the locules were lined by a thick cuticle. In the hand-pollination to the only one stigma left (4 styles were removed), seeds were produced only in one locule (fertile locule), while in other 4 locules all the 8 ovules were unfertilized and wilt. 76.67% fertile locules produced two normal seeds and 23.33% fertile locules produced only one normal seed and the other degenerated. Therefore, it can be concluded that 5 styles and 5 locules had a one-to-one relationship in both morphological and reproductive characteristics in loquat.

1215-1218 Download
8
TOXONOMIC STUDY OF THE TRICHOMES IN SOME MEMBERS OF GENUS CONVOLVULUS (CONVOLVULACEAE)
ABDUL LATIF KHOKHAR*, MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT AND SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR

TOXONOMIC STUDY OF THE TRICHOMES IN SOME MEMBERS OF GENUS CONVOLVULUS (CONVOLVULACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Taxonomic study of the trichomes of 6 species of genus convolvulus has been carried out by usind Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. Variation in trichome density on different parts has been noticed. In Convolvulaceae psendocanbricus a prominent pepillata type of ornamentation has been observed like Pneuomatophore.

1219-1224 Download
9
SPECIES RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD

SPECIES RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
A study was conducted in Ayubia National Park to explore the species response correlation with environmental gradients. Multivariate Analysis was applied to dataset to quantify the vegetation of study area. Vann Dobben circle analysis and T value Biplot was used with the help of Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Two zones were demarcated in Park. Results showed that Species Plantago major and Thlaspi griffthianum had positive and significant response towards environmental variables and few of species showed negative regression coefficient response to environmental variables. Similarly results of Attribute plot show the species response to particular environmental variable. Dominant spp of Zone 1 Hedera nepalensis showed negative association towards organic matter and Rumex nepalensis dominant species of Zone 2 Rumex nepalensis showed positive and significant response to environmental variables.

1225-1228 Download
10
A STUDY ON THE FLORA AND VEGETATION OF CAT DUA ISLAND, NORTHEASTERN VIETNAM
XIN-SHENG QIN1*, RONG-JING ZHANG2 AND FU-WU XING3

A STUDY ON THE FLORA AND VEGETATION OF CAT DUA ISLAND, NORTHEASTERN VIETNAM
ABSTRACT:
Cat Dua Island (namely Monkey Island) is situated in the Gulf of Tonkin, belonging to the Quang Ninh Province in Vietnam. A total vascular flora of 88 species belonging to 44 families and 76 genera was recorded from the island. The dominant families of the flora are Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Moraceae, Rutaceae and Rubiaceae etc. Most of the genera in the flora are tropical characteristic. In the island, there are few endemic species, which may be due to its young flora in geological respect. The vegetation are mainly classified as the evergreen broad-leaved forests, scrub forests and beach vegetation. It is urgent to protect biodiversity in limestone regions and how to deal with the relationship between development and protection is still a difficult task.

1229-1232 Download
11
SEED YIELD MODEL OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C.A. MEYER) BUNGE IN JUNGGAR BASIN, CHINA
CHAOYAN LV1,2, XIMING ZHANG1*, GUOJUN LIU1 AND CHAOZHOU DENG3

SEED YIELD MODEL OF HALOXYLON AMMODENDRON (C.A. MEYER) BUNGE IN JUNGGAR BASIN, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The relationships between seed yield and plant growing conditions of 6 populations that were grown in typical habitats were studied in Junggar basin. Correlation analysis indicated that seed yield (M) had high and positive correlations with crown (C), basal diameter (D) and height (H). Path coefficient analysis showed that crown had the maximal and positive direct effect on seed yield, followed by height and diameter. Finally, Established seed yield prediction model is M=178.572+3.470×10-5×CH-1.106×H-0.007×C (R=0.830,p<0.01)

1233-1239 Download
12
FLAVONOIDS DISTRIBUTION IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MARGALLA HILLS AND SURROUNDINGS
AMIR MUHAMMAD KHAN1, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI2, FAIZAN ULLAH2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3 AND JAFAR KHAN4

FLAVONOIDS DISTRIBUTION IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MARGALLA HILLS AND SURROUNDINGS
ABSTRACT:
The present studies comprise the distribution of important flavonoids amongst the selected 13 medicinal plants viz., Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Broussonetia papyrifera, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis collected from Margalla Hills for their authentication. Kaemferol was only detected in Verbascum thapsus. Myrcetin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo and Broussonetia papyrifera. Catechin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa , Chenopodium ambrosoides and Caryopteris grata. Vitexin was found absent in all the plants under study except Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Peganum harmala. Orientin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Urtica dioica and Caryopteris grata. Rutin and Kaempferol-7-neohesperoside were detected only in Broussonetia papyrifera. Quercitin was detected in Euphorbia hirta, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis. Luteolin was common among all the species.

1241-1245 Download
13
FINGERPRINTING FOR DISCRIMINATING TEA GERMPLASM USING INTER-SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) MARKERS
B.Y. LIU1*, H. CHENG2, Y.Y. LI1, L.Y. WANG2, W. HE2 AND P.S. WANG1

FINGERPRINTING FOR DISCRIMINATING TEA GERMPLASM USING INTER-SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
For the discrimination of tea germplasm at the inter-specific level

1247-1260 Download
14
DNA SEQUENCE AND RAPD INFORMATION RE-AFFIRMS THE TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN APOCYNUM VENETUM L. AND POACYNUM PICTUM (SCHRENK) BAILL.
PENG XUEMEI1,3, CAO YAN1, YANG ZIYI1, ZHANG WEIMING1,2, LIU QITANG4 AND LU CHANGMEI1*

DNA SEQUENCE AND RAPD INFORMATION RE-AFFIRMS THE TAXONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN APOCYNUM VENETUM L. AND POACYNUM PICTUM (SCHRENK) BAILL.
ABSTRACT:
Medicinal plants Apocynum venetum L. and Poacynum pictum (Schrenk) Baill. having similar efficacy belong to two genera. However, many similarities of morphological characteristics in pollen, seeds, leaves and stems etc. between the two species recommend it under one genus Apocynum L. To address this question, we selected DNA sequences [nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence] and RAPD markers to assess the relationship between them, with samples from 10 populations of A. venetum and 5 populations of P. pictum from China. ITS sequences from all samples of A. venetum and P. pictum were same, and only two different sites were found in the trnL intron region and one different site in the trnL-trnF IGS region. The genetic distance between A. venetum and P. pictum calculated upon these regions was much smaller than both the intergeneric and interspecies genetic distances calculated upon the same regions in the vast majority of plants. This reaffirmed the notion that A. venetum and P. pictum had a close genetic relationship. Results from RAPD markers showed that there was high similarity and still stable difference between A. venetum and P. pictum. The genetic difference between A. venetum and P. pictum was greater than the differences among populations within species. Our studies recommend that A. venetum and P. pictum were genetic close-related species and they may be treated within one genus.

