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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 4
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1
GERMINATION RESPONSE TO DIFFERING SALINITY LEVELS FOR 18 GRASS SPECIES FROM THE SALINE-ALKALINE GRASSLANDS OF THE SONGNEN PLAIN, CHINA
HONGYUAN MA1,2*, BINGSHENG LV1,2, XIAOWEI LI1,2 AND ZHENGWEI LIANG1,2*

GERMINATION RESPONSE TO DIFFERING SALINITY LEVELS FOR 18 GRASS SPECIES FROM THE SALINE-ALKALINE GRASSLANDS OF THE SONGNEN PLAIN, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Seed germination responses to salinity differ among grass species. The germination of halophytes in saline substrates is a useful criterion for selecting tolerant plants for restoring saline environments. The salt tolerance of germinating seeds from 18 native grass species that greow in the saline-alkali grasslands of the Songnen Plain in Northeastern China. Was studied The effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-500mM) on the germination of seeds were tested at 28°C using a 12-h photoperiod. The 18 species showed different levels of salt tolerance and were classified into 4 groups. Artemisia scoparia was the most tolerant of high salt concentrations, with high germination rates even at 300mM NaCl (91.1%). This species also had the shortest germination time (T50=0.5 d). Echinochloa crusgalli and Cynanchum chinense were moderately salt tolerant, showing high germination rates (84.7%-100%) at150-200mM NaCl. Medicago sativa, Suaeda salsa, Herba taraxaci, and Plantago asiatica were the next most tolerant, with germination rates of 56.7%-95.0% at 25-150mM NaCl. The remaining 11 species did not tolerate saline conditions or had generally low germination rates regardless of saline concentration. Because of their high salt tolerance, A. scoparia, E. crusgalli, and C. chinense have the greatest potential and can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the arid and semiarid regions of the Songnen Plain.

1147-152 Download
2
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
SADIA JAVED1*, SHAZIA ANWER BUKHARI1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, SAQIB MAHMOOD3 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR3

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties.

1153-158 Download
3
FOLIAR-APPLIED UREA MODULATES NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS METABOLISM AND GLYCINEBETAINE ACCUMULATION IN DROUGHT-STRESSED MAIZE
LIXIN ZHANG1*, ZHI RUAN1, LI TIAN1, JINGHUAN LAI1, PENG ZHENG1, ZONGSUO LIANG1 AND ASHOK K. ALVA2

FOLIAR-APPLIED UREA MODULATES NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS METABOLISM AND GLYCINEBETAINE ACCUMULATION IN DROUGHT-STRESSED MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Foliar urea has been proved to play a better positive role in enhancing accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress (DS). However, it is unclear how foliar urea affects biosynthetic metabolism of NO and its relationship with GB accumulation. This study was on investigating the effect of foliar- applied urea on seedlings of maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 grown in a hydroponic medium under DS or No DS. Contents of NO and GB and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased and peaked 12 h after the treatment. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) followed the similar pattern 6h after the treatment. Under DS foliar urea application increased NR and NOS activity and, thereby, increased NO formation. Therefore, enhancement in activities of both NRA and NOS resulted in an increase of NO accumulation. Foliar- applied urea could induce an increased NO burst by enhanced NO synthesis metabolism as a nitrogen signal, possibly resulting in GB accumulation under DS.

1159-1164 Download
4
SCREENING AND SELECTION OF TOMATO GENOTYPES/CULTIVARS FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
FAKHRA SHAMIM1*, S.M. SAQLAN2, HABIB-UR-REHMAN ATHAR3 AND ABDUL WAHEED1,4

SCREENING AND SELECTION OF TOMATO GENOTYPES/CULTIVARS FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses reducing crop growth and yield of tomato. Development of water stress tolerant cultivars through screening and selection is one important strategy to overcome this problem. In the present study, seeds of 120 local and exotic lines of tomato were allowed to germinate at varying levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG8000) induced water stress (PEG8000 0, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) for two weeks. Increasing PEG concentrations in the growth medium (water stress) caused a consistent decrease in seed germination percentage and seedling growth of all tomato cultivars. Moreover, a significant amount of genetic variability was found in all attributes of 120 genotypes of tomato. All lines/cultivars of tomato were ranked on the basis of relative water stress tolerance using 13 morphometric traits and categorized in four groups (tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately sensitive, and sensitive) through multivariate analysis. Of 120 lines, 18, 25, 29 and 48 lines were ranked as tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately sensitive and sensitive respectively. The germination percentage or speeds of germination were not found as effective indicator of genotypic differences for water stress at the seedling stage. Moreover, degree of water stress tolerance at the germination and seedling growth stage did not maintain in all tomato lines. Thus, it is not certain whether such variation is detectable at the later vegetative or reproductive growth stages. This needs to be further investigated. Overall, lines 19905, 19906, LA0716, and LA0722 were found to be water stress tolerant at least at early growth stages.

1165-1178 Download
5
TOPOGRAPHIC AND EDAPHIC CONTROL OF ARBOREAL VEGETATION AND THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF TREE SPECIES IN MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI1, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2 AND MOINUDDIN AHMED2

TOPOGRAPHIC AND EDAPHIC CONTROL OF ARBOREAL VEGETATION AND THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF TREE SPECIES IN MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The role of edaphic and topographic variables on the distribution pattern of conifer species in moist temperate area of western Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan is investigated. Arboreal vegetation of 41 sites was analyzed using point-centered quarter method. Soil samples from 41 different sites were collected to determine the edaphic characteristics and two stratifying variables i.e., elevation and slope were noted. Both classification and ordination methods were used to determine the underlying group structure and vegetation composition. For the purpose of ordination principal component analysis (PCA) and for classification Ward’s cluster analysis was employed. Four groups of species were separated on the basis of topographic and edaphic variables by Ward’s cluster analysis. Group 1 was dominated by Pinus wallichiana, group II & III were dominated by Abies pindrow while group IV was compose of two dominant species Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. The four groups also differentiated with respect to elevation, slope, salinity and electrical conductivity. The first component of PCA ordination of vegetation was correlated with elevation, soil organic matter (OM), pH, water holding capacity and soil conductivity; the second component exhibited association with elevation, slope, OM and conductivity while the third with slope, soil salinity and conductivity. Four principal component axes were well correlated with topographic and edaphic factors. Axis 1 was highly (p<0.001) significantly correlated with pH, organic matter and conductivity while axis 2 showed significant correlation (p<0.001) with elevation, slope, pH and conductivity. Axis 3 significantly correlated (p<0.001) with salinity and conductivity. Axis 4 exhibited marked relationship (p<0.001) with organic matter of soil and slope angle. Correlation coefficient between PCA vegetation and PCA environmental variables was also sought that exhibited significant correlation between components 2.

1187-1196 Download
6
SEED PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF PINUS DURANGENSIS MART., FROM SEED AREAS AND A SEED STAND IN DURANGO, MEXICO
VERÓNICA BUSTAMANTE-GARCÍA1, JOSÉ ÁNGEL PRIETO-RUÍZ2,3*, ARTEMIO CARRILLO-PARRA4, REBECA ÁLVAREZ-ZAGOYA5, HUMBERTO GONZÁLEZ-RODRIGUEZ4 AND JOSÉ JAVIER CORRAL-RIVAS6

SEED PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF PINUS DURANGENSIS MART., FROM SEED AREAS AND A SEED STAND IN DURANGO, MEXICO
ABSTRACT:
Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development.

