Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 21/01/2019 Uploaded: 26/06/2018
Uploaded: 29/05/2018

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 1
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
RAPID RANKING METHOD FOR PRIORITIZING RESTORATION BY EVALUATING HUMAN INFLUENCES ON THE STATUS OF SCRUB FOREST: A CASE STUDY
AMIN U. KHAN1, FARID AHMAD2 AND FAIZA SHARIF1

RAPID RANKING METHOD FOR PRIORITIZING RESTORATION BY EVALUATING HUMAN INFLUENCES ON THE STATUS OF SCRUB FOREST: A CASE STUDY
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of this paper was to develop a quick ranking system for diagnosing degree of changes resulting from human influences on a rapidly declining natural scrub forest of the sub-Himalayan region. The naturalness in this paper is described on the basis of structural criteria of the dominant life form, represented by the bi-species climatic climax vegetation of Olea ferruginea and Acacia modesta. Plant communities delineated on the basis of vegetation classification were regrouped on the presence and absence of the two species into natural and sub-natural communities. Natural community was further delineated on the basis of departure from the benchmark to gauge the status of naturalness within this community. The final three staged index proposed was used to evaluate the status and extent of degradation in the forest and in identifying the factors that lead to its altered status to initiate an appropriate management plan for restoration.

11-16 Download
2
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF SUMMER VEGETATION OF SUDAN GALLI HILLS, DISTRICT BAGH, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ZAMAN SHER1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2 AND LAL BADSHAH2

PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF SUMMER VEGETATION OF SUDAN GALLI HILLS, DISTRICT BAGH, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Four associations: Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Abies-Pinus and Temperate grassland containing thirteen communities were recognized on the basis of importance values. Pinus wallichiana association consisted of five communities: Pinus-Berberis-Carex sempervernse, Pinus-Sarcococa-Hedra, Pinus-Sarcococa-Carex schalgintiweitiana, Pinus-Vibernum-Poa and Pinus-Sarcococa-Carex sempervernse on the south facing slopes. Abies pindrow association comprised of six communities viz: Abies-Sarcococa-Fragaria, Abies-Sarcococa-Anogromma, Abies-Sarcococa-Urochloa, Abies-Vibernum-Fragaria, Abies-Vibernum-Galium and Abies-Vibernum-Viola on the north facing slopes. Abies-Pinus association on the south facing slope and the temperate grassland on top of the hills had one community each. The plant species, communities and associations differed on south and north facing slopes. Grasses dominated the top. The South facing slopes had relatively xeric conditions. In contrast the north facing slopes were mesic and therefore supported different plant communities. Biomass of the forbs increased with altitude up to 2350 m but thereafter it gradually decreased towards the top, on the south-facing slope. Quite opposite behavior has been observed regarding biomass for the grasses on the same slope. Grasses in the foothills and at the peaks of the south-facing slopes had more biomass. The biomass of the forbs was greater than of the grasses on the north-facing slopes.

17-9 Download
3
EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE ON EARLY GROWTH AND PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH
MUHAMMAD UZAIR KHAN1*, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, KANWAL NAZIM1 AND QADEER MUHAMMAD ALI1

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE ON EARLY GROWTH AND PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSK.) VIERH
ABSTRACT:
Discharge of industrial waste in streams, river and coastal areas may alter the physical and chemical properties of water, which may affect the growth of mangrove. Therefore, it was anticipated that if these wastes used as organic substitute on mangrove species Avicennia marina, what will be the response of this species against particular industrial waste. For this purpose a greenhouse study was conducted to measure the effect of industrial waste on seed germination and growth rate of dominant mangrove species Avicennia marina. This study also evaluates the potential of A.marina for phytoremediation. Four types of industrial wastes were used to prepare seawater as treatments. The results of the final germination revealed 90% (p<0.001) in all treatments except ash and marble wastes. It was observed that converter slag showed overall better results while chemical industrial sludge-ash showed most deleterious affect on all growth parameters among treatments. The results of ANOVA declared significant decrease in shoot length (F=3.54, p<0.05), root length (F=3.23, p<0.05), fresh shoot weight (F=4.61, p<0.01), dry shoot weight (F=4.05, p<0.01), dry root weight (F=3.92, p<0.01) and fresh root weight (F=3.43, p<0.05) in all treatments except converter slag and sludge as compared to control. The concentrations of heavy metal varied significantly, depending upon the type of waste however, minimum values of all metals were obtained in marble waste. In contrast to marble waste Zn, Co, Mn and Pb were found maximum in prepared polluted sea water, soil, shoot and root in chemical industry sludge-ash while Fe was higher in converter slag treatment. The calculated values of Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC), Biological Transfer Coefficient (BTC) and Bio-concentration Factor (BCF) showed that Avicennia marina can efficiently act as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in Pakistan mangrove ecosystem. However, there should be a limit to add chemical pollutant in this ecosystem.

17-27 Download
4
FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, LIFE FORM AND CHOROLOGY OF PLANT LIFE AT KHULAIS REGION, WESTERN SAUDI ARABIA
EMAD A. ALSHERIF*, AHMAD M. AYESH AND SAYED M. RAWI

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, LIFE FORM AND CHOROLOGY OF PLANT LIFE AT KHULAIS REGION, WESTERN SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
Floristic composition of Khulais region, West Saudi Arabia, is lacking. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to assess its Floristic composition, Life form and chorology. Results revealed that the region consider a hot-spot in the Kingdom in term of plant diversity and more diverse compared with other well studied regions in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries. A total of 251 plant species belonging to 160 genera and 50 families were identified. The major plant families that contributed in the formation of vegetation of the area in question were Poaceae (42 species) followed by papilonaceae (20 species), Euphorbiacea and Asteraceae (18 and 15 species, respectively), while eighteen families each was represented by only one species. Therophytes exhibited the maximum number of species (41.2%), followed by Chaemophytes (31.4%), Hemicryptophytes (13.7%) and Phanerophytes (10%), while the least frequent life form class was Geophytes. Chorological characteristic of the recorded flora showed that Saharo-Arabian and Sudanian elements constitute 43.6% of the total flora. It is concluded that the area is botanically virgin and not explored extensively and intensively even though rich in vegetation, provided floristic checklist, and strongly recommend further detailed study.

29-38 Download
5
ILLUSTRATED WEED FLORA OF WHEAT CROP OF KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH
RABIA ASMA MEMON1*, G. RAZA BHATTI2, SHAHIDA KHALID3, ARFANA MALLAH4 AND SHAKEEL AHMED2

ILLUSTRATED WEED FLORA OF WHEAT CROP OF KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH
ABSTRACT:
An illustrated account of weed flora of wheat crop of Khairpur district, Sindh was compiled, reporting 23 weed species distributed in 10 families. A check list along with illustrations of all the species are provided which will enable the users to identify the common weeds.

39-47 Download
6
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-1), PAKISTAN
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD*, SAIRA KHAN AND SUMMRA ERUM

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION ALONG MOTORWAY (M-1), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present research was undertaken to study vegetation along Motorway (M-1) from Rawalpindi to Attock district (90 km) in Pakistan. Braun-Blanquet’s approach was used for the phytosociological survey. Classification techniques like TWINSPAN (Two Way indicator species analysis) and DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) were used to classify the vegetation data. Floristic data was collected from 40 sites at a distance of 10 km on each side of motorway. A total of 45 plant species belonging to 23 families were recorded. TWINSPAN divided the whole flora into two major and fourteen sub-communities. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) identifies clusters of species in ordinate space and verifies groups of species identified by TWINSPAN method. A DCA analysis of all the plots maintained a coherency with vegetation types identified by TWINSPAN. This survey based study provides baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for Conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvement of road verges of M-1.