1261-1266 Download
15
MOLECULAR POLYMORPHISM AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF SOME ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA ISOLATES
GHAZALA NASIM, SAMIA KHAN AND IBATSAM KHOKHAR

MOLECULAR POLYMORPHISM AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF SOME ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA ISOLATES
ABSTRACT:
Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD) was used to determine the finger print of 10 isolates of Alternaria alternata collected from First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan (FCBP), Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore. Conventional methods often do not distinguish between the isolates of the same species. Therefore DNA based method was applied to find if the isolates differ significantly from each other. The RAPDs method was choosen because of its simplicity and ability to differentiate the isolates. This work was concentrated on Alternaria alternata because they are common pathogens of different plants and are particularly difficult to distinguish with conventional methods.DNA was isolated from the fungal hyphae of the isolates which were formerly purified by the single spore method. Five out of ten isolates were able to produce clear DNA bands. Those isolates were Aa1, Aa2, Aa3, Aa4, and Aa5. A total of 22 bands ranging in size from 250-1200 bp were generated by the primer GL-A-01. Nineteen of these 22 bands (86.36%) were monomorphic. Only three bands with sizes of 250, 600 and 1200 bp produced by primer GL-A-01, were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of similarity between band pairs showed that the fungal isolates were clustered in two distinctive groups. RAPD was found to be an important tool to identify genetic dissimilarities between different isolates of Alternaria alternata.

1267-1270 Download
16
EVALUATION OF THE CHLOROPLAST BARCODING MARKERS BY MEAN AND SMALLEST INTERSPECIFIC DISTANCES
DA-CHENG HAO1*, PEI-GEN XIAO2*, YONG PENG2, JINGQUN DONG1 AND WENXIA LIU1

EVALUATION OF THE CHLOROPLAST BARCODING MARKERS BY MEAN AND SMALLEST INTERSPECIFIC DISTANCES
ABSTRACT:
It is more difficult in plants than in animals to distinguish between species using barcoding loci, thus it is vital to investigate the barcoding potential of various chloroplast (cp) regions besides the well-known plastid markers. It is also crucial to investigate whether the analytical metrics and depths of taxon sampling affect assessments of the barcoding utility. Here, we collected more than 9100 plant sequences, representing ten cp non-coding regions, by experiments and GenBank search. The inter- and intra-specific variations of the individual genus were calculated. The correlation between the number of sampled congeneric species and mean/smallest interspecific distance was quantitated. In addition, a selection of published barcoding data sets was reviewed to compare species discrimination of trnH-psbA in various plants. By comparing the barcoding gaps, we found that species pairs for different cp markers have variable size gaps between intra and interspecific genetic distances and the approach based on mean interspecific distances results in overblown estimates and may lead to misidentification of closely related species, which is problematic for all cp markers examined. It is also found that the smallest interspecific distances decrease with the number of species sampled in 6 out of 10 cp markers examined. The differences in the size of barcode gaps based on mean versus smallest interspecific distances may have major implications for the plant DNA barcoding. This study presents the first empirical evidence to advocate the simultaneous use of mean and smallest interspecific distances in assessing plant barcoding markers.

1271-1274 Download
17
GENETIC ISOLATION BY DISTANCE IN THE ENDANGERED PLANT SINOCALYCANTHUS CHINENSIS ENDEMIC TO CHINA
JUNMIN LI, ZEXIN JIN* AND JINGJING GU

GENETIC ISOLATION BY DISTANCE IN THE ENDANGERED PLANT SINOCALYCANTHUS CHINENSIS ENDEMIC TO CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Sinocalycanthus chinensis, narrowly endemic to China, is a tertiary relict species. We analyzed the genetic structure pattern of 6 populations of S. chinensis using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and the isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was tested in order to understand the relative influences of gene flow and genetic drift on population structure. The genetic diversity at species level was relatively high (P=51.00%, h =0.1397 and I=0.2191, respectively), while that at populations level was relatively low (P=18.00%, h=0.0733 and I=0.1108, respectively). High genetic differentiation was detected among populations (ΦST=0.6320). Neighbor-joining method of clustering results showed that six populations were clearly separated into eastern and western group. Mantel test showed that there was significant association between genetic distance and geographical distance (r2=0.8600, P=0.0470). Limited gene flow due to species traits and habitat fragmentation and the consequent genetic drift might be the 2 main causes for the genetic isolation by distance of S. chinensis populations.