1197-1202 Download
7
ENVIRONMENTAL DIVERSIFICATION AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION: A CASE STUDY OF KORANG RIVER, ISLAMABAD
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD1*, RABBIA MURTAZA1, RABIA SHABIR AND MUHAMMAD NAUMAN AHMED2 TAHIR ALI SHAH3

ENVIRONMENTAL DIVERSIFICATION AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION: A CASE STUDY OF KORANG RIVER, ISLAMABAD
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted at Korang river, Islamabad to determine soil and vegetation associations and affiliations. Herbaceous flora and soil samples were collected randomly by using 1×1 square meters quadrate. For each plant in quadrate visual cover estimation was noted. Twenty one species belonging to 14 families were identified. CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis) was applied in order to find out the strength and relation between environment and plant species. The results exhibited that pH and copper strongly affected the abundance of Cannabis sativa while profusion of Cynodon dactylon was influenced by moisture content. CCA functioned on water quality parameters indicated that sulphate and TSS were the major holding factors promoting the growth of Cannabis sativa. T-value biplots were created for each environmental parameter to assess whether the relation was positive or negative with variables. GLM was also taken into account to value the relation between response and predictors in a way that Cannabis sativa tolerated adverse environmental conditions in the current study. Partial ordination was used that gave variation partitioning of plant species against every parameter. The survey of edaphic factors and vegetation structure along Korang river was helpful for not only improving and mending the present condition of river but also for planning and conservation of plant species diversity.

1203-1210 Download
8
ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF RICE EXTRACTS ON PHENOLOGY OF VARIOUS CROPS AND WEEDS
RIAZ AHMAD AFRIDI1, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN2*, HASINA GUL1 AND MUHAMMAD DAUD KHAN3

ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF RICE EXTRACTS ON PHENOLOGY OF VARIOUS CROPS AND WEEDS
ABSTRACT:
In order to study the allelopathic effects of rice straw on different weeds and crops, a lab experiment was conducted at the Weed Science Laboratory, Institute of Plant Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad during 2007 with a factorial arrangement (species and extract concentration) to evaluate the allelopathic effect of various concentrations of rice straw extract on germination percent, mortality percent, and days to germination of different test plants. The rice plants (Basmati super) were collected from experimental fields of National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. The samples were put into water for 48 hours after getting them cleaned, dried, and ground for obtaining the extract. The rice stems and leaves were used for the extraction and concentrations of 0, 50 and 100% rice straw extracts were used for the bioassay. A total of 90 Petri dishes were sterilized in autoclave at 110 -120oC for 1 hour. Two filter papers were kept in each Petri dish and ten seeds of each test plant were placed in each Petri dish. All the experimental Petri dishes were kept at room temperature of 20°C for 15 days. The results uncovered that 100% rice straw extract convincingly decreased the germination and growth of the test plants, in comparison with the 0 and 50% rice straw extracts. Among the crop plants, Gossypium hirsutum; and among the weeds, Ipomoea batatas, Rumex dentatus and Convolvulus arvensis were mostly affected by the rice straw extracts whereas Helianthus annuus, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Vigna radiata were somewhat resistant to rice straw extract concentrations. Hence, it has been concluded from the results that rice straw can prove to be a good alternative and environment friendly bio-herbicide for weed management in crops.

1211-1215 Download
9
ECO-PHYSIOLGOICAL ROLE OF ROOT-SOURCED SIGNAL IN THREE GENOTYPES OF SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS: A CUE OF EVOLUTION
XIAO-E LIU1, HONG-MEI JIANG2, HAI-YAN KONG1, GUO-JUN SUN1, ZHENG-GUO CHENG1, ASFA BATOOL1, YOU-CAI XIONG1* AND XIAOGANG LI1*

ECO-PHYSIOLGOICAL ROLE OF ROOT-SOURCED SIGNAL IN THREE GENOTYPES OF SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS: A CUE OF EVOLUTION
ABSTRACT:
Non-hydraulic root-sourced signal (nHRS) is so far affirmed to be a unique and positive ‘early-warning’ response of plant to drying soil, but its functional role and potential evolutionary implication is little known in dryland wheat. Three spring wheat cultivars, Monkhead (1940-1960s), Dingxi 24 (1970-1980s) and Longchun 8139 (1990-present) with different drought sensitivity were chosen as materials for the research. Physiological and agronomic parameters were measured and analyzed in two relatively separated but closely related trials under environment-controlled conditions. The results showed that characteristics of nHRS and its eco-physiological effects varied from cultivars. Threshold ranges (TR) of soil moisture at which nHRS was switched on and off were 60.1-51.4% (% of FWC) in Monkhead, 63.8-47.3% in Dingxi 24 and 66.5-44.8% in Longchun 8139 respectively, suggesting that earlier onset of nHRS took place in modern cultivars. Leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was significantly greater and increased more rapidly in old cultivars, Monkhead and Dingxi 24 than that of Longchun 8139 during the operation of nHRS. As a result of nHRS regulation, maintenance rate of grain yield was 43.4%, 60.8% and 79.3%, and water use efficiency was 1.47, 1.65 and 2.25 g/L in Monkhead, Dingxi 24 and Longchun 8139 respectively. In addition, drought susceptibility indices were 0.8858, 0.6037 and 0.3182 for the three cultivars, respectively. This suggests that earlier trigger of nHRS led to lower ABA-led signal intensity and better drought adaptability. It can be argued that the advances in yield performance and drought tolerance might be made by targeted selection for an earlier onset of nHRS. Finally, we attempted developing a conceptual model regarding root-sourced signal weakening and its evolutionary cue in dryland wheat.

1217-1224 Download
10
FUNGAL DIVERSITY ASSOCIATED WITH VERTICILLIUM WILT OF COTTON
M. IBRAHIM KHASKHELI, J. LING SUN, S. PU HE, Z. FANG LI AND X. MING DU*

FUNGAL DIVERSITY ASSOCIATED WITH VERTICILLIUM WILT OF COTTON
ABSTRACT:
The association of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt is rarely known, which is important to know for the control of this detrimental disease. Our study is the preliminary attempt to find the associations of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt and provides the baseline information for biological control. About 30 different fungi from soil and 23 from cotton plants were isolated and confirmed through molecular characterization. The colony forming unit (CFU)/g dry soil of fungi before and after planting cotton showed significant variation among all the fungi. The overall frequency of all fungi for soil after sowing was significantly higher than before sowing. A. alternata, F. equiseti, F. concentricum, A. flavus, F. proliferatum, and Chaetomium sp. associated with high resistance (Arcot-1) to Verticillium wilt, whereas, V. dahliae, A.niger and Paecilomyces sp., with high susceptible (Arcot-438) germplasm. However, T. basicola, C. ramotenellum and G. intermedia were isolated from both. Soil plating was comparatively easiest than soil dilution method for the determination of frequency percentage, however, later method is useful for the screening of single spore isolation. Most of the antagonistic species were screened from soil; nevertheless, Paecilomyces and Chaetomium spp. were screened from plant and soil. In vitro test of T. longibrachiatum. T. atroviride, Paecilomyces and T. viride showed the strongest efficacy against V. dahliae. These efficient bio-agents can be used as an effective tool for other future studies regarding to Verticillium wilt of cotton.