49-53 Download
7
EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES AND THEIR COMBINATIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN WHEAT CROP
ZAHID HUSSAIN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, FAZAL MUNSIF2, ABDUL SAMAD3 AND KAWSAR ALI2

EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES AND THEIR COMBINATIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN WHEAT CROP
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment on weed control in wheat was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute, (Tarnab) Peshawar during 2008-09. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, replicated three times, and consisted of 14 treatments including six herbicide treatments; fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (P), pinoxadan (A), bromoxynil+MCPA (B), trisulfuron (L), clodinafop-propargyl (T) and fluroxypur+MCPA (S) that were used individually; and in seven different combinations i.e. T+B, T+S, P+B, P+S, B+A, L+A and L+T, and one treatment was kept as weedy check for comparison. All the herbicide treatments provided significant control of weeds causing significant reduction in density of target weed flora and also significantly improved the grain yield in comparison with the weedy check. Highest mortality of weeds (90.7%) and maximum grain yield of 3925 kg ha-1 (with 30.25% increase in grain yield over weedy check) were recorded where clodinafop-propargyl and bromoxynil+MCPA were applied together. The weed population and grain yield in weedy check were 161 weeds m-2 and 2744 kg ha-1, respectively. However, no crop injury was observed in any of the herbicide treatments. Among the herbicides used alone, bromoxynil+MCPA produced the highest grain yield (3827 kg ha-1) increased over check by 28.29%. In light of the results, it is concluded that bromoxynil+MCPA in alone, and its combination with clodinafop-propargyl are most effective and best option for achieving a desirable weed control and increase in grain yield of wheat in irrigated conditions of Peshawar.

55-59 Download
8
PLANT SEEDLING PERFORMANCE TRAITS IMPACT ON SUCCESSFUL RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS MICROHABITATS FOR FIVE ALPINE SAUSSUREA SPECIES
WU GAO-LİN1,2, FENG JIN3, SHİ ZHİ-HUA1,2*, DU GUO-ZHEN4

PLANT SEEDLING PERFORMANCE TRAITS IMPACT ON SUCCESSFUL RECRUITMENT IN VARIOUS MICROHABITATS FOR FIVE ALPINE SAUSSUREA SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Habitat heterogeneity and species-specific traits (seed mass) both impact on seedling performance and recruitment. Five species of Saussurea DC., from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were selected to study seedling performance and recruitment under various microhabitats.. Results showed that seedling emergence and survival were significantly affected by light regimes, seed mass and their interactions. The RGR and R/S were affected by light and nutrient levels and seed mass during all growth stages. There was a significant interaction between nutrient and light on seedling survival. Light was directly related to seedling survival but nutrient availability was only indirectly related to seedling recruitment, by influencing the RGR and R/S ratio. Seedling survival was positively related to RGR and to R/S in the 100-day growth period. Our results suggested that seedlings improved their survival by altering their RGR and R/S under various microhabitats and the light and nutrient microhabitats affect seedling recruitment by impacting on seedling emergence and growth performance.

61-71 Download
9
MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC LAMIUM PISIDICUM
PELĐN BARAN1* AND CANAN OZDEMĐR2

MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ENDEMIC LAMIUM PISIDICUM
ABSTRACT:
Morphological and anatomical features of endemic Lamium pisidicum R. Mill (Lamiaceae) were studied. L. pisidicum is a perennial with a taproot system. The stem is ascending to erect in position and clearly quadrangular in shape. The leaves are ovate to broadly ovate or rarely reniform in shape. Verticillasters are 2-14 flowered. The corolla is pinkish-purple to mauve and the upper lip is deeply bifid and the tube is without annulus. The stigma is bifid. The stamens are didynamus. Anatomically, spring and autumn woods are distinguishable in the root structure of the perennial taxon. There is a well developed collenchymatous layer at the corners of the stem and a pith hollow in the centre. In the petiole cross-section, 1-2 layered collenchyma layer is located at the corners while 3 central vascular bundles are located in the middle and 1 vascular bundle at the petiolar wings. The leaf is bifacial. Each anther is of two thecae and each theca is of 2 pollen sacs. Pollen type is trizonocolpate and pollen shape is spheroidal. The cross-section of seed is triangular. Glandular hairs distributed on the plant species are classified into 2 main types, peltate and capitate. Furthermore, capitate glandular hairs are seperated into 2 types, type I and type II. Somatic chromosomes are counted as 2n=18 for the first time in this study.

73-85 Download
10
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VIII. FUMARIACEAE
RUBINA ABID*, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-VIII. FUMARIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphology of 12 taxa belonging to the family Fumariaceae, was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The seed morphological data fully support the gross morphological and palynological data and also found useful for the taxonomic delimitation at the generic and the specific levels.

87-92 Download
11
DROUGHT-INDUCED MODULATION IN GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1*, MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1 AND QASIM ALI2

DROUGHT-INDUCED MODULATION IN GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRIENTS IN CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was conducted to assess drought-induced modulation in growth and mineral composition of canola (Brassica napus L.). Four canola accessions [two drought tolerant (Dunkeld and 24177) and two sensitive (24173 and Pakola)] were grown in sandy loam soil. The plants of all four canola cultivars were subjected to three drought stress treatments i.e. normal watering (full field capacity), 75% and 50% field capacity (FC) at two growth stages (vegetative stage and flowering stage). Imposition of drought stress at different growth stages caused a significant decrease in shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot and root length, and shoot and root K+, Ca2+, N and P. Maximum reduction in these variables was observed at 50% FC in all canola accessions. The higher drought tolerance of Dunkeld and 24177 measured in terms of shoot fresh and dry biomass was found to be associated with higher concentrations of K+ and N maintained in its shoot particularly at the flowering stage.

93-98 Download
12
DETECTION OF GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AT SEEDLING STAGE IN ESCALATING SELECTION INTENSITY FOR RAPID EVALUATION OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT BREEDING
IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA1*, SABA TABASUM1 AND MUHAMMAD AFZAL2

DETECTION OF GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AT SEEDLING STAGE IN ESCALATING SELECTION INTENSITY FOR RAPID EVALUATION OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT BREEDING
ABSTRACT:
A screening of diverse germplasm in field is time consuming and in laboratory is expensive. An easy and economical technique was employed to access the behavior of seventy five diverse wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted on the basis of germination percentage, emergence rate, emergence rate index, survival after desiccation and seedling recovery with the aim to evaluate best adopted parents. These traits were pooled to differentiate water stress tolerant and susceptible genotypes, by increasing selection intensity and rapid evaluation for drought tolerance which may be used in succeeding research programs.

99-104 Download
13
EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND ARSENIC IONS ON CONTENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN THE LEAVES OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL
TERÉZIA DOBROVICZKÁ1, BEÁTA PIRŠELOVÁ1, PATRIK MÉSZÁROS1*, ALŽBETA BLEHOVÁ2, JANA LIBANTOVÁ3, JANA MORAVČÍKOVÁ3 AND ILDIKÓ MATUŠÍKOVÁ3

EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND ARSENIC IONS ON CONTENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN THE LEAVES OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metals belong to significant pollutants of environment accumulate in organisms and are unable to degrade. The goal of our experiments was to measure spectroscopically the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L.) exposed to cadmium (50 mg.kg-1 of soil Cd2+) and the metalloid arsenic (5 mg.kg-1 of soil As3+). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy analyses showed that after 10 days of plant growth in contaminated soil the shoots of the cv. Bólyi 44 accumulated much more Cd than As, and in both cases in significantly larger amounts than in the cv. Cordoba. However, leaves of the cv. Cordoba exerted more signs of intoxication since statistically significant decrease of some chlorophyll (Chl) content such as Chla, Chl(a+b) and Chla/b were detected in the Cd2+-treated leaves. Our results revealed, that leaves of the cv. Bólyi 44 has significantly higher amount of carotenoids that might serve as protection compounds against metal damage.