1275-1280 Download
18
EVALUATION OF INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN AGRONOMIC TRAITS BY GAMMA IRRADIATION IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
SEYEDEH NAZGOL EMRANI 1*, AHMAD ARZANI1, GODRATOLLAH SAEIDI1, MOZHGAN ABTAHI1, MOHAMMAD BANIFATEMEH1, MOHAMMAD BAGHER PARSA1 AND MOHAMMAD HOSSAIN FOTOKIAN2

EVALUATION OF INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN AGRONOMIC TRAITS BY GAMMA IRRADIATION IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the induced variability caused by gamma rays in agronomic traits comprising plant height, days to flowering, days to maturity, number of fruits/plant, number of seeds/fruit

1281-1288 Download
19
IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF STABLE INTERNAL CONTROL FOR HEAT INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION OF AGAVE AMERICANA
SITWAT AMAN1, NOOR UL HAQ1 AND SAMINA N. SHAKEEL1*

IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF STABLE INTERNAL CONTROL FOR HEAT INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION OF AGAVE AMERICANA
ABSTRACT:
18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) has been used as housekeeping gene for normalization in gene expression studies of plants. Recently, the effect of experimental conditions and nature of samples have been shown on the stability of internal control gene. Agave americana is a monocot heat tolerant plant adapted to arid conditions with Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few reports have shown the gene expression studies of this or other CAM plants due to lack of suitable reference gene. Here, we partially sequenced 18S rRNA gene of agave and evaluated its potential use as reference gene under heat stress conditions. Gene specific primers were designed from highly conserved regions of known 18S rRNA genes and amplified by using genomic DNA and transcript of Agave followed by sequencing (submitted to gene bank with accession # HM991824). To validate the potential use of Agave 18S rRNA gene for real-time PCR data normalization, we evaluated the expression stabilities of this gene in different tissues and various heat stress conditions. The plants were treated with different temperatures viz., 35ºC, 40ºC, 45ºC, 50ºC and 60ºC. The relative abundance of a heat regulated gene, Cp-sHSP (chloroplast small heat shock protein) was examined by real-time PCR. Varied levels of Cp-sHSP gene expression under different heat treatments showed the heat regulated expression. Maximum Cp-sHSP gene expression was observed in the leaves of Agave after heat stress for four hours at 45ºC. No significant difference in 18S rRNA expression was observed among control and heat treated samples. Conclusively, this 18S rRNA gene could be used as a stable internal control for normalization of real-time PCR data of A. americana. This work will help to explore many key players in the heat stress related pathways of CAM plants.

1289-1296 Download
20
SELECTION OF ELITE GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND ASSOCIATED TRAITS IN F2:3 FAMILIES OF INTERSPECIFIC CROSSES IN BRASSICA SPECIES
FAZLI DAYIM SHEHZAD AND FARHATULLAH*

SELECTION OF ELITE GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND ASSOCIATED TRAITS IN F2:3 FAMILIES OF INTERSPECIFIC CROSSES IN BRASSICA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Interspecific crosses of Brassica species were evaluated to identify desirable genotypes for yield and associated traits. Parent al species included Brassica napus (Dunkled, Maluko, line A-20-20), B. campestris (lines 1203 and 2163), B. carinata (Peela raya), and B. juncea (lines PR-64 and 89111-1). All traits were segregated in F2 population. All parameters were decreased in F3 in comparison to F2 population, indicating higher response of the crosses to inbreeding depression (0-85%). A reduction in height (12-27%), primary branches (18-35%), pods main raceme-1 (19-35%), seed pod-1 (10-31%), pod length (14-28%)

1297-1301 Download
21
GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY AND MUTANT IDENTIFICATION IN CICER ARIETINUM L. BY SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING
AMJAD HAMEED1*, AYSHA SADDIQA2, SHAHID NADEEM2, NAYYER IQBAL1, BABAR M. ATTA AND TARIQ M. SHAH1

GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY AND MUTANT IDENTIFICATION IN CICER ARIETINUM L. BY SEED STORAGE PROTEIN PROFILING
ABSTRACT:
A collection of thirty-four chickpea genotypes, including five kabuli and twenty-nine desi, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for seed storage protein profiling. Total soluble seed proteins were resolved on 12% gels. A low level of variability was observed in desi as compared to kabuli genotypes. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the thirty-four genotypes in four major groups. As large number of desi genotypes illustrated identical profiles, therefore could not be differentiated on the basis of seed storage protein profiles. One kabuli genotype ILC-195 found to be the most divergent showing 86% similarity with all other genotypes. ILC-195 can be distinguished from its mutant i.e., CM-2000 and other kabuli genotypes on the basis of three peptides i.e. SSP-66, SSP-43 and SSP-39. Some proteins peptides were found to be genotype specific like SSP-26 for ICCV-92311. Uniprot and NCBI protein databases were searched for already reported and characterized seed storage proteins in chickpea. Among 33 observed peptides, only six seed storages proteins from chickpea source were available in databases. On the basis of molecular weight similarity, identified peptides were SSP-64 as Serine/Threonine dehydratase, SSP-56 as Alpha-amylase inhibitor, SSP-50 as Provicillin, SSP-39 as seed imbibition protein, SSP-35 as Isoflavane reductase and SSP-19 as lipid transport protein. Highest variability was observed in vicillin subunits and β subunits of legumins and its polymorphic forms. In conclusion, seed storage profiling can be economically used to asses the genetic variation, phylogenetic relationship and as markers to differentiate mutants from their parents.

1303-1310 Download
22
EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH-TENSION LINES) ON SOME INDIGENOUS PLANT SPECIES IN THE VICINITY OF KARACHI–II. ASTERACEAE
SAHAR ZAIDI1* AND SURAYYA KHATOON2

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH-TENSION LINES) ON SOME INDIGENOUS PLANT SPECIES IN THE VICINITY OF KARACHI–II. ASTERACEAE
ABSTRACT:
To study the effects of electromagnetic fields of high-tension lines on plants

1311-1318 Download
23
CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS AND MAPPING OF RIBOSOMAL GENES BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) IN FOUR ENDEMIC LILY SPECIES (LILIUM) IN QINLING MOUNTIANS, CHINA
XIANZHI WANG1†, SONGLIN XIE2†, YANLONG ZHANG1* AND LIXIN NIU2

CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS AND MAPPING OF RIBOSOMAL GENES BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) IN FOUR ENDEMIC LILY SPECIES (LILIUM) IN QINLING MOUNTIANS, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Detailed karyotypes of 4 lily species (Lilium regale, L. duchartrei, L. brownii var viridium and L. leucanthum var. centifolium), native to Qinling Moutains in China, were constructed on the basis of chromosome arm lengths and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the 45S and 5S rDNA sequences as probes. Results showed that the relative length of these 4 genomes were all around 300μm, and the karyotypes were similar, which consisted of 2 pairs of (sub) metacentric and 10 pairs of (sub)telocentric chromosomes. FISH results showed that 4 pairs of homologous chromosomes with 6 45s rDNA and 2 5s rDNA signals in L. regale, 7 pairs of homologous chromosomes with 12 45s rDNA and 4 5s rDNA loci in L. duchartrei, 5 pairs of homologous chromosomes and one of the chromosome number 2 with 7 45s rDNA loci and 4 5s rDNA loci in L. brownii var viridium, and 3 pairs of homologous chromosomes with 4 45s rDNAloci and 2 5s rDNA loci in L. leucanthum var. centifolium could be distinguished. The odd number of 45s rDNA signals in L. leucanthum var. centifolium reflected its heterozygosity.

