Online Submission



Register | Forgot password?

Recent Issues

Uploaded: 21/01/2019 Uploaded: 26/06/2018
Uploaded: 29/05/2018

Latest News
Thursday, March 30, 2017

ISI Impact Factor 0.69

Details
Year 2013 , Volume  45, Issue SI
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS OF FRESH ALLIUM CEPA AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND FUNGI
JEHAN BAKHT1*, SHEHLA KHAN1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI2

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALS OF FRESH ALLIUM CEPA AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Study of the antimicrobial potentials of Allium cepa revealed that all the extracts from both fresh and old samples showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Ethyl acetate fraction showed inhibitory activities against all the 8 microbes tested including bacteria and a fungus. Chloroform followed by butanol fraction also inhibited the activity of all the microbes except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was highly resistant. Petroleum ether fraction was effective at both lower and higher concentration. Ethanol and water sub-fractions were found least effective or ineffective. Among gram positive microbes, Bacillus subtilus was the most susceptible bacteria inhibited by all extracts while the most resistant gram positive bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus. Erwinia caratovora and Klebsella pneumonia were the most susceptible gram negative bacteria while Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Salmonella typhi were the most resistant bacteria.

1-6 Download
2
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF SUDDEN DECLINE DISEASE OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
WAZIR ALI MAITLO1*, GHULAM SARWAR MARKHAND1, ADEL AHMED ABUL-SOAD2, ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI3 AND MUSHTAQUE AHMED JATOI1

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF SUDDEN DECLINE DISEASE OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Khairpur is the biodiversity center of date palm in Pakistan. The date palm orchards are suffering from a sudden decline disease (SDD) problem caused by a soil born fungus Fusarium solani, which is threatening date palm industry in this region. The efficacy of six different fungicides was tested against Fusarium solani under In vitro and In vivo conditions to control the sudden decline disease of date palm. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete block Design (RCBD) in the lab and Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in field conditions. Bavistin D.F showed complete suppression of Fusarium solani followed by Topsin-M, Aliette and Ridomil gold at 150 ppm concentration followed by 100 ppm and 50 ppm. The maximum mean colony growth was recorded in control medium (17.8) followed by Copper oxychloride at 50ppm (15.1). The Bavistin D.F proved to be the highly effective fungicide also under field conditions followed by Topsin-M, Aliette, Ridomil, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride. In untreated control plants, disease severity was increased with increase in time. The treated plants recovered and produced fruit next season.

7-11 Download
3
EFFECT OF AZOSPIRILLUM INOCULATION ON MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
QUDSIA BANO1, NOSHIN ILYAS1*, ASGHARI BANO2, NADIA ZAFAR1, ABIDA AKRAM1 AND FAYAZ UL HASSAN3

EFFECT OF AZOSPIRILLUM INOCULATION ON MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Azospirillum strains isolated from water stressed conditions can mitigate drought effects when used as inoculants. In this context, the research was designed to study the effects of Azospirillum lipoferum strain (Accession no. GQ255950) inoculation on biochemical attributes and growth of maize plant under drought stress. Effect of seed inoculation and rhizosphere inoculation were studied in two varieties of maize, which were subjected to drought stress at vegetative stage. Water deficiency affected accumulation of free amino acids, soluble sugars, proline and soluble protein contents. However, seed inoculated plants had an increased accumulation of 54.54 percent and 63.15 percent free amino acids and soluble sugars respectively, while rhizosphere inoculated plants showed 45.45 percent increase in free amino acids and 31.57 percent increase in soluble sugars as compared to control. The concentrations of soluble proteins on the contrary decreased in the similar order. The plants growth aspect i.e. shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, shoot length and root length, also showed results in consistence with the biochemical attributes. Thus Azospirillum strain showed promising effects and can be a potent inoculant for maize that can help the crop to endure limited water availability.

13-20 Download
4
EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON GROWTH AND QUALITY OF MAIZE FODDER PRODUCTION
IHSANULLAH DAUR* AND AHMED A. BAKHASHWAIN

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON GROWTH AND QUALITY OF MAIZE FODDER PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
The present study examined the effectiveness of powder humic acid (HA) as a source for enhancing growth and quality of maize fodder (Zea mays L.). The study was conducted at the Agriculture Research Station of King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia by growing maize 2 times during the crop season in the area spanning from September 2011–February 2012, using randomized block design. The effectiveness of HA was studied as controls (H0: 0 kg of HA ha−1), and with 6 different levels of HA (H1 = 5 kg of HA ha−1; H2 = 10 kg of HA ha−1; H3 = 15 kg of HA ha−1; H4 = 20 kg of HA ha−1; H5 = 25 kg of HA ha−1; and H6 = 30 kg of HA ha−1). Maize growth and quality parameters including plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter yield, minerals content, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were measured 60 days after sowing (R1, Silks visibility stage) each time for the crop. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for all the mentioned parameters across the HA levels. Based on this study, application of H4 (25 kg of HA ha−1) may be recommended to improve growth and quality of maize fodder in similar environmental conditions. Further research is required in diverse plant environments to determine economically feasible application level of HA while comparing it with other manures and organic fertilizer sources.

21-25 Download
5
EFFECT OF MICROBIAL INOCULATION ON WHEAT GROWTH AND PHYTO-STABILIZATION OF CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL
MUHAMMAD YAHYA KHAN, HAFIZ NAEEM ASGHAR*, MUHAMMAD USMAN JAMSHAID, MUHAMMAD JAVED AKHTAR AND ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR

EFFECT OF MICROBIAL INOCULATION ON WHEAT GROWTH AND PHYTO-STABILIZATION OF CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Higher concentration of Cr(VI) in the plant root zone affects many physiological processes and inhibits plant growth. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve plant health in contaminated soil as well as convert Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III). In this study, 180 Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria were isolated and after screening 10 efficient bacteria capable to work under chromium stress conditions were selected. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds were inoculated with selected bacterial isolates and sown in Cr(VI) contaminated (20 mg kg-1) pots. Results showed that Cr(VI) contamination significantly suppressed the plant growth and development. However, inoculation improved plant growth parameters significantly compared to un-inoculated plants. In inoculated pots Cr(VI) contents were decreased in soil upto 62% while plant analysis for Cr(VI) revealed that inoculation decreased uptake and translocation of Cr(VI) from soil to the aerial parts of plant. Concentration of Cr(VI) was upto 36% less in roots and 60% less in shoots as compared to un-inoculated plants grown in contaminated pots.

27-34 Download
6
GAS EXCHANGE ATTRIBUTES CAN BE VALUABLE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE IN CANOLA CULTIVARS (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ERUM MUKHTAR, EJAZ HUSSAIN SIDDIQI, KHIZAR HAYAT BHATTI*, KHALID NAWAZ AND KHALID HUSSAIN

GAS EXCHANGE ATTRIBUTES CAN BE VALUABLE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE IN CANOLA CULTIVARS (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Present study was carried out to access inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.) by using photosynthetic attributes including photosynthetic pigments as selection criteria. Four cultivars of canola viz., Oscar, Ac Excel, Cyclone and Dunkled were screened at 120 mM NaCl at vegetative stage. Salt stress reduced photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), sub-stomatal CO2 (Ci) conc. and water use efficiency (WUE) at different growth stages. Salt stress also markedly reduced chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents. Generally, plant biomass declined under the salt regime of all the cultivars. Nevertheless, cultivar Dunkled had higher, Oscar and Ac Excel intermediate while; Cyclone had lower shoot and root fresh weight under saline conditions. However, cultivar Cyclone was lower in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b under the salt stress in contrast to Ac Excel. A significant variation was also shown in gas exchange attributes under the stress. Photosynthetic (A) and transpiration rates (E) was higher in Dunkled than of Oscar and Cyclone under the stress. On the basis of data, it may be concluded that fresh weight of shoots and roots had positive correlation with physiological photosynthetic rate (A) among all the four cultivars; thus, photosynthetic rate (A) can be an effectual selection criteria for salt tolerance under salt regime.

35-40 Download
7
A MODERATELY BORON-TOLERANT CANDIDATUS NOVEL SOIL BACTERIUM LYSINIBACILLUS PAKISTANENSIS SP. NOV. CAND., ISOLATED FROM SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) RHIZOSPHERE
RIFAT HAYAT1,2,3*, IFTIKHAR AHMED2*, JAYOUNG PAEK4, MUHAMMAD EHSAN1, 2, MUHAMMAD IQBAL2 AND YOUNG H. CHANG4*

A MODERATELY BORON-TOLERANT CANDIDATUS NOVEL SOIL BACTERIUM LYSINIBACILLUS PAKISTANENSIS SP. NOV. CAND., ISOLATED FROM SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) RHIZOSPHERE
ABSTRACT:
A Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and moderately boron (B) tolerant novel candidatus strain, designated as NCCP-54T, was isolated from rhizospheric soil of soybean (Glycine max L.) sampled from the experimental area of Research Farm, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. To delineate its taxonomic position, the strain was subject to polyphasic characterization. Cells of the strain NCCP-54T can grow at 10-45○C (optimum at 28○C) at pH ranges of 6.5-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0) and in 0-6% NaCl (w/v) in tryptic soya agar medium. It can also tolerate 150 mM boric acid in agar medium; however, optimum growth occurs in the absence of boric acid. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain NCCP-54T showed highest similarity to Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus KCTC13423T (99.1%), Lysinibacillus fusiformis KCTC3454T (98.5%), Lysinibacillus boronitolerans KCTC13709T (98.4%), Lysinibacillus parviboronicapiens KCTC13154T (97.8%), and Lysinibacillus sphaericus KCTC3346T (97.5%) and less than 97% with other closely related taxa. The level of DNA–DNA relatedness between strain NCCP-54T and the type strains of genus Lysinibacillus was <27 %. Strain was also studied chemotaxonomically. Whole-cell peptidoglycan of strain NCCP-54T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-Dpm) as major diagnostic amino acids instead of lysine-aspartate (Lys-Asp) which is the characteristic of the genus Lysinibacillus. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinones. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (30.29%) followed by iso-C16:0 (25.59%) and C16:1w7calcohol (16.24%). The G + C contents of the strain is 37 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the candidatus novel strain matched those described for the members of genus Lysinibacillus except diagnostic amino acids contained in peptidoglycans. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses thus indicate that strain NCCP-54T may represent a novel candidatus status of species in the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus pakistanensis is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-54T (DSMZ 24784T = KCTC= 13795T). The DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession number of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NCCP-54T is AB558495.

41-50 Download
8
SCREENING OF PGPR ISOLATES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION AND THEIR IMPLICATION TO ALLEVIATE DROUGHT STRESS
HUMAIRA YASMIN1, ASGHARI BANO1* AND SAMIULLAH1

SCREENING OF PGPR ISOLATES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION AND THEIR IMPLICATION TO ALLEVIATE DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
During the present study isolation of 24 plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates were made from rhizosphere soil of maize collected from semi-arid region of Kahuta, Pakistan having 12% soil moisture. These isolates varied considerably on the basis of colony morphology, Gram’s test and catalase test. Most efficient bacterial isolates were screened on the basis of their positive activity for siderophore production, P-solubilization and bacteriocin production. The PGPR isolate 9K showed maximum P-solubilization index. Siderophore production was exhibited by 1K (1Kahuta) and KB (KahutaB) while (KahutaB) showed bacteriocin production also. The PGPR isolates1K, KB and 9K were selected for re-inoculation studies on maize under induced drought stress condition. The PGPR isolate 9K increased drought tolerance in maize plants by enhancing root proliferation and improving relative water content of leaves, significant (26%) increased in root to shoot dry weight ratio as compared to inoculated control. The PGPR isolate 9K can be selected in the formulation of bio-fertilizers for alleviating drought effects in arid and semi-arid region.

51-58 Download
9
MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF THE RHIZOSPHERE OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA INDICA) GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
CHANDNI YAQOOB, HUMERA ASLAM AWAN, ASMA MAQBOOL AND KAUSER ABDULLA MALIK*

MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF THE RHIZOSPHERE OF KOCHIA (KOCHIA INDICA) GROWING UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Study was conducted to find out the microbial diversity of the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of Kochia indica (halophyte plant). Strains were isolated on four different media viz., LB, AP, NFM and HaP. Maximum diversity was observed in rhizosphere as compare to rhizoplane. Total 14 types of genera were found to reside in rhizosphere and rhizoplane while Predominent genera found were Klebisella and Vibrio. All the isolates were morphologically characterized and screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting traits like production of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization. From the rhizosphere 65% strains and from the rhizoplane 62% strains were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate. From the rhizosphere, 35% isolates and from the rhizoplane 74% isolates showed IAA production. One of the isolates from rhizoplane (NFP 9) showed maximum production (35 μM/ml) of IAA. Bacterial isolates were also screened out for the presence of fluorescent Pseudomonads and only two strains exhibited fluorescence under the UV light.

59-65 Download
10
INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND SALINITY ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
FARHANA KAUSAR AND MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ*

INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND SALINITY ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
The present experiment was conducted to assess the interactive effect of foliar application of nitric oxide (NO) and salinity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat cv. S-24 was grown under non-stressed or salt stressed conditions (0 and 150 mM NaCl). Different levels of NO (water spray, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mM) were applied as a foliar spray. Salinity applied through rooting medium significantly reduced growth attributes while foliar applied NO was found to be effective in amelioration of adverse effects of salt stress on growth parameters. Application of NO caused an increase in shoot fresh weight under non-saline or saline conditions. Photosynthetic rate of cultivar increased due to foliarly applied NO both under control and saline conditions. Furthermore, increase in growth due to exogenously applied NO may have been due to changes in photosynthesis. However, NO applied as a foliar spray did not change the sub-stomatal CO2 concentration suggesting that stomtal factors were not the major controlling factors for photosynthesis. However, photosystem-II activity in our experiment did not change by foliar spray of NO. Overall, the adverse effects of salt stress could be alleviated by exogenous application of NO.

67-73 Download
11
SALICYLIC ACID INDUCED SALINITY TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)
AASMA TUFAIL1*, MUHAMMAD ARFAN1, ALI RAZA GURMANI2*, ABDULLAH KHAN3 AND ASGHARI BANO4

SALICYLIC ACID INDUCED SALINITY TOLERANCE IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)
ABSTRACT:
Salicylic acid (SA) a naturally occurring plant hormone is an essential signal molecule recognized to have diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the role of SA in salt tolerance of maize. Experiment was conducted to study the SA induce physiological and biochemical changes in two genotypes of maize viz., Sahiwal-2002 and EV-20 in the presence and absence of salt. Salicylic acid @ 0, 0.25 and 0.50 mM along with 120 mM NaCl and Hogland's nutrient solution were applied as rooting medium to 25 days old plants. Results revealed that application of 0.50 mM salicylic acid was most effective to reduce Na+ but increased K+ and Ca2+ concentration, shoot biomass as well as better yield under salt stress. Exogenous application of different concentrations of SA enhanced photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration, chlorophyll b contents and carotenoids in both genotypes of maize under salt stress. In conclusion, the level of 0.50 mM SA by rooting medium was more effective as compared to 0.25 mM level on growth, gas exchange characteristics, biochemical attributes and yield. Maize genotype Sahiwal-2002 perform better by increasing higher biomass, better gas exchange characteristics as well as higher K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios under salt stress.

