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Year 2014 , Volume  46, Issue 5
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1
COMPARISON OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF TRANSGENIC PEANUT EXPRESSING bar AND rcg3 GENES WITH NON-TRANSGENIC COUNTERPARTS
UM-E-ROBAB1, TARIQ MAHMOOD1*, YUSUF ZAFAR2, AUDIL RASHID1 AND M. KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH3

COMPARISON OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF TRANSGENIC PEANUT EXPRESSING bar AND rcg3 GENES WITH NON-TRANSGENIC COUNTERPARTS
ABSTRACT:
The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties.

1539-1542 Download
2
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FLAVONOID CONTENT IN LEAF OF HAWTHORN RESOURCES
YUHUI ZHAO, KAI SU, GANG WANG, ZHENDONG LIU, WENXUAN DONG* AND YINSHAN GUO*

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FLAVONOID CONTENT IN LEAF OF HAWTHORN RESOURCES
ABSTRACT:
Hawthorn (Cratageus spp.) are important medicinal plants. Flavonoids are the main active ingredient in hawthorn. With the help of hawthorn leaf flavonoids efficient detection system, vitexin, rhamnosylvitexin, hyperin, rutin and quercetin of 122 hawthorn resources was precisely measured.The flavonoid contents of 10 hawthorn species were explicited. The comparation of flavonoids revealed the abundant genetic diversity of hawthorn flavones. Large variable coefficient has been observed among 5 flavonoid monomer traits. The coefficients of variation were 44.17%, 132.2%, 157.08%, 113.91% and 31.05 for Vitexin, Rhamnosylvitexin, Hyperoside, Rutin and Quercetin respectively. The sum of these 5 flavonoid monomer contents represented the total flavonoids in hawthorn. The total coefficients of variation was 44.01%. Some high-content-flavone and valuable leaf resources were found. This research could provide accurate date for further production, breeding and the effective use of medicinal resources.

1543-1548 Download
3
2-DE PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION FOR PROTEOME ANALYSIS OF GENUS CLEMATIS TAXA (RANUNCULACEAE)
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ*, MEHWISH MAQBOOL, TANVEER HUSSAIN AND SHEHZAD AZAM

2-DE PROTOCOL OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION FOR PROTEOME ANALYSIS OF GENUS CLEMATIS TAXA (RANUNCULACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
An approach was conducted to optimize two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) method for leaf proteome analysis of genus Clematis species, as a molecular approach to explore its taxonomy and differentially expressed genome patterns. During establishment and optimization of protocol we extracted proteins by three extraction protocols, viz., phenol-SDS (PS) method, TCA/acetone (TA) method and lysis buffer (LB) method, and PS was the best one with 2.35}0.05 μg protein yield. For protein solubilization two lysis buffers (LB-1 & LB-2) were prepared, used and comparatively LB1 depicted better resolution. Proteins were by quantified by the Bio-Rad protein assay (Hercules, CA, USA) with bovine serum albumin as standard and purified by 2-D clean-up Kit (Amersham Biosciences). 2-DE analysis was conducted on pH 3~10, non-linear gradient strips (24cm) as first step, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on 13% polyacrylamide gels as the second phase. For spot visualization gels were stained for with silver stain. The gels were scanned using Powerlook 2100XL scanner and gel images were analyzed by ImageMaster 2-D Platinum. Validation of experiment was performed by measuring analytical variance (AV) and biological variance (BV) for replicate spots. AV was calculated for 60 protein spots present in three replicate 2-DE gels of the same protein extract and BV was determined for the same protein spots from independent tissue extracts corresponding to leaves from different plants, or the same tree at different orientations or sampling times during a day. Values of 26% for the analytical variance and 58.6% for the biological variance among independent sampled species were obtained.This provided a threshold values for the evaluation of protein expression changes in comparative proteomic investigations with this species. Some spots were selected and subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for identification purpose. Due to absence of Clematis DNA or protein sequences databases, FASTA and BLAST similarity searches were performed against other plant species databases were used for protein identification. The significance of 2-DE proteome analysis in predicting evolutionary trend of Clematis (liana) species and its potential significance in taxonomic identification for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) pharmacopeia is described.