1319-1323 Download
24
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXX: CHENOPODIACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXX: CHENOPODIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 40 species representing 13 genera of the family Chenopodiaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Chenopodiaceae is a stenopalynous family. Pollen are usually radially symmetrical, apolar pantoporate, spheroidal. Sexine slightly thicker or thinner than nexine. Tectum sparsely to densely punctate rarely spinulose. However, on the basis of apertural numbers and exine ornamentation family is divided into four pollen types viz., Arthrocnemun indicum-type, Atriplex stocksii-type, Chenopodium album-type, Haloxylon persicum-type. Pollen morphology of the family is significantly helpful at specific and generic level.

1325-1333 Download
25
A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF RICE GENETIC RESOURCES
ZIA-UL-QAMAR*, J. AKHTAR, M. ASHRAF, M. AKRAM AND A. HAMEED

A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF RICE GENETIC RESOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Fifty rice genotypes originating from hybridization and induced mutagenesis along with some commercial varieties were subjected to diversity analysis for selection of desirable genotypes and subsequent use in the future breeding program. The data were analyzed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Mahalanobis’s generalized distance (D2). Two principal components presented 65% information of the raw data of the yield related traits. Cluster analysis (D2) exhibited six distinct clusters with the range of 2 genotypes in cluster VI to 13 in cluster I and III each. Regularly, inter-cluster distance was larger than the intra-cluster distance suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes. Maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and VI (79.81) followed by cluster I and V (71.90). The highest intra-cluster distance (14.41) was observed in cluster V where as lowest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster VI (5.87). Relatively high yielding, short stature genotypes with less number of productive tillers per plant were grouped into cluster I and II to get the highest divergence of these from clusters V and VI. The genotypes in cluster I and II showed high inter-cluster distance with those in cluster IV, V and VI indicating the possibility to obtain heterotic progenies, by attempting the crosses, among the genotypes of these groups.

1335-1340 Download
26
IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND LEAF WATER RELATION PARAMETERS OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER PLANTS WITH FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS UNDER SALT STRESS
NUSRAT JABEEN AND RAFIQ AHMAD

IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND LEAF WATER RELATION PARAMETERS OF SUNFLOWER AND SAFFLOWER PLANTS WITH FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO3, H3BO3, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (Ψw), osmotic potential (Ψs) and turgor potential (Ψp). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status.

1341-1345 Download
27
GROWTH RESPONSE OF SOME CULTIVARS OF BERMUDA GRASS (CYANODON DACTYLON L.) TO SALT STRESS
MUHAMMAD NADEEM1, ADNAN YOUNIS1*, ATIF RIAZ1, MANSOOR HAMEED2, TAHIRA NAWAZ2 AND MUHAMMAD QASIM1

GROWTH RESPONSE OF SOME CULTIVARS OF BERMUDA GRASS (CYANODON DACTYLON L.) TO SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turfgrass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars -Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland’s solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz.

1347-1350 Download
28
THE EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT STRESS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS ON MORPHOLOGY TRAITS, YIELD AND LEAF AREA INDEX IN MAIZE
SEYYED GHOLAMREZA MOOSAVI

THE EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT STRESS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS ON MORPHOLOGY TRAITS, YIELD AND LEAF AREA INDEX IN MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75

1351-1355 Download
29
IN SILICO IDENTIFICATION OF MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS IN FIBER AND OIL PRODUCING PLANT FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.)
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI

IN SILICO IDENTIFICATION OF MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS IN FIBER AND OIL PRODUCING PLANT FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNA. They are about 21 nucleotides in length, produced endogenously and negatively regulate gene regulation. The most miRNAs showed conserved nature and this conservation leads to the novel miRNAs discovery applying insilico comparative genomics. Total 26 novel miRNAs from 19 families are identified in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). All the miRNA families (miR 156

1357-1362 Download
30
EVALUATION OF STEM RESERVE UTILIZATION IN PAKISTANI WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER POST ANTHESIS CHEMICAL DESICCATION STRESS
NAYYER IQBAL*, AQSA TABASUM, AMJAD HAMEED, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, MUHAMMAD AFZAAL AND RUBINA ARSHAD

EVALUATION OF STEM RESERVE UTILIZATION IN PAKISTANI WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER POST ANTHESIS CHEMICAL DESICCATION STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Pre-anthesis assimilation of stem reserves is considered as an important source for grain filling during post anthesis abiotic stresses that inhibit photosynthesis. Twenty one Pakistani wheat genotypes were evaluated for stem reserve utilization (SRU) using potassium iodide (0.4%) induced desiccation stress 14 days after anthesis. Evaluated genotypes differed significantly (p<0.01) for percent reduction in kernel weight under chemical desiccation stress. Percent reduction in kernel weight ranged from 26.19% to 50.72%. Minimum reduction was observed in C-271 (26.19%) showing highest stem reserve utilization while maximum reduction in kernel weight was recorded in Maxi-Pak (50.72%) presenting least SRU. A significant negative correlation (R2=0.452) between percent reduction in kernel weight and plant height was observed. In conclusion, tested genotypes vary considerably in stem reserve utilization when subjected to post-anthesis chemical desiccation inhibiting the photosynthesis. The genotypes with better SRU based kernel growth in the absence of photosynthesis may also provide relative tolerance to drought. This technique therefore, can be used to indirectly screen the wheat genotypes for better performance under terminal drought conditions.