75-82 Download
12
SHOOT: ROOT DIFFERS IN WARM SEASON C4-CEREALS WHEN GROWN ALONE IN PURE AND MIXED STANDS UNDER LOW AND HIGH WATER LEVELS
AMANULLAH1 AND B.A. STEWART2

SHOOT: ROOT DIFFERS IN WARM SEASON C4-CEREALS WHEN GROWN ALONE IN PURE AND MIXED STANDS UNDER LOW AND HIGH WATER LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
Shoot: root (S:R) response of three warm season C4-cereals (grasses) viz., corn (Zea mays L., cv. Hybrid-5393 VT3), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv. Hybrid-84G62 PAT), and foxtail millets (Setaria italica, cv. German Strain R) grown in pure and mixed stands was investigated at one month interval in pot experiment at West Texas A&M University, Texas, USA during spring 2010. The results indicated that the three warm season grasses responded differently in terms of S:R when grown in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels at different growth stages. In the mixed stands, the roots and shoot biomass accumulation in millets decreased while its S:R increased and was considered the least competitor in the mixed stands than sorghum and corn. Corn plants on the other hand with higher root and shoot biomass accumulation but lower S:R was ranked first (strong) in terms of competitiveness in the mixed stands. In contrast, grain sorghum in the mixed stands produced more root and shoot biomass while grown mixed with millets, but produced less root and shoot biomass in the corn mixed stands was therefore ranked second in terms of competitiveness (corn > grain sorghum > millets). Better understanding of root architecture of different crop species in pure and mixed stands could maximize water and nutrients uptake. Early emergence of the three crop plants had positive effects on shoot and root biomass accumulation and was considered the best criteria in crops competitiveness. We also found that decreasing water level increased root biomass which declined the S:R in all three crop plants. With advancement in crop age, increase in shoot biomass was more than root biomass, and therefore, reduction in S:R was observed. We suggests that more studies are required to assess more accurately the root biomass contribution of different crops species in pure and mixed stands to improve carbon sequestration into the soils under different environmental conditions.

83-90 Download
13
SCREENING RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR GROWTH PROMOTION OF WHEAT UNDER WATER STRESS
NAZNEEN BANGASH1, AZEEM KHALID1, TARIQ MAHMOOD1 AND MUHAMMAD TARIQ SIDDIQUE2

SCREENING RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE FOR GROWTH PROMOTION OF WHEAT UNDER WATER STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Due to climate changes globally, rainfall has become more erratic causing water shortages in the rainfed regions, resulting in reasonable yield reduction in cereal crops including wheat. Plant growth is inhibited due to higher levels of ethylene production in the rhizosphere under water stress conditions. Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase can facilitate plant growth to overcome these harmful effects. Isolation of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase from the rhizosphere of wheat grown in different districts of Chakwal, Attock and Rawalpindi, were screened for growth promotion of wheat seedlings under axenic conditions. The results of the laboratory experiments conducted on wheat revealed that some rhizobacterial isolates increased root and shoot growth as compared to the uninoculated control. The selected strains were again tested in soil to assess their effectiveness for improving growth of wheat seedlings under water stress soil conditions. The results revealed that inoculation with selected isolates increased the root length (upto 54.6%), shoot length (up to 80.2%), dry root weight (up to 54.2%) and dry shoot weight (up to 95.4%) of wheat seedlings grown at different water levels (i.e., 60, 45, 30 and 15% water holding capacity, WHC) over uninoculated control.Isolated strains belonging to the genus Serratia and Aerococcus were found to be most effective strains in improving the growth of wheat seedlings in water stress conditions.The results clearly indicate that rhizobacteria isolated from rainfed regions were effective in promoting growth of wheat seedlings under axenic conditions.

91-96 Download
14
PHYSIO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF NATIVE ACACIA NILOTICA TO EUCALYPTUS ALLELOPATHY
F.A. BUGHIO1*, S.M. MANGRIO1, S.A. ABRO1, T.M. JAHANGIR2 AND HADI BUX1

PHYSIO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF NATIVE ACACIA NILOTICA TO EUCALYPTUS ALLELOPATHY
ABSTRACT:
Allelopathic effects of exotic Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. have been widely reported and are considered the major factor limiting the establishment of native tree species in local forests. A lab study was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on native trees and Acacia nilotica was selected as bioassay plant. Since Eucalyptus leaf litter enters in the soil environment either in the form of solid matter or as aqueous extract. The allelopathic impacts of these two forms were assessed in laboratory experiment conducted at Green House of Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. In a pot experiment the leaf litter was applied in total 6 concentrations along a control, no leaf litter. The three concentrations of ground solid leaf litter were mixed with soil in 10, 20 and 30%. Similarly, the aqueous stock solution of 1:20 was prepared and dilutions were made in 10, 20 and 30%. The plant parameters such as percent germination, relative germination ratio (RGR), percentage mortality rate (MR), seedling vigour index (SVI), chlorophyll content (mg/g f. wt.), relative elongation of shoot (RERs), relative elongation of root (RERr), relative biomass ratio (RBR), fresh and dry weight (g) was calculated. Soil samples were taken from laboratory experiments and analyzed for pH, soil salinity, organic matter, N, P, K, and Na. Results suggest that Eucalyptus leaf litter and leaf litter aqueous extract significantly reduced the frequency of percent germination and relative germination ratio, Eucalyptus leaf litter show high mortality rate than leaf litter extract, reduced seedling vigour index, chlorophyll content, relative elongation of shoot and relative elongation of root, also reduced the fresh and dry weight of the plant. The soil pH decreased with increasing concentration and soil salinity increased with increasing the concentration. While organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations increased in soil with increasing concentration. The solid leaf litter was found more dangerous than aqueous extracts.

97-105 Download
15
OIL YIELD, FATTY ACID PROFILE, ACHENE YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) AS INFLUENCED BY AUTUMN PLANTING CONDITIONS IN ISLAMABAD
SAMI ULLAH KHAN*1, AYUB KHAN1, ALI RAZA GURMANI1 AND JALAL-UD-DIN2

OIL YIELD, FATTY ACID PROFILE, ACHENE YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) AS INFLUENCED BY AUTUMN PLANTING CONDITIONS IN ISLAMABAD
ABSTRACT:
Field experiment was conducted at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad during autumn, 2009, to explore the role of temperature on oil contents, fatty acids composition and heat units accumulation of local sunflower hybrids. Fourteen sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, SMH-9902, SMH-9903, SMH-9904, SMH-9905, SMH-9906, SMH-9908, SMH-9909, SMH-9910, SMH-9911, SMH-9912, SMH-9913, SMH-9914, and SMH-9915 were sown in randomized complete block design with 4 replications under field conditions. Significant variation (p<0.05%) was found among the sunflower hybrids for oil contents, oil compositions, heat units accumulation, yield and yield components. Significantly highest oil contents and oil quality (highest linoleic acid %) were recorded by sunflower hybrid SMH-9914. On average Hysun-33, SMH-9910, SMH-9902 and SMH-9912 performed best for plant height, head diameter and achene yield Kg ha-1. It was concluded from the above study that the hybrids which accumulated higher heat units were late maturing, but hybrids with lesser heat units were early maturing. It was also inferred that the temperature positively influence the oil quality of sunflower hybrids under autumn planting conditions.

107-110 Download
16
SCREENING OF FOLK REMEDIES BY GENUS ARTEMISIA BASED ON ETHNOMEDICINAL SURVEYS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF NATIVE COMMUNITIES OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD NADEEM1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1* AND M. QAISER2

SCREENING OF FOLK REMEDIES BY GENUS ARTEMISIA BASED ON ETHNOMEDICINAL SURVEYS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF NATIVE COMMUNITIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Biodiversity provides a strong plant-human association, livelihood and self defence to poor villagers against many pathogens. In Pakistan and worldwide the indigenous communities used to get many benefits from biodiversity and its ethno medicinal products. They had preference of herbal remedy over modern drugs for the treatment of their sicknesses. The aromatic Artemisia has a central position in the family Asteraceae by virtue of its versatile diversity, distinguishing characteristics, socioeconomic and ecological impacts. It had been being widely used as food, forage, ornamental and therapeutically purposes. The article aimed to compile the best inventory of Artemisia based on historical impacts, folk remedies and indigenous knowledge of native communities of Pakistan. The study demonstrated that Artemisia had been proved better natural defence against 36 different ailments. The potential therapeutical responses against diseases were shown by A. scoparia, A. kurramensis and A. brevifolia. Due to effective uses as purgative, ENT problems and antivenin properties, A. scoparia had been considered as the best medicinal herb. A. dubia and A. brevifolia had been ranked as the best remedy of gastric problems. The study will help to locate the empty slots for new scientific researchers regarding the ethnomedicinal uses of Artemisia.

111-118 Download
17
A NEW SPECIES OF CATENULOSTROMA ON AZADIRACHTA INDICA FROM PAKISTAN
SYED QAISER ABBAS1, THEEREMA IFTKHAR1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, NABILA IFTIKHAR1, RUBAB AYESHA1 AND ALIA ABBAS2

A NEW SPECIES OF CATENULOSTROMA ON AZADIRACHTA INDICA FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A new species of Catenulostroma azadirachta on Azadirachta indica from Pakistan is described and campared with related species.

119-121 Download
18
EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.)
ATIF RIAZ1*, ADNAN YOUNIS1, ASIF RIAZ TAJ1, ASMAT KARIM1, USMAN TARIQ1, SHOAIB MUNIR2 AND SITWAT RIAZ3

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Drought is an important abiotic stress that limits the plant growth and productivity. A pot experiment was conducted by using complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications (each replication contained three plants) to evaluate morphological and physiological attributes that can be used for characterization of drought tolerance in 2 varieties of Marigold (Super Giant & Inca F1). Four drought levels at 100% (control), 80%, 70% and 60% field capacity were maintained throughout the experiment. Morphological characteristics including plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf firing percentage, leaf area, plant quality, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root-shoot ratio for fresh and dry weights were studied. Physiological parameters studied, were net CO2 assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), sub-stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, water use efficiency Pn/E and chlorophyll content. Results showed that, overall plant quality of varieties decreased with the progression of drought stress where 70% F.C can be considered appropriate for acceptable plant quality, whereas Inca F1 performed better compared to Super Giant for all attributes studied.

123-131 Download
19
ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. FROM THE SALT RANGE (PAKISTAN) TO SALINITY STRESS. II. LEAF ANATOMY
MANSOOR HAMEED1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2, NARGIS NAZ1, TAHIRA NAWAZ1, RIFFAT BATOOL1, M. SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1, FAROOQ AHMAD1 AND MUMTAZ HUSSAIN1

ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. FROM THE SALT RANGE (PAKISTAN) TO SALINITY STRESS. II. LEAF ANATOMY
ABSTRACT:
Leaf anatomical modifications were examined in a naturally adapted salt tolerant population of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., collected from a heavily salt affected soil in the vicinity of a natural salt lake, Uchhali Lake, in the Salt Range of the Punjab province of Pakistan. An ecotype of this grass was also collected from a normal non-saline habitat from the Faisalabad region, which was considered as a control. Both populations were subjected to salt stress in hydroponics. The salt treatments used were: control (no salt), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM of NaCl in Hoagland’s nutrient solution. After eight weeks of growth in hydroponics leaf and leaf-sheath anatomical characteristics in the differently adapted ecotypes were studied. The ecotype from the Salt Range was much better adapted to salt stress than its counterpart from the Faisalabad region. Anatomical adaptations in the salt tolerant ecotype to saline environments were very specific, and these were not only for the excretion of toxic ions but also accumulation of ions in the parenchymatous tissue. The prominent adaptive features in the salt tolerant ecotype were increased development of vesicular hairs for the exclusion of toxic ions through leaves as well as less affected parenchymatous tissue (mesophyll, bundle sheath, and bulliform cells) due to salt stress. Additionally, some adaptations reflected were the development of xeromorphic characteristics (decreased stomatal area and size on adaxial leaf surface, less affected epidermis, increased bundle sheath, and increased bulliform cell area) essential for checking undue water loss. Highly developed dermal tissue, particularly lower epidermis and bulliform cells, and decreased stomatal density and area in the salt tolerant ecotype seemed to be crucial for checking undue water loss under critical limited moisture environments.

133-142 Download
20
SYSTEMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF GENUS BRACHIARIA ON THE BASIS OF VEGETATIVE AND FLORAL MORPHO-PALYNOLOGICAL MARKERS (LM & SEM)
SHABNUM SHAHEEN1*, NIDAA HAROON1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN3 , MUHAMMAD IBRAR SHINWARI4 AND TAHIR SAMIULLAH5

SYSTEMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF GENUS BRACHIARIA ON THE BASIS OF VEGETATIVE AND FLORAL MORPHO-PALYNOLOGICAL MARKERS (LM & SEM)
ABSTRACT:
The present study deals with the few taxonomic parameters of the 5 species of genus Brachiaria carried out from Pakistan as there is confusion in identification of these species particularly on the basis of morphology and palynology. In the context of morphology, characters such as spikelet differentiation, lemma and palea shape and size, spike color, shape and size, glumes length and width were found useful in the delimitation of taxa in the genus. The inflorescence morphology particularly the spikelet was examined in detail and found to be highly variable. All the available records are listed and mapped. The palynological analysis provides qualitative and quantitative systematic data. The results showed some distinct palynological features. Variations in pollen characters like apertural form, exine ornamentation, pollen shape and size, polar and equatorial diameter and P/E ratio were observed. Brachiaria villosa was given in the flora of Pakistan and was considered to be of doubtful origin in Pakistan by Stewart (1990). This species is also confirmed to occur in Pakistan in the present study. Also there is no published data already regarding the morpho-palynological distinctions among the species of Brachiaria particularly from Pakistan.

143-149 Download
21
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND DROUGHT RESISTANCE INDEX OF NINE WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT MOISTURE CONDITIONS
ABDUL RAZZAQ, QASIM ALI, ABDUL QAYYUM*, IMRAN MAHMOOD, MUHAMMAD AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD RASHEED

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND DROUGHT RESISTANCE INDEX OF NINE WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT MOISTURE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Nine commercial wheat cultivars of Pakistan viz; Inqulab-91, AS-2002, Sehar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Bhakkar-2002, Auqab-2000, GA-2002, Chakwal-50 and Fareed-06 were evaluated for their physiological performance and drought resistance index under different levels of soil moisture. Germination of these cultivars was tested under PEG induced osmotic stress of -2, -4, -6, and -8 bars. Highest germination percentage was observed for Fareed-06, Chakwal-50, GA-2002 and AS-2002 at -8 bars osmotic stress. To study physiological responses and drought resistance index, plants were grown in clay pots and water equivalent to 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity was applied. Decrease in soil moisture significantly affected relative water content, leaf succulence, chlorophyll content, cell membrane stability index, number of grains/spike and 100 grain weight. Significant variation was found among cultivars. Based on physiological responses and drought resistance index performance of Chakwal-50, GA-2002 and Bhakkar-2002 were found relatively better under limited moisture conditions.

