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Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue 5
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1
A PROTEOMIC APPROACH TO IDENTIFY SALT-RESPONSIVE PROTEINS IN RYE
KI-WON LEE, GI JUN CHOI, KI-YONG KIM, HEE CHUNG JI, HYUNG SOO PARK AND SANG-HOON LEE*

A PROTEOMIC APPROACH TO IDENTIFY SALT-RESPONSIVE PROTEINS IN RYE
ABSTRACT:
Salinity stress negatively impacts agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. Despite their great degree of stress tolerance, minor crops have received little attention regarding their response against salinity compared to model plants and major crops. Rye, an economically important minor grain crop, is relatively tolerant to abiotic stresses and grown in marginal lands. Proteome study based on two dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric identification was performed in order to analyze the salt-stress response of rye. Overall changes in the protein complement of leaves after four days exposure to 200 mM NaCl were studied. Seventeen reproducibly resolved, differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS (mass spectrometry). Among them, ten proteins were up-regulated, and seven proteins were down-regulated. Majority of the differentially expressed proteins belonged to the functional category of antioxidant metabolism and photosyntheis. Increased expression of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes eg, catalase, cytosolic, monodehydroascorbate reductase and 2-cys-peroxiredoxin may have important role in salinity-induced ROS metabolism. This is the first proteomic description of salt stress response in rye and the identification of such differentially expressed proteins would provide deeper insight pertaining to the stress physiology of this important crop plant.

1489-1496 Download
2
INHERITANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT AND DRIED SEEDS IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
AHMAD BAKHSH1, SH. MUHAMMAD IQBAL AND NASIR M. CHEEMA*

INHERITANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT AND DRIED SEEDS IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
ABSTRACT:
Inheritance of testa colour, testa pattern, cotyledon color and stem color was studied in crosses of lentil involving parents with brown, grey, green testa color, red and yellow cotyledon color, and with green and colored seedling stem. Analysis of F1 plant populations of crosses between green and colored (pink) stem revealed that colored stem was dominant over green stem. Similarly red cotyledon was dominant over yellow cotyledon. The F2 segregation patterns indicated red cotyledon and colored stem to be monogenic traits. The analysis of F2 and F3 seeds (having F1 and F2 testa, respectively) revealed that spackled testa was dominant to even (without speckles) testa, grey testa was dominant to green testa and brown testa was dominant to both grey and green testa. The F2 segregation ratio from cross involving parents with brown and grey testa was 9 brown: 3 grey: 4 green. The crosses between parents with grey and green testa color segregated to fit a ratio of 3:1 between dominant and recessive color. These segregating patterns revealed involvement of two genes and a recessive inhibitor in the regulation of testa color.

1497-1502 Download
3
PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF TAMARIX INDICA WILLD. AND TAMARIX PASSERNIOIDES DEL. ex DESV. LEAVES FROM PAKISTAN
FARAH NAZ1, SYEDA QAMARUNNISA1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, ABID AZHAR1 AND SYED IRTIFAQ ALI1

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF TAMARIX INDICA WILLD. AND TAMARIX PASSERNIOIDES DEL. ex DESV. LEAVES FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Plant-derived chemicals play an important role in protection against invading microbes that cause many infectious diseases and also found to be beneficial for therapeutics in prevention of many other noninfectious ailments. This research involves the investigation of such bioactive chemicals using leaves of two common Tamarix species. Qualitative and quantitative analysis using four different solvents showed methanol has the best extraction potential followed by acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Tamarix indica was found to contain most of the metabolites in higher quantity as compared to Tamarix passernioides.

1503-1507 Download
4
QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN PROTEINS, PIGMENTS AND SENNOSIDES OF CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL TREATED WITH MANCOZEB
UZMA MAJID, MAHMOODUZZAFAR, TARIQ OMAR SIDDIQI, IBRAHIM MOHAMMAD AREF1 AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL*

QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN PROTEINS, PIGMENTS AND SENNOSIDES OF CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL TREATED WITH MANCOZEB
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl treated with different concentrations (0%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.25%) of a fungicide, Mancozeb, were sown in field conditions in order to study the effect of the stress caused by this fungicide on pigment concentration and the protein and sennoside contents of the plant. Protein content and pigment concentration increased at 0.10% dose of Mancozeb, but higher doses caused a significant decline in comparison with the control. Application of Mancozeb resulted in a considerable dose-dependent reduction in the contents of sennoside a (nearly 7-32% reduction in young leaves, 14-36% in mature leaves and 8-24% in pods) and sennoside b (about 11-36% reduction in young leaves, 5-38% in mature leaves and 5-30% in pods), thus affecting indirectly the therapeutic property of the plant.

1509-1514 Download
5
VARIATION OF PHENOLICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY BETWEEN PEEL AND PULP PARTS OF PEAR (PYRUS COMMUNIS L.) FRUIT
MALEEHA MANZOOR1, FAROOQ ANWAR1,2*, IJAZ AHMED BHATTI1 AND AMER JAMIL1

VARIATION OF PHENOLICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY BETWEEN PEEL AND PULP PARTS OF PEAR (PYRUS COMMUNIS L.) FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
The aim of present study was to appraise the antioxidant activity and phenolic contents in peel and pulp parts from two locally harvested verities of pear. The extraction yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80% methanol (80:20 methanol-water v/v) was found to be 14.30-17.50% for peel and 11.50-13.00 g/100 g for pulp on dry weight basis. The total phenolic contents and total flavoniod contents in peel and pulp parts the fruits tested varied over 601.50-619.25, 333.90-355.80 mg GAE/100g and 543.50-561.30, 270.50-290.50 mg CE/100g, respectively. Reducing power, in terms of absorbance values, of peel and pulp extract (at 12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged between 0.56-0.58 and 0.30-0.32, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation varied from 49.71-49.94% and 60.32-60.60% in peel and 27.89-28.29% and 34.15-34.45% in pulp. The results of our present study indicate that pear peel exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic contents compared to the pulp and thus, being an agrowaste, can be explored as a viable source of natural antioxidants for the functional food and pharmaceutical applications.

1521-1525 Download
6
IDENTIFICATION OF PHENOLICS IN MANGO LEAVES EXTRACT AND THEIR ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT ON CANARY GRASS AND WHEAT
KAMRAN SALEEM1*a, SHAGUFTA PERVEEN2a, NIGHAT SARWAR1, FAROOQ LATIF3, KHALID PERVAIZ AKHTAR1 AND HAFIZ MUHAMMAD IMRAN ARSHAD1

IDENTIFICATION OF PHENOLICS IN MANGO LEAVES EXTRACT AND THEIR ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT ON CANARY GRASS AND WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Phytotoxic ability of aqueous extracts of new and old mango leaves at different concentrations i.e., 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% against canary grass and wheat were tested In vitro and In vivo. Results revealed that all the extracts significantly inhibited the germination and growth of canary grass In vitro as well as In vivo. Maximum inhibition i.e. more than 80% to all the parameters of canary grass was observed by 10% extract In vitro. In pot experiment 66% reduction, in the dry weight of canary grass was observed when the old leaves water extract was applied before emergence. All the treatments showed non significant results about the germination of wheat In vivo. Old mango leaves extract was found better as compared to new ones, because it moderately enhanced the wheat germination and growth, while new mango leaves induced some reduction regarding the shoot length and grain weight of wheat. Total phenolic contents were higher in new mango leaves as compared to old ones. 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, m-coumaric, p-coumaric, 4-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, gallic and protocatechuic acids were phenolic compounds identified through Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analyses of mango leaves. It has been concluded that old mango leaves extract could be used as a herbicide to suppress canary grass and to enhance wheat growth.

1527-1535 Download
7
PHOTOSYNTHETIC DECLINE IN GINKGO LEAVES DURING NATURAL SENESCENCE
XIAN-SONG YANG1,2*, GUO-XIANG CHEN2* AND ZHONG-YUAN YUAN2

PHOTOSYNTHETIC DECLINE IN GINKGO LEAVES DURING NATURAL SENESCENCE
ABSTRACT:
Photosynthetic pigments, biochemical activities and chloroplast ultra-structure were investigated to survey the photosynthetic characteristics of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) leaves during natural senescence. During leaf senescence, the content of total chlorophyll decreased rapidly while the content of carotenoids changed little; the content of ATP, the activity of O2 evolution of chloroplasts, the electron transport activities, the activity of photo-phosphorylation and the activity of Ca2+-ATPase declined; the chloroplasts had damaged in membranes and fewer grana with loose stacks of thylakoids and more and larger osmiophilic granules. With the leaf senescence, the whole structure of chloroplasts became disorganized, the thylakoid membranes became disrupted, and chloroplast was completely disintegrated finally. In conclusion, photosynthetic abilities gradually decreased as the leaves senesced.