1225-1236 Download
11
EVALUATING POTASSIUM-USE-EFFICIENCY OF FIVE COTTON GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN
ZIA-UL-HASSAN1*, K.A. KUBAR1, I. RAJPAR1, A.N. SHAH2, S.D. TUNIO2, J.A. SHAH3 AND A.A. MAITLO4

EVALUATING POTASSIUM-USE-EFFICIENCY OF FIVE COTTON GENOTYPES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Potassium (K) deficiency in Pakistani soils has been recently reported as the major limiting factor affecting sustainable cotton production. The present study was conducted to envisage how K nutrition affect the growth, biomass production, yield and K-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes, NIBGE-3701, NIBGE-1524 (Bt-transgenic), Sadori, Sindh-1 and SAU-2 (non-Bt conventional), commonly grown in Pakistan. All five genotypes were raised at deficient and adequate K levels, i.e. 0 and 60 kg K2O ha-1, respectively. The experiment was performed in plastic pots following a completely randomized factorial design with three repeats. Adequate K nutrition significantly increased various plant growth traits and yield of all cotton genotypes under study, viz. number of sympodia (21%), number of leaves (34%), leaf dry biomass (30%), shoot dry biomass (31%), number of bolls (50%) and yield of seed cotton (92%). Substantial variations were observed among cotton genotypes for their K-use-efficiency and K-response-efficiency. Sadori and SAU-2 were screened as most K-use-efficient cotton genotypes, while Sindh-1 and SAU-2 were ranked as the most K-responsive cotton genotypes. Interestingly, Sadori did not respond to K nutrition. Moreover, Bt cotton genotypes accumulated more K as compared to non-Bt genotypes. The cotton genotype SAU-2 was identified as ‘efficient-response’ genotype for better adaptation for both low- and high-K-input sustainable cotton agriculture systems.

1237-1242 Download
12
CELL MEMBRANE THERMO-STABILITY STUDIES THROUGH JOINT SEGREGATION ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS WHEAT POPULATIONS
KALIM ULLAH1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN2, SHAH JEHAN KHAN3, MUHAMMAD IRFAQ KHAN4, IMDAD ULLAH KHAN3, SAMRIN GUL2, HABIB-UR-RAHMAN3 AND REHMAT ULLAH KHAN2

CELL MEMBRANE THERMO-STABILITY STUDIES THROUGH JOINT SEGREGATION ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS WHEAT POPULATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Using joint segregation analysis (JSA) technique as statistical approach, mixed inheritance analysis for cell plasma membrane as membrane thermal stability (MTS) was assayed in two parental lines (P1, P2) and their four populations (F1, BC1, BC2, F2) of four wheat crosses, viz., Hashim-08 × LU-26, Farid-06 × Shafaq, Parula × Blue Silver and TD-1 × D-97603 at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during crop season 2011-12. Results revealed that MTS was under control of two mixed groups of genes i.e., additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive–dominant-epistasis of polygenes (model E) in Hashim-08 × LU-26 and Farid-06 × Shafaq crosses, respectively. In cross Parula × Blue Silver, it was governed by mixed genes i.e. one major-gene and additive-dominance-epistatic polygenes (model D). However, in cross TD-1 × D-97603, the MTS was under the influence of mixed epistasis of two major genes plus polygenes (model E-1). Polygene variation and polygene heritability were higher than major gene variation and heritability in crosses Hashim-08 × LU-26 and Farid-06 × Shafaq. In crosses Parula × Blue Silver and TD-1 × D-97603, the major gene variation and heritability were higher than polygene variation and heritability, indicating maximum contribution of the major genes. While in cross TD-1 × D-97603, epistatic components were also positive and due to which the polygene heritability was almost zero. Moderate to high environmental variation in the MTS for segregating generations revealed that the said trait was highly persuaded by the environment. However, the genetic behavior of the MTS suggested that early selection for MTS in the crosses Hashim-08 × LU-26 and Farid-06 × Shafaq would be efficient. Whereas, the delayed selection in crosses Parula × Blue Silver and TD-1 × D-97603 until the accumulation of maximum favorable genes will be effective.

1243-1252 Download
13
EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTARY IRRADIANCE ON FLOWERING TIME OF OBLIGATE LONG DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS UNDER NON-INDUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT
JALAL-UD-DIN BALOCH1*, M. MUNIR2 AND FARZANA BIBI3

EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTARY IRRADIANCE ON FLOWERING TIME OF OBLIGATE LONG DAY ORNAMENTAL ANNUALS UNDER NON-INDUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of five Obligate LDPs (Pot Marigold cv. Resina, Annual Phlox cv. Astoria Magenta, Cornflower cv. Florence Blue, Oriental Poppy cv. Burning Heart and Flax cv. Scarlet Flax) were sown into module trays containing homogeneous leaf mould compost. After germination, saplings of each cultivar were shifted into four light intensity chambers (42, 45, 92 and 119µmol.m-2.s-1) for a duration of 8h (from 08:00 to 16:00h). The findings of this study showed that Obligate LDPs grown under high irradiance (92 and 119µmol.m-2.s-1) flowered earlier. However, there was a non-significant difference between 42/45µmol.m-2.s-1 and 92/119µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance levels. Although Obligate LDPs under 119µmol.m-2.s-1 flowered few days earlier than those received 92µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance but the quality of plants (plant height and leaf size/appearance) was inferior. It is therefore concluded that for better plant quality and early flowering Obligate LDPs should be grown under 92µmol.m-2.s-1 irradiance.

1253-1259 Download
14
SEEDLING PERFORMANCE WITHIN EIGHT DIFFERENT SEED-SIZE ALPINE FORBS UNDER EXPERIMENTATION WITH IRRADIANCE AND NUTRIENT GRADIENTS
WANG DONG1,2, ZHU YUAN-JUN1,2, WU GAO-LİN1,2*, AND FENG JIN3

SEEDLING PERFORMANCE WITHIN EIGHT DIFFERENT SEED-SIZE ALPINE FORBS UNDER EXPERIMENTATION WITH IRRADIANCE AND NUTRIENT GRADIENTS
ABSTRACT:
Relative performance of seedlings of species with different seed sizes may vary in response to resource availability, and may affect seedling growth. The objective was to test this hypothesis from alpine forbs species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We examined the relative growth rate, allocation and performances of eight native forbs species covering a wide range of seed size in response to four light and three nutrient regimes. Light availability had a significant effect on seedling emergence time, but not on other seedling morphological performances. Seedling emergence time and seed size were negatively correlated with each other for three species within Asteraceae family, i.e. heaviest seeds emerged earlier. Seed size, nutrient availability and their interaction affected most of studied morphological and growth traits of seedlings. Fertilisation modified the relationship between seed size and seedling biomass. Our study showed that seed size and nutrient availability had significant effects on seedling performance in alpine meadows. Seedlings from the larger-seed species presented stronger advantage in initial seedling mass and height under most of resources conditions.