105-110 Download
14
IMPROVING THE THERMO TOLERANCE OF WHEAT PLANT BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ARGININE OR PUTRESCINE
RAIFA A. HASSANEIN1, SAHAR A. EL-KHAWAS1*, SOHAIR K. IBRAHIM2, HALA M. EL-BASSIOUNY2, H.A. MOSTAFA2AND AMANY A. ABD EL-MONEM2

IMPROVING THE THERMO TOLERANCE OF WHEAT PLANT BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ARGININE OR PUTRESCINE
ABSTRACT:
The exposure of wheat plants cv. Giza 168 to high temperature stress (35oC±2) for 4 or 8 hours significantly decreased the growth parameters, the yield components, putrescine (Put), total endogenous polyamines (PAs) contents, total amino acid and total essential amino acid contents, where as, the endogenous spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), ethylene, NH+4, glutamic acid, arginine, proline were increased. Treatment of wheat plants before their exposure to high temperature with arginine or putrescine (1.25 and 2.5 mM) enabled the plants to tolerate the injurious effect induced by high temperature stress via increasing the endogenous Put, Spd , the total PA contents, the content of total amino acids, essential amino acids and the ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids and decreasing the ethylene and NH+4 contents as compared with plants exposed to the high temperature stress or the untreated plants. These effects were much more pronounced by applying 2.5 mM of either arginine or putrescine.

111-118 Download
15
INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SALT-STRESSED MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA): GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM
JAVED AKHTAR1, RASHID AHMAD1*, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, ASIF TANVEER3, EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH1 AND HESHAM ORABY4,5

INFLUENCE OF EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SALT-STRESSED MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA): GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM
ABSTRACT:
To investigate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on growth and nitrogen metabolism in mungbean grown under saline conditions, an experiment was conducted in wire house in plastic pots containing soil + sand at NIAB Faisalabd. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) varieties, two salt tolerant (NM-98 and NM-92) and two salt sensitive (NM-54 and NM-13-1), identified in laboratory experiments, were grown under four salinity levels, i.e., 1.2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1. Salicylic acid @ 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1 was applied as foliar spray at vegetative and flowering stages. Results indicated that salinity reduced the growth by decreasing plant height and fresh biomass of all the cultivars, however, the salt tolerant cultivars performed better than sensitive ones. Foliar application of SA @ 100 mg L-1 significantly improved all the growth parameters in all the cultivars under saline conditions. The SA levels of 200 and 300 mg L-1 did not show appreciable performance regarding growth attributes under normal and saline conditions. Similarly biochemical attributes like nitrate reductase activity (NRA), nitrite reductase activity (NiRA), soluble proteins and N reduced while total free amino acids increased due to salinity and increase / decrease was progressively enhanced by the increase in salt concentration in the growth medium. Application of SA @ 100 mg L-1 was helpful in reducing the adverse effects of salinity on all the above mentioned parameters while other levels of SA did not perform better under all salinity treatments.

119-125 Download
16
OPTIMIZATION OF SOIL K: NA RATIO FOR COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) NUTRITION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
LIAQAT ALI1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, MUHAMMAD MAQBOOL3, RASHID AHMAD4 AND AHSAN AZIZ2

OPTIMIZATION OF SOIL K: NA RATIO FOR COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) NUTRITION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Adequate potassium (K) supply is crucial for cotton growth and development. However, sodium (Na) can share some functions with K. In present study, we investigated the effects of replacing K with Na at different ratios on growth, ionic relations and yield as well as yield attributes of two cotton varieties differed in K use efficiency. Different levels of K and Na giving K: Na ratios of 3.5: 1 (control), 3.75: 1, 4: 1, 4.25: 1, 4.5: 1, 2.8: 1, 3: 1, 3.2: 1, 3.4: 1, 3.6: 1 were arranged in triplicates according to randomized complete block design under natural field conditions. Results revealed that maximum seed cotton yield was obtained at K: Na ratio of 3.4: 1 followed by 3.6: 1 in both cotton varieties. However, NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. The significant (p≤0.05) positive correlation was found between number of bolls plant-1 and seed cotton yield (R2 = 0.62 for NIBGE-2 and R2 = 0.64 for MNH-786) determined at different levels of K and Na. Leaf K: Na ratio also varied significantly (p≤0.05) due to main effects of K, Na, varieties and their interactions. Maximum leaf K: Na ratio was shown by NIBGE-2 with 270 kg K ha-1+60 kg Na ha-1 at ratio of 4.5: 1 followed by 255 kg K ha-1+60 kg Na ha-1 at ratio of 4.25: 1. Although fiber quality of both cotton varieties were markedly influenced by different ratios of K: Na, however these differences between treatments and varieties were not consistent. There was a significant positive correlation between K concentration and fiber length (R2 = 0.97 for NIBGE-2 and R2 = 0.98 for MNH-786). Our results suggested that cotton growth and yield could be improved by adding appropriate amounts of K and Na.

127-134 Download
17
TOXICITY INDUCED BY SOLANAPYRONE A IN CHICKPEA SHOOTS AND ITS METABOLISM THROUGH GLUTATHIONE/GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE SYSTEM
ABID RIAZ1*, JANE NICKLIN2, IRFANUL HAQUE3, CHAUDHARY ABDUR RAUF3, GHULAM QADIR3 AND FARAH NAZ3

TOXICITY INDUCED BY SOLANAPYRONE A IN CHICKPEA SHOOTS AND ITS METABOLISM THROUGH GLUTATHIONE/GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Solanapyrone A and C were isolated from a Pakistani isolate of Ascochyta rabiei, Pk-1. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effects of the most potent toxin, solanapyrone A on chickpea cultivars and its subsequent detoxification through glutathion/glutathion-s-transferase(GST) system. When the shoots of cultivars were fed solanapyrone A, symptoms mimicking to Ascochyta blight appeared and extent of manifestation of symptoms varied with the cultivar. In the first experiment, the effect of three different plant ages of 2 cultivars with different levels of resistance to toxin was determined in terms of GST activity unit. GST activity in Balkasar-2000 (a resistant cultivar) increased 1.92 times, 1.72 and 1.65 times in two-week-old seedling, eight-week-old and adult plants (all treated) respectively as compared to their respective controls. In the highly susceptible cultivar, AUG-424, a slight increase (1.14 times) over control was noticed in GST activity at all the three ages. In the second experiment, where shoots of three cultivars were tested against 2 doses of the toxin, an increase in GST activity in Noor-91 (a moderately susceptible cultivar) and AUG-424 was significantly less than resistant cultivar, Balkasar-2000 showing direct relationship between resistance and activity of the enzyme. It may be concluded that it is a reason for difference in response of cultivars to the disease.

135-139 Download
18
EVALUATION OF TRACE AND TOXIC HEAVY METALS IN SELECTED CRUDE DRUGS USED IN KHYBER PUKHTONKHAWA, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD IBRAR1, NAVEED MUHAMMAD2*, WELAYATH SHAH2 AND BARKATULLAH1

EVALUATION OF TRACE AND TOXIC HEAVY METALS IN SELECTED CRUDE DRUGS USED IN KHYBER PUKHTONKHAWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted for the evaluation of essential trace and toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Mn, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, K and Na in 31 crude drugs commonly used in Khyber Pukhtonkhawa. These crude drugs were purchased from local venders in Peshawar. Pb was present in excessive (more than 10 µg /g) concentration in four tested samples while Mn concentration exceeded only in two samples. Zn concentration exceeded the permissible limit (50 µg /g) in Trigonella foenum gracum (102 µg /g) and Berberis lyceum (59 µg /g). Except Glycyrrhiza glabra all these samples of crude drugs exceeded the standard limit for Co (0.2 µg /g). Twelve crude drugs were within permissible limits of C r(1.5 µg/g). Highest concentration of Cu was found in Berberis lyceum (57 µg/g) followed by Trigonella foenum graecum (16 µg/g), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (11 µg/g) and Silybum marianum (11 µg/g). The concentrations of remaining metals were in safe range for all tested samples. Crude drugs are abundantly used for various ailments, but due to presence of heavy toxic metals, these must be subjected to various pharmacological and toxicological evaluation for their affective and safe use.