1537-1540 Download
8
EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTED SMOKE AND REVERSION OF ABSCISIC ACID STRESS ON LETTUCE
MUHAMMAD KAMRAN1,2, QARIMUHAMMAD IMRAN3, AMANA KHATOON1, IN-JUNG LEE2* AND SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN1

EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTED SMOKE AND REVERSION OF ABSCISIC ACID STRESS ON LETTUCE
ABSTRACT:
The stimulation of seed germination by smoke and aqueous smoke extracts has received much attention in recent years. However, the combine effects of smoke with plant hormones on seed germination remain unknown. This investigation describes how lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds respond to smoke solution and how the smoke solution can alleviate abscisic acid (ABA) stress. The results showed that plant extracted smoke treated seeds had significantly quicker germination, higher germination percentage, fresh weight, relative seed germination percentage, peak value, germination value, shoot and root length, germination index and vigor index as compared to control. No germination was observed in ABA (0.1mM) treated seeds but significant number of seeds germinated when ABA and smoke solutions were mixed together. It was observed that smoke solutions overcome the inhibitory effects of ABA and improved germination and seedling vigor, indicating that smoke alleviated ABA stress not only at the germination level but also at seedling stage.

1541-1549 Download
9
GENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES AGAINST PEG SIMULATED DROUGHT STRESS IN TOMATO
SONIA GEORGE, SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI AND SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI*

GENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES AGAINST PEG SIMULATED DROUGHT STRESS IN TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Current study describes the effect of artificial drought stress using PEG on different tomato varieties at seedling stage. The performance was assessed by germination, root and shoot length, and seedling biomass. The tomato varieties investigated have shown varying responses for different plant attributes against drought stress which remained significantly different for most of the parameters studied. For a given genotype, the effect of PEG was significant for root length and seedling biomass, whereas it was non-significant in case of germination and shoot length. The genotypic differences among tomato varieties investigated were found significant for all the plant parameters studied. Three different types of genotypic behaviors were observed in this study. The genotypes displayed either enhanced or declined growth in case of root, shoot and seedling biomass representing the two behavior types. Whereas, only in case of germination, in addition it also showed third type of behavior and remained indifferent to control and induced drought stress. Among others Walter, Punjab Chuhara & Kurihara have shown enhanced growth for all the parameters when subjected to PEG as compared to control. Money maker was the only genotype where a decline for all the attributes was recorded against drought stress, reflecting its lower tolerance.

1551-1556 Download
10
EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING RHIZOBIUM AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA ON GROWTH OF ALFALFA SEEDLINGS UNDER P AND N DEFICIENT CONDITIONS
JIAN-FENG LI1,2,3#, SHU-QING ZHANG 1,2,3#, PING-HUI HUO1,3, SHANG-LI SHI1,3* AND YANG-YANG MIAO1,3

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING RHIZOBIUM AND NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA ON GROWTH OF ALFALFA SEEDLINGS UNDER P AND N DEFICIENT CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A sand culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing Klebsiella sp. RSN219 and Rhizobium meliloti LW135 on seedlings of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on the condition of nitrogen free and tricalcium phosphate only. Surface sterilized Alfalfa seeds were sown in polyvinyl plastics pots filled with clear sand. Insoluble phosphate was applied as tricalcium phosphate before sowing. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium LW135 or Klebsiella RSN219. Results showed that the seedling was significantly promoted when seeds were inoculating with RSN219 or LW135. All the growth attributes of seedlings were significantly better than CK1 (1/4th Modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was offered, nitrogen and phosphorus free) and CK2 (1/4th strength Hoagland's solution was offered). Inoculation with LW135 was found better in plant growth promoting capabilities than RSN 219. Both of the 2 strains have good growth promoting capability, and effective in reducing growth inhibition of alfalfa seedlings under condition of nitrogen- and phosphorus-deficient.

1557-1562 Download
11
EFFECT OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NITRIC OXIDE ON SOME KEY PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
NOMAN HABIB1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3 AND MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ1

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NITRIC OXIDE ON SOME KEY PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) PLANTS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present investigation was to assess the ameliorative effect of nitric oxide on some salt stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants using some key physiological criteria. The experiment comprised four rice cultivars, two of them being fine (Shaheen Basmati & Basmati PB-95) and two coarse (KS-282 and IRRI-6) rice cultivars, two salt levels (0 and 80 mM of NaCl) and three nitric oxide levels (0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM). Salt stress caused a marked reduction in chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and intrinsic CO2 concentration of all four rice cultivars. Similarly, chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were also markedly altered due to imposition of NaCl stress. Pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide significantly improved chlorophyll content, and gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes in salt-stressed and non-stressed plants of all four rice cultivars. Of rice cultivars, Shaheen basmati and IRRI-6 performed better than cvs. Basmati PB-95 and KS-282 in terms of the parameters measured in this study.

1563-1569 Download
12
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN VITRO TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT, IN VIVO ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM LEAVES AND RIND OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO cv. MURCOT (HONEY)
FERHAT MEHMOOD1*, ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN1, PHOOL SHAHZADI2, TEHSEEN YASEEN2, TAHIRA AZIZ MUGHAL3, SYED HAMMAD RAZA4 AND MUHAMMAD QASIM4

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN VITRO TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT, IN VIVO ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM LEAVES AND RIND OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO cv. MURCOT (HONEY)
ABSTRACT:
Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Murcot (honey) is one of the most important fruit tree crops in Pakistan. A detailed study regarding total antioxidant capacity (TAC), radical scavenging, antidiabetic and antimicrobial effects of the essential oils from leaves (CRL) and rind (CRR) of this plant were investigated. Essential oils obtained from steam distillation process were subjected to 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulpohonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolourization, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2.2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical decolourization, lipid peroxide inhibition using linoleic acid emulsion, superoxide anion radical scavenging and iron chelation activity assays. A linear correlation was observed between the percent inhibition of ABTS radical cation and the amount of essential oils from leaves (R2=0.9978) and rind (R2 = 0.985). The percent superoxide anion radical scavenging activity was found to be 15.25 and 48.75 for CRL and CRR, respectively. The reducing power in terms of FRAP values were found to be 1.2 and 0.173 mM FeSO4 for CRL and CRR, respectively. Both CRL and CRR exhibited good metal chelating activities, 56.10 and 61.82 for CRL and CRR, respectively. Best results regarding antidiabetic activity were shown by essential oils from leaves of Citrus reticulata with low as well as high concentrations. The oils also showed antibacterial and antifungal activities comparable to chloramphanicol. The data obtained from oils demonstrate the powerful antioxidative, radical scavenging, antidiabetic and antimicrobial properties of the plant.

1571-1576 Download
13
EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON AFLATOXIN LOAD, AMINO ACID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORYZA SATIVA L.
SABAHAT AHSAN1, ZAIB HUSSAIN2*, SYED ALI RAZA NAQVI3 AND MUHAMMAD RAFIQUE ASI4

EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON AFLATOXIN LOAD, AMINO ACID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORYZA SATIVA L.
ABSTRACT:
Crops which are stored for more than a few days become a potential target for mould growth and mycotoxin formation by the species Aspergillus. The present study investigated an effective extraction, clean up and analysis methodology for aflatoxins, amino acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in rice (Oryza sativa L) samples collected from Faisalabad Division, Pakistan The extraction solvent (acetonitrile & water) gave ≥ 85% recovery in spiked cereal samples using a MycoSep-226 column. The sensitivity (LOD) of HPLC (FLD) was higher as compared to HPLC UV/Vis after derivatization of sample extract with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After treatment with γ-irradiation (0, 2, 4, 6 kGy), more than 95% reduction in AFB1 was observed in the samples. Effectiveness of γ-irradiation in rice samples contaminated with high concentrations of aflatoxin (AFB1) and total aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus was significantly (p<0.05) dependant on radiation dose. Initial fungal population of rice samples was evaluated at 2.4 x 106 CFU g-1 while maximum reduction percentage was observed at radiation dose 6 kGy (6.4 CFU g-1) when compared to the control sample. Amino acid profiles remained predominantly unchanged except for an increase (p<0.05) in leucine at 4 kGy. Rice fat, after irradiation, showed minor changes in the composition of fatty acid methyl esters. Effect of dose on palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), linoleic (18:2), linolenic (18:3) and arachidic (20:0) acids was statistically non significant whereas, olenic acid showed a significant change in concentration. The results indicate that γ-irradiation is a good technique for removing contaminants such as aflatoxins from cereal commodities. The total biomass (CFU/g) showed linear behaviour as dose level of gamma irradiation was increased.