1363-1367 Download
31
INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULAR MATTERS ON THE LEAVES OF PINUS NIGRA ARN. SUBSP. PALLASIANA (LAMB.) HOLMBOE IN DENIZLI (TURKEY)
NAZAN KESKIN1* AND PINAR ILI2

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULAR MATTERS ON THE LEAVES OF PINUS NIGRA ARN. SUBSP. PALLASIANA (LAMB.) HOLMBOE IN DENIZLI (TURKEY)
ABSTRACT:
In urban environments, the main sources of emission of particular matters can be listed as follows: Emissions due to heavy traffic and industrial activities; emissions from power stations, local heating sources and road dust. Particular matters in variety of forms such as dust particles, globules, aggregates etc., accumulate on leaf surfaces of road side plants including higher plants. In this respect, investigation of leaf surfaces may indicate environmental pollution and other effects due to industrial and urban activities and thus, receive great deal of attention for environmental evaluations. Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe are among the most cultivated plants along the roadsides of the municipal area of Denizli city, TURKEY. In this study, the accumulation and the elemental analysis of particular matters on leaf surfaces of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe were investigated using FESEM-EDS techniques during the years 2009 and 2010. Leaf samples were collected from roadsides of four different local areas of heavy traffic and densely urbanized, and from an area far away from heavy traffic. The chemical composition of particular matters on leaves showed distinct differences in between the two data. This finding indicates high level of increased urbanisation, growing industry and heavy traffic in some locations of Denizli city. As a result, leaves of higher plants may be used as bioindicators for the assessment of particular matters in urban areas.

1369-1374 Download
32
PERSISTENCE OF SOME WEED SPECIES FROM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) MONOCULTURE VIA SOIL SEED RESERVES
SEEMA MAHMOOD*, ASMA HUSSAIN AND SAEED AHMAD MALIK

PERSISTENCE OF SOME WEED SPECIES FROM WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) MONOCULTURE VIA SOIL SEED RESERVES
ABSTRACT:
The relationship between soil seed reserves and degree of infestation by common weed species (Avena fatua L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cyperus rotundus Pers., Fumaria parviflora Lamk., Phalaris minor Ritz. and Solanum nigrum L.) was assessed for from five wheat fields. Soil sampling was carried out before sowing season in fields where wheat crop was grown. Soil from two profiles (0-8 and 8-15cm) was taken from five sites within each field and seed bank size was estimated via seedling emergence. A considerable number of viable weed seeds of the species were quantified from both soil profiles. More viable seeds were found in the lower soil profile than the surface layer. C. rotundus had the greatest seed bank size followed by C. arvensis, F. parviflora and A. fatua, respectively. S. nigrum had the lowest values for the attribute. The study indicated that seed reserves of these species can be a major source of weed infestation in wheat fields. It is likely that seeds are transferred to the surface layer by tillage and give rise new weed population that cause infestation. Moreover, seed population seems to be demographically well adapted through fecundity, seed size and longer viability. The study suggested an integrated approach for weed management and control to minimize yield losses particularly in situations where weed species persist through soil seed reserves.

1375-1379 Download
33
SRAP MARKERS FOR FRUIT SHAPE IN CUCUMBER
HUANWEN MENG1, SHUXIA CHEN1, ZHIHUI CHENG*, DANDAN CHAI1 AND YALI LI

SRAP MARKERS FOR FRUIT SHAPE IN CUCUMBER
ABSTRACT:
Fruit shape is one of the most important quality factors in many domesticated plants. In this study, we used bulked segregate analysis (BSA) to identify two sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers linked to fruit shape in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). A segregating F2 population of 130 plants from a cross (B-2-2×Y-3) of B-2-2 with long fruit shape trait and Y-3 with round fruit shape trait was used. Correlation and regression analysis showed that markers ME21/EM18M600 and ME9OD3M190 were linked closely to the allele of round at the fruit shape locus. Marker ME21/EM18M600 accounted for 49.5% of the phenotypic variation in fruit shape, and ME21/EM18M600 accounted for 33.1% of the phenotypic variation.

1381-1384 Download
34
ENHANCEMENT OF PLANT REGENERATION EFFICIENCY FROM MATURE GRAINS OF THAI INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CV. KDML105)
KANOKPORN SOMPORNPAILIN1,2* AND SUTEE CHUTIPAIJIT1

ENHANCEMENT OF PLANT REGENERATION EFFICIENCY FROM MATURE GRAINS OF THAI INDICA RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CV. KDML105)
ABSTRACT:
In vitro protocol for efficient plant regeneration has been developed from Thai indica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105). Embryogenic callus was initiated from mature seeds on NBMI medium. The highest frequency (96.00%) of callus induction was obtained on NBMI1 medium [2 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) without kinetin]. These calli were sub-cultured on NBM medium supplemented with various concentrations of BA or combination with supporting materials for plant regeneration. Plant regeneration from embryogenic callus was increased in the medium supplemented with 5 g L-1 Phytagel® in the regeneration medium (NBMR9 medium; 30.00%). In addition, the best regenerated frequency in this experiment was obtained by culturing the embryogenic callus to 4:4 ratios of Gro-lux tubes to fluorescent light tubes at 1000 lux light intensity (56.72%). The regenerated plants were successfully transplanted to soil. The results indicated that manipulation of medium supplements and the cultured condition leads to increase plant regeneration efficiency in KDML105 cultivar for genetic transformation in the future.