141-144 Download
19
A HIGHLY EFFICIENT REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS THUNB.)
XUEZHENG WANG, LIMIN SHANG AND FEISHI LUAN*

A HIGHLY EFFICIENT REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS THUNB.)
ABSTRACT:
We developed a high frequency watermelon regeneration system using two inbred lines of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), ‘W1-4’ and ‘W1-12’. Shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium solidified with agar (7.0 g/L) and containing various concentrations of cytokinin (6-benzyladenine; 6-BA) and auxin (indoleacetic acid; IAA). The highest rate of bud organogenesis was on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L 6-BA + 0.2 mg/L IAA for ‘W1-4’ and on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L 6-BA + 0.1 mg/L IAA for ‘W1-12’. The regeneration rate was higher in ‘W1-12’ than in ‘W1-4’. The best medium for shoot elongation in both inbred lines was MS containing 0.05 mg/L 6-BA. Regenerated plants showed the best rates of root formation on 1/2 MS containing 0.1 mg/L IAA. The rooted plants were carefully washed to remove all medium from the roots, and then transferred to soil in a greenhouse. The plants showed a 100% survival rate when transferred to soil. This highly efficient regeneration system will be useful for regenerating plants in genetic engineering applications, and is a useful tool for further genetic transformation studies on watermelon.

145-150 Download
20
PROTEIN CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF WAXY RICE GRAINS
JIN-WOONG KIM1, BYUNG-CHUL KIM2, JAE-HEUNG LEE3, DUCK-RYUL LEE3, SHAFIQ REHMAN4 AND SONG JOONG YUN1*

PROTEIN CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF WAXY RICE GRAINS
ABSTRACT:
Rice is not only an important cereal as a major food worldwide but also valuable sources of nutritional and nutraceutical substances for human health. Protein is one of the major factors determining eating, processing and nutritional qualities of rice. Therefore, we examined effect of cultivar on the content and composition of proteins in waxy rice grains. Grains of eight waxy and one non-waxy Korean rice cultivars used in this study were produced at the N fertilizer level of 7 kg/10a. Crude protein content was higher in waxy cultivars than in the non-waxy cultivar. There was a considerable variation in crude protein contents among waxy cultivars, ranging from 8.6 to 9.7% in brown rice and from 8.1 to 8.5% in milled rice. There was also a significant varietal variation in content of the four protein fractions. The mean contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin fractions of waxy brown rice were 1.86, 0.50, 0.05, and 7.31%, respectively. Those of milled rice were 0.50, 0.30, 0.1, and 8.40%, respectively. Albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin fractions for brown and milled rice were composed of seven, five, one, and five major bands, respectively, and no cultivar- or tissue-specific variations were apparent in the fractional profiles detected on sodium dodecy sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Thus, the varietal differences of total and fractional proteins were mostly contributed by quantitative rather than qualitative variations.

151-156 Download
21
EFFICACY OF SEED PRECONDITIONING WITH SALICYLIC AND ASCORBIC ACID IN INCREASING VIGOR OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SEEDLING
SABA ANWAR, MUHAMMAD IQBAL, SYED HAMMAD RAZA AND NAEEM IQBAL*

EFFICACY OF SEED PRECONDITIONING WITH SALICYLIC AND ASCORBIC ACID IN INCREASING VIGOR OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) SEEDLING
ABSTRACT:
Poor germination is one of the main problems in adopting direct seeded rice culture. The objective of the work was to enhance the efficiency of direct seeded rice in terms of germination and seedlings vigor. In this study, the role of hormonal priming (salicylic acid and ascorbic acid) and hydropriming for 20 and 40 h in increasing seed and seedling vigor both in Petri dishes was assessed. Seed conditioning with salicylic acid caused an increase in seed vigor (10%) and protease activity (18%) in rice at 4th day of sowing, while significant enhancement (6%) was recorded with ascorbic acid in seedlings protease activity. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was increased in the 8 days old rice seedlings with all the pre-soaking treatment, the maximum increase was recorded in seedlings raised from seeds treated with salicylic acid (20mg L-1) for 20 h. Based on overall performance, seed priming with salicylic acid increased seed and seedling vigor in fine rice, but the response depended on concentration and seed soaking time.

157-162 Download
22
GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG THE BROWN RUST RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE GENOTYPES OF SUGARCANE BY RAPD TECHNIQUE
KHUSHI MUHAMMAD1*, SHAHID AFGHAN2, YONG –BAO PAN3 AND JAVED IQBAL1

GENETIC VARIABILITY AMONG THE BROWN RUST RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE GENOTYPES OF SUGARCANE BY RAPD TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is a major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes, i.e., rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite genotypes in Pakistan. DNA samples were extracted from these cultivars. The genomic DNA was amplified with 160 decamer primers and 33 of them generated 216 trackable loci with the range of 150-2500 bp. The total polymorphic bands were 164 (76%) and these were used to cluster rust resistant and susceptible cultivars. UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) based on Nei’s genetic distance was analyzed by NTSYSpc and showed that 6 genotypes were clustered into 3 groups with the range from 63% to 73% genetic distances. This observation indicated the significant correlation between genetic distance and disease. Ten of 33 decamers (30%) had shown 100% polymorphism with three polymorphic bands/loci, which were generated in two different discrete groups rust resistant and rust susceptible. In this study we have found 17 cultivars specific loci generated by 11 RAPD primers and cluster analysis revealed three main groups and two subgroups against rust susceptible genotypes to develop characterization of genotypes at molecular level. Additionally, this explored the genetic basis of discrete phenotypic classes in sugarcane genome for marker development.

163-168 Download
23
SUCROSE PROMOTES STRAWBERRY FRUIT RIPENING BY STIMULATION OF ABSCISIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS
HAIFENG JIA, CHUNLI LI, YEMAO CHAI, YU XING AND YUANYUE SHEN*

SUCROSE PROMOTES STRAWBERRY FRUIT RIPENING BY STIMULATION OF ABSCISIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS
ABSTRACT:
The interaction of sugar with ABA plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Although glucose is reported to act as a signal molecular to promote abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, whether sucrose can also serve as a signal molecule involved in ABA biosynthesis is yet unclear. Here, we showed that soluble sugars, especially sucrose, could accelerate strawberry fruit ripening both In vivo and In vitro. Based on analyses of ABA levels and transcripts of both 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (FaNCED1) and ABA glucosidase 1 (FaBG1) genes in developmental strawberry fruit, we found that ABA accumulation was mainly attributed to the FaNCED1 transcripts. A fruit-tissue sucrose-incubation test indicated that sucrose could promote both FaNCED1 and FaBG1 transcripts evidenced by real-time PCR and SqRT-PCR. In conclusion, the main results gained from the present study suggested that sucrose might serve as a signal molecule to promote the mRNA expression levels of FaNCED1 and plays an important role in ABA accumulation and strawberry fruit ripening.