151-155 Download
22
ROLE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF AN AREA: A CASE STUDY ON TREE ETHNOBOTANY OF SOONA VALLEY, DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ*, MEHWISH MAQBOOL, TANVEER HUSSAIN AND AMIN SHAH1

ROLE OF INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF AN AREA: A CASE STUDY ON TREE ETHNOBOTANY OF SOONA VALLEY, DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present research work was carried out to construct ethnobotanical profile (EBP) of indigenous knowledge of being employed in fragment of Soona Valley (SV), Tehsil Samahni, District Bhimber, (A.K.) Pakistan and its consequences in Biodiversity Conservation. The study was conducted through an intensive, systematic and comprehensive survey in two stages during the year 2009. The floristic inventory and EBP was formulated in order to identify plant species present in the area and their economic use in SV. A total of 70 informants of both genders participated in the study survey and male community (79%) had more information about the plants than women (21%). Ethnobotanical enumerations of 58 woody plant species (24 families) were recorded and among these 30 species were of high significant value. The community examined demonstrated a significant knowledge of woody species in the area that can be used to satisfy local needs, especially of wooden materials, fodder, construction and ethnomedicines (39 spp). Decoction, extraction and whole fruit were popular form of ethnomedicinal ingestion. In spite of diversity of total plant diversity observed, the utilitarian potential was concentrated in reduce number of species demonstrating high relative importance. For reliability of EBP informations fidelity level (FL %), direct matrix ranking (DMR) and priority ranking (PR) were also calculated. It was demonstrated that Terminalia belerica, Butea monosperma, Terminalia arjuna, Phyllanthus embllica, Tribulus terristris and Cordia obliqa were threatened species. This study will be a step towards for new drug discovery by using this traditional knowledge about the woody species of the area. It will also provide guiding torch for conservation of threatened woody and other medicinal plant species.

157-164 Download
23
AUTHENTICATION OF HERBAL MEDICINE HENNA (LAWSONIA INNERMIS L.) BY USING TAXONOMIC AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
SHAZIA SULTANA1* AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR2

AUTHENTICATION OF HERBAL MEDICINE HENNA (LAWSONIA INNERMIS L.) BY USING TAXONOMIC AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
This study confined to authentication of herbal medicine namely Henna (Lawsonia inermis) the leaves and powdered leaves of which are used for jaundice, hair and skin problems. The study aimed to investigate indigenous medicinal uses, marketing status, macro and microscopical characters (LM & SEM) of pollen, foliar epidermal anatomy, behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis (under visible & UV light) and preliminary phytochmeical tests to differentiate the genuine source from its adulterant. Such investigation may provide basis for authentication, standardization and characterization of genuine drug. The study concludes with authentication of Lawsonia inermis from its adulterant Mirabilis jalapa based on taxonomic and pharmacognostic characterization. These studies are useful especially for traded herbal drugs for their originality which leads to safe and quality assured herbal formulations for global acceptance.

165-176 Download
24
WILD EDIBLE PLANTS SOLD IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF IZMIR, TURKEY
YUNUS DOGAN1*, ILKER UGULU2 AND NAZMİ DURKAN3

WILD EDIBLE PLANTS SOLD IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF IZMIR, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In recent years, Mediterranean diet has been promoted as a model for healthy eating. One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean diet is an abundance of plant food as fruits, vegetables, whole-grain cereals, nuts, and legumes. This paper compiles and evaluates the ethnobotanical knowledge currently available on wild edible plants sold in the local markets and traditionally used for human consumption in Izmir, a province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The information about the use of wild edible plants was collected from 18 different open-air-markets in the city during two-year period, through unstructured interviews. In this study, a total of 46 wild edible plant taxa were established and also plant parts used, ethnographic data related to vernacular names, traditional tools and recipes were recorded. Family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of taxa (7), followed by Apiaceae (6), Polygonaceae, Liliaceae and Lamiaceae (4), Amaranthaceae and Brassicaceae (2). The study showed that the plants used are either eaten raw, cooked by boiling in water, frying in oil or baked to be served as dishes such as stew, salad or as hot drink. During this ethnobotanical research, it was verified that wild edible plants play an important role in diet in Izmir. However, it was observed that the transfer of folk uses of these plants decreased in the last generations. In this context, the ethnobotanical research about wild edible plants should be extended to other areas of Turkey in order not only to preserve the traditional knowledge related to plants, but also to make it available for future generations as well.

177-184 Download
25
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTANI SPECIES OF CAREX L. BASED ON MATK GENE SEQUENCE VARIATION
ZAHID ULLAH1,2*, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1 AND RICHARD I. MILNE2

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF PAKISTANI SPECIES OF CAREX L. BASED ON MATK GENE SEQUENCE VARIATION
ABSTRACT:
Among the largest and taxonomically complex genera of plants, relationship with in Carex at subgeneric and sectional levels is unclear. For this purpose partial DNA sequences of chloroplast matK gene were generated for 11 species of Carex L. and two outgroup taxa i-e Kobresia schoenoides and Kobresia laxa from Pakistan. The sequenced fragments varied from 753 base pairs (bp) to 1360 bp in length, with 15.08% variable and (45) 3.29% parsimony informative sites when the outgroups were included. The aligned sequences were analyzed by maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), neighbor-joining (NJ) and UPGMA methods using MEGA5. matK was found useful in resolving relationship among subgenera and species of Carex. All the species of subgen. Carex form a clear clade with 98% boostrap support and taxa of subgen. Vignea form a clade with 99% bootstrap support. C. microglochin of the Indocarex appeared as sister to the rest of Carex clades. Position of C. filicina (Primocarex) group cannot be resolved from the present data. C. canescens is sister to the rest of species in subgen. Vignea, while C. foliosa and C. divulsa are monophyletic in this group. The out group Kobresia do not form a clear sister group to Carex, supporting the view that Kobresia may be included in Carex in the future. In the sub-genus Carex, C. atrofusca is sister to the rest of the group, while C. pseudocyperus, and C. songorica forming monophyletic group. Based on these results, delimitation of the species is discussed. The implications of phylogeny for habit preferences and inflorescence structure has also been discussed.

185-190 Download
26
AN OVERVIEW OF THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLEN IN TURKEY AND THE NORTHERN CYPRUS
MUNIR OZTURK1*, AYKUT GUVENSEN1, SALIH GUCEL2 AND VOLKAN ALTAY3

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLEN IN TURKEY AND THE NORTHERN CYPRUS
ABSTRACT:
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric pollen on regional basis in different countries has increased. The reason for this is that pollen grains are a major cause for allergic asthma and hay fever (pollinosis) in sensitive people in particular children. Data obtained by using gravimetric (cm2/pollen grains) and volumetric (m3/pollen grains) methods in Turkey and the Northern Cyprus show, pollen concentrations during March, April, May, June and July are very high, but the densities vary on monthly basis depending on the phytogeographical division investigated. In general the dominant pollens in the atmosphere belong to Alnus glutinosa, Carpinus, Castanea sativa, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Fagus orientalis, Juglans regia, Morus, Olea europaea, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus, Pistacia, Plantago., Platanus orientalis, Poaceae, Populus, Quercus and Urticaceae. In this paper, an attempt is made to present an overview of the studies undertaken on the pollen calendars of Turkey and the Northern Cyprus during the last few decades and their allergenic effects. This will contribute in the treatment of allergic diseases as well as improve the quality of life of people sensitive to pollen allergies.

191-195 Download
27
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF THE EASTERN PLAINS OF TAKHT-E-SULAIMAN HILLS
KHALID AHMAD1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD*1 AND CAROLINE WECKERLE2

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF THE EASTERN PLAINS OF TAKHT-E-SULAIMAN HILLS
ABSTRACT:
Studies have been carried out in the proposed area to asses, record and report the Ethno-botanical potential of the area. Forty five individuals were selected through snow ball sampling and interviewed in details, equally distributed in the three main sites of the area. A total of 66 ethnobotanically important species were found, belonging to 37 families, in which one was Pterodophyte family and the remaining were of angiosperm, distributed in 2 monocots and 34 dicot families. Regarding habit, 39 herbs, 11 shrubs and 16 were trees. 63.6% species were having medicinal uses including 02 as veterinary medicinal, 59.09% as fodder, 43.93% as fuel, 24.24% species as technological including timber and agricultural tools and 25.57% as edible including wild vegetables/pot herbs/salad and wild fruits and 33.33% were included in the category “Others” including miscellaneous uses. Regarding use reports the overall average use value was 2.5 for each species, 4.5 for tree species, 2.54 for shrubs and 1.69 for herbs. Mode of administration of medicinal plants was as, 21 plants were applied externally, 10 with internal usage and 11 with both internal and external application. 9 different parts of plants were reported to be used for medicinal purposes. There is a need to educate the locals for sustainable harvesting of plant resources and also to carry out detailed qualitative and quantitative studies in all the ethnic groups surrounding Thakht-e-Sulaiman hills complex, especially gathering the valuable knowledge of the inhabitants residing on hill sites of this area.

197-205 Download
28
ETHNOBOTANY OF ESKISEHIR AND ITS ENVIRONS
F. ZERRIN SALTAN1,* AND OZER OZAYDIN2

ETHNOBOTANY OF ESKISEHIR AND ITS ENVIRONS
ABSTRACT:
Eskişehir is located in the Central Anatolian province of Turkey. It is included in B3 grid square of Davis. There are more than 1000 plant taxa distributed in this State and its environs and nearly 220 are endemics. The phytogeographical distribution of plant taxa in the region is as follows; Mediterranean (25%), Irano-Turanian (17%) and Euxine (20%). In this study attempt has been made to record and identify the uses of medicinal and aromatic plants administered by people in Eskişehir and its environs. A questionnare including 20 questions such as; socio-economic status of the individuals, where from they obtained the plants, how, when, and what was their aim was prepared and distributed to 641 persons above the age of 18 from different occupations. They were randomly chosen and interviewed. The data obtained was analysed via SPSS 19.0 package programme. The results revealed that; peppermint, thyme, fennel, anise, sage are used for stomach disorders; balm, walnut, hawthorn, black radish for cardiac diseases; and blueberry, cinnamomum, thyme, nigella, olive leaves and apricot seed for diabetes. In the majority of cases walnut, linseed and thyme are used against cholesterol; garlic and lemon for blood pressure; nigella, marshmallow flower, and nettle for allergy; black mulberry for mouth wounds; rosemary for migraine; centaury oil for joint pain. 50.2 percent of the individuals surveyed pointed out that they want to have education about conscious use of medicinal and aromatic plants. Majority of the persons benefited from the plants distributed in Eskişehir and its environs.

207-214 Download
29
ETHNO-MEDICINAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SELECTED WILD EDIBLE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES OF LESSER-HIMALAYAS, PAKISTAN
ARSHAD MEHMOOD ABBASI*, MIR AJAB KHAN AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR

ETHNO-MEDICINAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SELECTED WILD EDIBLE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES OF LESSER-HIMALAYAS, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation is an attempt to assess the ethno-medicinal worth of some selected wild edible fruits and vegetables used by the inhabitants Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Informed consent semi-structured interviews from 95 inhabitants of fifteen mountainous vicinities were conducted to collect data. A total of 20 wild edible fruits and vegetables belonging to 18 families and 18 genera were documented. Amaranthus viridis, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were found most significant ethno-medicinal species. Among wild edible fruits Berberis lycium, Carissa opaca, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata and Ziziphus nummularia express extreme citation; while Amaranthus viridis and Solanum nigrum were among the most popular wild edible vegetables. Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Phyllanthus emblica and Zanthoxylum armatum were used equally as fruit and vegetables. Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still experienced in all explored areas. The tradition of using wild palatable plants is still alive in the rural populations of Lesser Himalayas, but is vanishing. Consequently, the recording, preserving, and infusing of this traditional knowledge to upcoming generations is pressing and vital.

215-222 Download
30
PHYTO-CLIMATIC GRADIENT OF VEGETATION AND HABITAT SPECIFICITY IN THE HIGH ELEVATION WESTERN HIMALAYAS
SHUJAUL MULK KHAN1, 4, *, SUE PAGE2, HABIB AHMAD3, ZAHIDULLAH5, HAMAYUN SHAHEEN5, MUSHTAQ AHAMD5AND DAVID HARPER4, *

PHYTO-CLIMATIC GRADIENT OF VEGETATION AND HABITAT SPECIFICITY IN THE HIGH ELEVATION WESTERN HIMALAYAS
ABSTRACT:
Phyto-climatic gradient and ecological indicators can be used to understand the requirements, long term management and conservation strategies of natural habitats and species. For this purpose phytosociological attributes were measured using quadrats along transects on different slope aspects across an elevation range of 2450-4400 m. The 198 recorded plant species were placed in five Raunkiaer life form classes among which the Hemicryptophytes (51%) dominate the flora of the study area followed by Phanerophytes and Cryptophytes (Geophytes) with 15 and 13% dominance respectively. Therophytes and Chamaephytes are represented by smaller numbers (12 & 10% each). The phyto-climatic gradient of the vegetation was evaluated using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Phyto-climatic relationships show that Phanerophytes especially tree species are widely distributed on northern aspect slopes whilst shrubs are more dominant on southern aspect slopes. Woody plants are dominant at lower altitudes (2450-2800 m), with a much smaller proportion occurring at middle elevations (2800-3300 m) whilst higher (3300-3900 m) and highest elevations (3900-4400 m) are dominated mainly by hemi-cryptophytes and cryptophytes. Our findings further elucidate that vegetation changes gradually from moist-cool temperate Phanerophytic and Chamaephytic elements to dry-cold subalpine and alpine herbaceous Cryptophytic and Hemi-cryptophytic vegetation in the upper elevations. Assessment of life forms and ecological gradient provide a basis for more extensive conservation studies on biodiversity in mountain ecosystems. Our findings further advocate that the Naran Valley appears to be at a transitional floristic position bridging the contrasting moist and dry temperate zones of the Sino-Japanese and Irano-Turanian floristic regions.

223-230 Download
31
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ROOT BARK OF BERBERIS LYCIUM ROYLE. FROM GALLIYAT, WESTERN HIMALAYA, PAKISTAN
ZIA-UR-REHMAN MASHWANI*1,2, MIR AJAB KHAN2, SADIA IRUM1 AND MUSHTAQ AHMAD2

ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ROOT BARK OF BERBERIS LYCIUM ROYLE. FROM GALLIYAT, WESTERN HIMALAYA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study was to compare the relative level of antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of root bark of Berberis lycium Royle., in different test systems of antioxidant determination i.e ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation assay, Phosphomolybdenum assay and reducing power assay. In all these assays the antioxidant activity of extract was compared to that of ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity was highest in phosphomolybdenum assay followed by ABTS and reducing power assay respectively. In phosphomolybdenum assay extract showed maximum antioxidant activity of 84.55% and ascorbic acid showed 86.99% while in ABTS assay extract showed maximum antioxidant activity of 62.15% and ascorbic acid showed 88.3%. In reducing power assay increased concentration of sample and standard resulted in more reduction of ferric cyanide complex to ferrous form, thus showed increased antioxidant activity at higher concentration. In ABTS assay influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption were taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. On the basis of these results Berberis lycium is identified as a best source of free radical scavenging compounds.