1549-1560 Download
4
GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DENDROBIUM CHRYSOTOXUM NATIVE TO NORTHEASTERN AND NORTHERN REGIONS OF THAILAND BASED ON GALANTHUS NIVALIS AGGLUTININ-RELATED LECTINS AND INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER REGIONS OF RIBOSOMAL DNA
PATTHRAPORN SIRIPIPATTHANA1, NARUMON PHAONAKROP2, SITTIRUK ROYTRAKUL2, GULSIRI SENAWONG1, WANDEE BUNYATRATCHATA3, RASIKA G. MUDALIGE-JAYAWICKRAMA4 AND NISON SATTAYASAI1*

GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DENDROBIUM CHRYSOTOXUM NATIVE TO NORTHEASTERN AND NORTHERN REGIONS OF THAILAND BASED ON GALANTHUS NIVALIS AGGLUTININ-RELATED LECTINS AND INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER REGIONS OF RIBOSOMAL DNA
ABSTRACT:
Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl., native to the Northeastern region and that native to the Northern region of Thailand have some different morphological characters. Their genetic differences were then determined at molecular level. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectins were purified from the pseudobulbs using mannan-agarose column chromatography. The molecular masses of polypeptide subunit and native form, and pI of GNA-related lectin were 13.9 kDa, 54.1 kDa, and 5.16 for D. chrysotoxum (Northeast) while they were 13.7 kDa, 48.2 kDa, and 4.90 for D. chrysotoxum (North), respectively. The sequence tags from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of both lectins were identical to parts of a lectin precursor from D. findleyanum. The lectins exhibited divergent abilities to agglutinate erythrocytes and were named D. chrysotoxum agglutinin-Northeast (DCA-NE), and D. chrysotoxum agglutinin-North (DCA-N). For binding activities, the activities of DCA-NE and DCA-N decreased after treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol; they also showed different specificities towards D-mannose. The lectins showed variation at nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. From internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, the genetic distance between the two orchids had greater value than those among many Dendrobium species. The molecular data revealed that D. chrysotoxum native to the different geographical regions of Thailand had a large genetic difference; and should be placed to be as two species or at least two varieties of the genus.

1561-1572 Download
5
ISSR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DALBERGIA SISSOO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ARSHAD JAVAID*, WAHEED AKRAM, AMNA SHOAIB, MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER AND AQEEL AHMAD

ISSR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DALBERGIA SISSOO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Variation in different phenotypic characteristics in shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) reported in previous studies reveals that a large amount of genetic diversity is available. In the present study, genetic diversity was assessed in D. sissoo vegetations from Lahore, Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. Leaf samples from 34 shisham trees showing variation in phenotypic characters such as shape and size of leaflets, pod length, number of seeds per pod, branching pattern, overall physical appearance of the trees etc., were collected from shisham plantations growing on road-sides and BRB canal-bank. A total of 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers were used. Out of these, 7 primers amplified the genomic DNA of D. sissoo yielding 114 fragments, out of that 78 were polymorphic. There were 9 to 25 amplified fragments with different primers with size ranging from 100 bp to 2 kbp. Polymorphism ranged from 27.27% to 89.50%. Genotypic diversity in D. sissoo confirmed in the present study can be best exploited for plant breeding and conservation, especially in saving this precious tree species from dieback and wilt diseases.

1573-1576 Download
6
MOLECULAR EVIDENCE FOR NATURAL HYBRIDIZATION IN THE MANGROVE GENUS AVICENNIA
LISHI HUANG, XINNIAN LI, YELIN HUANG, SUHUA SHI AND RENCHAO ZHOU*

MOLECULAR EVIDENCE FOR NATURAL HYBRIDIZATION IN THE MANGROVE GENUS AVICENNIA
ABSTRACT:
Hybridization has been observed in several multi-species genera of mangroves; however, there has been no report on hybridization in Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region. In this study, we sequenced 5 low-copy nuclear genes of Avicennia marina, A. rumphiana and 2 individuals of their putative hybrid in the Southeast Asia region to test the hypothesis of natural hybridization between these 2 species. We demonstrated that both putative hybrid individuals possessed two types of sequences at each of the 5 genes, perfectly corresponding to those of A. marina and A. rumphiana, confirming the hybridization between these 2 Avicennia species, and the 2 hybrid individuals are most likely F1 hybrids. Sequencing of the chloroplast trnH-psbA regions indicated that A. marina was the maternal parent of the two hybrid individuals.