169-175 Download
24
VARIATION OF SESAMIN AND SESAMOLIN CONTENTS IN SESAME CULTIVARS FROM CHINA
LINHAI WANG1, YANXIN ZHANG1, PEIWU LI2, WEN ZHANG2, XUEFANG WANG2, XIAOQIONG QI AND XIURONG ZHANG1

VARIATION OF SESAMIN AND SESAMOLIN CONTENTS IN SESAME CULTIVARS FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
A collection of 62 sesame cultivars from China were analyzed for sesamin and sesamolin contents in seeds using HPLC. Results showed the sesamin and sesamolin contents of these cultivars ranged from 0.82 to11.05 mg/g and 1.35 to 6.96 mg/g, respectively. About 60.0% of the cultivars stayed in the range from 6.0 to 9.0 mg/g in the total content of sesamin and sesamolin. On average, cultivars with white seed coat color had higher sesamin content than those samples with black color. The correlation coefficient between sesamin and sesamolin of the cultivars with different seed colors ranked as white (R = 0.44) < medium (R = 0.75) < black (R = 0.96). The landraces had higher sesamin and sesamolin contents than other cultivars significantly. The results of this study exhibited useful lignan information of the cultivars from China and identified potential cultivars having high sesamin or sesamolin for functional food, pharmaceutics and cosmetic industries.

177-182 Download
25
MAPPING OF QTLS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN A RICE RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION
SHUXIAN ZHOU1,2, MANSHAN ZHU2, FENG WANG2*, JUNLI HUANG1 AND GUIXUE WANG1*

MAPPING OF QTLS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN A RICE RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE POPULATION
ABSTRACT:
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and related components have been reported in recent years. However, due to differences between the genetic backgrounds, type of molecular markers and the tested environment the results describing the number of QTLs, chromosomal regions and nature of the additive effects could be different. The purpose of this study was to map QTLs conferring the yield and yield related components in a rice recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A linkage map consisting of 119 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was constructed based on an RIL population with 307 lines derived from a cross between Guanghui 116 (male) and LaGrue (female). Mapping of the QTLs for grain yield per plant, number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, seed-setting rate and number of tillers per hill, was carried out based on the composite interval–mapping method. The additive effects and the percentage of phenotypic variation for all the traits involved were also estimated. Fifteen QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1-6, 8, 9 and 12. Among these, nine QTLs were reported earlier, indicating their stability across genetic backgrounds. The markers, qTL-3, qTL-6, qTL-12, qSS-5, qSS-9 and qGY-8, which control the tiller number, seed-setting rate and grain yield per plant, have not been detected in previous studies.

183-189 Download
26
SSR AND SRAP MARKER BASED LINKAGE MAP OF VITIS AMURENSIS RUPR.
ZHENDONG LIU1♦, XIUWU GUO1♦, YINSHAN GUO1*, HONG LIN1, PENGXIANG ZHANG2, YUHUI ZHAO1, KUN LI1 AND CHENGXIANG LI1

SSR AND SRAP MARKER BASED LINKAGE MAP OF VITIS AMURENSIS RUPR.
ABSTRACT:
SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers and SRAP (Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism) markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map of Vitis amurensis Rupr. The mapping population consists of 94 individuals derived from the selfing of Beibinghong, a V. amurensis cultivar. The map covers a total length of 1123cM on 21 linkage groups with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.5cM and 10.9 markers per linkage group on average. The order of SSR markers in the map presented in this paper was mainly consistent with the previous published Vitis linkage maps except for few inversions. The efficiency of SSRs to anchor homologous linkage groups from different Vitis maps and the ability of SRAPs in saturating molecular linkage maps were observed. This map can serve as a fundamental tool for a series of further studies in V. amurensis, including resistance trait QTL (quantitative trait locus) detection and MAS (marker assisted selection).

191-195 Download
27
STANDARDIZATION OF TISSUE CULTURE CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATION OF FREE SCAVENGING ACTIVITY IN VIOLA ODORATA L.
MUHAMMAD NAEEM1, ISHRAT NAVEED2, SYED MUHAMMAD SAQLAN NAQVI3 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD1*

STANDARDIZATION OF TISSUE CULTURE CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATION OF FREE SCAVENGING ACTIVITY IN VIOLA ODORATA L.
ABSTRACT:
Tissue culture can be used as a tool for the conservation and commercialization of Viola odorata because of its intensive use in local market for medicinal purposes. In the present study an efficient protocol for in vitro callogenesis and organogenesis of medicinally important plant Viola odorata L. (Sweet violet) has been developed. Different explants used for callus induction were leaves, stem and petioles. Best callus induction (85%) was observed on media having 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) 2.5 mg/L and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) 0.15mg/L after 40 days of incubation. Subsequent transfer of callus to shooting media has shown best shoot regeneration (having 4-5 cm length and 2-3 branches) on medium supplemented with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 0.5 mg/L, gibberellic acid (GA3) 1.5 mg/L, AgNO3 0.42 mg/L and thidiazuron (TDZ) 2.5 mg/L. An assay of the antioxidant potential of the in vitro grown callus and the wild plant extract was determined by DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) method shown that the antioxidant activity of in vitro formed callus is higher than that of wild plant.

197-202 Download
28
IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR MAPPING OF POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE GENE PMG25 IN COMMON WHEAT ORIGINATED FROM WILD EMMER (TRITICUM TURGIDUM VAR. DICOCCOIDES)
MD. ASHRAFUL ALAM1,2, FEI XUE1, M. ALI3, CHANGYOU WANG1 AND WANQUAN JI1,*

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR MAPPING OF POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE GENE PMG25 IN COMMON WHEAT ORIGINATED FROM WILD EMMER (TRITICUM TURGIDUM VAR. DICOCCOIDES)
ABSTRACT:
Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most economically important wheat diseases in many regions through out the world. N0308, a common wheat line contains powdery mildew resistance gene introgressed from wild emmer accession G25. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and F3 families derived from the cross between N0308 and a susceptible common wheat cultivar Shaanyou 225 indicated a single dominant gene, temporarily designated PmG25, conferred resistance to powdery mildew race ‘Guanzhong 4’. Bulked segregant analysis and molecular markers were used to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene PmG25. Eleven SSR markers (Xgpw1082, Xgpw3191, Xfcp1, Xfcp393, Xfcp394, Xgpw7425, Xwmc75, Xgwm408, Xwmc810, Xbarc232 and Xbarc142) and two EST-STS markers (BF482522 and BF202652) were linked with PmG25 on the long arm of chromosome 5B. The resistance gene was flanked by Xfc1/Xfcp393 and Xgpw3191, with genetic distances of 1.3 and 3.3 cM, respectively, and located on the chromosome bin 5BL-14- 0.75-0.76 in the test with a set of deletion lines. The powdery mildew resistance genes Pm36 and Ml3D232 have also been mapped to the region. The chromosome location and genetic mapping results suggested that the powdery mildew resistance gene derived from wild emmer G25 may be allelic or closely linked to Pm36.

203-208 Download
29
EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON CALLUS GROWTH AND POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF CALLI CULTURES OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM)
NOOR UL AMIN1*, GUL SANGA1, NEELAM ARA1, SAFDAR HUSSAIN SHAH2 AND FARHATULLAH3

EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON CALLUS GROWTH AND POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF CALLI CULTURES OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM)
ABSTRACT:
Effects of various concentrations of calcium chloride on callus growth and potassium nutrition of calli cultures of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Cardinal were studied. Calli cultures of Potato were treated with Calcium chloride in 5 different concentrations (0.1; 1; 3; 6; 9mM). Calcium chloride treatments had significant effect on almost all parameters studied. Maximum relative growth rate (0.711 week-1) and water content (94.872%) were recorded at 6mM Calcium chloride. The maximum K+ accumulation in dried matter (695.568 µmoles g-1 Dry Wt.) at 3mM Calcium chloride and maximum Ca++ accumulation in dried matter (450.83 µmoles g-1 dry wt.) at 9mM Calcium chloride were found. The minimum relative growth rate (0.376 week-1), water content (62.611%), K+ accumulation in dried matter (485.98 µmoles g-1 dry wt.) and Ca++ accumulation in dried matter (187.367 µmoles g-1 dry wt.) were recorded at 0.1mM Calcium chloride. It is concluded from the experiment that better results were obtained from 3-6mM Calcium chloride treatment on Potato callus.