1577-1580 Download
14
EFFECTS OF NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE, GROWTH, YIELD AND POST HARVEST PERFORMANCE OF TOMATO FRUIT
NADEEM AKHTAR ABBASI*, LUBNA ZAFAR, HAMMAD AZIZ KHAN AND ABDUL AHAD QURESHI

EFFECTS OF NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE, GROWTH, YIELD AND POST HARVEST PERFORMANCE OF TOMATO FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
Tomato plants were foliar sprayed with naphthalene acetic acid (0.02%) and calcium chloride (0.5%, 1%) individually as well as in combination to determine its effect on growth, nutrient uptake, incidence of blossom end rot, fruit yield, and enhancement of shelf life. The results showed increased absorption of calcium in tomato plants and fruits, which were treated with NAA in combination with CaCl2. Higher level of CACl2 (1%) with NAA (0.02%) increased plant growth and yield by improving mineral uptake of tomato plants. The improved calcium absorption also resulted in lowering occurrence of blossom end rot in tomato fruits. In addition, it was also observed that during storage at ambient conditions (20-25 °C) for sixteen days, tomato fruits maintained best quality for longer period of time when treated with calcium chloride (1%) along with naphthalene acetic acid (0.02%) as compared to other treatments. Although, fruit quality was lowered with passage of storage time but tomato fruits from treated plants maintained their quality for longer duration as compared to control.

1581-1587 Download
15
MANIPULATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND NON-INDUCTIVE PLANT ENVIRONMENT TO CONTROL PLANT HEIGHT OF FACULTATIVE SHORT DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1*, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2, SALMA SHAHEEN1 AND FARZANA3

MANIPULATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND NON-INDUCTIVE PLANT ENVIRONMENT TO CONTROL PLANT HEIGHT OF FACULTATIVE SHORT DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of Facultative SDPs (Zinnia cv. Lilliput, Sunflower cv. Elf, French Marigold cv. Orange Gate, African Marigold cv. Crush, Cockscomb cv. Bombay and Cosmos cv. Sonata Pink) were sown into module trays containing leaf mould compost. After 70% emergence of each cultivar, two experiments were conducted to control plant height. In first experiment, plants of each cultivar were treated with standard dose of widely applied PGRs (30ppm of A-Rest, 30ppm of Bonzi, 1000ppm of Cycocel) along with a control treatment. In second experiment, plants of same cultivars were kept under long day (LD) non-inductive environment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. After each time scale these plants were transferred to their SD inductive environment chamber until flowering. Findings of this study revealed that all three PGRs significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height of Facultative SDPs as compared to control. Similarly, plants placed for a short duration (2 weeks) under LD non-inductive environment produced more or less similar results as PGRs one. However, if taller plants are preferred then this duration can be extended up to 8 weeks. The advantage of preferring non-inductive environment technique over PGRs one is that it is non-hazardous, environment friendly and less expensive.

1589-1595 Download
16
LOW LEVELS OF SELENIUM APPLICATION ATTENUATE LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS IN SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH.] SEEDLINGS
SALWA MOHAMED ABBAS

LOW LEVELS OF SELENIUM APPLICATION ATTENUATE LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS IN SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH.] SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
Physiological responses to chilling were investigated in sorghum plants to identify the mechanisms of chilling tolerance. The experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Faculty of Education Ain Shams University. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 mg L-1) of sodium selenate for 6 h before sowing. During the germination period seedlings were exposed to 4ºC or 8ºC for 7d. and allowed to recover at 25ºC for 3 days. Selenate at lower concentrations (3 and 6 mg L–1) enhanced the growth and levels of chlorophylls (Chl), anthocyanine, sugar, proline(Pro), ascorbic acid(Asc) and enzymatic activities. However, high levels of selenate (12 mg L–11) exerted toxic effects. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid) were increased by selenate while the levels of carotenoids (Car) were decreased. Low selenate (3 and 6 mg L-1) reduced lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA). The activities of enzymatic antioxidants showed different responses to selenate, guaiacol peroxidase, (GPX), in seedlings they were enhanced by low level of selenate (3 and 6 mg L–1) while ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) increased only at (12 mg L–1) of sodium selenate. The results showed that both low selenate (3 and 6 mg L–1) especially 3 mg L–1 induced cold tolerance in the seedlings. This study explained the effects of low selenate level for young seedlings under cold stress.

1597-1604 Download
17
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA ON QUALITY, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
FATMA GUNGOR1 AND ERTAN YILDIRIM2*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA ON QUALITY, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of peat and mixture (peat:perlite:sand (1:1:1 v:v:v) growing media on length, diameter, weight of fruit, fruit number per plant, yield, ascorbic acid content and total soluble solid of fruit of some pepper cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Pepper cultivars (Charliston 52, E9383A, E1988 and Topepo Rosso) were grown in peat or peat+perlite+sand (1:1:1) media in polyethylene bags. The fruits of four pepper cultivars were harvested in two maturation stage eg., green and red stages, and some quality parameters such as ascorbic acid and total soluble solids were determined. The results of the study showed that mixture media significantly increased length, diameter and weight of fruit in all cultivars grown compared to peat. On the other hand, ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids of fruit, the fruit number per plant and yield were higher at peat grown plants than the mixture. Furthermore, different maturing stage significantly affected ascorbic acid content and total soluble solids of pepper cultivars. It results from the study that peat growing media could be successfully used to obtain better quality and yield.

1605-1608 Download
18
INFLUENCE OF GIRDLING AND FOLIAR-APPLIED UREA ON APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA L.) FRUIT QUALITY
YONGGUI ZHAO1, LIXIN ZHANG1*, MEI GAO1, LI TIAN1, PENG ZHENG1, KAI WANG1, LINSEN ZHANG2, BINZHI LI2, MINGYU HAN2 AND ASHOK K. ALVA3

INFLUENCE OF GIRDLING AND FOLIAR-APPLIED UREA ON APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA L.) FRUIT QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
The influence of four rates of foliar-applied urea (0, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8%; i.e., N0, N1, N2 and N3 rates, respectively) without or with girdling was evaluated on ‘Fuji’ apple fruit quality parameters and activities of two key enzymes in aroma metabolism. Girdling treatment at a given rate of foliar-applied urea increased fruit weight, size, contents of soluble sugars (SSC), vitamin C (VCC) and total amino acids (TAAC), while decreased soluble protein content (SPC), and titratable acidity (TAC) as well as activities of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). With the increasing rates of foliar-applied urea regardless of girdling treatments, increased SPC, VCC, TAAC, and TAC as well as AAT activity, while decreased SSC. The combination of girdling and urea application increased fruit size and weight, VCC and TAAC. Favorable fruit quality responses were obtained at 0.5% urea rate. This study demonstrated that combined application of girdling and foliar spray of urea improved most of fruit quality parameters.

1609-1615 Download
19
ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF SUGARCANE GENOTYPES AND YIELD STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, NIGHAT SEEMA, SABOOHI RAZA, SHAFQUAT YASMINE AND SAJIDA BIBI

ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF SUGARCANE GENOTYPES AND YIELD STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE
ABSTRACT:
Five selected genetically diversified sugarcane clones were tested for yield stability for two consecutive years at six locations in Sindh. The objective of the study was to evaluate variability, effect of environmental factors and their relationship between the various quantitative and qualitative traits. Significant differences were observed between clones for all traits. Environmental interaction had significant effects on most of the traits under study. The important yield components were positively correlated at 5% level of significance. The correlation coefficients revealed that stalk weight, stalk height, number of stalks per stool and sugar percentage were the major traits contributing to cane and sugar yields. Path analysis of sugar yield exhibited maximum direct effect of cane yield followed sugar recovery.