1577-1584 Download
7
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF FEMALE PLANT FROM AN IDENTICAL MALE PLANT, IN CARICA PAPAYA L.
RAJPUT MUHAMMED TARIQ

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF FEMALE PLANT FROM AN IDENTICAL MALE PLANT, IN CARICA PAPAYA L.
ABSTRACT:
A field study was carried during January 2011 to March

1585-1591 Download
8
COMPARATIVE PALYNOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF PINUS HENRYI, PINUS MASSONIANA AND PINUS TABULAEFORMIS (PINACEAE) AND THEIR TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS
ZHI HONG LIU, QING XIE AND ZHOU QI LI*

COMPARATIVE PALYNOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF PINUS HENRYI, PINUS MASSONIANA AND PINUS TABULAEFORMIS (PINACEAE) AND THEIR TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, micromorphological and anatomic characteristics of 3 Pinus L. taxa (Pinus henryi, P. massoniana and P. tabulaeformis) were compared. These taxa have both endemic and limited distribution in China. For the micromorphological studies, the pollens were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the anatomical studies, needle anatomy characteristics of the 3 taxa were studied. After the studies, new characteristics of corpus exine ornamentation had been found. Spiny on the regulate of corpus exine is presented in P .henryi while baculate on the rugulate of corpus exine is existed in P. tabuliformishave. However, there is not ornamentation on rugulate in P. massoniana. The features of pollen size, corpus exine ornamentation, number of microperforations, cappula ridges are significant to distinguish the 3 taxa. Number of resin canals, stomatal rows, epithelial cells and sheath cells, dimensions of cross section, dimensions of resin canals and width of needle are also important in separating these taxa. These studies give taxonomic support for recognizing P. henryi as an independent species closely related to P. massoniana.

1593-1600 Download
9
PHENOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF DESERT PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY FROM TURPAN EREMOPHYTES BOTANICAL GARDEN, NORTHWEST CHINA
SHI WEI1,2*, ZHAO YANFEN2,3, PAN BORONG1,2, YIN LINKE1,2 AND LIU RUIXIA1,2

PHENOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF DESERT PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY FROM TURPAN EREMOPHYTES BOTANICAL GARDEN, NORTHWEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
The phenology of three genera of desert plants (viz., Calligonum L., Haloxylon L., and Tamarix L.) was investigated in response to temperature changes in Turpan. Eremophytes Botanical Garden The temperature was raised gradually from 1977 to 2006, while the phenophases of Calligonum L., Haloxylon L., and Tamarix L. genera were slowly and insignificantly changed in the study area. Their phenophase were similar and did not change significantly over the duration of the study except the beginning of flowering of the average of the three genera from 1977 to 1990 and 1991 to 2006, respectively. The summed temperature of the first four months was the major factor that affected the spring and flowering phenophases of the respective genera. The bud of Calligonum species was expanded during 1977 to 1990 and 1991 to 2006, the flower-buds in Tamarix species appeared during1977 to 2006, the fruit setting of Haloxylon species started 1990 to 2006 and leaf discoloration of Tamarix species appeared during 1977 to 1990.

1601-1609 Download
10
COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGICAL STUDY OF ZIZIPHUS LOTUS (L.) LAM. IN THE ARID AREA OF TUNISIA
REFKA ZOUAOUI12*, MUSTAPHA KSONTINI1 AND ALI FERCHICHI2

COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGICAL STUDY OF ZIZIPHUS LOTUS (L.) LAM. IN THE ARID AREA OF TUNISIA
ABSTRACT:
Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. is spontaneous plant (Rhamnaceae). It is of great ecological value and versatile, but it is endangered. To show the variability of phenological phases of this taxon, a study of phenology was conducted in aridTunisia: ((Bou Hedma (BH); Matmata (MM); Medenine (Amra) (MD) and Oued Zes (OZ)) during two years (2010 and 2011). Our results show that the different phases, especially the flowering and fruiting coincide with the dry season. The observation of these shrubs in different phenological states shows a high variation between provenances (intersite) and between individual (intrasite). In 2011, the leafing out from BH presents a precocity and prolongation in time compared to others. The flowering is enough spread over time and present with fruiting phase at a given time. In 2010, the provenances of MD and MM are more precocious compared to other. By against, in 2011, all the provenances bloom at the same time. In BH, the fructification is the most precocious compared to others. These variations between provenances can be explained by the influence of temperature, soil moisture, photoperiod, exposure and soil texture.

1611-1620 Download
11
IMPACT OF MULTIPLE SOIL NUTRIENTS ON DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF SHRUBS IN AN ARID VALLEY, IN SOUTHWEST CHINA
CHENG JUN SONG1, LAI YE QU2, TIAN YISHUI1, KE MING MA2*, LI XIN ZAO1 AND XU XIANLI3

IMPACT OF MULTIPLE SOIL NUTRIENTS ON DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF SHRUBS IN AN ARID VALLEY, IN SOUTHWEST CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Shrubs play key roles in arid regions and multiple interacting resources limit their distribution patterns. Identifying limiting resources and their coupling effects on shrubs is essential for developing restoration theory and practice. A survey of shrub composition, soil properties and topography was conducted in fifty-seven 15-m×15-m plots in an arid valley of the upper Minjiang River, Southwest China. With quantitative classification method and ordination technique, 48 shrubs species were classified into four clusters and two categories along soil gradient. Cluster I and II composed Category I and had a significantly higher percentage of dominant legume shrubs than in Cluster III and Cluster IV, which made up Category II. Correlation analysis indicated that both multi-resource limitation and single resource limitation were coexisting simultaneously in this arid area, the extent of which was functional cluster-specific and also quantified hierarchical structure of multiple resource limitation: soil water played a primary limitation role, available nitrogen the next, and available phosphorus the third at community scale. Moreover, this study affirmed that both soil pH and soil texture could effectively regulate retention of soil moisture and available nutrients, respectively. Distinguishing critical limiting resources and their regulators is very meaningful to clarify couplings and controlling mechanisms in restoration practices. Therefore, decreasing soil pH and increasing soil clay content should be conducted thoroughly in plantation sites to remain abundant soil moisture and available nutrients in native restoration projects.

1621-1629 Download
12
BREEDING SYSTEM AND POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF PAEONIA DELAVAYI (PEAONIACEAE), AN ENDANGERED PLANT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF CHINA
KUI LI1,2,3, BAOQIANG ZHENG1,2,3, YAN WANG1,2,3* AND LIN ZHOU1,2,3

BREEDING SYSTEM AND POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF PAEONIA DELAVAYI (PEAONIACEAE), AN ENDANGERED PLANT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Breeding system and pollination biology of Paeonia delavayi (Peaoniaceae) from Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, southwest of China were studied. Flowering phenologies and flower visitors were observed or collected from 2008 to 2011. The pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination efficiency of different visitors were detected and tested. The florescence lasted for 6- 9d in a single flower from mid-May to late June. A high percentage of flower damage promoted early anther dehiscence. Flowers started disseminating pollen at 1-2 d after flowering, and lasted for 5-6 d. Pollen viability could be preserved for more than 10 d at normal temperature. High seed rate from the stigma was observed at 1 d before flowering to 3d after flowering, and the dissemination hysteresis was defined as protogyny. The P/O ratios were 6,124 to 9,713:1, suggesting that the larger quantity of pollen to increased the seed setting rate. Three species of bees, eight species of beetles, seven species of syrphid flies, four species of ants, and three species of butterflies were observed on the flowers. P. delavayi rewarded to the visitors by releasing fragrance, providing pollen and nectar. On the bodies of the visitors under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), much pollen from the plants of similar flowering period inner community were found which indicated that these incompatible visitors were not species-specific pollinators. The bagging experiments showed that P. delavayi was selfincompatible and no apomixes. Anemophily only played a minor role in the fertilization. A few seeds with poor plumpness can be produced by geitonogamy. Seed setting rate of artificial xenogamy was higher than natural pollination. Artificial control of the visitors’ species showed bees being the most important pollinators. Beetles and ants participated in pollination to someextent and were unstable. Syrphid flies and butterflies were very unreliable with low pollination efficiency. Reproductive success depended largely on cross-pollination assisted by pollinator activities, especially the bees.