209-214 Download
30
AUGMENTED ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill.)
MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM*, MUHAMMAD ASGHAR AND QUMER IQBAL

AUGMENTED ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill.)
ABSTRACT:
A preliminary yield trial involving 30 exotic selections in comparison to three check varieties viz. Nagina, Riogrande and Roma of tomato was conducted according to augmented design at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2009-10. The analysis of variance indicated non-significant differences among blocks for yield per plant, days to maturity, number of fruit per plant and single fruit weight whereas significant differences were among all checks for yield per plant, single fruit weight and number of fruit per plant except days to maturity. None of the selections except ‘Mission 102’ had significantly higher yield (2.48 kg plant-1) than that of high yielding check, Riogrande (2.00 kg plant-1). Most of the selections proved to be low performer for yield and its components in prevailing environmental conditions.

215-218 Download
31
PROSPECTS OF CASTOR BEAN CULTIVATION IN RAINFED TRACT OF PAKISTAN
NASIR MAHMOOD CHEEMA1*, UMAR FAROOQ3, GHULAM SHABBIR2, M. KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH2 AND M. MUSA4

PROSPECTS OF CASTOR BEAN CULTIVATION IN RAINFED TRACT OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Non-edible oilseeds carry special importance along with edible oilseeds in the world oilseeds economy as well as Pakistan. Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed. The agro-ecological conditions of rain-fed Pothwar region of Pakistan provide good potential for increasing cultivation of castor bean. The experimental plots of castor bean planted at three locations of Pothwar selected on the basis of rainfall shows that castor bean is a moisture sensitive crop and productivity is directly associated with rainfall levels. Similarly, earlier planted fields out-yielded than late planted ones. Among varieties, DS-30 and PR-101 performed relatively better than PR-7/1 and local. The combined effect of variety and planting time revealed that higher yielding varieties planted earlier has resulted in higher yield ha-1 as compared with the yields by the same varieties planted late. The competitiveness analysis of returns from castor been production vis-à-vis returns from sorghum and millet production at three locations showed that castor bean cultivation gave much higher returns. It is concluded that castor bean cultivation was found much profitable for the farmers of Pothwar region of Pakistan. Secondly, selection of better variety and optimum plantation times are also important, but farmers in Chakwal region should struggle for early plantation besides selecting high yielding varieties (HYVs).

219-224 Download
32
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF DECOMPOSED GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) STALK ON LETTUCE (L. SATIVA VAR. CRISPA L.)
XU HAN, ZHIHUI CHENG*, HUANWEN MENG, XIANGLONG YANG AND IMRAN AHMAD

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF DECOMPOSED GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) STALK ON LETTUCE (L. SATIVA VAR. CRISPA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct and normally the waste of garlic production but now is thought a good biological resource. It is necessary to utilize this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environment pollution and achieve agricultural sustainable development. The allelopathy of decomposed garlic stalk at different ratios (0:100, 1:100, 3:100 and 5:100) was investigated in this study using lettuce (L. sativa var. crispa L.) as the allelopathic test plant. The results are as follows: (1) Lower concentration of decomposed garlic stalk promoted lettuce plant growth, but higher concentration inhibited growth. (2) The highest ratio of stalk to soil (5:100) significantly increased the root length and fresh weight of lettuce but decreased the shoot length and fresh weight. (3) Lower ratio of stalk to soil significantly increased the content of protein and chlorophyll and the activity of plant enzymes. (4) Increasing the concentration of decomposed garlic stalk increased the activity of soil urease and sucrase. It was concluded that the decomposed garlic stalk with lower concentration could promote lettuce plant growth. This result provides a scientific basis for allelopathic study and application of decomposed garlic stalk.

225-233 Download
33
ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON MODIFIED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) ON PHYSIOLOGY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM1, NASEER AHMAD1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2* ASGHARI BANO1 AND FAIZAN ULLAH1

ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON MODIFIED MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) ON PHYSIOLOGY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of 3 extracts viz 3%,5% and 10% prepared from leaves of GM (insect resistance) and non GM maize on physiology of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The extracts prepared from GM maize significantly decreased chlorophyll a content but significantly increased chlorophyll b content as compared with untreated control. Content of chlorophyll a non-significantly decreased but content of chlorophyll b significantly increased with methanolic extract prepared from non GM maize. Significant decrease in carotenoid content was found with aqueous extracts of both GM and non GMmaize.GM maize leaves extracts significantly decreased proline but have no effect on protein and sugar content of wheat plant. Significant increase in protein and sugar content was found with aqueous extract of non GM maize as compared with untreated control. Significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and non-significant increase in catalase was found with aqueous extracts however activity of peroxidase (POD) decreased in wheat crop with GM maize leaves extracts. Non-significant increase in antioxidant activities were found with treatment of non GM maize leaves extracts as compared with untreated control.

235-240 Download
34
POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXI. ONAGRACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER*

POLLEN FLORA OF PAKISTAN–LXXI. ONAGRACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of three genera representing 13 species of the family Onagraceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually tetrads rarely monads, radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly oblate rarely spheroidal, porate sexine thicker tor thinner than nexine. Tectal surface mostly foveolate-rugulate with viscin threads. On the basis of size and tectum types 3 distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Epilobium angustifolium–type, Circaea alpina–type and Oenothera affinis–type.

241-245 Download
35
MAINTAINING QUALITY OF LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) FRUIT AFTER HARVEST
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, ATTIQ AKHTAR AND AZHAR HUSSAIN

MAINTAINING QUALITY OF LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) FRUIT AFTER HARVEST
ABSTRACT:
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a highly perishable, non climacteric fruit and requires very careful handling. To extend the shelf life of loquat, the effectiveness of different packages including high density polyethylene (HDPE) 0.09 mm thickness, low density polyethylene (LDPE) 0.03 mm thickness, 0.25% perforated high density polyethylene (HDPEP) and 0.25% perforated low density polyethylene (LDPEP) were studied. Loquat fruit of “Surkh” cultivar was picked at mature ripe stage. Fruits were washed, sorted, packed in different polyethylene packages, placed in soft board cartons and stored in a cold store at 4 ˚C. Changes in weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid (AA), browning index (BI), firmness and titratable acidity (TA) as affected by different treatments were studied. LDPEP retained significantly highest firmness (1.21 kgf) and lowest TA (0.32%). Lowest values for weight loss (0.17%), TSS (10.5%) and firmness (1.00 kgf) were exhibited by HDPE. Browning index was lowest in LDPE. Control had significantly highest values for TSS (13.4 %), BI (22.06%) and weight loss (2.43%).

247-251 Download
36
ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION AND PROXIMATE PROFILE OF NEPETA LEAVIGATA, NEPETA KURRAMENSIS AND RHYNCHOSIA RENIFORMIS
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*, NISAR AHMAD1,2, JAVID HUSSAIN3,4 AND NAJEEB UR REHMAN3,4

ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION AND PROXIMATE PROFILE OF NEPETA LEAVIGATA, NEPETA KURRAMENSIS AND RHYNCHOSIA RENIFORMIS
ABSTRACT:
The antimicrobial screening of the crude extracts and solvent soluble fractions of Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis (Lamiaceae) and Rhynchosia reniformis (Papilionaceae) were investigated along with the proximate profile of the plants for the purpose of standardization and quality control of bioactive components in such heterogonous botanicals and aid to drug discovery work with botanicals. The antibacterial results of Nepeta leavigata showed that the n-butanol fraction displayed significant activity (85% inhibition) against Escherichia coli and Proteus morganii (83% inhibition), while in Nepeta kurramensis chloroform fraction exhibited promising activity (89% inhibition) against Streptococcus cricetus, and Micrococcus flavas (84% inhibition). In Rhynchosia reniformis, only crude extract exhibited 100% inhibition against Streptococcus cricitus while ethyl acetate fraction showed (99% inhibition) against Micrococcus flavas, Streptococcus cricitus (95% inhibition), and Proteus morganii (90% inhibition). In antifungal activities; chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Nepeta leavigata as well as chloroform fraction of Nepeta kurramensis were promising; while in Rhynchosia reniformis chloroform, n-hexane and methanolic extracts were significant inhibitors as compared to rest of fractions. In this study the proximate composition of these medicinal plants was also assessed and the analysis was carried according to AOAC methods. All the selected species were found to be a good source of ash, proteins and fats which can contribute greatly towards nutritional requirements and adequate protection against microorganism and other diseases.