1261-1268 Download
15
IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEINS FROM CAMBIUM TISSUES OF THE CHINESE WHITE POPLAR (POPULUS TOMENTOSA) SAMPLED
DURING THE GROWING SEASON

IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEINS FROM CAMBIUM TISSUES OF THE CHINESE WHITE POPLAR (POPULUS TOMENTOSA) SAMPLED
ABSTRACT:
JIN XIE1, SHUXIN LIU1, QI QI1, JIAYIN HOU1, YING GAI1,2* AND XIANGNING JIANG1,2*

1269-1275 Download
16
BIO-GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF INDUS DELTA MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM THROUGH HEAVY METAL ASSESSMENT
SARWAT ISMAIL1*, S.M. SAIFULLAH2 AND S.H. KHAN3

BIO-GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF INDUS DELTA MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM THROUGH HEAVY METAL ASSESSMENT
ABSTRACT:
In the present study monitoring of heavy metal pollution was done in the mangrove habitats of Indus Delta. Different levels of four heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) in abiotic component (sediments and water) and biotic components (mangrove plants parts like, (Pneumatophores, bark, leaves, flowers, and fruits) were determined. The highest average concentration of heavy metals (111 ppm Zn, 60.0 ppm Pb, 52.2 ppm Cu, 1.43 ppm Cd) were measured in sediments and the lowest in the water (0.13 ppm Zn, 0.0014 ppm Cu, 0.0007 ppm Pb , 0.00061ppm Cd). Among the four heavy metals, Zn was the most abundant metal in all components of the ecosystem, followed by Cu, Pb, and Cd (Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd), and hence A. marina can be proposed as a hyper-accumulator for Zn, which opens doors for further research.

1277-1285 Download
17
COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SOME CENTAUREA (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
MELAHAT OZCAN1*, MEHMET C. UNVER2 AND OZGUR EMINAGAOGLU3

COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SOME CENTAUREA (ASTERACEAE) TAXA FROM TURKEY AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
The anatomical and ecological characteristics of 7 Centaurea L. s. l. taxa (C. urvillei DC. ssp. stepposa Wagenitz, C. pseudoreflexa Hayek, C. simplicicaulis Boiss. & Huet, C. pecho Albow, C. hypoleuca DC., C. cheiranthifolia Willd.var. purpurascens (DC.) Wagenitz, C. woronowii Bornm.), which three of them are endemic (C. pseudoreflexa, C. pecho, C. woronowii) to Turkey has been carried out. Cross sections of stem, leaf blade and midrib and peripheral sections of the leaves, and pH, total N, P, K and organic matter contents of soil samples have been investigated. Variance analysis and Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference test were performed on ecological and anatomical data. Ecological characteristics obtained in this investigation were found mostly similar. On the other hand, anatomically important differences were determined in diversity of anticlinal cell walls, length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of bundles in the midrib and number of stomata per mm2 both on the epidermis of the leaf, and the shape of transverse section of stem. According to Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference test, especially length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of stomata both on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises have displayed three distinct groups. These results are in accordance with sectional delimitation in the Flora of Turkey and also support upgrading the sum of species of the genus Centaurea.

1287-1301 Download
18
FLOWERING PHENOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CYPRIPEDIUM MACRANTHOS (ORCHIDACEAE) IN CHINA AND THEIR IMPLICATION IN CONSERVATION
YU ZHANG1,2, SHIWEI ZHAO2, DONGYAN LIU2, QIXIANG ZHANG1* AND JIN CHENG1,3*

FLOWERING PHENOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CYPRIPEDIUM MACRANTHOS (ORCHIDACEAE) IN CHINA AND THEIR IMPLICATION IN CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
The phenology and reproductive characteristics of Cypripedium macranthos were studied in China. This slipper orchid is mainly distributed outside of the diversity center of the genus Cypripedium in China and needed urgent protection. The plant favored the weakly acidic soil and the pH of soil of 7 populations in Beijing varied from 5.85-6.92. Moreover, the organic matter differed from 9.66%-22.84%, which belonged to the first grade according to the classification criterion of soil nutrient in China. The process of germination, anthesis, pollination, fructification, flower withering, plant withering and dormancy of C. macranthos were recorded. It usually opened around the first ten-days period of June and proceeded until the end of June or the beginning of July at population level. A single flower without pollinium removal or deposition lasted about 9.42±1.81 d (n=36), while the mean flowering time of those with pollinium deposition is 6.80 ±1.30 d (n=109). The period with low temperature might play an important role in development of plant and bud. C. macranthos is self-compatible and pollinator limitation. The number of seeds was 16254±9750 per capsule in hand-self-pollination and 15638±8257 in hand-cross-pollination, which were about 2.5 times more than that (5808±2633 per capsule) in natural pollination. So hand-pollination with more pollen might increase the number of fruits and seeds. Therefore, vegetation protection, suitable temperature of selected nursery place and hand-pollination would be important strategies in conservation of C. macranthos and might contribute more or less to resume its population.

1303-1308 Download
19
SEED MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME MONOCOT FAMILIES (EXCLUDING GRAMINEAE) AND THEIR PHYLOGENETIC IMPLICATIONS
RUBINA ABID, DURDANA KANWAL AND M. QAISER

SEED MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOME MONOCOT FAMILIES (EXCLUDING GRAMINEAE) AND THEIR PHYLOGENETIC IMPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Seed morphological studies of 46 taxa from Pakistan belonging to 7 monocotyledenous families viz., Alismataceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Commelinaceae, Cyperaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Iridaceae included in 5 monotyledonous orders viz., Alismatales, Arecales, Asparagales, Commelinales and Poales have been carried out by using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Great variation in various seed morphological characters have been observed at order, family, subfamily, generic and specific levels. These seed micromorphological characters are used to assess the evolutionary relationship among the families of the studied taxa.

1309-1324 Download
20
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE IN ZANTHOXYLUM (RUTACEAE) FROM CHINA
MING CAO1, DIAN-XIANG ZHANG2*, AMIN SHAH3 AND LI-NA DONG1

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY AND ITS SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE IN ZANTHOXYLUM (RUTACEAE) FROM CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Pollen grains of 32 species of Zanthoxylum were studied under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The macro- and micro-morphological pollen characters, including shape, pollen size, aperture and exine ornamentation type were examined. The pollen grains are small to medium in size, mostly from subspheroidal to prolate shape in equatorial view and 3–lobed circular in polar view. Three types are recognized based on exine ornamentation, includes macroreticulate, parallel striation, and striate-rugulate. Pollen shape and size are found to have only minor value, but pollen exine ornamentation contains useful information on modify the Englerian classification of Zanthoxylum and can be used for identifying different species of Zanthoxylum s.l.. Based on the pollen morphological data, the two subgenus, Fagara and Zanthoxylum, should be combined.