1617-1622 Download
20
HYPERSPECTRAL ESTIMATION MODEL FOR NITROGEN CONTENTS OF SUMMER CORN LEAVES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
MUHAMMAD NAVEED TAHIR 1,4, JUN LI1*, BINGFENG LIU1, GANGFENG ZHAO2, YAO FUQI3 AND CUI CHENGFENG3

HYPERSPECTRAL ESTIMATION MODEL FOR NITROGEN CONTENTS OF SUMMER CORN LEAVES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Accuracy and precision of nitrogen estimation can be improved by hyperspectral remote sensing that leads effective management of nitrogen application in precision agriculture. The objectives of this study were to identify N sensitive spectral wavelengths, their combinations and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) that are indicative of nitrogen nutritional condition and to analyze the accuracy of different spectral parameters for remote estimation of nitrogen status temporally. A study was conducted during 2010 at Northwest A & F University, China, to determine the relationship between leaf hyperspectral reflectance (350-1075 nm) and leaf N contents in the field-grown corn (Zea mays L.) under five nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg/ha pure nitrogen) were measured at key developmental stages. The accuracy of nitrogen nutrition diagnosis among the single (R) and dual (R1+R2) wavelengths spectral reflectance, spectral ratio (SR) in the green, red and near infrared, NDVI, GNDVI and SAVI were compared. Chose the highest determination of coefficient (R2) model and lowest RMSE and RRMSE at each growth stage, fitted the smaller as the best model. The results showed that Y = 4.450+0.00X-17.99X2+10.496X3 was the best prediction model for remote estimation of leaf N contents with GNDVI at 10-12 leaf stage followed by Y = 3.986X0.161 at silking stage, then Y = 3.092+1.684X+1.995X2 at tasseling stage with R630 nm and Y = -3.860-12.692X+0.00X2+7.632X3 at early dent stage with R720. The study results indicated that leaf spectral reflectance can be effectively used as nondestructive, quick, and reliable for real time monitoring of corn nitrogen status and important tool for N fertilizer management in precision agriculture.

1623-1630 Download
21
HIGHER ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY PROTECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITIES AS REVEALED BY CHL A FLUORESCENCE IN DROUGHT TOLERANT TOMATO GENOTYPES
FAKHRA SHAMIM1*, GILES N. JOHNSON2, S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI1 AND ABDUL WAHEED1, 3

HIGHER ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY PROTECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITIES AS REVEALED BY CHL A FLUORESCENCE IN DROUGHT TOLERANT TOMATO GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Drought is the most important factor limiting growth and yield of tomato. Genetic improvement in tomato for water stress tolerance is of prime importance for economically and efficient utilization of arid area land resources. Since photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity are associated with degree of water stress tolerance in tomato genotypes, experiment was conducted to assess relationship between plant antioxidant capacity and activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Fifteen tomato genotypes differing in their drought tolerance were subjected to different levels of PEG8000 (Control, 5%, 10% & 15%) at the seedling stage. It was concluded that water stress tolerant tomato genotypes (CLN-1767 and Lyallpur-1) also maintain relatively higher photosynthetic efficiency as assessed through A/Ci curve or PSII efficiency. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed that NPQ increased whereas the electron transport rate decreased under waters stress. Water stress tolerant tomato genotypes down regulate ETR with increase in NPQ to avoid photoinhibition and photodamge. Protection of photosynthetic machinery in water stress tolerant genotypes might have been due to higher antioxidant capacity. Water stress tolerant cultivars exhibited much lower lipid peroxidation, and showed increased activities of the enzymes involved in the ROS scavenging system. Up-regulation of the antioxidant system plays a role in water stress tolerance of tomato.

1631-1642 Download
22
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) GERMPLASM
SAIF ULLAH AJMAL1*, NASIR MAHMOOD MINHAS1, ANBER HAMDANI1, AMMARA SHAKIR1, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR2 AND ZAHEER AHMAD2

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Sustainable production of food crops relies on germplasm improvement and genetic diversity. The use of multivariate techniques is an important strategy for germplasm classification and study of genetic relationships among genotypes. Wheat germplasm comprising of 50 genotypes contributed by CIMMYT was evaluated for seven quantitative traits through cluster and principal component analyses. The first three PCs with eigen values >1 contributed 70.59% of the variability amongst genotypes. The characters contributing more positively with PC1 were number of spikelets per spike, spike length and grain yield (gram per plot). The cluster analysis sequestrated 50 genotypes into 5 clusters based on Ward’s method. The cluster IV and V were more clearly separated than cluster I, II and III. The cluster analysis revealed that considerable variation existed among genotypes that could be implicated in selection of wheat for the development or improvement of cultivars and germplasm.

1643-1648 Download
23
SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY RESPONSES OF SUAEDA HETEROPHYLLA TO ABIOTIC STRESSES
ABDUL HAMEED1, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER AHMED1, SALMAN GULZAR1, BILQUEES GUL1, JAN ALAM2, AHMAD K. HEGAZY3, ABDEL REHMAN A. ALATAR3 AND M. AJMAL KHAN1,3,4*

SEED GERMINATION AND RECOVERY RESPONSES OF SUAEDA HETEROPHYLLA TO ABIOTIC STRESSES
ABSTRACT:
Seed germination and recovery from salt stress of an annual halophyte Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. & Kir.) Bunge to different iso-osmotic concentrations (0, -0.46, -0.92, -1.38, -1.84, and -2.30 MPa) of NaCl and PEG-6000 at 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35oC in both 12-h temperature and light regimes and in complete darkness were studied. Maximum number of seeds germinated in distilled water and increase in concentrations of both NaCl and PEG-6000 decreased germination at all temperature regimes, light and dark conditions, with higher inhibition in NaCl than PEG-6000. Recovery of germination and viability of seeds were lower in NaCl than PEG-6000 both in the light and dark. Moderate alternate temperatures (20/30oC) and 12-h photoperiod were found to be the optimal for seed germination and recovery. Better seed germination of S. heterophylla when osmotic potential caused both by NaCl and PEG 6000 is lower, temperature regime of 20/30oC and light regime is for 12 h.

1649-1656 Download
24
RESPONSE OF GENETICALLY DIVERGENT PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.] VARIETIES TO DIFFERENT ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
AHMED A. BAKHASHWAIN*, IHSANULLAH DAUR, REFAAT A.A. ABOHASSAN AND FATHY S. EL-NAKHLAWY

RESPONSE OF GENETICALLY DIVERGENT PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.] VARIETIES TO DIFFERENT ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted during 2010-11with a premier objective to evaluate different organic amendments for organo-mineral fertility for pearl millet [Pennisetumglaucum (L.) R. Br.]. The experiment was set in RCBD (randomized complete block design) with split plot arrangement including four replications. The main plot treatments were organic fertilizers [fresh Farm Yard Manure (FYM), composted FYM and humic acid (HA)] and a control treatment, while 3 pearl millet varieties (Madina, Hada-Al Sham and Hindi) were in the subplots. The organic amendments were done 15 days before sowing of the crop. A basal dose of N,P, and K @ 66:30:30 kg ha-1 from urea and NPK 15-15-15 was applied at the time of sowing.Overall, the cropshowed best performance for composted FYM based on the millet growth, yield and mineral composition. The effect ofthe other treatmentsin the experiment was in order as: humic acid >control>fresh FYM. Of all three varieties, cv. Hindi outperformed in terms of growth and yieldunder the given nutritional regimes. Cultivar Hindi was found to be more responsive to compost FYM while cv. Madinato humic acid. The results of the present experiment depictedthat application of 18 tons ha-1composted farm yard manure or18 kg-1humic acid can be used as an alternative source of organic amendment. Furthermore, the results of the study highly discouraged the use of fresh FYM as it caused poor crop growth and yield. However, the promising efficacy of humic acid in this study may require further investigationat molecular level and to explore its bio-availability andinteraction with hormones in the plant and micro-organism in the rhizosphere.

1657-1661 Download
25
ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION PATTERN AND SOIL CHARACTERSTICS OF ASTORE VALLEY GILGIT- BALTISTAN
ALI NOOR* AND SURAYYA KHATOON

ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION PATTERN AND SOIL CHARACTERSTICS OF ASTORE VALLEY GILGIT- BALTISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey was conducted to analyse the vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of Astore valley at different altitudes (1250m-4200m) and localities. It was observed that the herbaceous plant species were dominant in the natural habitat, particularly in the alpine and sub-alpine zones. At lower altitude i.e. Bunji and adjacent areas xerophytic and halophytic plant species were found and upper altitudes i.e. Deosai, Kalapani and surrounding areas herbaceous plant species were common. Total 668 plant species were recorded from the Astore valley during the survey period (2005-2009). Out of these 631 belonged to naturalized flowering plants, including to 291 genera and 76 families, 4 species of Pteridophytes belonged to two genera and two families while 33 cultivated species belonged to 30 genera and 17 families. The study area was categorized into five ecological zones on the basis of microclimatic conditions and topography. For comparison of vegetation pattern in these zones similarity index and Beta Diversity were calculated. Seriphidium brevifolium (Wall. ex DC.) Ling & Y. R. Ling was the most dominant plant species in the study area. The soil was fine to coarse in texture ranging from clay loam to sand and acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, containing considerable amount of calcium carbonate (up to 16 %) and appreciable amount of organic matter(up to 33.094 %). Maximum water holding capacity (21.415-63.179) and pH values (5.35-7.20) were also determined. The amount of organic matter was high; in these habitats and the vegetation was dense. It is concluded that certain edaphic factors, altitudinal variation, soil texture and amount of organic matter are responsible for variation in vegetation.