253-259 Download
37
ISOLATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY STRAINS FROM INDIGENOUS ENVIRONMENTS
SEHAR AFSHAN NAZ1 AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL2*

ISOLATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY STRAINS FROM INDIGENOUS ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:
About 300 bacterial strains (belonging to different genera) were isolated from different indigenous ecological niches. The sources include food (milk and yogurt), water (drinking water and waste water), soil (garden), stool (healthy infants) and clinical samples. The isolates were screened for their bacteriocin production where 54.3% were found as bacteriocin producers. Among them, Lactobacilli, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci displayed good potential of bacteriocin production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa SA 188 (a garden soil isolate) was grown in Brain Heart infusion broth of pH 6-7 at 290C overnight (optimum conditions for bacteriocin production). The possibility of bacteriophage activity was also excluded. Partial purification of this pyocin SA188 was achieved after 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation. The bacteriocin titer was calculated to be 640AU/ml.This pyocin did not respond to proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. It retained its activity at 1000C for 15 minutes and pH range of 4 to 10. Surfactants such as SDS could enhance the production of bacteriocin while organic solvents and metal salts had no effect on its production profile.

261-267 Download
38
RANDOM MUTAGENESIS FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE IIB-30
ROHEENA ABDULLAH1, IKRAM-UL-HAQ2, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR3*, ZAHID ALI BUTT4 AND MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK5

RANDOM MUTAGENESIS FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF ALPHA AMYLASE BY ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE IIB-30
ABSTRACT:
The current study deals with the isolation of novel mutant of A. oryzae for higher alpha amylase production. The alpha amylase producing A. oryzae strain IIB-30 was subjected to physical (UV) and chemical (Nitrous acid and EMS) mutagenic treatments to enhance the amylolytic potential of parental strain. After mutagenesis isolates were screened both qualitatively and quantitatively. Among these, EMS-20 exhibited highest enzyme activity (280±0.9 U/ml). This mutant showed 2.1 fold increased activity over the parental strain in terms of enzyme production. The result showed the EMS was effective mutagenic agent for stain improvement.

269-274 Download
39
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS, LANTANA CAMARA AND SWERTIA ANGUSTIFOLIA
ZARRIN FATIMA RIZVI1, RABIA MUKHTAR2, M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY3 AND MUHAMMAD ZIA*2

ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS, LANTANA CAMARA AND SWERTIA ANGUSTIFOLIA
ABSTRACT:
Three medicinally important plants Lawsonia inermis, Lantana camara and Swertia angustifolia were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. L. inermis extract showed maximum activity against staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. L. camara extract was not much active against any bacterial strain. A range of zone of inhibition 9-12.3 mm was observed against all bacterial strains tested. S. angustifolia did not show activity against any bacterial strain. In case of fungal growth inhibition L. inermis showed good inhibition of 3 fungal strains Fusarium solani, Alternaria and Mucor. The percent inhibitions were 78.8, 65.3 and 71.1, respectively. These findings demonstrate that L. inermis is a good candidate for further studies that carries both antibacterial and antifungal active constituents.

275-278 Download
40
USAGE OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS
S. HABIB A. NAQVI1, M. UMAR DAHOT1, M. YAKOUB KHAN2, J. H. XU3 AND M. RAFIQ1

USAGE OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS
ABSTRACT:
The sugar cane industry residue/waste such as sugar cane bagasse contains complex lignocellulosic material, which can be used as an ideal and low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of microbes and production of microbial metabolites under submerged fermentation after pretreatment process. The sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with acid/base (0.3N and 0.6N H2SO4, NH4OH; 2.5% and 5.0% H2O2) to fermentable sugars. These fermentable sugars were used with mineral medium for the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and production of industrially important enzyme lipase. Aspergillus fumigatus secreted maximum production of lipase 40.0 U/ml at 48 hours cultivation time, when it was grown on city sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate (pretreated with 0.6N NH4OH) mineral medium in comparison to industrial bagasse and other acid/base hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse. The final pH of culture broth, reducing sugar and lipase activity were checked from fermented medium

279-284 Download
41
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO INVERTASES FROM MUTANT STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
AAFIA ASLAM*, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND SIKANDER ALI

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO INVERTASES FROM MUTANT STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, a mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisae EMS-42 was used for the biosynthesis of invertase (E.C.3.2.1.26). Both types of invertases i.e., extracellular and intracellular invertase are present in S. cerevisae. An extracellular invertase was purified to homogeneity by two step purification i.e., ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sephadex A-50. The enzyme was present in the supernatant of 85% saturation being glycoprotein in nature. DEAE column chromatography eluted enzyme as single active fraction at 0.2 M NaCI. The enzyme was purified by 15 fold with recovery of 38%. The molecular mass of 110 kDa was determined after SDS-PAGE. The carbohydrate content was found to be 48%. The intracellular invertase contains both forms of glycosylated (large) and non-glycosylated (small). The similar above procedure was applied for glycosylated intracellular invertase (L-form) while three steps for non-glycosylated invertase (S-form). The L-form was purified by 19 fold with recovery of 32%. Like extracellular invertase, the molecular weight was (110 kDa) for L-form. Ammonium sulfate precipitation separated the enzyme (S-form) as insoluble fraction. The enzyme was eluted at 0.3 M NaCl using DEAE-Sephadex. A single band of molecular weight (55 kDa) was estimated after Sephadex G-50 with purification (16 fold) and recovery of 17%. Both types of invertases were isolated as monomeric protein. The optimum pH, temperature, MnCl2 and the values of the Km and Vmax for non-glycosylated and glycosylated were found to be as 5, 50 and 60ºC, (109 and 111%), (1.2 mM and 909 U/ml/min, 1.8 mM and 1429 U/ml/min), respectively.

285-291 Download
42
EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON ESSENTIAL OILS OF TWO PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT MENTHA SPECIES IN MARGINAL SOILS
TANVIR BURNI1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1 AND M. SHARIF2

EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON ESSENTIAL OILS OF TWO PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT MENTHA SPECIES IN MARGINAL SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been used extensively in pharmaceutically important essential oil yielding plants in low fertility soils.The present study aimed at to find out the effects of monospecific GI (Glomus intraradicus) and indeginous AMF inocula, MC1, MC2 (with variable species composition) on essential oil yield, root colonization and spore density of Mentha arvensis and M.longifolia growing in nutrient deficient soil. Generally the mycorrhizal plants performed better than the non mycorrhizal plants in terms of growth performance but the extent to which the growth was affected on mycorrhization varied with the inocula used. MC1 containing higher AMF species richness exhibited maximum improvement in terms of growth parameter evaluated, and essential oil. As far as species response is concerned Mentha arvensis performed better in all measured aspects as compared to Mentha longifolia. Nevertheless, cultivated Mentha species responded well to AM-mycorrhization and hence inoculation of these crops with AM fungi would be of potential use for improving their productivity with environment protection

293-296 Download
43
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LIME AND PH ON MYCELIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS SPP.)
M. WAJID KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASIF ALI1, NASIR AHMAD KHAN2, MUHAMMAD ASLAM KHAN2, ABDUL REHMAN2 AND NAZIR JAVED2