1325-1330 Download
21
FLORA OF LAL SUHANRA NATIONAL PARK, BAHAWALPUR, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
HAFIZ MUHAMMAD WARISS1, SAEED AHMAD PIRZADA2, KHURSHID ALAM1, SHAZIA ANJUM1 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3*

FLORA OF LAL SUHANRA NATIONAL PARK, BAHAWALPUR, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Lal Suhanra National Park is located in the southeastern Punjab of Pakistan with altitudes ranging from 125 to 140 meters. The flora of Park consists of 212 species belonging to 162 genera and 50 families. The Dicots having 41 families, 118 genera and 158 species, were the most diverse and dominating group of plants in this area followed by Monocots with 5 families, 40 genera and 50 species, Pteridophytes with 3 families, 3 genera and 3 species and Bryophytes represented by monotypic species. Poaceae was the leading family that contributed 43 grasses, followed by Fabaceae (16 spp.), Asteraceae (15 spp.), Chenopodiaceae (10 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (9 spp.), Boraginaceae (8 spp.), Amaranthaceae (7 spp.), Aizoaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Mimosaceae and Solanaceae (6 spp. each), Capparaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Scrophulariaceae (5 spp. each), whereas, the largest genera were Chenopodium (5 spp.), Cenchrus (4 spp.) and Amaranthus (3 spp.).

1331-1341 Download
22
LEAF, STEM BARK AND FRUIT ANATOMY OF ZANTHOXYLUM ARMATUM DC. (RUTACEAE)
BARKATULLAH, MUHAMMAD IBRAR, GHULAM JELANI AND IMTIAZ AHMAD

LEAF, STEM BARK AND FRUIT ANATOMY OF ZANTHOXYLUM ARMATUM DC. (RUTACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The present study deals with anatomical exploration of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of this plant. Leaf of Z. armatum is bifacial, compound and punctate with glabrous surfaces having a single layer of epidermis and palisade mesophyll. The leaf has a Palisade ratio ranged from 6.00 to 9.00 (8.2±0.32). Vein islets and vein termination number were 14-21 (16.8±0.64) and 17-21 (19.1±0.43) per mm2 respectively. The vein-islets were quite distinct with squaresh, elongated, polygonal or irregular in shape bounding many forked and unforked vascular branches. Adaxial surface of Z. armatum leaf midrib was planoconvex while the abaxial surface was semicircular in appearance. The diagnostic feature of the leaf was the complete absence of any kind of trichomes or any other appendages. The leaf showed prominent oil cavities. Nine types of stomata with different frequencies and other dimensions were observed. Brachparatetracytic stomata was the most frequent stoma (80%) followed by actinostephanocytic (40%) and then straucytic and brachyparacytic (30%) each. Hemiparacytic and stomatal cluster were the rarely occurring stomata (10% each) present on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Stomatal cluster, which is considered to be a special leaf epidermal feature and reported only in few genera of vascular plants, was also recorded in this plant. Bark and fruit anatomy of Z. armatum showed different tissue arrangement. The seed was non endospermic and contains an elongated embryo. The present study will be helpful in the phylogeny and taxonomic description of this important medicinal plant.

1343-1349 Download
23
CYTOTAXONOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE TRIBES ASCLEPIADEAE AND CEROPEGIEAE OF THE SUBFAMILY ASCLEPIADOIDEAE-APOCYNACEAE
EHAB ABDEL-RAZIK KAMEL1*, SHERIF MOHAMED SHARAWY2 AND EMAN AHMED KAMEL KARAKISH2,3

CYTOTAXONOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE TRIBES ASCLEPIADEAE AND CEROPEGIEAE OF THE SUBFAMILY ASCLEPIADOIDEAE-APOCYNACEAE
ABSTRACT:
In this study, karyotype criteria of 27 accessions (17 taxa) of the two tribes Asclepiadeae (20 accessions) and Ceropegieae (7 accessions) from Egypt and Saudi Arabia belonging to subfamily Asclepiadoideae are described and polyploid variations are also discussed. Detailed karyotype features, i.e. total chromosome length (TCL), mean chromosome length (MCL) and karyotype asymmetry expressed as arm ratio (MAR), total form percent (TF %), intrachromosomal asymmetry (A1) and interchromosomal asymmetry (A2), are also described. Karyotype features of the studied accessions were used to assess the tribal relationships within the subfamily Asclepiadoideae to differentiate between taxa that belonging to the tribes Asclepiadeae and Ceropegieae in the light of the current systems of classification. In addition, new chromosome counts of 16 taxa or accessions are reported here for the first time.

1351-1361 Download
24
SSR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOMES 3 AND 7 OF RICE (ORYZA STAIVA L.) ASSOCIATED WITH GRAIN LENGTH
KASHIF ASLAM* AND MUHAMMAD ARIF

SSR ANALYSIS OF CHROMOSOMES 3 AND 7 OF RICE (ORYZA STAIVA L.) ASSOCIATED WITH GRAIN LENGTH
ABSTRACT:
Grain size and weight determine crop yield in cereals, whereas in rice grain size and shape is major attribute to identify market value and also used for classifying rice genotypes. Rice germplasm collection and knowledge of genetic diversity are required for variety improvement. Molecular markers provide powerful tool for identification of genetic variation and mapping of gene/ QTLs. There are a lot of gene/QTLs were identified by different groups on chromosome 3 and 7 controlling grain length. Clustering based on grain length divided the 48 accessions into two major clusters with some contradiction. Genetic relationships among the 48 rice accessions were determined based on allelic diversity using Power Marker tree, structure analyses and PCA using 51 SSR markers located on chromosome 3 and chromosome 7. Two-dimensional PCA scaling and power marker tree analysis showed high-level of differentiation between Basmati and indica rice accessions and divide these rice accessions in two distinct clusters.

1363-1372 Download
25
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.) LANDRACES FROM CASTILLA Y LEÓN, SPAIN
MARÍA D. CRISTÓBAL1*, VALENTÍN PANDO2, BAUDILIO HERRERO3

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.) LANDRACES FROM CASTILLA Y LEÓN, SPAIN
ABSTRACT:
The characterization of plant genetic resources has a significant impact on their possible future use in lentil breeding programs and also, in the activity of germplasm collections. In this work we have characterized 27 lentil landraces from the region of Castilla and León (plateau in Northern Spain), existing among them two different morphological groups according to the characteristics of the seeds (Macrosperma and Microsperma). Fifteen morpho-agronomical characters were measured for data collection. A principal components analysis allowed the definition of the 5 factors which explain 83.7% of the cumulative variance. The first factor explains 25.3% of total variation and it is related to seed production. We performed a cluster analysis obtaining 5 groups, each one defined by the average values of the employed characters. 37.0% of landraces were included in group 5, characterized by a high mean of the harvest index (38.4) and also a high mean value (74.4) for the number of pods. To study the seeds we used a correspondence analysis. 6 dimensions which explained the 80.9% of the variance were chosen. Two cluster analysis were carried out using the coordinates of the aforementioned analysis. The aim of this work was to study the morphological variability of these populations and to discover the relationship among them.