1631-1642 Download
13
II. PERICARP ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SOME LAMIACEAE NUTLETS IN SAUDI ARABIA AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
HASSAN, S.A.1 AND AL. THOBAITI, A.T.2

II. PERICARP ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SOME LAMIACEAE NUTLETS IN SAUDI ARABIA AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE
ABSTRACT:
The nutlets transverse sections of 23 selected taxa belonging to 12 genera of Saudi Arabia Lamiaceae were examined using light microscope and detailed description of the pericarp anatomical characteristics were provided. Nutlets have shown obvious differences in the presence or absence of hairs, papillae, mucilage, endosperm and crystals, also, in thickness of pericarp layers, parenchymatous and sclerenchymataus layers. The relationships between the studied taxa were presented as phenogram. This study confirms the usefulness of the nutlet anatomical features as additional characters in taxonomical studies of the Lamiaceae especially mucilage production (myxocarpy) and the sclerenchymatous layer (shape, pigment, and cavity) of the endocarp. They are diagnostic at the generic and subfamily levels. The anatomical studies indicate the family is polymorphic in pericarp characters.

1643-1651 Download
14
SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION IN SOME EUPHORBIACEOUS SPECIES
NADIA BATOOL ZAHRA1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR AND SHAZIA SULTANA

SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION IN SOME EUPHORBIACEOUS SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels.

1653-1661 Download
15
THE ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF ONOSMA MOLLIS DC. AND ONOSMA HALOPHILA BOISS. & HELDR. (BORAGINACEAE) FROM TURKEY
RIZA BİNZET1 AND HALİL İBRAHİM TEKE2

THE ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF ONOSMA MOLLIS DC. AND ONOSMA HALOPHILA BOISS. & HELDR. (BORAGINACEAE) FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The anatomical characteristics of two endemic species viz., Onosma halophila Boiss. & Heldr. and O. mollis DC. were investigated. Both of examined species are Iran-Turan Element. The root of examined species observed as secondary structure and cortex is multilayered. Raphide crystals were observed in epidermis and 2-3 layered of cortex cells bellow epidermis in O. mollis. leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in both species. Cystoliths were seen basal portions of hairs on both side epidermis of leaves in two species. Stomata types were anisocytic and anomocytic in both species. The stomata index is 11.18 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. mollis. The stomata index is 10.95 of upper epidermis and 12.67 of lower epidermis in O. halophila. Vascular bundles were surrounded by a parenchymatic sheat in both species.

1663-1668 Download
16
FLORAL MICRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE TRIBE SENECIONEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
RUBINA ABID*, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER

FLORAL MICRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND THEIR TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE TRIBE SENECIONEAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The micro-morphological characters viz., receptacular surface and endothecial tissues of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The endothecial tissues found to be significant for the generic delimitation within the tribe Senecioneae. However, a variety of receptacle surfaces i.e., alveolate, areolate, fimbrillate, foveolate and scorbiculate was observed and to some extent they may be used for specific delimitation.

1669-1676 Download
17
STUDY ON CARALLUMA TUBERCULATA NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ITS IMPORTANCE AS MEDICINAL PLANT
BASHIR AHMAD1*, SAYED JAFFAR ABBAS1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2, SHUMAILA BASHIR3 AND DAWOOD AHMAD4

STUDY ON CARALLUMA TUBERCULATA NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ITS IMPORTANCE AS MEDICINAL PLANT
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted on Caralluma tuberculata, a famous traditional medicinal plant in the northern territory of Pakistan to assess its importance. Analysis were performed on its nutritional, proximate and microchemical composition for evaluation as food plant, while experiments of cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity and as phytobiocide were conducted to study its importance as medicinal plant. A method for vegetative propagation of C. tuberculata was optimized using cut stems without roots give better result and also more economical, from single stem multiple plant can be produced. It contains good amount of nutrients and proximate contents. Due to high inhibitory effect results of C. tuberculata against Alternaria alternata it can be recommended as selective fungicide for controlling Alternaria sp., born diseases. From the results it becomes clear that C. tuberculata had some anti-bacterial compounds which had very minimum inhibitory effect on the growth of bacterial species. This plant also showed significant activity against Artemia salina, Lemna minor and can be used as cytotoxic and phytotoxic agents in concentrated states.