231-234 Download
32
FOLIAR EPIDERMAL STUDIES AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF GRASSES OF TRIBE ANDROPOGONEAE (POACEAE) FROM POTOHAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABDUL NAZIR1, Mir Ajab Khan1, FAROOQ AHMAD3, KIFAYAT ULLAH1 AND AMIN SHAH4

FOLIAR EPIDERMAL STUDIES AS AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF GRASSES OF TRIBE ANDROPOGONEAE (POACEAE) FROM POTOHAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigations, 13 species of grasses belonging to 10 genera of tribe Andropogoneae (Poaceae) were collected from the Potohar region of Pakistan and their leaf epidermal studies were carried out. The leaf epidermal studies showed that all the species have paracytic stomata, with dumb bell shaped guard cells, except Heteropogon contortus and Cymbopogon jwarancusa in which guard cells are straight in the middle. Different types of subsidiary cells such as high dome shaped, triangular shaped or low dome shaped subsidiary cells are observed. The difference in shape of subsidiary cells can be used to differentiate problematic species such as genus Bothriochloa from Dicanthium, as these genera look similar morphologically. Diversity in shapes of silica bodies is observed in the species of this tribe, which is valuable for identification. Silica bodies are cross shaped, dumb bell shaped or intermediate between cross and dumb bell shaped. Bicelled microhairs of panicoid type are present in all the species except Euloliopsis binata in which microhairs are absent. Microhairs are rounded in all species except Cymbopogon jawarancusa and Heteropogon contortus. The studies revealed that different leaf epidermal characters such as shape of subsidiary cells, silica bodies, presence or absence of microhairs, macrohairs and rounded papillae are valuable in the identification of grasses at the specific and generic level of the tribe.

235-241 Download
33
ETHNOBOTANY AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF FLORAL DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN RANGE OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR – PAKISTAN
ABIDA BANO, MUHAMMAD AYUB, SOFIA RASHID, SHAZIA SULTANA AND HALEEMA SADIA

ETHNOBOTANY AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF FLORAL DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN RANGE OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR – PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to determine the ethnobotanical uses and conservation status of the flora of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and its allied areas (Fig. 1). Among 168 species studied 140 plant species have medicinal value, 60 species were used as food, 109 species were used as fodder, 116 species were used for fuel purpose and 150 species were used for miscellaneous uses. Most of the plants are used for multiple purposes. A statistical formula was used to calculate the use values (UVs) of some selected species and the relationship between people’s age and extent of their knowledge about plants so as to develop a valuation hierarchy of the selected flora. Conservation status of threatened flora has also been determined according to IUCN criteria. Among 33 species, 12 species were vulnerable, 4 were endangered, 7 were critically endangered, 8 were rare and 2 species were extinct in the area. Rapid decline of plant resources needs in-situ and ex-situ conservation and training of the community regarding collection of medicinal plants and their marketing.

243-251 Download
34
PHYTOTHERAPY AMONG THE RURAL WOMEN OF DISTRICT ABBOTABAD
GHULAM MUJTABA SHAH*, ZAFAR JAMAL AND MANZOOR HUSSAIN

PHYTOTHERAPY AMONG THE RURAL WOMEN OF DISTRICT ABBOTABAD
ABSTRACT:
The present communication highlights the scope of ethnomedicinal plants for women’s health care in Abbottabad district, Northern Pakistan. Participatory Action Research (PAR) and field visits were planned to elicit information on the uses of various medicinal plants by women. Field trips were undertaken covering different rural and tribal populated areas of the district to document ethnomedicinal plants used by women for the treatment of various diseases. The women chieftains were accorded a significant role in discussions since they possess more cognizances about the utility of local herbal products in curing various diseases. The study revealed that 67 plant species belonging to 65 genera and 47 families are used in women’s folk medicinal system. The medicinal plants are mostly used to cure amenorrhoea, skin allergies, and leucorrhoea, as abortifacient, post delivery pain, dandruff, eczema, tonic after delivery and for breast milk secretion. All these herbal medicines belong to 65.67% herbaceous ground flora, 8.95% shrubs, 22.38% trees and 2,98% climbers. Resins, exudates, leaves, shoots, fruits, seeds, bark, tubers and roots are the plants components which are utilized as medicinal ingredients. Plant components are used fresh, dried or both. Further research in needed to isolate the compounds responsible for the observed biological activity.

253-261 Download
35
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FERULA COSTATA (KOR.) AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF SHEEP
SIRAJ AHMED KAKAR1*, RASOOL BAKHSH TAREEN2, ZIA UD DIN SANDHU3, M. AZAM KAKAR4, SAEED UR REHMAN KAKAR2, ZAFAR IQBAL3 AND HAMEEDA JABEEN2

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FERULA COSTATA (KOR.) AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF SHEEP
ABSTRACT:
This paper describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of crude methanol extract (CME) and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions of Ferula costata (Kor.), against Haemonchus contortus and in vivo activity of crude powder (CP) and CME against mixed culture of GINs. In vitro anthelmintic activity was determined by adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT) against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus respectively. For in vivo activity, crude powder (CP) and CME of whole plant were administered to sheep infected with mixed species of GINs @ 1g, 2g & 3g kg-1 body weight (b.w) and the activity was estimated by reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on days 3, 7 and 14 post treatment (PT). Based on Lethal Concentration 99% (LC99) at 12 hr PT in AMA, the order of the potency of different extracts was exactly similar to the order of fractionation process of CME, i.e. CME showed the best activity (33.47 mg ml-1) followed by hexane (39.77 mg ml-1), ethyl acetate (42.76 mg ml-1), chloroform (67.32 mg ml-1) and aqueous fraction (539.27 mg ml-1), while LC99 of positive control (Levamisole) was 1.257 mg ml-1. However, differences between CME, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions were non significant while aqueous fraction showed significantly lowest potency. The EHT showed that the activity of CME was at the top (23.08 mg ml-1) and that of chloroform fraction remained at the bottom (100.32 mg ml-1). However, the LC99 values of CME and all its fractions in EHT were non-significantly different with each other. Activities of all the extracts were significantly lower than those of positive controls both in AMA and EHT. In vivo administrations revealed that both CP and CME were active to variable extent. The in vivo anthelmintic activity increased with the increase in dose and days PT. Except the first dose of CP (1 g kg-1 b.w) which showed non-significant difference at day 3 and 7 PT, all the doses showed significantly different reduction in EPG compared to untreated control at all stages PT. CME @ 3g kg-1 exhibited the best activity on day 14 PT (47.90%) but this reduction in EPG was significantly lower than positive control (Levamisole) @7.5mg kg-1 b.w. (99.39%). Further in vivo and chemical investigations for accurate adjustment of dose and determination of active principle(s) are suggested.

263-268 Download
36
FLORISTIC INVENTORY AND ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF THE NALTAR VALLEY (KARAKORAM RANGE), GILGIT, PAKISTAN
QAMAR ABBAS1*, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2, ARIF UN NISA NAQVI1, SHER WALI KHAN1 AND ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN3

FLORISTIC INVENTORY AND ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF THE NALTAR VALLEY (KARAKORAM RANGE), GILGIT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Naltar valley has diverse range of flora inhabiting some natural population of endemic plants listed as endangered category. The present study was carried out to record ethnobotanical uses of plants by local inhabitants of the Naltar Valley during summer 2009-11. The detailed information was gathered from the native herbal healers (Hakeems), shepherds and midwives (Daai) by using open ended questionnaire. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to record coordinates of the 46 localities and their distribution map was designed by using ArcGis 9.3. In all, 141 plant species belonging to 107 genera and 48 families were found in practice by the natives for fulfilling their daily life requirements. The reported ethnoflora were comprised of 91 herbs and 23 shrubs. The highest numbers of species (133) were used for medicinal purpose, followed by fodder and forage (101 spp.), fuel and timber (37 spp.), ethnoveterinary uses (27 spp.) and miscellaneous (10 spp.). With reference to medicinal plants, 133 species were used in treating 48 different diseases/ailments by the local herbalists. Family Importance Value (FIV) indicated that Asteraceae was the most dominant (12.06%), followed by Fabaceae (7.09%), Polygonaceae and Rosaceae (7.67% each), while rest of the families had fewer species. The natural ecosystem is declining at rapid pace due to over harvesting coupled with overgrazing and un-sustainable management of flora causing threat to local biodiversity and need a comprehensive plan to protect natural resources.

269-277 Download
37
FLORISTIC ACCOUNT OF EMERGENT-AQUATIC AND MARSHLAND ANGIOSPERMS OF D.I. KHAN DISTRICT, KPK, PAKISTAN
SARFARAZ KHAN MARWAT1, KHALID USMAN2, RIAZ ALI SHAH3, AMIN SHAH4 AND EJAZ AHMAD KHAN2

FLORISTIC ACCOUNT OF EMERGENT-AQUATIC AND MARSHLAND ANGIOSPERMS OF D.I. KHAN DISTRICT, KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present study an account is given of an investigation based on the results of the Taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan, during 2005-2007. The area was surveyed and collection of semi-aquatic and marshland angiosperms was made at least 2 times from 15 sites of various aquatic habitats. The collected materials were identified with the help of available literature and by comparing with voucher specimens at the herbarium of the Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (ISL). In total 40 semi aquatic plant species belonging to 26 genera of 15 families were identified. Cyperaceae was the largest family that contributed 16 species (40%), followed by Poaceae with 6 species (15%), Polygonaceae 4 species (10 %), Ranunculaceae and Typhaceae with 2 species (5% each); while 10 families contributed 1 species (2.5% each). Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, class, flowering period, availability, distribution and diagnostic characters. Detailed account of the semi aquatic and marshland angiosperms of Dera Ismail Khan is not available. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to highlight such angiospermic plant species.

279-288 Download
38
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GLUTENIN COMPOSITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT AND SYNTHETIC DERIVATIVES
AHMAD ALI1*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, ANNA MARIA MASTRANGELO2, PASQUALE DE VITA2, ALVINA GUL-KAZI3 AND ABDUL MUJEEB-KAZI4

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF GLUTENIN COMPOSITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT AND SYNTHETIC DERIVATIVES
ABSTRACT:
Baking industry exigencies and wider consumer preferences are highly demanding variable end product use of bread wheat. Diversity in bread wheat to fulfill these demands is primarily dependent on the D-genome encoded glutenins complemented by desirable glutenins from the A- and B- genome. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare glutenin compositions and their effect on key quality parameters in D-genome synthetic hexaploid derivatives (SDW) and conventional bread wheat (CBW) germplasm. The germplasm set selected encompasses the earlier investigated drought tolerant characteristics. Grain quality analyses have provided stringent selection sieve to select the drought tolerant genotypes with desirable end quality characteristics. Several unique D-genome encoded HMW-GS were found along with favorable alleles at A- and B-genomes. D-genome encoded subunit Dx5+Dy10 which is known to encode superior grain quality attributes was observed in 63.64% genotypes followed by 1Dx2+1Dy12 (30.91%). Apart from HMW-GS, PCR based allele specific markers were used to identify allelic variation at Glu-3 loci (LMW-GS), which had a significant effect on visco-elastic properties of wheat dough. Several combinations of favorable LMW-GS alleles were observed at Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. Key quality parameters like protein, sedimentation volume and carotenoids differed significantly within genotypes. Higher values for desirable quality traits were found in synthetic derived genotypes as well as in conventional bread wheat varieties. Our results established significant variability in quality characteristics and glutenin composition among D-genome synthetic-hexaploid wheat derivatives as compared to conventional bread wheat germplasm suggestive of their ability to improve quality traits in bread wheat.

289-296 Download
39
DYNAMICS OF MRNA OF GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN DURING WOUNDING, COLD AND SALT STRESSES IN NICOTIANA TABACUM
FARIHA KHAN, TASAWAR SULTANA, FARAH DEEBA AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI*

DYNAMICS OF MRNA OF GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN DURING WOUNDING, COLD AND SALT STRESSES IN NICOTIANA TABACUM
ABSTRACT:
Glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs) are RNA-binding proteins that contain one or more RNA recognition motif (RRM) or consensus RNA-binding domains at their N-terminus and a glycine-rich domain at their C-terminus. Their function is not well characterized but GRPs are implicated in plant stress responses, owing to the fact that their mRNA level increases under these conditions. In order to gain an insight into the role at molecular level, the study was designed to observe the dynamics of NtGRP1 during exposure to stresses i.e. wounding, cold and salt stress by real-time PCR. Expression was found to be modulated by wounding in five months old plants. For cold stress, plants were transferred to 4ºC for 24 hours at different developmental stages, wherein expression of mRNA was found to be up-regulated. Variation in transcript level was also seen in response to treatment with various concentrations of NaCl. The detailed characterization of GRPs is expected to enhance our understanding about role of GRPs in plant stress metabolism.

297-300 Download
40
AMPLIFICATION AND SEQUENCING OF INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED REGIONS 1 & 2, AND 5.8S rDNA FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM SPECIES
S. KANWAL BATOOL NAQVI1, SHEERAZ AHMED1, CHAUDHARY ABDUL RAUF2 AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI1*

AMPLIFICATION AND SEQUENCING OF INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED REGIONS 1 & 2, AND 5.8S rDNA FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium oxysporum is a phytopathogenic fungus. It is widely distributed around the globe. Conventional classification of F. oxysporum is based on phenotypic observations which not only vary highly, but are also sensitive to environment. In Fusarium taxonomy this problem is recently being addressed by sequence comparison at different loci. Internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region including 5.8S rRNA coding region in ribosomal DNA is one of the favorite targets for this purpose. The focus of present study was on the genetic diversity analysis of the ITS regions of rRNA gene complex of local isolates of Fusarium. The genomic DNA of these isolates was amplified using FoxF, FoxR and FoxIR primers designed at the end, and start of conserved 18S and 28S region and between ITS1 and ITS2 respectively. FoxF and FoxR primer set amplified ~500 bp product from all Fusarium strains. The amplified products were sequenced and sequence analyses have shown that F. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri strains possess a couple of SNPs. Similarly F. oxysporum f. sp. lentis has shown variations with two strains of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri at two position. Comparison of F. moniliforme isolates with F. oxysporum isolates have revealed that 5.8S region is identical in all isolates while significant sequence variation was observed in ITS regions of F. oxysporum and F. moniliforme. Insertions and deletions of many nucleotides were observed at several positions which differentiate F. moniliforme from F. oxysporum. The phylogenetic analysis revealed no significant difference among local isolates and internationally reported sequences. From a clear grouping of F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum isolates into different clades it may be evident that ITS regions are useful for classifying F. oxysporum isolates at specie level.

301-307 Download
41
IN SILICO PREDICTION OF REGULATORY ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS IN PLANT PROMOTERS
MADIHA TANVEER, HINA-UR-RAZAQ QURESHI, M. QAISER FATMI AND TAYYABA YASMIN*

IN SILICO PREDICTION OF REGULATORY ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS IN PLANT PROMOTERS
ABSTRACT:
The importance of cis or trans acting regulatory elements in gene regulation is quite obvious. Exploring these elements in vivo demands extensive experimentation and is time intensive. In silico methods of predicting these elements have been developed in this regard. In present study around 300 promoters belonging to monocots, dicots and algae were analysed through Consite tool for prediction of regulatory elements. Many putative regulatory elements of diverse functions were found in these promoters. In monocots, TATA-binding proteins (TBP), in dicots, hunchback and in Algae, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) were abundantly represented with 55, 33 and 86% respectively. It was observed that all three plant groups exhibited different families of transcription factors like basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP), Forkhead, RUNT, HOMEO-ZIP, zinc finger (ZN-FINGER), REL, Nuclear receptor, MADS, bZIP and TATA-box. Moreover, selected transcription factors were explored through HADDOCK Webserver to predict possible interactions between their corresponding regulatory elements. It was observed that hydrogen bonds were mostly involved in these interactions. In addition, Lysine and Arginine were mainly found to be associated in establishing these interactions with thymine base.