1373-1380 Download
26
TWO RUBISCO ACTIVASE GENES FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF ARABIDOPSIS
YUSONG JIANG1,2, BIN YONG 2, JIAO CHEN2, YIZHENG ZHANG2*

TWO RUBISCO ACTIVASE GENES FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF ARABIDOPSIS
ABSTRACT:
Rubisco activase (RCA) that functions as a molecular chaperone regulates the activity of the Calvin-Benson cycle via regulation of the Rubisco activity. In plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Spinacia oleracea, and Oryza sativa, there are two RCA isoforms from two mRNAs that are produced from alternative splicing of the transcribed pre-mRNA of a single RCA gene. However, this research reported that the transcripts of the two IbRCA isoforms in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were transcribed from two different genes. To study the roles of these two IbRCA isoforms in photosynthesis, we inserted these two IbRCA genes into the genome of Arabidopsis with deletion of RCA gene (ΔRCA), resulting in IbRCAs- and IbRCAl-expressing plants, respectively. Analysis of these transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that the IbRCAs-expressing plants were similar to wild-type plants under ambient CO2 concentration and 22°C conditions, suggesting that expression of IbRCAs gene was sufficient for functional complementation of ΔRCA plants under normal conditions. However, IbRCAs-expressing plants were more susceptible to moderate heat stress (26°C) compared to wild-type plants. In contrast, although the IbRCAl-expressing plants had to grow normally in high CO2 concentration conditions, there were almost no differences in growth and photosynthesis between normally grown and heat-treated plants, implying that IbRCAl-expressing plants had a better heat-resistance than IbRCAs-expressing plants.

1381-1388 Download
27
MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS BASED GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1*, HINA REHMAN1 AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI2

MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS BASED GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) one of the world minor oil crops originated in the Middle East. The breeding potential of the safflower genotypes held in the gene-bank of Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI) has not been exploited to date. Present work was carried out to evaluate 122 genotypes collected from various eco-geographical regions/countries of the world. Observations were recorded for eleven quantitative and five qualitative characters to estimate substantial variation and relationship among the genotypes and identify promising accession(s) for traits of economic significance. A significant level of morphological diversity was noticed for a number of traits. The largest variation was recorded for capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, seed yield plant-1, plant height, days to flowering initiation and days to maturity. Relatively low level of variability was distinguished in 100-seed weight, capsule diameter, primary branches plant-1, days to flower completion, time of flowering, flower color, leaf shape and spininess. The correlation analysis indicated that seed diameter, capsules plant-1 and seeds capsule-1 had highly significant positive contribution to seed yield plant-1. Only one trait, time of flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis of 122 safflower germplasm displayed significant variation with PC1 having 26.02% of the total variation, 19.97% for PC2, 12.38% for PC3 and PC4 contributed 11.24% of the total variation and revealed that the characters that mainly distinguish the germplasm are: capsule diameter, capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, days to maturity, plant height and time of flowering. Cluster analysis recognized five major clusters. Our findings have an important application for safflower germplasm evaluation and preservation.

1389-1395 Download
28
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE ANALYSIS BASED ON HORDEIN PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM IN BARLEY LANDRACE POPULATIONS FROM JORDAN
ABDUL WAHID BALOCH1,5*, M. ALI2, ABDUL MAJEED BALOCH3, BAKHT-UN-NISA MANGAN4, 5 AND WEINING SONG5, 6, 7

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE ANALYSIS BASED ON HORDEIN PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM IN BARLEY LANDRACE POPULATIONS FROM JORDAN
ABSTRACT:
Jordan is unanimously considered to be one of the centers of genetic diversity for barley, where wild and landraces of barley has been grown under different climatic conditions. The genetic diversity and genetic structure based on hordein polymorphism was assessed in 90 different accessions collected from four different sites of Jordan. A-PAGE was used to reveal hordein polymorphism among the genotypes. A total of 29 distinct bands were identified, out of them 9 bands were distinguished for D, 11 for C, and 9 for the B hordein regions. The observed genetic similarity was an exceptionally high between the populations than expected, which is probably due to high gene flow estimated between them. The genetic diversity parameters were not differ largely among the populations, indicating that local selection of a particular site did not play a key role in shaping genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant population structure when accessions were structured according to population site. There was 94% of hordein variation resided within the populations and only 8% present among the populations. Both Bayesian and Principale Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) concordantly demonstrated admixture genotypes of the landraces barley populations. Consequently, none of the population found to be clustered separately according to its population site. It is concluded that this approach can be useful to explore the germplasm for genetic diversity but perhaps is not suitable for determining phylogenic relations in barley.

1397-1402 Download
29
PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOUR BOTANICALS USED IN THE TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OF PAKISTAN
JAVID HUSSAIN1*, NAJEEB UR REHMAN1**, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, ABDUL LATIF KHAN1, AHMED AL-HARRASI1, LIAQAT ALI1 AND FAZAL MABOOD1

PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOUR BOTANICALS USED IN THE TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In present study, the proximate parameters and nutrient profile of four medicinal plants viz., Datura innoxia, Adhotoda visica, Solanum surattens, and Acacia nilotica (leaves and roots) were determined through standard procedures of AOAC and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES DV 7300, Perkin Elmer, USA). In proximate parameters, significantly higher (p<0.05) ash content and crude fats was observed in Datura innoxia as compared to other medicinal plants. The concentration of fiber was highest in Adhotoda visica (42.186%) and lowest in Solanum surattens (18%). The highest energy value was recorded (329.11 Kcal/100g) for Acacia nilotica (roots), while protein and carbohydrates were significant in S. surattens. The concentration of the macronutrients ranged from 54.242 to 97.468 ng/g for calcium, 27.552-97.468 ng/g for potassium, 3.457-21.707 ng/g for magnesium, 6.546-9.136 ng/g for sodium, 2.617-8.976 ng/g for potassium and 0.047-0.74 ng/g for sulfur. In conclusion, D. innoxia and S. surattens were found to be a good source of ash, fats, fiber, carbohydrates and macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Si), which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

1403-1407 Download
30
GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN PAKISTANI WHEAT VARIETIES
NASIR MAHMOOD MINHAS*, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL, ZAMMURAD IQBAL AHMED AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR

GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN PAKISTANI WHEAT VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman’s analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters.

1409-1413 Download
31
PHENOTYPIC EVALUATION OF SOME TURKISH GREEN BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) GENOTYPES
KAMILE ULUKAPI1 AND AHMET NACI ONUS2*

PHENOTYPIC EVALUATION OF SOME TURKISH GREEN BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to reveal the morphological characterization of 36 green bean genotypes collected in Turkey to find out the suitable genotypes which can be used in breeding programs. Collected plant materials were grown under Antalya ecological conditions and morphological characteristics of genotypes were evaluated in accordance with UPOV criteria. Principles Component Analysis of the data obtained from morphological characterization were conducted. The results indicated that genetic variation among some bean genotypes was not high and results revealed that first three Eigen values could be used to explain the 50% of the variation among genotypes. The genotypes far from each other with respect to dendrogram can be an important source of variance and can be used in prospective breeding programs.