1663-1667 Download
26
IMPACT OF DISCOLORATION AND PICKING PRACTICES OF RED CHILIES ON AFLATOXIN LEVELS
NAJMUS SAHAR1*, SAQIB ARIF1, QURRAT-UL-AIN AFZAL1, MUBARIK AHMED1,JEHAN ARA2 AND QASIM CHAUDHRY3

IMPACT OF DISCOLORATION AND PICKING PRACTICES OF RED CHILIES ON AFLATOXIN LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Red chili is amongst the important market commodities mainly for its pungency, color and their respective therapeutic significances. However, the persistence of aflatoxin contamination in chilies at higher levels is raising the health and economic risks. Post harvest practices may play as crucial role to make the red chilies physically damaged that may lead to increase the levels of aflatoxins. The present study investigated the differences in aflatoxin levels in red chilies with pedicle, without pedicle, normal and discolored pods. The results showed that aflatoxin was higher in discolored pods as well as chilies without pedicle. On an average, chilies with pedicle showed much lower levels of aflatoxins (4.46 ppb) than those without pedicle (9.16 ppb). The discolored chilies contained almost 10 times more (92.13 ppb) aflatoxins than the normal pods. The buildup of aflatoxins was found to be highly influenced (P<0.001) by pod discoloration, and absence of pedicle. These results can be beneficial for the understanding of the relation among aflatoxin levels in healthy and discolored chilies as well as chilies with and without pedicles.

1669-1672 Download
27
DEVELOPMENTAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE COLEORHIZAE IN HEMEROCALLIS (LILIACEAE)
XIN XIN ZHANG, MEI LIU*, MIAO YUAN WANG, CHUAN QI SHI AND XIN YU CHENG

DEVELOPMENTAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE COLEORHIZAE IN HEMEROCALLIS (LILIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The developmental morphology of the coleorhizas of Hemerocallis was studied by paraffin method in this paper. Our results show when their seeds germinate the coleorhiza stretches out the testa first, cracks radiately and reflexes with the radical elongation, and these splits atrophie and leave a ring of projections around the between the primary root and hypocotyl in their seeding development. The study of the embryonic development of Hemerocallis shows the coleorhiza is formed by the residual suspensor, the proper next to the suspensor, and cells from the meristematic cellular band occurred in the radical. It is different from the coleorhizas presented in the cycads and grasses, in which the coleorthizsa are composed of the residual suspensors. The coleorhiza occurred in the genus may be partially structurally homologous with those of the cycads and grasses.

1673-1676 Download
28
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-IX. OROBANCHACEAE
AFSHEEN ATHER*, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-IX. OROBANCHACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Numerical analysis based on seed morphological characters of 38 taxa belonging to the family Orobanchaceae was carried out. Seed macro and micro-morphological characters were found useful to trace the phylogenetic relationship within the family Orobanchaceae. The seed morphological data fully support the placement of Scrophs genera viz., Euphrasia, Leptorhabdos, Lindenbergia, Pedicularis and Striga within the family Orobanchaceae.

1677-1692 Download
29
ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON IN VIVO PLANT PARTS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (TONGKAT ALI)
MONICA DANIAL1, GEETHAA SAGHAL2, SAFIAH AHMAD MUBBARAKH1, JEEVANDRAN SUNDARASEKAR1 AND SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM1*

ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON IN VIVO PLANT PARTS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (TONGKAT ALI)
ABSTRACT:
The various crude extracts of the In vivo plant parts of medicinally important Eurycoma longifolia were observed to demonstrate antibacterial activity to all the tested pathogenic bacteria. The most effective antibacterial agent was the extracted compound from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Bacillus subtilis (CDR), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022. In addition, there are also several other parts of this plants extract that produced good antibacterial activity against some tested pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the results obtained can be used to facilitate the development of antibacterial medicines for specific pathogenic bacteria to treat diseases caused by these bacteria.

1693-1700 Download
30
AGROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LOCAL WHEAT VARIETIES FOR VARIABILITY AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH YIELD RELATED TRAITS
RAB NAWAZ1, INAMULLAH2*, HABIB AHMAD2, SIRAJ UD DIN3 AND MUHAMMAD SAJJAD IQBAL2

AGROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LOCAL WHEAT VARIETIES FOR VARIABILITY AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH YIELD RELATED TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
Twenty five wheat varieties were evaluated for various morphological and yield related traits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences among the genotypes for flag leaf area, plant height, peduncle length, number of nodes per plant, Spike length, number of spikelets per spike, awn length, Number of grains per spike, yield per plant and harvest index and non-significant for number of tillers per plant. The genotypes that out performed for specific traits were Khyber-79 (flag leaf area), Local white (plant height), Pari-73 (Spike length), Pirsabak-85(awn length), Potohar-70 (spikelet per spike), SA-42 (grains per spike), Kaghan-93(1000 grains weight), harvest index (Kaghan 93) and yield per plant (Kaghan 93). Genotypes Punjab-88, Punjab-81, Indus-79, Kaghan-93 and Soghat-90 were found moderately resistant to leaf rust. Yield per plant was found to be positively associated with number of grains per spike and harvest index. The variety Kaghan-93 showed best performance for most of the yield related traits and disease resistance and is thus recommended for general cultivation.

1701-1706 Download
31
NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RESORPTION IN TWO WETLAND MACROPHYTES
SAMET GÜRSOY1, HAMDI GÜRAY KUTBAY1*, DUDU DUYGU KILIC2, RENA HUSEYINOVA3, ALI BILGIN4 AND HAKAN YILMAZ1

NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS RESORPTION IN TWO WETLAND MACROPHYTES
ABSTRACT:
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency (RE) and, resorption proficiency (RP) and functional strategies in Schoenoplectus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani and Typha latifolia occurring in Cernek Lake and Uzun Lake with different nutrient status situated in Bafra town in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey was investigated. Mass-based N and P concentrations during summer (from June to September) in both species were rather higher than those of British, European and American wetland species. However, both N- and P-limitations were found in both species during the sampling period. It has been found that transitional strategy between CS and C strategies (C/CS) was common for the two species, whilst T. latifolia individuals in Cernek Lake exhibited CS strategy. N resorption was incomplete in Cernek and Uzun Lakes in both species. P resorption was complete in Uzun Lake for both species, whereas P resorption was intermediate in Cernek Lake, but more proficient for T. latifolia. Both PRE and PRP in T. latifolia individuals in Cernek Lake were higher than those in Schoenoplectus lacustris subsp. tabernaemontani individuals and this shows that CS species has an efficient internal cycling of P.

1707-1714 Download
32
INTERACTIONS OF ACACIA TORTILIS (FORSK.) SUBPSP. RADDIANA (SAVI) WITH HERBACEOUS VEGETATION IN RELATION WITH TREE SIZE UNDER NORTH AFRICAN PRESAHARAN REGION
FATHIA ABDALLAH* AND MOHAMED CHAIEB

INTERACTIONS OF ACACIA TORTILIS (FORSK.) SUBPSP. RADDIANA (SAVI) WITH HERBACEOUS VEGETATION IN RELATION WITH TREE SIZE UNDER NORTH AFRICAN PRESAHARAN REGION
ABSTRACT:
Twelve individuals were selected to determine the effects of tree size (crown area) on herbaceous species composition, total cover, perennial and annual species density, species number and floristic diversity in an Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi) pseudo-savanna in southeastern Tunisia. Except for annual species density, all vegetation parameters were increased under tree canopy compared to the open area. Tree size appeared to affect tree herbaceous interaction. The positive effect of Acacia tree in herbaceous vegetation increases with tree size.

1715-1720 Download
33
BIOSORPTION OF Hg: II. REPAIRING OF EPIDERMAL LAYER OF LEAVES THROUGH NUTRIENTS OF SEAWEEDS IN HG DISTORTED SEEDLINGS OF CICER ARIETINUM
SHABANA ASKARI1 AND RAFIA AZMAT2*

BIOSORPTION OF Hg: II. REPAIRING OF EPIDERMAL LAYER OF LEAVES THROUGH NUTRIENTS OF SEAWEEDS IN HG DISTORTED SEEDLINGS OF CICER ARIETINUM
ABSTRACT:
Seaweeds are the fascinating groups of marine plants gorging enormous important micro and macro nutrients. Due to their ability to concentrate minerals and trace elements from the sea, render them a potent source of nutrients for crop farming. This article discusses the credible of the green seaweed Codium iyengrii to concentrate non-essential trace element mercury (Hg). The plants were cultivated in randomized block design, exposed to varying concentrations of Hg in the soil separately and simultaneously with seaweeds. It was found that Hg damages the upper epidermal layer of leaves trait. Application of dry seaweeds powder in the Hg contaminated soil showed a repairing condition of epidermal layer of leaves. The role of epidermal layer on leaf surface is important because it protect internal tissues of leaves, involves in exchange of gases and transpiration through stomata. A direct relation between stomatal density and water contents due to the accumulation of Hg in epidermal layer was accountable for photosynthetic destruction. While repairing of leaves with substantial enrichment in % germination, relative water contents (RWC), plant growth with respect to length, biomass, and in opening and closing of stomata in seaweed amended Hg contaminated plants. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) was used to verify the results of Phase contrast microscopy.