309-319 Download
42
TRANSGENIC TOBACCO WITH RICE FAE GENE SHOWS ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT STRESS
KHIZAR HAYAT BHATTI1*, AMINULLAH SHAH2, KHALID HUSSAIN1, EJAZ HUSSAIN SIDDIQI1, KHALID NAWAZ1 AMD WU JIAHE3

TRANSGENIC TOBACCO WITH RICE FAE GENE SHOWS ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Plants have evolved various adaptative traits to cope successfully with the stresses. Among them, cuticular waxy coating layer may serve as protecting barrier to diminish water loss, which consequently imparts drought resistance in plants. In order to characterize the role of rice FAE in drought tolerance, the OsFAE transgene was incorporated into tobacco via Agrobacterium–mediated leaflets transformation with sense sequence orientation under control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S. PCR and RT-PCR assays suggest that the OsFAE transgene has incorporated in tobacco genome and over-expressed in the transformed tobacco leaves. The characterization assay revealed some correlation between OsFAE transgene expression and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco. The drought parameters data reveal that the transformed tobacco lines exhibit relatively less wilting on withheld-water stress, early recovery from the stress, containing higher relative water contents. Additionally, the transgenic tobacco lines exhibit more protein contents after exposure to sub-lethal drought stress and relatively higher contents were measured in them as compared to control on re-watering after 48 hours. Proline contents were found higher in the transgenic lines as compared to control under drought on 6th day of with-held water stress. Data shows that leaf water potential was less negative in the selected transgenic lines as compared to control on both; 10th day of with-held water stress and after 24 hours rehydration. It is concluded form present study that the selected OsFAE transgenic tobacco lines showed enhanced resistance against drought stress conditions.

321-326 Download
43
GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG PAKISTANI BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES AND ADVANCED LINES FOR RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
RAHEELA REHMAN1*, KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH2, M. SHAHID MASOOD1, M. ARSHAD1 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG PAKISTANI BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES AND ADVANCED LINES FOR RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD) MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
A large number of wheat varieties have been developed over the years but very few have been investigated for genetic divergence at molecular level. The present paper explains the genetic diversity for Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers among wheat varieties as well as advanced lines. Twenty RAPD decamer primers were used to determine the extent of genetic differences among 48 genotypes. Among 20 primers ten were monomorphic and others generated 71 DNA fragments with an average of about 7.1 bands per primer. The primers, viz., OPE-01, OPB-13 and OPB-09 have 17%, 14% and 5.6% share to the total polymorphism among total variation. Forty seven genotypes were amplified with the primer OPA-09 and 11 with OPA-16. Six genotypes NR-346, NR-373, NR-389, NR-383, WSP-148 and WSP-196 were the most diverse from rest of the genotypes for RAPD analysis. The information about genetic similarity and differences will be helpful to avoid any possibility of elite germplasm becoming genetically uniform.

327-332 Download
44
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY CORE COLLECTION: A STRATEGY FOR GERMPLASM MANAGEMENT
REHAN NAEEM1,2 AND BUSHRA MIRZA1*

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY CORE COLLECTION: A STRATEGY FOR GERMPLASM MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Redundant materials in germplasm collections cause hurdles in gene bank management. Present study was conducted to analyze redundancies using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and to evaluate genetic diversity of barley germplasm comprising of 404 Hordeum vulgare landraces belonging to 8 different regions (Pakistan. India, Iran, Nepal, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Kazakhstan). In total 50 alleles were detected. Number of alleles observed was highest for Bmag0023 (11) followed by HVLOX (9), HVM54 (8), Bmag0382 (7), Bmag0500 (5), Bmag0490 (5) and HVID (5) locus. Allele size range was largest for HVLOX while it was lowest for Bmag0500. Allele frequencies were found highest for allele HVM54-120 (0.39) followed by HVID-80 (0.38) and Bmag0382-66 (0.35). Core collection for the barley germplasm comprised of 42 patterns including 14 unique and 28 frequent patterns. The number of patterns observed in landraces of different regions was in the order of Pakistan> India> Nepal> Turkmenistan> Iraq> Iran> Uzbekistan> Kazakhstan. These patterns were clearly clustered into two groups using Jaccard’s cluster analysis (group A and group B). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also distributes these patterns into three groups. The overall results revealed that differentiation of patterns using Jaccard’s cluster analysis was in accordance with PCA which revealed that these patterns were distributed with respect to their geographic regions. Furthermore, it was concluded that development of core collection is the one strategy besides other strategies to reduce redundancies in gene bank management and make the handling of germplasm easier.

333-338 Download
45
GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF LOCAL TURMERIC GENOTYPES USING RAPDS
SIFFATULLAH KHAN, SHAMA NAZ, REEMA AND REHAN NAEEM*

GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF LOCAL TURMERIC GENOTYPES USING RAPDS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic fingerprinting of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) genotypes collected from 5 different regions of Bannu including Ismail Khel, Kaki, Raakh Sarkar, Michan Khel and Mandan was performed using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 22 primer were evaluated for genetic diversity studies, of which 3 (OPE-07, OPC-01 and OPA-03) were found suitable. In total these generate 141 fragments, of which 40 fragments were polymorphic with 28.36% of polymorphism. The number of amplification products generated by each primer varied from 6 (OPC-01) to 17 (OPA-03). The polymorphism of turmeric genotypes using OPA-03 (38.3%) was found highest followed by OPE-07 (25.0%) and OPC-01 (21.74%). It was observed that OPA-03 was better to discriminate genotype as compared to other markers. Un-weighed Pair Group Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) analysis has clustered 50 turmeric genotypes into 6 groups showing their differentiation on the basis of their locality. On the basis of population locality cluster analysis clustered all the collected turmeric populations of Bannu region into two groups including Group I and Group II. Group I include four populations P1, P4, P5 and P2 collected from Ismail Khel, Michen Khel, Mandan and Kaki respectively while Group II was found unique as it comprised of only one population P3 form Raakh Sarkar. Turmeric genotypes evaluated using RAPD in the present study is helpful to identify potential genotypes which give broadness to the germplasm base of turmeric breeding programs.

339-346 Download
46
INSILICO IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATE RESISTANCE GENE AGAINST YELLOW RUST IN WHEAT
SHAHZADI FAIZA SAFDAR1, HAMID RASHID1*AND ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY2

INSILICO IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATE RESISTANCE GENE AGAINST YELLOW RUST IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Yellow rust, also known as stripe rust, is one of the 3 wheat rust diseases principally found in wheat grown in cooler environments. Yellow rust, grounds by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f.sp. tritici, which is an important foliar disease of wheat and development resistant cultivars are the most economical method of control. Of the three rust diseases of wheat, stripe (yellow) rust (YR) is the most damaging to grain yields in cool, moist environments. Chemical control of rusts is expensive and hazardous to the environment. Yr5 and Yr10 are resistance genes among many other resistance genes while PsMAPK1 is fungus protein causing yellow rust in wheat. The protein sequences of Yr5 and Yr10 was retrieved from NCBI and PsMAPK1 protein sequence was retrieved from UNIPROT. By I-TASSER 3D models of Yr5, Yr10 and PsMAPK1 were generated. The models were evaluated by energy minimization technique. By finding the physiochemical properties of the templates and by docking technique alternate resistance gene had been found from the Yr5 and Yr10 templates. The physiochemical properties of Yr5 and Yr10 genes were compared with physiochemical properties of templates to find the suitable alternate against this disease in wheat. Docking results shows the interactions among receptor and ligand. These results show that template 2OF7 has closer results of physiochemical properties to Yr5 and template 3IZA has closer results of physiochemical properties to Yr10.

347-352 Download
47
PROFILING THE CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS
MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI1*, SAEED-UR-REHMAN KAKAR1 AND ATTA MOHAMMAD SARANGZAI1

PROFILING THE CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) MICRORNAS AND THEIR TARGETS
ABSTRACT:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding and negative regulatory RNAs approximately 18-26 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a rational approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this study, total 17 novel miRNAs from 12 families were identified in an important vegetable carrot (Daucus carota). All the miRNA families (dca-mir-156, 160, 167, 172, 774, 778, 854, 1310, 5015, 5030, 5658 and 5664) are found for the first time in carrot. All 17 miRNA precursors form stable minimum free energy secondary structures and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem region of the secondary structures. A total of 24 putative targets were also identified. These findings will be useful to understand the complicated negative gene regulation in the important plant carrot.

353-358 Download
48
DEVELOPMENT OF PUTATIVE MOLECULAR MARKERS TO TRACE DURABLE RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN WHEAT BREEDING STOCKS
MARYUM ZEB1, MUHAMMAD KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH2 AND RANI FARYAL1,3*

DEVELOPMENT OF PUTATIVE MOLECULAR MARKERS TO TRACE DURABLE RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN WHEAT BREEDING STOCKS
ABSTRACT:
Wheat plays a central role in Pakistan’s food economy in terms of production and consumption. Wheat shares 3.1% of national GDP. Rusts are among the devastating diseases of wheat. A large number of rust resistance genes are known in wheat for stripe (yellow), leaf (brown) and stem rust. Selection for durable resistance in rust breeding programs is typically carried out in field screening nurseries or under controlled conditions only for advanced breeding lines. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) can be useful under such conditions. Availability of small number of DNA markers for identification of genes involved in rust resistance makes MAS application difficult. Identification and designing of new PCR primers may help to select rust resistant genotypes from wheat breeding stocks in early segregating generations. This study is designed with aim to identify and design PCR primers for resistance genes in wheat breeding stocks. Data and sequences were retrieved through extensive literature and databases search. Data mining was done on public domain available databases i.e., NCBI nucleotide, Grain Genes and Plant GDB. A total of 12 sequences for leaf rust resistance, 13 for stripe rust resistance and 2 for stem rust resistance were retrieved. Homology studies, motif finding and their phylogenetic analysis was done to infer their possible functions and to develop PCR primers to mark the rust resistance genes in wheat germplasm. These markers were validated for detection of rust resistance gene among 16 local varieties, which proved valuable for future wheat breeding.

359-366 Download
49
DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES AND PATTERN OF METAL ACCUMULATION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS AT ELEVATED LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY
SEEMA MAHMOOD*, SHABNAM ISHTIAQ, MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM MALIK AND ALI AHMED

DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES AND PATTERN OF METAL ACCUMULATION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) CULTIVARS AT ELEVATED LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY
ABSTRACT:
Influence of lead and mercury levels (100 and 300 mg/Kg soil) on three sunflower cultivars (DK-4040, Hysun-33 and NK-278) was assessed by analyzing germination, various growth attributes (fresh and dry weights of root and shoot and plant height) and photosynthetic traits (leaf area, chlorophyll a, b and total) along with carotenoids. Bioaccumulation of metals in plant tissues were assessed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Both lead and mercury at a concentration of 100 mg/Kg of soil did not significantly influence the attributes studied. However, the most elevated level of metals (300 mg/Kg of soil) had caused a significant reduction of growth and pigments. Biomass production, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments and carotenoids content appeared to serve as potential indicators for metal tolerance. The results indicated distinct responses of the cultivars as well as differential effects of the tested metals. Among the cultivars, DK-4040 had consistently showed a better threshold for both metals at all levels as it excelled 11 traits for mercury and 8 for lead. Hysun-33 also showed some tolerance while, NK-278 appeared to be a sensitive cultivar for most of the attributes in the presence of lead and mercury. The elevated levels of lead appeared to be more injurious to plants as compared with mercury for Hysun- 33 and NK-278. The greater toxicity of lead can be attributed to translocation of metal from the roots to the aerial tissues. The ability of DK-4040 for sustainable growth, integrity of chloroplast, existence of non enzymatic defense and restricted transfer of metal to above ground tissue seem to provide a compatible strategy for heavy metal tolerance. Based on the bioaccumulation of lead and mercury the cultivars can be placed among metal excluders.

367-374 Download
50
GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN TARAMIRA (ERUCA SATIVA L.) GERMPLASM BASED ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERS
SHEHLA SHINWARI1, ABDUL SAMAD MUMTAZ1*, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2, FAZAL AKBAR3 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN TARAMIRA (ERUCA SATIVA L.) GERMPLASM BASED ON QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERS
ABSTRACT:
The breeding potential of the Eruca sativa (Taramira) genotypes held in IABGR gene-bank has not been exploited to date. A total of 100 Eruca sativa genotypes collected from various eco-geographical regions of Pakistan were assessed to estimate the phenotypic diversity for 20 quantitative and 5 qualitative characters. A significant level of morphological diversity was recorded among quantitative and qualitative traits. The correlation coefficient analysis suggested that many traits had significant positive correlation with seed yield. Cluster analysis recognized four major clusters. Cluster analysis suggested that genotypes were mainly grouped due to their morphological dissimilarities. These results point out a number of valuable traits in the gene pool and a huge phenotypic variation that offers a fine basis of diversity for the selections of best Taramira accessions. Our findings have an important application for Eruca sativa germplasm evaluation, improvement, classification and preservation in Pakistan.

375-381 Download
51
LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN MAIZE VARIETY SARHAD-WHITE
H. RAHMAN1*, ASIF ALI1, ZAHIR SHAH2, M. IQBAL3, M. NOOR1 AND AMANULLAH4

LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN MAIZE VARIETY SARHAD-WHITE
ABSTRACT:
This experiment was carried out at Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2011 to test 15 maize S2 lines of maize variety Sarhad White in test cross combinations. During spring season (February-June) S2 lines of maize variety Sarhad-White variety were out crossed at three isolations with 2 hybrids; WD3×6, Kiramat and an open pollinated variety Jalal. Performance of the resulting testcrosses was evaluated with their parents in July-October. Randomized complete block design with 2 replications was used in the experiment. Parents and crosses for yield traits showed highly significant differences. The traits were further analyzed for general combining ability and specific combining ability effects. Maximum ear length (18.83cm) was produced when S2 Line No.5 was crossed with WD3×6 as a tester. Maximum general combining ability value 1.81 was observed for S2 Line No.2. Least desirable specific combining ability effect was observed for S2 Line No.4 using WD2×8 a tester. Maximum kernel rows ear-1 (17) was observed for test crosses TC_6 and 14, using WD3×6 as a tester. Maximum desirable general combining ability (1.70) was recorded for S2 Line No. 6(1.59). S2 Line No.15 was good specific combiner with testers WD2×8 (1.99) and Jalal (1.81). Heaviest grains were produced by test cross TC_7 (39.5 g), using WD2×8 as a tester. For grain yield S2 line no. 2 was the best general combiner, followed by S2 line 9. For SCA, S2 line 2, 3 and 6 were the best specific combiners when crossed with tester WD2 x 8, Jalal and WD3x6, respectively.