1385-1390 Download
35
PHOSPHORUS USE EFFICIENCY OF TRITITICUM AESTIVUM L. AS AFFECTED BY BAND PLACEMENT OF PHOSPHORUS AND FARMYARD MANURE ON CALCAREOUS SOILS
ABDUR REHIM1, MUBSHAR HUSSAIN2, MUHAMMAD ABID1, MUHAMMAD ZIA-UL-HAQ3 AND SHAKEEL AHMAD2*

PHOSPHORUS USE EFFICIENCY OF TRITITICUM AESTIVUM L. AS AFFECTED BY BAND PLACEMENT OF PHOSPHORUS AND FARMYARD MANURE ON CALCAREOUS SOILS
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to explore the role of different phosphorus (P) levels and application methods in improving wheat grain yield, P uptake and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) on calcarious soils. Five P levels viz., 0.0

1391-1398 Download
36
ROOT-INDUCED NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND ITS AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS
SHAGUFTA GILL1, MUHAMMAD ABID1 FAROOQ-E-AZAM2 AND NIAZ AHMED1

ROOT-INDUCED NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND ITS AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare maize (Zea mays L.) and dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata L.) in terms of biomass accumulation (especially root proliferation) and efficiency of N uptake from potentially mineralizable pool with emphasis on root-induced N mineralization. Pool of potentially mineralizable N was developed by incubating the clay loam soil with sucrose and 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate with the objective to differentiate between the sources of plant N. After 6 weeks of incubation, 55% of the mineralizable N was derived from the added ammonium sulphate and 45% from the native soil N. Plants grown in 15N-labelled potted soil were harvested at 3, 4, and 5 weeks after sowing and studied for water content and partitioning of biomass, N and 15N into root and shoot portions. Accumulation of dry matter in root and shoot portions was 7 and 28 times higher, respectively, in maize as compared to Sesbania. Water content of the shoot portions was almost similar in both crops, while roots of Sesbania contained significantly higher water content. Higher root proliferation in maize led to significantly more accumulation of dry matter and N as compared to Sesbania. Efficiency of N utilization (biomass produced per unit N in plants) was also higher in maize as compared to Sesbania. However, roots of the latter were more efficient in extracting N from soil as determined by amount of N taken up per unit root mass. Since, roots of Sesbania did not show nodules, entire plant N was ascribed to native soil N or from the recently developed pool of potentially mineralizable N. The differences in the uptake of N by the two crop types were attributed to i) root proliferation and thus the access to available N and ii) root-induced changes in the N mineralization potential that were assumed to result from differences in quality and quantity of rhizodeposits.

1399-1404 Download
37
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FORMS AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STEM JUICE OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS AT ELONGATION STAGE
LIXIN ZHANG1,2*, YOUYA ZHAI1 , YUNFEI LI3, YONGGUI ZHAO1, LIXIA LV3, MEI GAO1, JIANCHAO LIU1 AND JINJIANG HU1

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FORMS AND DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STEM JUICE OF TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS AT ELONGATION STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress (DS) usually causes a serious yield reduction in maize production. Nitrogen (N) has been reported to be able to alleviate DS damage in previous studies; however, which N form is beneficial for plant growth in drought-stress maize and its mechanism is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of different nitrogen forms on growth, photosynthesis and stem juice characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought, and find out better and convenient measurers for drought resistance ability of the C4 crop. Pot experiments were carried out using two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Jundan 20) under integrated root-zone drought stress (IR-DS) by irrigating 10% PEG-6000 solution and non-DS conditions grown for 33 days, and their tested indexes were determined at elongation stage. Dry matter (DM), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in stem juice were decreased while pH, electric conductivity (EC), soluble protein concentration (SPC) and ABA concentration (ABAC) in stem juice increased of both cultivars in all N forms treatments under IR-DS above non-DS. However, the responses of two examined cultivars to DS were different: significantly higher DM production, Pn and drought index (DI) were observed for ZD958 than JD20, therefore the former could be treated as a drought tolerance cultivar comparatively. Better correlations were obtained amongst the above parameters, especially for DM, Pn and pH, EC, ORP, ABAC in stem juice under IR-DS than non-DS. By comparison with sole ammonium (NH4+), sole nitrate (NO3-) and the mixed supply of NH4+ and NO3- both obviously improved DM and Pn as well as pH, EC, SPC and ABAC whereas decreased Gs and ORP in both drought-stressed cultivars. The effects of NO3--supplied were more evident than NH4++NO3--supplied in the above responses. These impacts were superior in ZD958 than JD20. Further analysis of variation indicated that the impact of N form treatment on almost all parameters measured were, in general, less than those of water regime. It is, therefore, concluded that pH, EC and ORP in stem juice could be regarded better and convenient indicators for evaluating drought resistance ability of the C4 crop. The NO3- supplied could be more beneficial for enhancing photosynthesis and plant growth by improving stem juice characteristics than NH4+ supplied, especially for a drought tolerant cultivar.

1405-1412 Download
38
EXPRESSION OF HBs Ag IN TOMATOES RESULTED IN ABNORMAL SHOOT REGENERATION IN VITRO
BIN GUO1#, QI CHEN1#, ZHENG-JUN GUAN1,2, GUI-RONG TAO, LING-LING XU3, HAO-YONG HAO1 AND YA-HUI WEI1*

EXPRESSION OF HBs Ag IN TOMATOES RESULTED IN ABNORMAL SHOOT REGENERATION IN VITRO
ABSTRACT:
HBsAg M gene–modified tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasifarm) had been constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transformation. We obtained one line (N244) of transgenic mutant. During the In vitro micropropagation of N244, we found abnormal shoot regeneration as to compared with the non-genetically modified tomatoes (control) under MS medium containing 10 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Histological studies identified two distinct pathways in the regeneration of the HBsAg M gene–modified tomato via callus tissues, somatic embryogenesis, and de novo shoot organogenesis, whereas only shoot organogenesis was detected in the non-genetically modified tomatoes (control). However, the bud regeneration frequency and the bud number per leaf explant in the HBsAg M gene–modified tomato were same as those in control. Furthermore, the abnormal shoot regeneration did not change the stability of HbsAg M gene in regenerated plant. Flow cytometric analysis suggested that the regenerated transgenic tomato was triploid (n=36) whereas the control plant was the normal diploid (n=24). The change in chromosome number may account for the abnormal In vitro shoot regeneration. The study reveals the effects of gene insertion, and provides insights into the possible variance mechanisms of the HBsAg M gene–modified tomato.