1721-1727 Download
34
INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPING IN MAIZE ON PERFORMANCE OF WEEDS AND THE ASSOCIATED CROPS
ZAHID HUSSAIN1*, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, FAZAL MUNSIF2, ABDUL SAMAD3, SAIMA HASHIM1 AND TAMANA BAKHT1

INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPING IN MAIZE ON PERFORMANCE OF WEEDS AND THE ASSOCIATED CROPS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments on intercropping in maize crop were conducted during 2008 and 2009 at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design comprising of 11 treatments, including weed free sole maize (WFMz), weedy check sole maize (WCMz), sole French beans (Fb), sole mung-beans (Mb), sole sunflower (Sf), intercropping maize-1-row+Frenchbean-1-row (MzFb 1:1), maize-1-row+Frenchbean-2-rows (MzFb 1:2), maize-1-row+mungbean-1-row(MzMb 1:1), maize-1-row+mungbean-2-rows (MzMb 1:2), maize-1-row+ sunflower-1-row (MzSf 1:1), and maize-1-row+sunflower-2-rows (MzSf 1:2). The treatments significantly affected the weeds and crop parameters. Weed density (136 weeds m-2) and fresh biomass (2769 kg ha-1) were highest in the WCMz and Mb, respectively. The intercropping treatments resulted in 35-56% reduction in weed population. All the intercropping treatments showed 6.46 to 23.93% increase in the yield of maize over WCMz, except that in MzSf 1:2. Overall highest average grain yield of maize (3886 kg ha-1) was recorded in WFMz with 30.65% increase in yield over the WCMz (2695 kg). Among the intercropping treatments, maize yield was highest (3543 kg ha-1) in MzMb 1:1, where the yield was 23.93% higher than the WCMz; though it was at par with the MzFb 1:1 (3232 kg ha-1 with 16.62% yield increase over WCMz). The computed LER ranged between 1.023-1.294. Similarly, the cost benefit ratios (CBRs) ranged between 1.27 and 1.67. Among the intercropping treatments, highest CBR (1.64) was computed for MzSf 1:2, followed by MzMb 1:2 (1.58). Thus, intercropping reduced weed population, boosted maize performance, enhanced land utilization and increased farmers’ monitory advantage.

1729-1734 Download
35
THE CHANGE IN ECOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT TILIA RUBRA DC. SUBSP. CAUCASICA (RUPR.) V. ENGLER ALONG AN ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT
TUĞBA BAYRAK ÖZBUCAK*, ÖZNUR ERGEN AKÇİN AND ÖMER ERTÜRK

THE CHANGE IN ECOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT TILIA RUBRA DC. SUBSP. CAUCASICA (RUPR.) V. ENGLER ALONG AN ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT
ABSTRACT:
In this study, ecological, anatomical and antimicrobial properties of Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V. Engler which has several medicinal characters were investigated. There were significant differences both seasonal period and localities, in terms of N, P concentrations. There were no significant differences with respect to soil factors expect P2O5 concentration of the studied localities. The leaf length and width was decrease with altitudinal increases. Anatomically, cuticle, leaf thicknesses and the number of epidermal cells increase with in altitude. The results of the antibacterial and antifungal screening of extracts the flower and leaf of T. rubra subsp. caucasica from different district were investigated by diffusion disc plates on agar and the agar dilution method. It was observed that the extracts of flower and leaf have antimicrobial activity.

1735-1742 Download
36
WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON THE WHEAT-PEA INTERCROPPING
MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN1, KHAN BAHADAR MARWAT1, UMM-E-KULSOOM1, ZAHID HUSSAIN1, SAIMA HASHIM1, ABDUR RAB2 AND KHALID NAWAB3

WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON THE WHEAT-PEA INTERCROPPING
ABSTRACT:
A cereal with legumes intercropping is a popular cultural technique and is useful for soil conservation, weed control and getting higher crop yield. To cope with and then find out remedies for many problems, field study entitled “weed control effects on the wheat-pea intercropping” was conducted at Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during Rabi season 2010. Randomized complete block (RCB) design was used with split plot arrangements. There were two main plots each having eight treatments. One main plot was kept weed free while the second was kept weed infested throughout the crop season. The details of wheat and pea combinations (treatments) was; (1) sole wheat (8 rows), (2) sole pea (8 rows), (3) wheat (1 row) + pea (1 row), (4) wheat (2 rows) + pea (1 row), (5) wheat (3 rows) + pea (1 row), (6) wheat (2 rows) + pea (2 rows), (7) wheat (3 rows) + pea (2 rows) and (8) wheat (3 rows) + pea (3 rows). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that weeding significantly decreased the weed density at 120 days after sowing (DAS), fresh and dry weed biomass. Weeds related parameters like weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass was significantly decreased by intercropping of peas in wheat. Weeds removal significantly increased spike length and grain yield of wheat. Weeds removal as well as intercropping of wheat and pea significantly affected the green pods yield of pea where maximum pods were recorded under weed free conditions. Sole pea produced higher yield of pods as compared to intercropped plots. Therefore in light of the instant studies it could be concluded that pea should be intercropped in wheat. However, further studies are suggested to study the possibility of wheat-pea intercropping at various densities for getting higher net returns.

1743-1748 Download
37
CYTOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY SOLANACEAE
ISHFAQ HAMEED1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, ZAMAN SHER2, NAFEES BACHA3 AND ABID ALI KHAN3

CYTOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FAMILY SOLANACEAE
ABSTRACT:
The methanolic extracts of the Datura innoxia Miller, Solanum nigrum Lin, Solanum surattense Burm. f, Withania somnifera L and Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal are more cytotoxic as compared to the acetone extracts of these plants except W. coagulans. Acetone extracts of S. surattense had very low activity as compared to other tested plants. Phytotoxic activity of the both extract had greater activity at 10 µg/ml as compared to at 100µg/ml except W. somnifera (methanolic) and W. coagulans (acetone) as well as 1000µg/ml activity which was low at the both solvent of the studied plants.

1749-1754 Download
38
IN VITRO CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN TAXUS WALLICHIANA ZUCC. THE HIMALAYAN YEW
ALTAF HUSSAIN1*, IQBAL AHMED QARSHI2, HUMMERA NAZIR3, IKRAM ULLAH3,MOHAMMAD RASHID3 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4

IN VITRO CALLOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN TAXUS WALLICHIANA ZUCC. THE HIMALAYAN YEW
ABSTRACT:
Taxus wallichiana Zucc., is a medium sized temperate forest tree species of Asia ranging from Afghanistan through the Himalayas to the Philippines. It has been heavily exploited for its leaves and bark which are used to produce the anti-cancer drug Taxol. Due to its long seed dormancy period, its natural regeneration from seeds is very low. In the present study, biotechnological method is applied to grow the plant In vitro through plant tissue culture techniques. Different plant growth regulators (2, 4-D, NAA, IBA, BAP, Kin) were used to regenerate it through direct or indirect route of organogenesis in the In vitro conditions. Callus was induced successfully both in stem and leaf (needle) explant on MS media supplemented with 1 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L, 2,4-D. The best callus was induced on MS media supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 5 mg/L Activated Charcoal (AC) within 2 weeks of culture in stem explant, but we did not succeeded in the regenerations of shoot in both type of callus culture. The shoot tip meristem was elongated on MS media supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and MS media supplemented with 1mg/L IBA up to 10-14 cm after 3 to 4 subculture. Roots were induced in the elongated shoot tips in 60-80 days on MS media supplemented with 3.5 mg/L IBA and on half strength MS media supplemented with 8 mg/L IBA. It is concluded from the present study that callus culture from stem and needle explant is not suitable for organogenesis in Taxus wallichiana, however shoot elongation and root induction in shoot tip culture is feasible and suitable for the multiplication of Taxus wallichiana through tissue culture.