383-387 Download
52
ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS DYNAMICS IN RAINFED WHEAT FIELDS IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
ISRAR ASGHAR1, MUHAMMAD AKMAL1, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ2*, MEHWISH MAQBOOL2 AND TANVEER HUSSAIN2

ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS DYNAMICS IN RAINFED WHEAT FIELDS IN ARID ZONE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Soil Microbial Biomass (SMB) dynamics in rainfed wheat fields was assessed. In study ½ NP @ of 40:20 kg ha-1 and full recommended dose of NP @ of 80:40 kg ha-1 was applied. A composite soil sample was taken and its electrical conductivity (ECe) was 0.38 dS m-1. SMB parameters such as Cmic, Nmic, Pmic, Cmic: Nmic and Cmic: Pmic were determined by fumigation extraction method. The Cmic, Cmic: Nmic and Cmic: Pmic values were highest at the early stage of crop then declined in the middle and lowest at the crop maturity. Whilst Nmic and Pmic were low in the initial growth period and at peak in middle and lowest at maturity. All indices of SMB were increased by utilization of a balance fertilizer as in CK, the total amount of Cmic, Nmic, Pmic, Cmic: Nmic and Cmic: Pmic during wheat growth was 861.08 mg kg-1, 84 mg kg-1, 31.91 mg kg-1, 83.81 mg kg-1 and 224.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In ½ NP dose it was1260.4 mg kg-1, 104.07 mg kg-1, 45.69 mg kg-1, 98.35 mg kg-1 and 230.33 mg kg-1, respectively whilst in NP dose it was 1435.42 mg kg-1,112.68 mg kg-1,59.65 mg kg-1,102.78 mg kg-1 and 198.5 mg kg-1, respectively. Seasonal variation depicted prevalent effect on SMB in the study. The average values of Cmic, Cmic: Nmic and Cmic: Pmic during drought period were higher than in rainy season. SMB fluctuation was ambient with regard to change in air and soil temperature. The considerable seasonal changes and variation due to fertilization in SMB indicated a direct relationship with nutrients availability which shed impact on growth and yield of crop.

389-399 Download
53
FORAGE YIELD AS AFFECTED BY COMMON VETCH IN DIFFERENT SEEDING RATIOS WITH WINTER CEREALS IN POTHOHAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ANSAR1*, MUHAMMAD ASAD MUKHTAR1, RAO SABIR SATTAR1, MUHAMMAD AZIM MALIK1, GHULAM SHABBIR2, AHMAD SHER1 AND MUHAMMAD IRFAN1

FORAGE YIELD AS AFFECTED BY COMMON VETCH IN DIFFERENT SEEDING RATIOS WITH WINTER CEREALS IN POTHOHAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In rainfed area of Pothwar, farmers and livestock producers have no option except to raise their animals on wheat straw and summer cereals stalk, which are poor in nutrients. In order to overcome the forage scarcity, two experiments were carried out during the year 2008-09 and 2010-11. In the first experiment, oat and vetch was grown in pure as well as in mix seeding ratio of 45:55, 30:70 and 15:85%. In the second experiment, the forage yield of common vetch and winter cereals: oat, wheat and barley in pure and in three different seeding ratios of 13:87, 25:75, 50:50 as well as in pure stands of vetch and cereals were studied to find out the best yielding seeding ratio. The vetch-oat seeding ratio of 30:70% ratio produced higher forage yield under rainfed condition while the vetch-cereal seeding ratio of 25:75 performed better in terms of green as well as dry matter production. The vetch-oat, vetch-barley and vetch-wheat in 25:75 seeding ratio resulted in 1.06, 1.04 and 1.10 LER values which indicated the advantage of vetch-cereal 25:75 seeding ratio over pure stand. Vetch-oat, vetch-barley and vetch-wheat in 25:75 seeding ratio resulted in 6.2%, 4.8% and 10.0% higher water use efficiency (WUE) and an average 16.3%, 16.8% and 23.9% higher photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) values than their respective pure stands, and produced 7, 4 and 5% higher green forage yield respectively, compared to their respective pure stand.

401-408 Download
54
GLU-DT1 ALLELIC VARIATION IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS DERIVED FROM DURUM CULTIVAR ‘DECOY’ × AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONAL CROSSES
MADEEHA KHALID1, TARIQ MAHMOOD1, AWAIS RASHEED1*, ALVINA GUL KAZI2, AHMAD ALI3 AND ABDUL MUJEEB KAZI4

GLU-DT1 ALLELIC VARIATION IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEATS DERIVED FROM DURUM CULTIVAR ‘DECOY’ × AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONAL CROSSES
ABSTRACT:
Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits is the fundamental approach for categorizing genotypes with good bread making quality. Allelic variation at Glu-Dt1 locus is major determinant of bread wheat end use quality. In synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs), the D-genome encodes numerous allelic variants of high molecular weight glutenin subunits that require appropriate identification prior to their exploitation for wheat improvement. This study was conducted to identify allelic variation at Glu-Dt1 locus of 47 accessions of D-genome synthetic wheats derived from the crossing of durum cultivar “Decoy” with different accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE) and molecular marker techniques were used to stringently characterize allelic differentiation. Nine different alleles at Glu-Dt1 locus were observed which formed 13 different subunit combinations. The frequency of inferior quality encoding allele, 1Dx2+1Dy12, was equivalent (21.27%) to the frequency of superior quality encoding allele, 1Dx5+1Dy10 (21.27%). Additional validation was carried out with co-dominant molecular markers for Glu-A1c (Null), Glu-D1d (1Dx5+1Dy10), Glu-D1a (1Dx2+1Dy12) and Glu-D1-1g (1Dx2.1) alleles. The high number of glutenin subunits observed in SHWs are suggestive that somewhat narrow genetic base for D-genome encoded glutenin subunits in bread wheat may be broadened by exploiting this diploid genomic grass resource through targeting allelic transfers from synthetic hexaploid genetic stocks. The identification of these new allelic combinations in SHWs provide an option to replace other inferior quality encoding alleles in bread wheat cultivarsby better allelic variants that have become available at the Glu-Dt1 locus of SHWs being inherited from diverse Ae. tauschii accessions.

409-414 Download
55
LEAF RUST RESISTANCE IN SEMI DWARF WHEAT CULTIVARS: A CONSPECTUS OF POST GREEN REVOLUTION PERIOD IN PAKISTAN
GHULAM MUSTAFA*, MUHAMMAD MAQSOOD ALAM, SAMI ULLAH KHAN, MUHAMMAD NAVEED AND ABDUL S. MUMTAZ

LEAF RUST RESISTANCE IN SEMI DWARF WHEAT CULTIVARS: A CONSPECTUS OF POST GREEN REVOLUTION PERIOD IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This study evaluates the genetics of thirty-eight commercial wheat varieties using specific molecular marker for six significant Lr genes (Lr10, Lr13, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr27 and Lr31) revealing the presence of these genes in 18, 16, 0, 0, 16, 27 and 21 varieties respectively. Thirty one commercial wheat varieties bear more than one Lr genes. To optimize the observations ABI 3730 capillary array method was used for the detection of required product of specific size with sensitivity in single nucleotide polymorphism. The molecular marker with cM distance, less than 1 showed a valuable prediction for effective genes using conventional Gel electrophoresis image. The STS markers showed efficiency to verify four effective genes (Lr10, Lr21, Lr24, and Lr27) in local germplasm with parallel analysis from field trial at Regional Agriculture Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Specificity of three SSR markers confirmed with sensitive ABI 3730 analysis with fine peak intensities. The data provided showed that the genes (Lr10, Lr13, Lr26, and Lr27-Lr31) are widely distributed in Pakistan varieties while the absence of Lr24 and Lr21, hence provided a motivation to transfer such widely effective genes to enhance resistance through MAS breeding. Findings showed that the marker assisted selection employing sensitive ABI 3730 analysis of distributed Lr genes in Pakistani wheat will help to establish gene pyramiding against leaf rust races and hence a way forward to integrate effective genes in future wheat varieties. The reliability of STS and specific SSR marker under diverse genetic background will also be a futuristic approach.

415-422 Download
56
GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BASMATI AND NON-BASMATI RICE VARIETIES BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
SHAHID MASOOD SHAH*, SHAHZAD AAMIR NAVEED AND MUHAMMAD ARIF

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BASMATI AND NON-BASMATI RICE VARIETIES BASED ON MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Molecular markers are useful tools for evaluating genetic diversity and determining cultivar identity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity within a diverse collection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions and to determine differences in the patterns of diversity within the aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties. Forty rice accessions were evaluated by means of 24 microsatellite markers distributed over the whole rice genome. A total of 66 alleles were detected at 24 SSR loci, and the number of alleles per marker ranged from 2 to 4, with an average of 2.75. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.0476 (RM315) to 0.5993 (RM252), with an average of 0.3785 per marker. The average genic diversity over all SSR loci for the 40 genotypes was 0.4477, ranging from 0.0488 to 0.6638. Major allele frequency ranged from 0.4250 (RM252) to 0.9750 (RM315), with an average of 0.6472. The dendrogram based on the cluster analysis by microsatellite polymorphism, grouped 40 rice cultivars into three groups effectively differentiating basmati cultivars from non-basmati cultivars. These results could be useful for monitoring purity, genotype identification and for plant variety protection.

423-431 Download
57
IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD, QUALITY AND REDUCTION IN FRUIT DROP IN KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS, POTASSIUM AND ZINC
M. YASIN ASHRAF1, M. ASHRAF2, M. AKHTAR1, KHALID MAHMOOD1 AND MUHAMMAD SALEEM1

IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD, QUALITY AND REDUCTION IN FRUIT DROP IN KINNOW (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO) BY EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS, POTASSIUM AND ZINC
ABSTRACT:
Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) fruit is one of the best commercial fruits of Pakistan. It is cultivated on a large area in the Punjab province due to its reasonably higher yield, quality, taste and flavor than those of the other citrus fruits. However, its average yield in Pakistan is far below than that of the other citrus growing countries of the world. Fruit dropping is one of the main reasons of low citrus fruit yield in Pakistan, which is thought to be mainly due to hormonal imbalance in the plants. This imbalance may occur as a result of nutrient deficiency in orchard soils, water shortage, and insect pest attack on the citrus trees. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the influence of growth regulators [2,4-D and salicylic acid (SA)] and nutrients [potassium (K) and zinc (Zn)] to improve yield and quality of Kinnow fruit and control the fruit drop at four selected sites in the citrus growing tract of Punjab, Pakistan. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, SA, K, and Zn significantly improved the fruit weight, number of fruits per plant juice percentage, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid content, acidity, and TSS/acid ratio, and reduced the fruit drop. Application of 2,4-D+K+Zn and SA+K+Zn showed beneficial effects on all the afore-mentioned parameters.

433-440 Download
58
BACTERIAL EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW RECOMBINANT CYSTEINE PROTEASE FROM MAIZE LEAVES: POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES UNDER OZONE STRESS
RAFIQ AHMAD1*,2, 3, YASMINE ZUILY-FODIL3, CHANTAL PASSAQUET3 AND JAM NAZEER AHMAD4

BACTERIAL EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW RECOMBINANT CYSTEINE PROTEASE FROM MAIZE LEAVES: POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES UNDER OZONE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Cysteine proteases are implicated in senescence, defense signaling pathways and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this context, we have cloned a novel cDNA encoding for papain family of cysteine protease from maize leaves. Mature part of papain-like protease was expressed in Escherichia coli using T7 promoter system. The recombinant protein was purified from inclusion bodies, refolded, characterized and used to produce corresponding antibodies in order to study post-transcriptional level of this specific protease under ozone stress. The results showed that ozone enhanced significantly papain-like cysteine protease at post-transcriptional level in 12th and 10th leaves of field grown maize plants. Simultaneously, senescence induced a rise in cysteine protease activity in both leaves. All together, these results suggest that ozone stress stimulates senescence processes, such as those related to proteolysis.

441-446 Download
59
EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE LEAF MORPHOLOGY OF COMMON PLANT SPECIES OF QUETTA CITY
SAADULLAH KHAN LEGHARI AND MUDASSIR ASRAR ZAIDI

EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE LEAF MORPHOLOGY OF COMMON PLANT SPECIES OF QUETTA CITY
ABSTRACT:
The urban air pollution is a major environmental concern, particularly in the developing countries and in their major cities. Therefore, the present study was mainly aimed to study the effect of air pollution on the morphological characteristics of leaf of 13 common plant species viz., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Eucalyptus tereticornis L., Ficus carica L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Melia azadirach L., Morus alba L., Morus nigra L., Pistacia vera L., Prunus armeniaca L., Punica granatum L., Robinia pseudo acacia L., Rosa indica L. and Vitis vinifera L. grown in the urban (polluted site) and peri-urban (non-polluted) sites of Quetta. Results showed that all plant species exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction at polluted site in their leaf length, width, area and petiole length when compared with the same plant species of non-polluted site. These plant species also showed significant variation in the growth of morphological parameters from season to season. Results also showed that the overall reduction % in leaf length, width, area and length of petiole during different seasons at polluted sites with respect to those of non-polluted sites were found maximum during summer (33.91, 36.61, 37.08 and 46.17 %), followed by autumn and lowest was recorded during spring season (28.39, 23.50. 32.49 and 26.34 %), respectively. Results also deciphered that minimum decrease in leaf length (19.86%), leaf width (17.81%), leaf area (22.66%) and petiole length (02.56%) was observed in Vitis vinefera L., Pistacia vera L., Ficus carica L. and Pistacia vera L. Whereas, maximum decrease 72.59, 50.58, 57.98 and 65.48% for the same attributes were noted in Punica granatum L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Rosa indica L. and Eucalyptus tereticornis L., respectively. Results further indicated that as the plants get ages, the reduction % of various leaf attributes of polluted plants also increased as compared with non-polluted plant species. This could be mainly due to maximum exposure of plants to air pollutants come from various auto emission sources.

447-454 Download
60
AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENDEMIC PLANT POLYGONUM ISTANBULICUM KESKIN AND ITS ENVIRONS
VOLKAN ALTAY1*, IBRAHIM ILKER OZYIGIT2, MUSTAFA KESKIN2, GOKSEL DEMIR3 AND IBRAHIM ERTUGRUL YALCIN3

AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENDEMIC PLANT POLYGONUM ISTANBULICUM KESKIN AND ITS ENVIRONS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, some ecological features of narrow endemic Polygonum istanbulicum Keskin, which was established as a new plant species in 2009, and its environs were examined. There are 41 known Polygonum taxa in Turkey and the genus is represented by 14 species in Istanbul. Plant and soil samples were collected from the place where the species merely lives in the world (Başıbüyük Forest, Maltepe District, Istanbul/Turkey). Plant and soil samples were collected by using standard methods and root, branch, leaf and soil mineral nutrients (Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Na, Zn), were measured. Additionally, soil texture, structure and other physical and chemical measurements such as pH, total protein and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined.

455-459 Download
61
THE POTENTIAL OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
FAROOQ AHMAD*, AMIN U. KHAN AND ABDULLAH YASAR

THE POTENTIAL OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
The release of municipal wastewater from various sources can cause contamination of water bodies and algal blooms. In this study isolated strain of chlorella vulgaris was used for treatment of municipal wastewater and biodiesel production. Initially Chlorella culture was prepared in artificial media then it was inoculated in transparent and covered, glass ponds containing wastewater to investigate its treatment efficiency. A lab scale biological wastewater treatment design was also made using chlorella vulgaris. Harvested biomass was transesterified to biodiesel using sodium metal as a catalyst. Percent reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), NO3-, PO42- and TC (total coliforms) was almost similar in all types of transparent and covered ponds after treatment with chlorella vulgaris. Analysis of selected parameters was carried out at each step of biological treatment design and maximum reduction percentage of COD (99.9%), BOD (100%), NO3- (99.98%), PO42- (99.96%) and TC (100%), was observed by applying chlorella vulgaris. Biodiesel produced by direct transesterification of dried algal biomass was analyzed and compared with ASTM (American Standard Test Method) standards. Results showed that biodiesel produced was of good quality and it can be used as a fuel in vehicles.