1415-1420 Download
32
MINERAL CONTENT IN FOUR BROWSE SPECIES FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO
TILO G. DOMÍNGUEZ-GÓMEZ1, ROQUE G. RAMÍREZ-LOZANO2*, HUMBERTO GONZÁLEZ-RODRÍGUEZ1, ISRAEL CANTÚ-SILVA1, MARCO V. GÓMEZ-MEZA3, AND MARÍA DEL S. ALVARADO1

MINERAL CONTENT IN FOUR BROWSE SPECIES FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present study was to determine and compare macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and micro (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) nutrient foliar content in Acacia amentacea (DC.), Celtis pallida (Torr.), Forestiera angustifolia (Torr.) and Parkinsonia texana (A. Gray). Leaf samples were collected monthly from January throughout December 2009 in China, Linares and Los Ramones counties in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. All nutrients were significantly different among sites, months and species; double and triple interactions were also significant. Among sites, samples from Los Ramones County showed the higher macronutrient content, followed by China and Linares. As for species, Celtis pallida showed the highest values while A. amentacea had the lowest macronutrient content. Micronutrient content showed the following decreasing order: China>Los Ramones>Linares. Parkinsonia texana was characteristically the most abundant in micronutrient content, while, A. amentacea was the poorest in this respect. Regardless of species, site or timing, Ca (total mean = 30 g kg-1), K (15; except A. amentacea), Mg (5.2; except A. amentacea), Na (1.9; only F. angustifolia), Fe (100 mg kg-1), Mn (51; only F. angustifolia) and Zn (35; except A. amentacea) were determined to be present in suitable amounts to meet nutritional requirements of range ruminants, while Na (1.9; except F. angustifolia), P (1.3 g kg-1) and Cu (6 mg kg-1) were marginally deficient throughout the year.

1421-1429 Download
33
ISOLATION AND 16S rDNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF BACTERIA FROM DIEBACK AFFECTED MANGO ORCHARDS IN SOUTHERN PAKISTAN
ISHTIAQ A. KHAN1, ASIFULLAH KHAN1, HUMA ASIF1, M. MITHAL JISKANI3, HANS-PETER MÜHLBACH2 AND M. KAMRAN AZIM1*

ISOLATION AND 16S rDNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF BACTERIA FROM DIEBACK AFFECTED MANGO ORCHARDS IN SOUTHERN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan.

1431-1435 Download
34
REPRODUCTIVE FITNESS OF OUTCROSSED HYBRIDS BETWEEN TRANSGENIC BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA) CARRYING THE IPT TRANSGENE AND CONVENTIONAL VARIETIES OF KALE, BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER
POYU TING1, YUANKAI TU2, CHIENYIH LIN3, HSIANG CHANG4*, LONGFANGO CHEN5 AND LITFU CHAN6*

REPRODUCTIVE FITNESS OF OUTCROSSED HYBRIDS BETWEEN TRANSGENIC BROCCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA) CARRYING THE IPT TRANSGENE AND CONVENTIONAL VARIETIES OF KALE, BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p≤0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p≤0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p≤0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops.

1437-1444 Download
35
METABOLOMIC VARIATION OF BRASSICA RAPA VAR. RAPA (VAR. RAAPSTELEN) AND RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. AT DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
MUHAMMAD JAHANGIR*1,5, IBRAHIM BAYOUMI ABDEL-FARID2,5,6, RIC C. H. DE VOS3,4, HARRY H. JONKER3,4, YOUNG HAE CHOI5 AND ROBERT VERPOORTE5

METABOLOMIC VARIATION OF BRASSICA RAPA VAR. RAPA (VAR. RAAPSTELEN) AND RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. AT DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables.

1445-1452 Download
36
SHOOT REGENERATION OF LIMAU PURUT (CITRUS HYSTRIX) USING SHOOT TIP: ASSESSMENT OF CALCIUM GLUCONATE AND SILVER NITRATE IN OVERCOMING PREMATURE LEAF SENESCENCE
WEE HIANG ENG1, MAHERAN ABD AZIZ1,2* AND UMA RANI SINNIAH3

SHOOT REGENERATION OF LIMAU PURUT (CITRUS HYSTRIX) USING SHOOT TIP: ASSESSMENT OF CALCIUM GLUCONATE AND SILVER NITRATE IN OVERCOMING PREMATURE LEAF SENESCENCE
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 µM BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22µM BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 µM BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 10–80 µM in media with 2.22 µM BAP and 2.22 µM BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 µM BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 µM AgNO3 significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot.

1453-1458 Download
37
CITRUS FRUITS BY-PRODUCTS AS SOURCES OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL
FAHAD Y. AL-JUHAIMI

CITRUS FRUITS BY-PRODUCTS AS SOURCES OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL
ABSTRACT:
Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods.

1459-1462 Download
38
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS AND OILS OF WILD AND CULTIVATED EDIBLE OLIVE
ALTAF HUSSAIN1*, IQBAL AHMED QARSHI2, RABIA LIAQAT3, SAEED AKHTAR3, IRUM AZIZ4, IKRAM ULLAH5,6 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI6

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF AND FRUIT EXTRACTS AND OILS OF WILD AND CULTIVATED EDIBLE OLIVE
ABSTRACT:
Abstracts: Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil.

1463-1468 Download
39
ANTIGLYCATION AND ANTIOXIDATION PROPERTIES OF BERBERIS LYCEUM AND TERMINALIA CHEBULA: POSSIBLE ROLE IN CURING DIABETES AND SLOWING AGING
IBRAR KHAN*, HAROON AHMAD, BASHIR AHMAD AND SADIQ AZAM

ANTIGLYCATION AND ANTIOXIDATION PROPERTIES OF BERBERIS LYCEUM AND TERMINALIA CHEBULA: POSSIBLE ROLE IN CURING DIABETES AND SLOWING AGING
ABSTRACT:
Plants have been shown to possess a great potential to benefit mankind. Extracts from plants that have antiglycation and antioxidation abilities can be of great therapeutic value in reducing complication of diabetes and slowing down aging. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE’s) formation due to non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative stress has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and aging processes. In this study we investigated the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis lyceum and Terminalia chebula. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of B. lyceum had more antiglycation ability with a Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 123 µg/mL as compared to the MIC50 of 110 µg/ml of T. chebula. While the results of antioxidation assay showed that T. chebula has more antioxidation potential than B. lyceum. T. chebula had 46.55, 35.01 and 32.81% antioxidation potential at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg respectively as compared to the 16.53, 16.09 and 15.10 % oxidation inhibition at same mass values by B. lycium.