1413-1418 Download
39
INTROGRESSION OF GENETIC MATERIAL FROM ZEA MAYS SSP. MEXICANA INTO CULTIVATED MAIZE WAS FACILITATED BY TISSUE CULTURE
LINGZHI WANG1*, XIAOFENG GU2, XIANPING WANG3, MINGLI QU2, JUNWEN LUAN 2, XIANGQI ZHANG3 AND JUREN ZHANG2*

INTROGRESSION OF GENETIC MATERIAL FROM ZEA MAYS SSP. MEXICANA INTO CULTIVATED MAIZE WAS FACILITATED BY TISSUE CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or subterminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created.

1419-1426 Download
40
EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL INOCULATION IN COMBINATION WITH DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON MAIZE CROP IN ERODED SOILS
MUHAMMAD SHARIF1*, SHAH SAUD1, TANVIR BURNI2, MUHAMMAD AFZAL1 FARMANULLAH KHAN1, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN1 AND FAZLI WAHID1

EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL INOCULATION IN COMBINATION WITH DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON MAIZE CROP IN ERODED SOILS
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of inoculating maize (Zea mays L. Azam) with Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in 2 different series of North West Pakistan during the year 2007. Data showed significant increase in shoots and roots yield of maize with the inoculation of AM fungi alone and in combination with farm yard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and humic acid (HA) over control and N-P-K treatments. Accumulation of N by maize shoots increased significantly by the addition of HA, PM and FYM plus N-P-K with or without inoculation of AM fungi over the treatments of N-P-K and control. Plants P accumulation increased significantly over control and N-P-K treatments with the inoculation of AM fungi alone and in combination with FYM, PM and HA in missa soil series. In missa gullied soil series, significantly increased plants P accumulation was noted by the treatments of AM inoculation with PM followed by HA. Accumulation of Mn by maize shoots increased significantly with AM inoculation with HA and PM over all other treatments, Fe increased with PM, HA and FYM. Plants Cu accumulation in missa series increased significantly over control and N-P-K treatments by AM alone and in combination with PM, FYM and HA and by AM fungi with PM, FYM and HA in missa gullied series. Maximum Mycorrhizal root infection rate of 51 % was recorded in the treatment of AM fungal inoculation with HA followed by the treatment inoculated with AM fungi with FYM. In missa gullied soil series, Maximum (59 %) and significantly increased roots infection rates over all treatments were observed in the treatment of AM fungal inoculation with HA followed by PM. Spores concentrations of AM fungi increased significantly with AM inoculation alone and with FYM, PM and HA. Maximum spores numbers of 50 in 20 g soil were recorded by the inoculation of AM fungi alone and with HA.

1427-1432 Download
41
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MAIZE GROWN IN SALINE AREA
SHAH FAHAD AND ASGHARI BANO*

EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MAIZE GROWN IN SALINE AREA
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on physiology of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid cv. 3025 grown in saline field (pH 8.4 and EC 4.2 ds/m) as well as on the nutrient status of saline soil. The salicylic acid (10-5M) was applied as foliar spray, 40 days after sowing (DAS) at vegetative stage of maize plants. The salinity significantly increased sugar contents, protein, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities but the chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, osmotic potential and membrane stability index (MSI) were lower than the control. Foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) to salt stressed plants further augmented the sugar, protein, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) , indole acetic acid (IAA) content, and root length, fresh and dry weights of roots whereas, the chlorophyll a/b and ABA/IAA ratio were decreased. The exogenous application of SA significantly decreased the Na+, Ni+3, Pb+4, Zn+2, and Na+/K+ content of soil and roots while increased the Co+3, Mn+2, Cu+3, Fe+2, K+ and Mg+2 content under salinity stress. It can be inferred that exogenous application of SA (10-5M) was effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity on nutrient status of soil. SA (10-5M) can be implicated to mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on maize plants.

1433-1438 Download
42
EFFECT OF GUM ARABIC EDIBLE COATING ON WEIGHT LOSS, FIRMNESS AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) FRUIT DURING STORAGE
FAHAD AL-JUHAIMI, KASHIF GHAFOOR AND ELFADIL E. BABIKER*

EFFECT OF GUM ARABIC EDIBLE COATING ON WEIGHT LOSS, FIRMNESS AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) FRUIT DURING STORAGE
ABSTRACT:
The effect of application of gum arabic edible coating on weight loss, firmness and sensory characteristics was investigated for cucumber fruits. Cucumber was coated with gum arabic at different concentration (5

1439-1444 Download
43
MOLECULAR DETECTION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IN THE INFECTED CUCUMBER PLANTS AND SOIL
SHUMEI ZHANG1,2, XIAOYU ZHAO2, YUXIA WANG2, JING LI2, XIULING CHEN1, AOXUE WANG1* AND JINGFU LI1*

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IN THE INFECTED CUCUMBER PLANTS AND SOIL
ABSTRACT:
In this study, a one-step PCR protocol was developed for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in infected cucumber plants and soil. The primers Fc-1 and Fc-2 were designed according to F. oxysporum internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A specific 315-bp PCR product was amplified from all the tested F. oxysporum isolates,infected cucumber plants and soil under the optimized PCR conditions using primers Fc-1 and Fc-2. While no PCR product was obtained from other fungi, bacteria, healthy cucumber plants and non-infected soil. For the detection sensitivity, the minimal quantity of genomic DNA of purified F. oxysporum was 100fg and that of soil pathogens was 1000 spores per gram of soil. Furthermore, the PCR protocol enabled detection of F. oxysporum in symptomless cucumber root 6 days after inoculation with the pathogen. Therefore, this PCR-based method can be used to detect F. oxysporum rapidly, sensitively with reliability in infected cucumber plants and soil. Our detection protocol also allowed for early monitoring and diagnosis of F. oxysporum to facilitate disease management.