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LIME AND PH ON MYCELIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS SPP.)
ABSTRACT:
pH is an impotant factor for good production of Oyster mushroom. Most of the mushrooms grow and perform well at pH near to neutral or light basic. Lime (CaCO3) is an important constituent in mushroom cultivation, commercial cultivation of mushroom depends upon proper adjustment of pH of substrate. Most of the substrates used for the cultivation of mushroom have pH approximately near to neutral i.e., 7 in Pakistan. In this study, Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) was grown on cotton waste with different levels of lime in substrate like 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of substrate weight at pH 7.2, 7.8, 8.2 and 8.7 respectively, to find out the most suitable pH/level of lime for mycelial growth and fructification of mushroom. Data regarding number of days for mycelial growth, number of days taken for initiation of primordia, number of pinheads, number of days taken to reach at harvesting stage after primordia initiation, number of days taken to reach at harvesting stage, total number of fruiting bodies, yield of mushroom in 1st flush (g), yield of mushroom in 2nd flush (g) and total yield of mushroom (g) was recorded. It was observed that treatment containing 2% lime completed mycelial growth after 18 days of inoculation of spawn, number of days taken for initiation of primordia (3 days), number of days taken to reach at harvesting stage after primordia initiation (3 days), number of pinheads (30.8), time taken to reach picking stage after spawning (25 days), yield of mushroom in 1st flush (41.02g), yield of mushroom in 2nd flush (15.3g) and total yield of mushroom was recorded 56.32g and 9.57g on fresh and dry weight basis, respectively. In conclusion use of 2% lime is good for the production of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) using cotton waste as a substrate. The Oyster mushroom grows well and give best yield at pH slightly basic in nature.

297-302 Download
44
INFLUENCES OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON GROWTH AND MINERAL ELEMENT ABSORPTION OF CHENGLU HYBRID BAMBOO SEEDLINGS
WEİXİN JIANG1,2, GUANGQİAN GOU2*AND YULONG DING1

INFLUENCES OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON GROWTH AND MINERAL ELEMENT ABSORPTION OF CHENGLU HYBRID BAMBOO SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance mineral nutrient and growth of host plants. In the paper, growth and mineral element absorption of Chenglù hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × B. grandis) seedlings inoculated with four AM fungi strains(Glomus intraradices, BEG Number193 and 141; G. mosseae, BEG Number167; G. etunicatum, BEG Number168) were studied. The results showed that AM fungi promoted the growth of bamboo seedlings. The biomass of Chenglù bamboo inoculated by AM fungi increased 1.84 (BEG167), 1.73 (BEG193), 1.59 (BEG168) and 1.54 times (BEG141) than that of the control respectively. Shoot number and diameter, total leaf area per plant, P and K concentration in plant as well were significantly increased by the inoculation of BEG167 and 193, which had better mycorrhizal effect and could make an important contribution to Chenglù bamboos production.

303-310 Download
45
STUDIES ON THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PSI101109 MYCELIUM
EMANUEL VAMANU*

STUDIES ON THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PSI101109 MYCELIUM
ABSTRACT:
The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extract from Pleurotus ostreatus PSI101109 mycelium was determined based on inorganic and organic nitrogen sources in a culture medium. The presence of ammonium sulphate and corn extract resulted in a greater accumulation of bioactive compounds. The results were confirmed by the EC50 and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The extracts of P. ostreatus PSI101109 mycelium selectively inhibited the strains used, both of which were of the genus Candida, at an MIC value of 12.5 mg ml–1. The most resistant strains were found to be Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. The capacity of the antioxidant was evaluated by the DPPH scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid, the reducing power, the scavenging effect on superoxide radical, the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical and the scavenging activity on nitric oxide. Compounds with antioxidant effects were present in the extracts. Lycopene was an exception because it was found to be lacking in values when culturation was performed in the presence of peptone and yeast extract, but had a maximum value on ammonium sulphate.

311-317 Download
46
A NEW ENDOPHYTIC ASCOMYCETE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MEDICINAL PLANT, ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA BLUME (AMARANTHACEAE)
BING-DA SUN1,2#, AMANDA-JUAN CHEN1#, WEI-WEI GAO1*, YU-GUANG ZHOU2, M. USMAN GHAZANFAR3 AND WAQAS WAKIL4

A NEW ENDOPHYTIC ASCOMYCETE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MEDICINAL PLANT, ACHYRANTHES BIDENTATA BLUME (AMARANTHACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
During a survey of the endophytic fungi associated with the Chinese traditional medicinal plant Achyranthes bidentata Blume (Amaranthaceae), a new fungus was isolated from the stem of this plant. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form grey floccose colony with a reddish-brown reverse and mycelium that develops mostly right-angled branches and form rope-like strands and coils. This endophytic fungus does not form reproductive structures on artificial media but can produce conidiomata on host leaves. Based on morphological and DNA sequence analyses, this fungus is proposed to be a new member of the ascomycete genus, Edenia and the name E. achyranthi is introduced.

319-323 Download
47
BIOVOLUME AND BIOMASS OF COMMON DIATOM SPECIES FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
TAHIRA NAZ*, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, SONIA MUNIR AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI

BIOVOLUME AND BIOMASS OF COMMON DIATOM SPECIES FROM THE COASTAL WATERS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The biovolumes of two groups of diatoms pennate and centric including thirty three common species were calculated for the estimation of carbon biomass at two stations of Manora Channel, coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Measurements were taken during the routine cell identification by Light microscopy. Total biovolume ranged from 558µm-3 to 392500µm-3 and biomass from 1.1pgCcell-l to 3.9pgCcell-l. Total carbon biomass was higher for centric diatoms compared to pennates. Cell biovolume showed the same pattern at both stations and a positive relationship with cell carbon biomass. This is the first detailed study based on geometrical shapes of various species and their biovolume and carbon biomass calculations from northern Arabian Sea. The obtained data will help to assess the diatom community analysis and their size related contribution of carbon biomass within the study area.

325-328 Download
48
ROCK ALGAE OF BATKHELA DISTRICT MALAKAND, PAKISTAN
BARKATULLAH1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2, NIAZ ALI1 AND IMTIAZ AHMAD1

ROCK ALGAE OF BATKHELA DISTRICT MALAKAND, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present study describes a total of 63 lithophytic algal species belonging to Cyanophyta (11 genera, 30 species), Chlorophyta (3 genera, 7 species) and Bacillariophyta (16 genera, 26 species) from rocks of Batkhela, District Malakand. The collected specimens were identified and described. This is the first ever report on rock algae from this area.

329-340 Download
49
OCCURRENCE OF PADINA GYMNOSPORA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) AT THE COAST OF KARACHI
ALIA ABBAS1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

OCCURRENCE OF PADINA GYMNOSPORA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) AT THE COAST OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder was collected from the coast of Karachi during January 2009. This is the first report of its occurrence at the coast of Pakistan and its first detailed study from this area regarding the taxonomy and anatomy. It showed in situ germination on its sporangial lines within the sporangial walls, which may be due to syntagmatic germination i.e., all the spores dividing and merging into one single outgrowth.

341-344 Download
50
TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME DIATOMS FROM JAUHARABAD DISTRICT
A. ZARINA 1, SYED TARIQ-ALI 1, MASUD-UL-HASAN2 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL3

TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SOME DIATOMS FROM JAUHARABAD DISTRICT
ABSTRACT:
Four species of algae, belonging to 4 different genera of pinnate diatoms (phylum Bacillariophycota Shameel) were collected from freshwater habitats in the Jauharabad District, Punjab Province of Pakistan during February and April 1995 and taxonomically investigated. This is the first report of their occurrence from this area.

345-348 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1158209, Today's: 1837, Yesterday's: 2232, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");