461-465 Download
62
ALLELOPATHIC EVALUATION OF SHARED INVASIVE PLANTS AND WEEDS OF PAKISTAN AND JAPAN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT
MUHAMMAD IBRAR SHINWARI1, MARYUM IBRAR SHINWARI2 AND YOSHIHARU FUJII3

ALLELOPATHIC EVALUATION OF SHARED INVASIVE PLANTS AND WEEDS OF PAKISTAN AND JAPAN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT
ABSTRACT:
In an investigation, three dimensional assessments have been made to evaluate allelopathic potential of 38 shared invasive plants and weeds of Pakistan and Japan originated from 5 continents, carried out at Plant Chemical Ecology Laboratory at National Institute of Agro-Environmental Science, Japan from January 2008 to March 2009. The plant species under investigation have been tested by subjecting their root exudates, leaf litter and volatiles through application of Plant box, Sandwich and Dish pack methods. The results obtained from all 3 different methods have been statistically analyzed and the mean, standard deviation (SD) and SD variance (SDV) has been calculated to determine the inhibition pattern of radicals growth of the lettuce seedlings for environmental risk assessment. According to results, as a whole Melilotus officinalis appeared to be the most noxious species among all due to maximum inhibition effect shown on the radical growth of Lactuca sativa followed by Melilotus alba, Datura stramonium and Mirabilis jalapa. While Rumex crispus, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex conglomerates and Trifolium pratense have shown minimum inhibition effect. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature. The information obtained can also be helpful in the development of new and potent bioactive chemicals from natural products to combat environmental risk.

467-474 Download
63
TOLERABLE ANALYSIS OF THE FUNGI OF THE PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURAL AREA
SHAZIA IRAM1, KHADIJA BASHARAT1 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD2

TOLERABLE ANALYSIS OF THE FUNGI OF THE PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURAL AREA
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted with the aim to scrutinize the tolerance and biosorptive capability of two strains of Aspergillus niger towards the prevailing heavy metals in the soil. The research focused on the fungal strains of the contaminated soils of Hudiara drain, Lahore and Chahkayra Chack, Faisalabad. The degree of tolerance of fungi was judged in correspondence with the radial growth (cm) in the presence of heavy metal containing media followed by its comparison with the control, which contain no heavy metals. Tolerance was measured in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and Aspergillus niger showed minimum growth at 6mg/ml against the tested heavy metal Cr(NO3)3 and exhibited radial growth 3-4.5 cm. Aspergillus niger strains of Faisalabad and Lahore showed maximum biosorption at 8mM and 10mM. Data obtained from the experimentation has vast futuristic applicability in terms of biosorption, bioremediation and genetic characterization in future purposes.

475-480 Download
64
EFFECTS OF LEAD RESISTANT BACTERIA ON THE EARLY GROWTH OF VIGNA MUNGO L. (HEPPER) UNDER LEAD STRESS
SYEDA SHAIMA MERYEM AND AZRA YASMIN*

EFFECTS OF LEAD RESISTANT BACTERIA ON THE EARLY GROWTH OF VIGNA MUNGO L. (HEPPER) UNDER LEAD STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Three lead resistant bacteria Bacillus pumilus (TE07), Bacillus cerus (TE12 & TE14), were examined for their plant growth promotion /remediation potential. Their ability to promote early growth and their effects on metal uptake by three varieties of Vigna mungo L. (Hepper) i.e., NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3 and NARC-Mash-97 was screened out under different concentration (0, 1, 2, 5, and 10Mm) of lead. Different growth parameters (seed germination, seedling root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry biomass, dry matter accumulation per seedling) and accumulation of lead by inoculated and non inoculated seedlings were observed and recorded. Results revealed that lead drastically reduce the seed germination and seedling growth of all three verities of Mash, while bacterial inoculations improved germination and various growth parameters of Mash varieties. All bacteria for variety NARC-Mash-3 and strain TE-12 for Variety NARC-Mash-2 had a positive relationship to combat lead stress by improving the seedling growth. Study also revealed that genetic variation of both plant variety and bacterial strain is important in developing a successful remedial mechanism.

481-485 Download
65
EFFECT OF BACTERIA CONTAINING ACC DEAMINASE ON GROWTH OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS GROWN WITH CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED WATER
IRAM SHAHZADI1, AZEEM KHALID1*, SHAHID MAHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2, TARIQ MAHMOOD1 AND IRFAN AZIZ3

EFFECT OF BACTERIA CONTAINING ACC DEAMINASE ON GROWTH OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS GROWN WITH CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED WATER
ABSTRACT:
Chromium (Cr) is considered as toxic environmental pollutant and causes harmful effects on growth and development of plants and human health. Usually, high level of ethylene (a plant hormone) is produced in plants in response to any biotic or abiotic stress. Negative effect of Cr-imposed stress on plants may be minimized by using bacteria possessing an enzyme 1-amino-cyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria containing ACC-deaminase on wheat under different levels of Cr applied to growth medium. Experiments were conducted under laboratory and lath house conditions. Results of this study demonstrated that inoculation of wheat seeds with two strains of bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens (Q14) and Bacillus thuringiensis (KAP5) significantly increased the root length (up to 208%), shoot length (up to 67%), root dry weight (up to 140%) and shoot dry weight (up to 71%) respectively as compared to uninoculated control plants. Strain KAP5 possessing both ACC-deaminase as well as phosphate solubilizing activity was found to be the most effective in improving the plant growth compared to uninoculated control in both sand and soil experiments. Inoculation also significantly increased the accumulation of Cr in root and shoots compared to uninoculated control, where the Cr uptake 80.8µg/g dry mass and 69.9µg/g dry mass in root and shoot respectively, was observed. These findings indicated that ACC-deaminase producing bacterial strains could play vital role in improving the plant growth under metal-stress condition and they may enhance bioremediation process in Cr-contaminated environment. Moreover, presence of dual plant growth promoting trait such as ACC-deaminase and phosphate solubilizing activity could have more promising effect on plant growth and Cr removal than the single trait bacterium.

487-494 Download
66
EFFECT OF NICKEL AND CADMIUM ON GLUCOSINOLATE PRODUCTION IN THLASPI CAERULESCENS
SAEED AHMAD ASAD1, 2*, SCOTT YOUNG2 AND HELEN WEST2

EFFECT OF NICKEL AND CADMIUM ON GLUCOSINOLATE PRODUCTION IN THLASPI CAERULESCENS
ABSTRACT:
Hyperaccumulator plant species are studied because of their potential for cleaning up land contaminated with heavy metals, but another aspect of study relates to the reason for hyperaccumulation. The most accepted hypothesis over the last decades is elemental defence hypothesis stating that accumulated heavy metals defend the plants against herbivores and pathogens. Glucosinolates in hyperaccumulators are also known to defend the plants against these environmental stresses. Current study was designed to test any trade-off between these 2 types of defences in Thlaspi caerulescens. Thlaspi plants were grown in glass house at different Ni and Cd concentrations where clipping damage with scissors was applied to substitute herbivory. The maximum foliar Ni was observed as 233.20 mg kg-1 whilst, maximum Cd uptake was reported to be 119.63 mg kg-1 of dry mass of Thlaspi shoots. The maximum uptake of Ni was 2-4 times higher while that of Cd was 4-10 times higher as compared to that applied in substrate. The Ni uptake by Thlaspi was far below than the threshold value, the concentrations commonly used to define hyperaccumulation. There was a positive correlation between soil metal addition and concentration of shoot metals. Generally, lower concentrations of glucosinolates were observed in plants with higher foliar Cd concentrations, while in case of Ni treated plants, glucosinolates were induced at elevated metal application. Trade-offs between 2 types of chemical defences was only observed at highest Cd concentrations while Ni application increased the level of glucosinolates. The overall conclusion partially supported the ‘trade- off hypothesis’.

495-500 Download
67
TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SPINACH SEEDLINGS GROWN ON FRESHLY CONTAMINATED SOIL
SARDAR KHAN1*, ALIA NAZ1,2, MUHAMMAD ASIM3, SHAIKH SAEED AHMAD4, SAEEDA YOUSAF1 AND SAID MUHAMMAD5,6

TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SPINACH SEEDLINGS GROWN ON FRESHLY CONTAMINATED SOIL
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to investigate the toxicities of 3 different doses of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in both single and mix forms on the growth parameters (shoot and root fresh and dry weights, root and shoot lengths, shoot diameter, number of leaves, cell size and mitotic index) of spinach seedlings. Soil from historically uncontaminated site was taken and after air drying and sieving (2 mm mesh sieve) was spiked with selected metals. Plastic pots filled with spiked soil and seedlings of spinach were prepared in greenhouse environment. Growth parameters were calculated according to standards methods and heavy metals (HMs) were extracted from plant tissues in digestion block with the help of acid mixture (15 ml) of HNO3, HClO4, and H2SO4 (5:1:10), and concentrations of HMs were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer (Analyst 700 of PerkElmer). Increasing concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in both single and mixture forms significantly (p<0.05) reduced growth parameters of S. oleracea seedlings. The reduction in growth parameters of S. oleracea seedling showed the dose response for Cd, Pb and Zn in both single and mixture forms. The uptake patterns of Cd, Pb and Zn in Cd/Pb, Cd/Zn and Pb/Zn showed antagonistic impacts on each other and uptake pattern was reflected in growth of the seedlings. Toxicities caused by selected HMs were highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. HHHhhHHHighest toxicity was observed in plant seedlings grown on Cd/Pb treated soil.

501-508 Download
68
STUDY OF LIPID-PROTEIN INTERACTION IN THE SECRETORY PATHWAY OF PLANT CELL BY RAISING AND USING ANTILIPID ANTIBODIES AGAINST PARICULAR LIPIDS AND PROTEINS IN ARABIDOPSIS AND TOBACCO PLANT
JAM NAZEER AHMAD1,2*, LILLY MANETA PEYRET1, PATRICK MOREAU1 AND RAFIQ AHMAD3,4

STUDY OF LIPID-PROTEIN INTERACTION IN THE SECRETORY PATHWAY OF PLANT CELL BY RAISING AND USING ANTILIPID ANTIBODIES AGAINST PARICULAR LIPIDS AND PROTEINS IN ARABIDOPSIS AND TOBACCO PLANT
ABSTRACT:
The lipids and proteins are transported through a well developed system between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and then to all other parts in the Eukaryotes. Lipid and protein based machineries for proteins transport are used in the secretory pathway that are rather well known in animal and yeast cells but far less in plant cells. SNAREs are proteins that interact with others lipids and proteins and are expected to be key regulators of membrane trafficking between ER and the Golgi. SNAREs proteins and their interaction with lipids such as acyl-CoAs was studied and found their presence and involvement in membrane fusion events in the secretory pathway of Arabidopsis comparing with tobacco plant. We produced recombinant proteins for 3 SNAREs and prepared antibodies against them. We purified, anti memb 11, anti Sec22 and anti sed5 IgGs from the sera and tested them in Arabidopsis to see if native proteins would be recognized. We had also prepared anti acyl-CoAs and tested and found that they can detect the acyl-CoAs when they are in interaction with some proteins, so these antibodies could help us to observe proteins interacting with acyl-CoAs. In fact, we used anti acyl-CoAs antibodies in immunoblot and found that they labeled some proteins in Arabidopsis and tobacco. One of these proteins was Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

509-514 Download
69
MINERAL ELEMENT UPTAKE STATUS OF ENDEMIC ISOETES ANATOLICA PRADA & ROLLERI POPULATIONS FROM BOLU-TURKEY
IBRAHIM ILKER OZYIGIT1*, ILHAN DOGAN2, BULENT ESKİN1, MUSTAFA KESKIN1, GOKSEL DEMIR3 AND IBRAHIM ERTUGRUL YALCIN3

MINERAL ELEMENT UPTAKE STATUS OF ENDEMIC ISOETES ANATOLICA PRADA & ROLLERI POPULATIONS FROM BOLU-TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Isoetes genus is commonly known as the “quillworts” and considered to be “fern allies”. There are about 200-250 species, with a cosmopolitan distribution but often scarce to rare. Isoetes genus members often grow in extremely sensitive aquatic environments such as temporary ponds, streams and lakes. They are therefore good indicators of environmental quality. Isoetes anatolica Prada & Rolleri is an endemic plant grows on calcareous sediment/soil on the edges of seasonal ponds located in a mountainous area near the southern coast of the Black Sea at 1400 m above sea level at Bolu, Turkey. In this study, mineral element uptake statuses of I. anatolica populations were studied on the background of plant-sediment/soil-water interactions. The study materials were collected from the place where this narrow endemic species only lives in the world (Abant Region, Bolu/Turkey) by using standard methods and plant and sediment/soil mineral element measurements (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn) were done. ICP-OES was employed for the measurements during the study. Interrelations between mineral element contents in the sediment/soil, water and plant were discussed. The data revealed that I. anatolica is capable of accumulating considerable amounts of certain mineral elements (B, Ca, Mn and Na).

515-519 Download
70
SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TREE SAWDUST AND ITS USAGE FOR DIMINUTION OF COLOR AND COD OF PAPER-MILL EFFLUENTS
MUHAMMAD FARHAN1,2*, ABDUL WAHID3, AMINA KANWAL4 AND J.N.B. BELL5

SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TREE SAWDUST AND ITS USAGE FOR DIMINUTION OF COLOR AND COD OF PAPER-MILL EFFLUENTS
ABSTRACT:
In present work, activated carbons were prepared from saw dust of Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara and Eucalyptus spp., using H3PO4, H2SO4 and BaCl2 as activating agents. The activated carbons were evaluated for reduction in color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of a real paper industry effluents using batch-mode method to explore the effect of operating parameters (contact time, amount of activated carbon, wastewater concentration, solution pH etc). Statistical analysis revealed that all the activated carbons were significantly different in their efficacy for wastewater treatment. Cedrus deodara based activated carbon was most efficient; showed 93% COD reduction with 100% color removal and brought other physico-chemical parameters of wastewater within the permissible limits of WHO and NEQS. The maximum percent reduction of COD and color with Dalbergia sissoo activated carbon was 80% and 91%, respectively while with Eucalyptus spp., activated carbon; it was 74% and 85%, respectively. The effectiveness of activated carbon synthesized from sawdust of different plants for wastewater treatment was in the following order: Cedrus deodara > Dalbergia sissoo > Eucalyptus spp. The quality of wastewaters after treatment was found to be appropriate for direct discharge into streams and irrigation purpose. This study proved highly successful in addressing the local problem of paper industry effluents using locally available wood processing byproducts.

521-527 Download
71
EFFECT OF ACC DEAMINASE BACTERIA ON TOMATO PLANTS CONTAINING AZO DYE WASTEWATER
SHEREEN KHALIQ1, AZEEM KHALID1*, BEENISH SABA1, SHAHID MAHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD T. SIDDIQUE2 AND IRFAN AZIZ3

EFFECT OF ACC DEAMINASE BACTERIA ON TOMATO PLANTS CONTAINING AZO DYE WASTEWATER
ABSTRACT:
The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seedling germination, plant growth and biomass yield of tomato plant in presence of dye wastewater irrigation was evaluated in 2 experiments (lab scale and green house). Previously isolated strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (Q14) with ACC deaminase activity was used to check its effect to remedify dye contaminated water impact on plants. The maximum biomass production was obtained on application of 600 mg/L dye with selected PGPR as compared to control water. The dye concentration beyond 600 mg/L showed significantly repressed growth of plants. In plant biomass analysis root and shoot biomass were measured while in plant growth root, shoot length in both experiments was compared. It was also observed that the inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria carrying ACC deaminase activity promote root and shoot growth as compared to un-inoculated plants at different Reactive Black B concentrations. Maximum shoot (46 cm) and root length (35cm) was observed at 600 mg/L of Reactive Black B with inoculation, which clearly implies the importance of industrial wastewater for crop and vegetable grown under water stress conditions. These findings suggest that PGPR with ACC deaminase activity could be implied for increasing biomass production of wheat and maize irrigated with dye containing wastewater released from textile industries.