1469-1471 Download
40
MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT AND ROOT KNOT DISEASE OF MUNGBEAN WITH THE APPLICATION OF MYCORRHIZOSPHERIC FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS UNDER FIELD CONDITION
SYEDA SADIA BOKHARI1, SAMRAH TARIQ1, SYED ABID ALI2, VIQAR SULTANA3, JEHAN ARA4, AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE1*

MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT AND ROOT KNOT DISEASE OF MUNGBEAN WITH THE APPLICATION OF MYCORRHIZOSPHERIC FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS UNDER FIELD CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
The mycorrhizosphere is the region around a mycorrhizal fungus in which nutrients released from the hyphae increases microbial population and its activities. In this study five mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas (MRFP) were evaluated for biocontrol potential under field condition using mungbean (Vigna radiata) as test plant. MRFP-249 significantly reduced Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Whereas MRFP246 and MRFP-247 were also found effective against M. phaseolina. Mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas were also found effective against root knot nematode by reducing the galls on roots and nematode’s penetration in roots. Highest fresh shoot weight and plant height was produced by MRFP-248. Plants grown in soil treated with Pseudomonas showed higher number of VAM spores around the mungbean roots than untreated control plants. The mycorrhizal symbiosis should not be considered merely as bipartite, plant-fungus interaction, but should instead include the associated microorganisms, particularly fluorescent Pseudomonas.

1473-1477 Download
41
SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) LAND RACES AGAINST ASCOCHYTA RABIEI CAUSAL AGENT OF ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT DISEASE
ORAL DUZDEMİR1, BEDRETTİN SELVİ2, YUSUF YANAR3 AND AHMET YILDIRIMI4

SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) LAND RACES AGAINST ASCOCHYTA RABIEI CAUSAL AGENT OF ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT DISEASE
ABSTRACT:
Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1–9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations.

1479-1483 Download
42
SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF CASTOR BEAN (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) FROM PAKISTAN
SHAHNAZ DAWAR1*, SUMAIRA KHALID AND MARIUM TARIQ2

SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF CASTOR BEAN (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Castor bean seeds were analyzed by using ISTA (International seed testing association) for the detection of seed borne mycoflora. Thirty one fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 12 samples of castor bean seeds collected from different areas of Pakistan. Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Cephaliophora tropica were most predominant fungal species isolated while the saprophytic fungi like A. niger, A. flavus were common in all samples of castor bean seed tested. Blotter method was considered to be better technique which gave maximum number of fungi followed by agar plate and deep freezing methods.

1485-1488 Download
43
TRICHODERMA SPP.: A BIOCONTROL AGENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF PLANT DISEASES
LAILA NAHER1,2*, UMI KALSOM YUSUF2, AHMAD ISMAIL2 AND KAUSAR HOSSAIN3

TRICHODERMA SPP.: A BIOCONTROL AGENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF PLANT DISEASES
ABSTRACT:
Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs.

1489-1493 Download
44
MORPHO-ANATOMY OF STYPOPODIUM ZONALE (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ALIA ABBAS1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

MORPHO-ANATOMY OF STYPOPODIUM ZONALE (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A brown alga Stypopodium zonale (Lamouroux) Papenfuss (Dictyotales) was collected from Manora and Buleji, the coastal areas near Karachi (Pakistan) during March 2006-April 2009 and investigated for its morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures. This is the first detailed study on the Pakistani specimens of this species from these points of view, where presence or absence of intercellular spaces, cell-wall thickness of different cells and structure of surface cells were examined. In this connection the apical, middle and basal parts of the thallus were investigated anatomically.

1495-1499 Download
45
TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON THE GENUS COSMARIUM CORDA (DESMIDOPHYCEAE) FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
A. ZARINA1*, FARIHA NAZ1 AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON THE GENUS COSMARIUM CORDA (DESMIDOPHYCEAE) FROM NORTH-EASTERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Forty-one species of the algal genus Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (phylum Volvophycota Shameel) were collected from various freshwater habitats in Azad Kashmir as well as provinces of the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa of Pakistan during January 2003 and December 2006. Out of these 11 species were taxonomically investigated and described here. Among them C. pulchrum Turner, C. repandum Nordstedt, C. rugosum Turner, C. tetraophthalmum Brébisson in Ralfs, C. tumidum P. Lundell are being reported for the first time from Pakistan.

1501-1506 Download
46
PLANT REGENERATION FROM IN VITRO-SELECTED SALT TOLERANT CALLUS CULTURES OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.
ZAHOOR AHMAD SAJID AND FAHEEM AFTAB*

PLANT REGENERATION FROM IN VITRO-SELECTED SALT TOLERANT CALLUS CULTURES OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.
ABSTRACT:
This research work reports In vitro direct selection of salt-tolerant callus cultures and subsequent plant regeneration in two potato cultivars (Cardinal and Desiree). Results have shown more than 50% reduction in relative fresh callus mass in the two potato cultivars exposed to 120 mM NaCl. Callus morphology correspondingly changed from off-white to blackish-brown at 120 mM to acutely-necrotic at 140 mM NaCl. Regeneration potential of recurrently-selected callus cultures (100 mM NaCl-treated) on salt-free regeneration medium (MS + 2.64 µM NAA and 1.00 µM TDZ) was not much different as compared to the control (non-selected ones). Regenerated plants from salt-tolerant callus cultures of both the cultivars after selection were transferred to soil and organic matter (50:50, v/v) for acclimatization in the greenhouse. It was observed that the recurrently-selected plants had higher fresh/dry weight and number of tubers compared with the control ones in both the cultivars. Likewise the protein, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities have shown an increasing trend in salt-treated plants of both the cultivars. The results from this study highlighted a strong possibility for the selection of salt-tolerant callus lines of potato followed by an efficient plant regeneration and further acclimatization.

1507-1514 Download
47
POTENTIAL OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ON SOIL ENZYMES AND PLANT GROWTH
ASIA NOSHEEN AND ASGHARI BANO*

POTENTIAL OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ON SOIL ENZYMES AND PLANT GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 106cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha-1 and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha-1), half (Urea 30 Kg ha-1 and DAP 15 Kg ha-1) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha-1) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health.

1521-1530 Download
48
SCREENING OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES OF VARIETY BL4 FOR AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
SABOOHI RAZA*1,2, SYEDA QAMARUNNISA1, ISHRAT JAMIL1, BEENA NAQVI3, ABID AZHAR1 AND JAVED A. QURESHI1

SCREENING OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES OF VARIETY BL4 FOR AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
ABSTRACT:
Considering the environmental conditions of Pakistan where sugarcane breeding is constrained due to non viable fuzz (seeds) production. Somaclonal variation could prove to be a useful tool to overcome the difficulties in cane breeding. In the present study, 324 sugarcane somaclones regenerated from immature leaf roll callus of sugarcane variety BL4 were evaluated for their yield and yield contributing characters and the quality traits of cane. The field trial of somaclones showed variation in 160 somaclones from the mother plant in at least one character observed. Most of the somaclones showed variation in weight of stalks per plant; however, only twenty four out of 89 clones showed increase in the weight of the stalks per clump. The second highly variable trait was the number of stalks, 88 plants showed either increase or decrease in the number of stalks. It is noteworthy that the sucrose accumulation was not increased in any of the somaclones. Twenty one somaclones were selected for their increased yield potential. The comparative performance of these selected clones revealed that clones ‘K-250, K-265, K-251, K-109, K-106, K-300 and K-315 gave better sugar yield /plant as compared to BL4. Maximum sugar yield/plant was observed in Clone ‘K-250’ (2.5 Kg) followed by K-265 (2.44 Kg), whereas the average sugar yield of BL4 was 1.2 Kg/plant.

1531-1535 Download
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