1445-1451 Download
44
ISOLATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM DICOTS INHABITING COASTAL SAND DUNES OF KOREA
SUMERA AFZAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN3,5, IN-JUNG LEE3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4* AND JONG-GUK KIM6*

ISOLATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM DICOTS INHABITING COASTAL SAND DUNES OF KOREA
ABSTRACT:
We investigated plant growth promoting activity of roots inhabiting endophytic fungi in order to evaluate their role in the survival of host plants under extreme sand dune environment of coastal regions. For this purpose

1453-1460 Download
45
ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON DICTYOPTERIS POLYPODIOIDES (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ALIA ABBAS1* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON DICTYOPTERIS POLYPODIOIDES (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Dictyopteris polypodioides (Dc.) Lamouroux, a thin and flexuous brown alga, was collected from the Arabian Sea coast at Karachi during March 2008 and investigated for its morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures in detail. In the present study the characters such as number of layers, shape of the cells, presence and absence of intercellular spaces between layers of thallus are described. This is the first detailed study of this species from the coast of Pakistan.

1461-1465 Download
46
TAXONOMY AND SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
TAHIRA NAZ*, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, SONIA MUNIR AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI

TAXONOMY AND SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This is the first detailed record of Pseudo-nitzschia species including their seasonal abundance and taxonomic identification from coastal waters of Pakistan bordering northern Arabian Sea. As reported from other coastal waters, considerably lower cell abundance was encountered. The seasonal abundance was found highest as 2.3×103cells l-l in the month of July 2003 at station A, inside of the Manora Channel which is facing the problem of eutrophication. It shows the possible relation of Pseudo-nitzschia species concentrations with nutrient enrichment. Their abundance coincided with the chlorophyll a values at station A as compared to station B where it showed an inverse correlation, suggesting that other factors like autotrophic species contributed the chlorophyll a concentrations. These studies are based on light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) related with the morphological structure of the Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta and Pseudo-nitzschia sub-fraudulenta from the coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan.

1467-1473 Download
47
NEW RECORD SPECIES OF AGARICACEAE FORM PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ1 AND SALEEM SHAHZAD2

NEW RECORD SPECIES OF AGARICACEAE FORM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The species of Agaricus silvicola is characterize by first convex cap then flat, expended with white fibrous scales. Gills grayish pink when young, then gray-brown, then chocolate brown. Grayish Stipe cylindrical, bulbous at the base and rings are attached with stipe. Pleasant taste and eminiscent smell. Flesh yellowish. Spores ellipsoid, smooth, brown. While the Chlorophyllum molybdites have broadly conical cap, which becomes umbonate and concentric rings of dark brown scales. Stem cylindrical and equal, ring present. Flesh white. Gills free, crowded. Spores ellipsoid, smooth. Similarly Lepiota sistrata is known by mealy cap, markedly umbonate, and scaly but soon reveal smooth. Stem slender, equal, slightly pink-violet, ring mealy or absent. Gills white, free. Flesh white, pinker in stem. Spores ellipsoid, smooth. As well as the Macrolepiota rchacodes is characterize by cap first closed, then conically bell-shaped, and finally flat and covered with overlapping scales. Gills at first white bruising reddish, crowded, free. Stem fairly stout, bulbous at base with large double movable ring. Smell pleasant. Flesh white. Spores broadly ellipsoid, smooth, colourless. Above mention all species are belonging to kingdom fungi, class basidiomycetes, order agaricales and family agaricaceae.

1475-1477 Download
48
MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA COLONIZING TWO AROMAIC GRASSES VETEVIRIA ZIZANIOIDES AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA
MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1*, MADIHA SAEED1, ASAD ALI KHAN2, NUZHAT SIAL1 AND MOAZAM JAMIL 3

MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA COLONIZING TWO AROMAIC GRASSES VETEVIRIA ZIZANIOIDES AND CYMBOPOGON JWARANCUSA
ABSTRACT:
A survey of two aromatic grasses Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Veteviria zizanioides was conducted to determine the morphological diversity of mycorrhiza collected from various habitats of southern Punjab and northern areas of Pakistan. The mycorrhizal colonization has been categorized as extraradical and internal colonization along with Arum-type and Paris-type mycorrhiza. The extraradical phase consists of various types of hyphae while internal phase is comprised hyphae and a variety of endogenous structures (i.e. vesicles, arbuscules, hyphal coils and cuttings of hyphae in the cortical regions of the fine roots). Hyphal coiling was frequently observed in C. jwarancusa, coiled hypha were mostly aseptate, and coenocytic, while hyphal coiling was uncommon in V. zizanioides. No arbuscule had been observed in C. jwarancusa but feeder roots in V. zizanioides had extensive arbuscular colonization. Higher morphological diversity was observed in the roots of C. jwarancusa as compared to V. zizanioides. Both Paris and Arum type of Mycorrhiza were observed in the studied grasses. Many extraradical and intraradical non-mycorrhizal dark septate endophytic fungi along with unique type of hyphae with hyaline wall were also observed. The dark septate endophytic fungi had melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The dimeter of microsclerotia ranged from 1.9 to 3.8μm.

1479-1485 Download
49
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP TOXICITY OF ARTEMISIA DUBIA EXTRACT
IHSAN-UL-HAQ1, ABDUL MANNAN1,2, IBRAR AHMED1,3, IZHAR HUSSAIN2, MARYAM JAMIL1 AND BUSHRA MIRZA1*

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND BRINE SHRIMP TOXICITY OF ARTEMISIA DUBIA EXTRACT
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation deals with bioassays of methanol extract of leaves (ML), methanol extract of flowers (MF), chloroform extract of leaves (CL) and chloroform extract of flowers (CF) of Artemisia dubia. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was examined, In vitro, using agar well diffusion method, against 3 Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240), and five Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 15224, Pseudomonas picketti ATCC 49129, Bordetella bronchiseptica ATCC 4617, Enterobacter aerogens ATCC 13048, Salmonella setubal ATCC 19196). Brine shrimp lethality assay was carried out to check the cytotoxicity of these extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed ML was effective against Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli; CL against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus; MF against Escherichia coli, while CF was not effective against any of the strains. Brine shrimp toxicity assay results showed toxicity of MF against newly hatched nauplii; ML, CL and CF showed toxicity with LC50 value higher than 1000 ppm.

1487-1490 Download
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