529-534 Download
72
PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH VEGETABLES ROOTS IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGIES
ALIA1, AFTAB AFZAL1* SHAHIDA N. KHOKHAR3, BUSHRA JABEEN2, AND SAEED A. ASAD4

PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH VEGETABLES ROOTS IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGIES
ABSTRACT:
Forty two isolates were recovered as phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from rhizosphere of healthy plants of pea, spinach, lady’s finger, French bean, kulfa, cauliflower, turnip, brassica, cucumber, coriander, onion, potato, capsicum, salad, eggplant and field mint from 25 locations in Mansehra district, Taxila area and Islamabad. PSB population ranged from 1.95x107 in lady’s finger to 5.33x109 in turnip in Mansehra area. It ranged from 1.9x106 in spinach to 1.3x109 in field mint in Taxila area while in Islamabad up to 8x105 in spinach. Highest Solublization Index (4.25) was found in one isolate from spinach in Mansehra while 10 isolates from 10 vegetables had PSB of Solublization Index in the range of 3.5-4.4 from Taxila area. Solubilization capacity ranged from 5.32-151 μgmL-1. Among the tested isolates, SAFA-2 was found as the best in solubilizing phosphate 151 μgmL-1 with the drop in pH from 7.02-3.55. Population in Taxila area was found negatively correlated with clay, phosphorus and organic matter while, positively correlated with soil pH, EC and soil nitrate. The results indicated that soils of the study area inhabit PSB with great potential to be used as bio inoculants.

535-544 Download
73
TISSUE CULTURE RESPONSES OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS GROWN IN PAKISTAN
KHALID MEHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1*, GHULAM MUHAMMAD ALI2 AND ABDUL RAZZAQ3

TISSUE CULTURE RESPONSES OF SOME WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS GROWN IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Good tissue culture response for callus induction and regeneration is prerequisite for improvement of wheat through genetic transformation. Tissue culture response of 6 wheat cultivars was studied using MS and N6 medium supplemented with different concentration of 2, 4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) for callus induction and regeneration, respectively. Mature seeds were used as explants. All cultivars exhibited best response for callus induction and regeneration on MS medium as compared to N6 medium. However, significant differences among cultivars were observed. Each cultivar responded differently at different levels of growth regulator for callus induction. Inqalab-91 and Lasani-08 showed maximum callus induction (90%) and (78.78%), respectively at 3mg/l of 2, 4-D. Tatara showed 84.43% callus at 2.0mg/l, chakwal-97 77.08% at 2.5mg/l while GA-02 and Khyber showed 74.30% and 65.97% callus induction response, respectively, at 3.5mg/l of 2, 4-D. As regards regeneration, direct shoots and roots development were observed by using different concentration of BAP. Significantly higher regeneration (59.33%) was observed in Chakwal-97 with 3.0mg/l of BAP while least regeneration was observed in Khyber (17.33%) at 4.0mg/l among all cultivars. It was also observed that all cultivars showed shoot as well as root development with 3 and 5mg/l of BAP. Using 8mg/l agar rather than 6 and 10 mg/l significantly enhanced regeneration ability of cultivars. The results of present findings will be helpful for selecting the most tissue culture responsive cultivars for genetic transformation against different biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for improvement of important agronomic traits of wheat crop (Fig. 2).

545-549 Download
74
LANDCOVER DYNAMICS IN RELATION TO WESTERN TRAGOPAN OCCURRENCE IN PAKISTAN: A REGIONAL ASSESSMENT
ZAFEER SAQIB1,2*, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2 AND HENRIK VON WEHRDEN3

LANDCOVER DYNAMICS IN RELATION TO WESTERN TRAGOPAN OCCURRENCE IN PAKISTAN: A REGIONAL ASSESSMENT
ABSTRACT:
In order to establish relationship between landcover dynamics, human demography and western tragopan abundance in Pakistan, a regional scale landcover map consisting of categories Glaciers, Pastures, Conifers, Broadleaves, Shrubs and Built-up/agriculture classes was prepared using ISODATA clustering of MODIS 16-day composite images (MOD13Q1) for year 2011. Subsequently, time series-analysis of ten years’ MOD13Q1 data (Feb. 2000 – Feb. 2011) was performed using STL procedure to infer landcover dynamics (progressive, stable and regressive trends). From these data, various landcover metrics and ratios were calculated to compare sub-regions using principal component analysis (PCA). Pearson correlation was then calculated among PCA scores, human population and tragopan abundance to provide a multi-criteria habitat evaluation. The tragopan reported sites were found to have minimum landcover disturbance i.e., both regressive and progressive landcover locations seem to negatively affect the tragopan abundance. The progressive trends are mainly attributed to the human influence and were recorded mainly for the Built-up/agriculture landcover types. Most of the regressive trends were observed in high coniferous landcover that form the core habitat of the western tragopan and also seem to be mainly anthropogenic. Thus the human population had both positive and negative impact on the landcover that in general was found prohibitive for the occurrence of western tragopan. The Palas valley being well preserved from the landcover disturbances (both negative and positive) and having sparse human population does qualify for a very important conservation area particularly in context of holding world’s largest population of western tragopan.

551-559 Download
75
ASSESSING POTENTIAL HABITATS OF KASHMIR MARKHOR IN CHITRAL GOL NATIONAL PARK, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
MASOOD ARSHAD1*, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK2 AND ZAFEER SAQIB3

ASSESSING POTENTIAL HABITATS OF KASHMIR MARKHOR IN CHITRAL GOL NATIONAL PARK, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Since the recognition of Chitral Gol as a National Park, there has been no vegetation assessment of the area, particularly in context of the habitat of Kashmir markhor (Capra falconeri cashmiriensis). Therefore, the present study is a first ever attempt to elaborate the vegetation of Park as habitat of Kashmir markhor using multivariate statistical methods. The vegetation abundance data was systematically collected from the park area on a grid with 200m vertical and 400m horizontal spacing, resulting in 252 nested sampled plots for each of the tree (10mx10m), shrub (4mx4m) and herbaceous layers (1mx1m). The data were analyzed for possible natural grouping using TWINSPAN classification analysis that resulted in 4 vegetation communities viz., (i) Prangos pabularia – Hypericum perforatum – Rosa macrophylla community, (ii) Cedrus deodara – Pinus gerardiana – Rosa macrophylla community, (iii) Quercus baloot – Sophora mollis – Artemisia fragrans community and (iv) Artemisia fragrans – Agrostis canina – Iris hookeriana community. The ordination using Detrended correspondence analysis and regressing its scores with primary topographic attributes revealed that the altitude, (p<0.0001), aspect (p<0.05) and slope (p<0.05) have strong impact on the distribution of vegetation distribution in the park. These communities possess a diverse range of plant species and are variously utilized by Kashmir markhor as summer habitat (i), lambing season (ii) and winter habitat (iii, iv).

561-570 Download
76
VARIATIONS IN THE PROLINE AND TOTAL PROTEIN CONTENTS IN ORIGANUM SIPYLEUM L. FROM DIFFERENT ALTITUDES OF SPIL MOUNTAIN, TURKEY
BENGU TURKYILMAZ UNAL1*, AYKUT GUVENSEN2, AYLIN ESIZ DEREBOYLU2 AND MUNIR OZTURK2

VARIATIONS IN THE PROLINE AND TOTAL PROTEIN CONTENTS IN ORIGANUM SIPYLEUM L. FROM DIFFERENT ALTITUDES OF SPIL MOUNTAIN, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Soil samples and leaves of Origanum sipyleum L., were collected from 5 different altitudes of Spil mountain situated in the State of Manisa in the West Anatolian part of Turkey. The soils were analysed to determine pH, organic matter content, calcium carbonate and other chemical constituents. The photosynthetic pigment, proline and total protein contents of leaves were also determined. Results obtained showed that O. sipyleum grows on sandy-loam soils, rich in organic matter content, with pH varying between 6.11-6.97. It prefers slightly acidic and neutral soils, rich in N and P, but poor in K. The physiological analyses revealed that total protein and proline contents increased whereas photosynthetic pigment decreased at 520 and 790m altitudes. All parameters decreased at 1020 and 1150m altitudes. A statistically significant correlation was observed at higher altitudes.

571-576 Download
77
HPLC-DAD ANALYSIS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF QUERCUS DILATATA L.
MUNAZZA IHTISHAM1, IHSAN-UL-HAQ2, SARA SARWAR1 AND BUSHRA MIRZA1*

HPLC-DAD ANALYSIS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF QUERCUS DILATATA L.
ABSTRACT:
Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have at least one unpaired electron which increases the chemical reactivity of the molecule. The main objectives of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and HPLC screening of antioxidant compounds (rutin, quercetin and gallic acid) from Quercus dilatata L. The antioxidant activity of Q. dilatata L. extracts/fractions was determined by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Four partitioned fractions of Q. dilatata (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were prepared among which ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity (IC50 38.02 µg/ml). Furthermore, the screening of rutin, quercetin and gallic acid in the partitioned fractions was done by HPLC-DAD which showed that the most active fraction i.e. ethyl acetate fraction contains all of them while aqueous fraction showed the presence of two i.e., rutin and gallic acid. Butanol fraction showed only rutin content, while n-hexane fraction did not show the presence of any of the above mentioned compounds. Thus it can be concluded that good antioxidant potentials may be due to the presence of these well known antioxidant compounds in Q. dilatata in association with other unidentified compounds.

577-581 Download
78
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA CARINATA A. BRAUN) GERMPLASM USING MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
MUHAMMAD ZADA1, NAHIDA ZAKIR2, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC VARIATION IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA CARINATA A. BRAUN) GERMPLASM USING MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
The study aims to determine the extent of genetic variability and relationships among the Brassica carinata germplasm using agro-morphological characters. The germplasm assayed comprised 134 accessions acquired from abroad and collected locally from diverse ecologies of Pakistan. All the genotypes were characterized for 33 agro-morphological characters ranging from seedling emergence to crop maturity. The data were analyzed by numerical taxonomic techniques using 2 complementary procedures: cluster and principal component analyses. A considerable level of variability was noticed for a number of agro-morphological traits. The largest variation was observed in seed yield (kg/ha) whereas a moderate variability was observed in plant height, main raceme length, silique/main raceme, glucosinolate contents and erucic acid. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the 134 accessions into seven main clusters. First three principal components (PCs) accounted for a total of 39.03% of variability among the accessions using agro-morphological traits. PC1 had 17.79% of total variation in agro-morphological traits; PC2 depicted 11.45% of total morphological variability, while PC3 accounted for 9.80% of the total variation. On the basis of greater yield potential, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, oil contents, protein contents and oleic acid four promising genotypes (25939, 25942, 25994 and 26190) have been identified for future breeding and variety development programs.

583-593 Download
79
INTEGRATION OF NOVEL CHLOROPHYLL GENES FROM BLACK PINE INTO THE CHLOROPLAST GENOME OF TOBACCO
SHAHID NAZIR1 AND MUHAMMAD SARWAR KHAN2*

INTEGRATION OF NOVEL CHLOROPHYLL GENES FROM BLACK PINE INTO THE CHLOROPLAST GENOME OF TOBACCO
ABSTRACT:
Gymnosperms owing the presence of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoredcuatse pathway are able to reduce protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide leading to the formation of chlorophyll in dark, whereas angiosperms are unable to do this and are photosynthetically less efficient. Plastid encoded genes chlL and chlN are reported to be involved in the functioning of the enzyme Dark-operative Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (DPOR). The genes were isolated from black pine and cloned into the species-specific chloroplast targeting vector; harboring FLARE-S, a fluorescent selection marker. The final transformation vector was used to introduce genes into the tobacco chloroplast genome using biolistic approach. Here, we report stable integration of both genes along with translationally fused marker genes (gfp and aadA) into the inverted repeat region of plastome which was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Southern blot analysis. Morphological and physiological analyses of the transgenic plants compared with non-transformed wild type tobacco plants revealed that the activation of dark-operative pathway requires additional factors/genes to chlL and chlN genes to develop chlorophyll, and consequently photosynthetically competent chloroplasts.

595-600 Download
80
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN SOME MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF PEGANUM HARMALA (HERMAL)
IFTIKHAR AHMAD1*, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN2, M. SAJID AQEEL AHMAD2, MANSOOR HAMEED2, M. YASIN ASHRAF3, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI4, TAHIRA NAWAZ2, RIFFAT BATOOL2 AND SANA FATIMA2

SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN SOME MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF PEGANUM HARMALA (HERMAL)
ABSTRACT:
Peganum harmala is an annual herb commonly found in the Salt Range during spring and summer seasons. Spatiotemporal variations in accumulation of some medicinally important biochemical constituents in different parts of P. harmala during different seasons and at different sites of Soone Valley in the Salt Range were investigated. Dry matter and phosphorus contents were strongly correlated with autumn, whereas minerals, fats, flavonoids and K contents were the maximum in winter and fibers in summer. All other parameters as phenols, alkaloids, proteins, moisture and most of the minerals as Ca, N, K, Cu, Mg, Zn, Na, NFES (nitrogen free extractable substances), and NFE (net free energy) were associated with spring. Spatial variation showed that moisture, dry matter, NFES, NFE, N and proteins were centroid as their accumulation was not affected due to variation in the study sites, however, alkaloids, K, and Fe were associated with Dape Sharif site having water springs and water channels passing through the valley and soil with higher electrical conductivity, Fibers, Mg and fats were associated with Jallar and Khoora sites (cultivated areas with high amount of salts). Phenols, Zn and flavonoids were associated with high pH soil of Anga site. In seeds, maximum organic and inorganic constituents were found at nutrient rich Khabeki site. Fats and NFES were found maximum in seeds of the plants growing at Anga site, and phenols, flavonoids, NFE and K were higher in seeds of Khoora site. Spring was found to be the most suitable harvesting season for maximum quantity of nutritional as well as medicinal components in P. harmala. Among sites, high pH soils of Anga and higher nutrient containing soils of Khabeki are good for maximum quantity of phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, mineral and nutritional components.

601-607 Download
About Journal
--------------------------------------
Author's Guideline
--------------------------------------
Submit Online
--------------------------------------
In Press Articles
--------------------------------------
Status of Manuscript
--------------------------------------
Current Impact Factor 0.75
--------------------------------------
5 Years Impact Factor 0.825
Indexing

PJB is indexed in following international databases: View all

Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Knowledge


SCOPUS

https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19983?origin=sbrowse


AGRIS


ASCI-Database


CABI


International Scientific Indexing (ISI)


Cambridge Scientific Abstract


Chemical Abstract Services


E-Journals


ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center)


Scientific Indexing Services


SCIMAGO


Index Copernicus (IC)


ProQuest


DOAJ


Google Scholar


Contact Us
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Botanical Garden, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

pakjbot@pakbs.org | Facebook
Hit Counter: 1165135, Today's: 442, Yesterday's: 1407, Country Wise Counter

Copyright © 2017-18 - All Rights Reserved - www.pakbs.org

history.replaceState({}, null, "/pjbot/");