1755-1759 Download
39
TRANSFER OF THE GAFP AND NPI, TWO DISEASE-RESISTANT GENES, INTO A PHALAENOPSIS BY AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS
JIE LI1*, PING KUANG1, REN-DAO LIU1, DAN WANG1, ZHI-NA WANG1 AND MIN-REN HUANG2

TRANSFER OF THE GAFP AND NPI, TWO DISEASE-RESISTANT GENES, INTO A PHALAENOPSIS BY AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS
ABSTRACT:
Gastrodia Antifungal Protein (GAFP) and Neutrophils Peptide-I (NPI), two disease-resistant genes were successfully transferred into the Dtps.Tailin Angel Phalaenopsis by using Agrobacterium strain off gradual methods. Two hundred and eighty kanamycin-resistant plants were regenerated by this method. PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR confirmed that GAFP and NPI genes have been integrated into the genome of Phalaenopsis. In vitro antibiosis assay of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Sacc suggested that the transgenic plants were disease-resistant. Disease-resistance experiments proved that both GAFP and NPI genes were expressed efficiently in Phalaenopsis.

1761-1766 Download
40
PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSKI) VIERH ASSOCIATED WITH LEAF SPOT DISEASE CAUSED BY ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA (FR.) KEISSLER
A.A. ALQARAWI1*, ABEER HASHEM2 AND E.F. ABD-ALLAH1

PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSKI) VIERH ASSOCIATED WITH LEAF SPOT DISEASE CAUSED BY ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA (FR.) KEISSLER
ABSTRACT:
The leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata in Avicennia marina in Yanb'a city, Saudi Arabia showed significant alterations in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total pigments as compared to control plants. Glucose as well as fructose (monosaccharide hexose sugars) was increased significantly in the diseased leaves whereas sucrose (disaccharide), sorbitol (sugar alcohol) and inositol (carbocyclic polyol sugar) were decreased. The infection with A. alternata also caused a significant decrease in total lipids, triacylglycerol and sterol, however, diacylglycerol, sterol ester and non-esterified fatty acids increased significantly in diseased leaves. All phospholipid fractions decreased except phosphatidic acid, which increased as compared to healthy leaves. Gas chromatographic analysis of esterified fatty acids revealed the appearance of caprylic (C8) and a significant increase in the amount of both palmitic (C10) and palmitoleic (C16:1). A significant increase in total saturated fatty acids was observed in the infected leaves of A. marina as compared to healthy leaves. Such biochemical alterations were directly related to the destructive effect of the causal organism and its mycotoxins on the chloroplast of A. marina.

1767-1771 Download
41
INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATES AND RESIDUES ON SOIL MICROECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
KUN LI1, XIU WU GUO1*, HONG GANG XIE2, YINSHAN GUO1 AND CHENGXIANG LI1

INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATES AND RESIDUES ON SOIL MICROECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
The effects of grape root exudates and residues on rhizosphere available nutrient, enzyme activity, microorganism quantity and population structure were determined with potted seedlings of Beta (V. vulpine x V. labrusca) as materials. Plant growth was suppressed and available P and K contents in rhizosphere soil decreased, while alkaline hydrolysis N content increased under high concentration of root exudates. As the addition ratio of root residues increased in soil, the contents of available N, P and K in rhizosphere soil increased. The correlation was found between alkaline hydrolysis N content and urease activity under the treatment of root exudates and residues, but the activity of invertase was weakened and had no obvious correlation with soil nutrient or plant growth. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also weakened when the concentration of root exudates and residues increased. The rhizosphere soil was converted from ‘bacteria type’ to ‘fungi type’ under root exudates of high concentration. Under the treatment of root residues, both bacteria/fungi and actinomycetes/fungi ratio increased in rhizosphere soil, however, fungi population diversity reduced. The beneficial trichoderma disappeared, while it appeared with pythium, thielaviopsis and Stilbellales. The results showed that the change of available N, P and K content was not the major reason that led to the depression of plant growth, while the alternation of polyphenol oxidase activity and the change of microorganism quantity and population structure might be the important reason of grape replant disease.

1773-1779 Download
42
FUNCTION AND PYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GM AND NON GM MAIZE
NASEER AHMAD, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI*, SAMINA BASHIR AND MUHAMMAD YASIR

FUNCTION AND PYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GM AND NON GM MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Rhizospheric bacterial community associated with GM and Non GM maize crop were studied for PGP characteristics and cell wall hydrolytic enzymatic production. Twelve bacterial strains were isolated from GM and non GM maize rhizosphere and was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated strains were belong to phyla's Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, whereas 50% strains belonged to genus Bacillus, 33.3% belong to genus Pseudomonas and 16.7% strains belong to genus Enterobacteriaceae. Majority of the isolates showed plant growth promotion (PGP) activity by producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and increased root and shoot elongation as well as biomass of Z.mays as indicated crop. A major proportion of the isolates also demonstrated other ecologically important activities like production of hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, chitinase, protease, pectinase and lipase. Plant growth promoting traits of these rhizobacteria indicated beneficial relationship between rhizobacteria and Z.mays plant. There were no significant difference between the isolates of GM and Non GM maize rhizosphere in term of plant growth parameters and activities.

1781-1788 Download
43
POTENTIAL OF AZADIRACHTIN-D FRACTION AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASE IN RICE CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE
RUKHSANA JABEEN1* MISBAH MANZOOR1, SHAZIA IRFAN1 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2

POTENTIAL OF AZADIRACHTIN-D FRACTION AGAINST BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT DISEASE IN RICE CAUSED BY XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV. ORYZAE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study organic extracts (Chloroform) of twenty four plants were tested through anti-bacterial susceptibility test against specific bacterium X. oryzae causing Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) disease in rice. Azarditacha indica extract showed high efficacy against Xoo bacterium forming larger inhibition zone (18.5 mm) with activity index (0.64).Further extract of Azarditacha indica fractionated, most active fraction were tested using bio autography agar overlay method against test bacterium, isolate, purify and characterized the most promising fraction and it’s supposed to be 1-Tigloyl-3-acetyl-1, 1-hydroxymeliacarpin (Azadirachtin-D).

1789-1794 Download
44
PRODUCTION OF LOVASTATIN FROM ASPERGILLUS TERREUS THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
ARJUMAND AHMED, HAMID MUKHTAR, UMAR FAROOQ GOHAR AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

PRODUCTION OF LOVASTATIN FROM ASPERGILLUS TERREUS THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The lab scale optimization of lovastatin production through submerged fermentation by Aspergillus terreus has been described. Fermentation experiments for the screening of fermentation media showed that A. terreus NRRL 265 utilized fermentation medium (M2) for maximum production of lovastatin i.e., 212.54 mg/L & 120.98 mg/L in the fermentation broth and mycelial extract, respectively. Similarly, when the effect of incubation period on statin production was studied, 144 h was found to be the best incubation period for statin production by this fungal strain. Further optimization of statin production was carried out by studying physical parameters such as the effect of incubation temperature, initial pH and nutritional parameters i.e., carbon sources, nitrogen sources, age and size of inoculum. An incubation temperature of 30ºC and the initial pH of 6.0 were found optimum for lovastatin production. As far as the carbon and nitrogen sources are concerned, 9% glucose, 2.5% corn steep liquor were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in addition to 0.3% ammonium sulphate as inorganic nitrogen source. A 30 h old inoculum at a level of 5% was found best for lovastatin production by A. terreus NRRL 265. During the course of study, the maximum lovastatin production of 471.91 mg/L & 409.56 mg/L in the fermentation broth and mycelial extract respectively, was accomplished in shake flask fermentation by A. terreus NRRL 265.

1795-1800 Download
45
EFFECT OF IBA ON ROOTING FROM SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS OF ‘TETRAPLOID LOCUST’ AND ASSOCIATED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES
WANG XIAO LING1,2, GAO ZHU1 AND ZHAO ZHONG2*

EFFECT OF IBA ON ROOTING FROM SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS OF ‘TETRAPLOID LOCUST’ AND ASSOCIATED BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES
ABSTRACT:
‘Tetraploid Locust’ is one of the most popular and commercially valuable cultivars. An attempt was performed to explore propagation techniques by softwood cuttings for nursery industry. Results showed that cuttings pretreated with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 1400 mg/L for 2 h soaked method got the best rooting traits (rooting percentage is 77.63%, root number is 8.73 and root length is 3.23 cm). Therefore pre-treatment with IBA 1400 mg/L was recommended and used in further experiments for biochemical research. The adventitious rooting was obtained in three distinct phases i.e. induction (0-15 d), initiation (15-20 d) and expression (20-30 d). Indole-3-acetc acid oxidase (IAAox) activity with IBA treatment increased slightly as compared to the control. IAAox activity increased at induction and expression phases and decreased at initiation phase. Peroxidase (POD) activity with IBA treatment increased from the induction up to the expression phase. Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) activity increased both in IBA treatment and control at induction phase but declined at initiation and expression phases. Content of Indole-3-acetc acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) had much different during rooting. IAA content with IBA treatment increased steadily as compared to control. ABA content of the control increased steadily as compared to IBA treatment. IAAox activity and IAA content might be playing vital roles in rooting.

1801-1806 Download
46
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE INFECTION PROCESS OF PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
YU DU, ZHENHUI GONG*, GUANGZHAO LIU, YING ZHAO

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE INFECTION PROCESS OF PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
ABSTRACT:
The infection process of Phytophthora capsici on susceptible and resistant pepper cultivars were studied by scanning electronic microscopy. The development of P. capsici within 24 h post inoculation (hpi) was quite similar between susceptible cv. early Calwonder (EC) and resistant cv. Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334). Zoospores encysted on the leaves and formed adhesive cysts at 3 hpi. Cyst germinated by producing two germ tubes at 12 hpi. The hyphae penetrated both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of pepper leaves without forming appressoria-like structures or via stomata even when they passed over it at 24 hpi. Up to the first three steps of infection, no apparent difference was observed between susceptible and resistant cultivars. However, differences were detected at the third day post inoculation (dpi) as mycelia grew out from the abaxial surface of the leaf of the susceptible cv. EC, but not from CM334. Small water soaked lesions appeared at 4 dpi, and sporulation occurred at 5 dpi on the susceptible cv. EC, while on the resistant cv. CM334, no disease symptom developed and no hyphae was observed on the leaf surface even at 12 dpi. The disease symptom and the sporulation appeared first on the abaxial leaf surface of cv. EC, followed by on adaxial leaf surface 24 h later. The new mycelia from leaves were observed both leaf surfaces through the ruptured epidermis, leaf veins and the stomata. The emergence of new mycelia through stomata appeared to be random rather than a preferred route. At 10 dpi the mycelium spread all over the surface of susceptible pepper leaf and the hyphal colony could be observed at 12dpi.

1807-1811 Download
47
NATURE AND EFFECT OF ALTERNARIA SPP. COMPLEX FROM WHEAT GRAIN ON GERMINATION AND DISEASE TRANSMISSION
ANALÍA E. PERELLÓ1,2* AND SILVINA LARRÁN1

NATURE AND EFFECT OF ALTERNARIA SPP. COMPLEX FROM WHEAT GRAIN ON GERMINATION AND DISEASE TRANSMISSION
ABSTRACT:
Diseases caused by Alternaria sp. are among the most common diseases of crops throughout the world. Alternaria sp. is a common component of the flora of wheat seed. Although isolation of Alternaria sp. from wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed has been reported in Argentina, development of the Alternaria blight in plants from infected seeds has not been demonstrated experimentally. Seed transmission of strains belonging to Alternaria tenuissima, A. alternata, A. infectoria, A. triticina, A. chlamydospora and related genera like Embellisia and Ulocladium sp. on wheat were investigated in the Argentinean growing area, on wheat cultivars Klein Escorpión and Buck Poncho. A. tenuissima was the dominant fungus in black pointed kernels. Transmission of all 42 seed-borne members of Alternaria complex from seeds to seedlings artificially inoculated was detected by trays seedling symptoms test. Among the fungi tested most isolates of Alternaria, Embellisia sp. and Ulocladium sp. produced distinct seed rot and seedling infection symptoms. This confirmed the seed-borne nature of these fungi. In each wheat cultivar tested inoculated seeds appreciably reduced their germination. The emerging coleoptile is externally infected by hyphal growth from the infected pericarp. Typical disease symptoms on the seedlings were exhibited. Recovery of the fungi from asymptomatic coleoptiles was also possible. Transmission efficiency varies with wheat cultivar and ranges from 0 to 92%. These results suggest that infected seed and seed transmission represents a mode of primary source of infection from which these microorganisms can start epidemics to the wheat crop and for dispersal of fungal strains to new areas.

1817-1824 Download
48
EFFECTS OF HOST GROWTH STAGE, RE-ISOLATION AND CULTURE MEDIUM ON SCREENING FOR RESISTANCE TO STEM ROT DISEASE CAUSED BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC. IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE
R. SENNOI, S. JOGLOY, W. SAKSIRIRAT, T. KESMALA AND A. PATANOTHAI

EFFECTS OF HOST GROWTH STAGE, RE-ISOLATION AND CULTURE MEDIUM ON SCREENING FOR RESISTANCE TO STEM ROT DISEASE CAUSED BY SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC. IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE
ABSTRACT:
Consistently replicable methods of inoculation are necessary to efficiently screen Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes for resistance to the soilborne fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. The fact that plant age, type of inoculum and source of inoculum can affect severity and incidence of stem rot disease caused by S. rolfsii are factors that must be assessed and controlled in seeking disease-resistant accessions The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of seedling stage, source of S. rolfsii inoculum (serial In vitro subculture and re-isolation of S. rolfsii from infected plants), and culture medium used to prepare inoculum on stem rot disease. Seedlings of Jerusalem artichoke (Kaen Tawan # 2) at 6-, 8- and 10-leaf stages were inoculated with sorghum seed that had been infested with S. rolfsii derived from different sources (serial In vitro subculture or re-isolated from symptomatic host tissue, and cultured in either potato dextrose agar (PDA) or a sorghum-based medium; the infested seed were placed in wounds made at the base of the stem). In a greenhouse, the experiment was set up as a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with six replications; the experiment was repeated once. Plants at the 6-leaf stage were more susceptible than those at the 8- or 10-leaf stages. S. rolfsii inoculum derived from serial In vitro subculture caused more severe stem rot symptoms than inoculum derived by re-isolation from symptomatic host plants, but the difference was not significant for disease incidence. Inoculum culture on the sorghum-based medium resulted in a higher incidence of stem rot than PDA. The highest incidence of disease was observed with inoculum grown on PDA from serial In vitro subculture and on the sorghum-based medium that had been re-isolated from symptomatic host tissue. In addition, disease severity was higher when inoculum was grown on PDA from serial In vitro subculture than from sorghum-based medium that had been sub-cultured In vitro.

1825-1829 Download
49
MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI CONTAMINATING CORN AND SORGHUM GRAINS IN SAUDI ARABIA
MOHAMED A. MAHMOUD1, MONIRA R. AL-OTHMAN2, ABEER R. M. ABD EL-AZIZ2*

MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI CONTAMINATING CORN AND SORGHUM GRAINS IN SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
The natural occurrence of fungal contamination was evaluated in different sample of corn (zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) grains. Mycological survey was carried out of four cereals crop yellow and white corn and yellow and red sorghum grains collected from produced and imported grains to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 80 samples of corn and sorghum grains (20 samples per crop) were analyzed by direct plating method on PDA and focusing on the mycotoxigenic fungi Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Alternaria genera for ability of these genera to produce mycotoxin. The most frequent isolated fungi from yellow and white corn were Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. were the lowest frequent. The most frequent isolated fungi from yellow and red sorghum were Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. were the lowest frequent. Significant difference was observed between the frequency of fungal isolates from different sample of corn and sorghum. The predominant fungal genera recorded at high frequency were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Alternaria. These results indicate possible health hazards for humans and animals consumption of such contami­nated food grain by mytoxigenic fungi.

1831-1839 Download
50
GENETIC STUDIES OF SOME YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS OF F2 SEGREGATING GENERATION OF BREAD WHEAT
MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, JAVED AKHTER1, AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR2, KARIM DINO JAMALI, NAZIR AHMED AND HADI BUX3

GENETIC STUDIES OF SOME YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS OF F2 SEGREGATING GENERATION OF BREAD WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Studies on heritability estimates were carried out in 30 F2 segregating population originated through cross combinations of six different parental lines/varieties of bread wheat. Genetic parameters such as environmental variance (Ve), genetic variance (Vg), heritability percentage in broad sense (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance (G.A) were calculated for two important yield contributing traits viz., number of grains per spike and grain yield per spike. The highest mean number of grains per spike (80-100.8) and main spike yield (4.0 to 4.58 g) were recorded in 23 progenies. Eighteen progenies showed the highest heritability (81.2 to 94.3%) in broad sense (h2) coupled with higher genetic advance (1.69-30.58%) for number of grains per spike; indicating more effective selection which could be possible from segregating progenies for this particular trait. Twenty six progenies showed the highest heritability (59.4 to 97.1%) for main spike grain yield character. The results depicted that most of the segregating progenies showed genetic improvement in both quantitative traits in terms of more heritability (h2 b.s.) and genetic advance. Identification of superior plants possesses desirable traits with high heritability estimates provide basic understanding of breeding material in early segregating generations. The better progenies could be effectively used to select the superior hybrid plants with desirable genes in successive generations.

1841-1846 Download
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