1677-1684 Download
18
A SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSENTERY IN AMATHOLE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY, SOUTH AFRICA
ANTHONY JIDE AFOLAYAN* AND OLUBUNMI ABOSEDE WINTOLA

A SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSENTERY IN AMATHOLE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY, SOUTH AFRICA
ABSTRACT:
In view of the prevalence of dysentery in developing countries such as South Africa and the erosion of indigenous knowledge of phytomedicine due to lack of interest by the young generation, a survey of five local municipalities of Amathole district, Eastern Cape Province was carried out in 2012. A questionnaire-guided interview of the indigenous people by random sampling was done with the help of an interpreter during a survey of the district. Fifty-five (55) respondents participated in the study. The respondents comprised of 25% traditional medical practitioners, 15% herb-sellers and 15% rural elders. Fifty-one (51) plants species of 32 families were documented. Fabaceae had the highest representation of seven (14%) plant species used for the treatment of dysentery; some other families were Asphodelaceae, Apiaceae, Geraniaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Asclepiadiaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Balanophaceae, Celstraceae, Convolvulaceae, Cornaceae, Iridaceae, and Hydronaceae. The medicinal plants with the highest frequency of prescription were Hydnora africana and Alepidea amatymbica. The plants were used singly or in combination in recipes. Leaves (28%) had the highest use-value of plant parts, followed by the roots (24%), bark (22%) and the whole plant (9%). Methods of preparation of recipes were decoction, infusion and tincture. The use of recipe as an enema was also documented. The study of the pharmacology and mode of action of the plants will contribute immensely to their therapeutic value.

1685-1692 Download
19
ROOT EXUDATES AND LEAF LEACHATES OF 19 MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN EXHIBIT ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL
SAIRAH SYED1*, MUHAMMAD IMRAN AL–HAQ2, ZAMMURAD IQBAL AHMED1, ABDUL RAZZAQ1 AND MUHAMMAD AKMAL3

ROOT EXUDATES AND LEAF LEACHATES OF 19 MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN EXHIBIT ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL
ABSTRACT:
Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants commonly used in Pakistan by plant box and sandwich methods, respectively. In sandwich method, lettuce seedlings were grown with the dry leaf leachates of the selected plant species in a growing media at the rate of 5, 10 and 50 mg dish-1 in a completely randomized design with three replications. Their effects on hypocotyl and radicle growth of the lettuce were recorded as a percentage of untreated control. Data was subjected for analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by Tukey’s HSD test at p<0.05. Results indicated that allelopathic effects of the leaf leachates of all selected plant species on the hypocotyl and radicle elongations of the lettuce varied significantly in all concentrations used in experiments. The hypocotyl growth of the lettuce seedlings was affected from promotion (−6.71% inhibition) caused by Phlaris minor to inhibition (78.40%) by Withania somnifera. Both species suppressed the radicle length from 33.69–93.30%. Leachates of W. somnifera and Sarcococca saligna exhibited strong inhibitory results in a concentration dependant manner. After the growth period of 50 days, root exudates of S. saligna appeared most detrimental (78.00% inhibition) to radicle growth of the lettuce seedling followed by W. somnifera (75.00%) when tested by plant box method. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature and in the development of new and potent bioherbicides to combat environmental risk.

1693-1701 Download
20
NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
GHULAM DASTAGIR¹*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN¹ AND KHANZADI FATIMA KHATTAK²

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF PLANTS OF FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE AND EUPHORBIACEAE
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted with the objective to find out the nutritional value of some selected plants of family Zygophyllaceae and Euphorbiaceae which are traditionally used in different parts of Pakistan. Fresh plants of Fagonia indica Burm. f., Peganum harmala L., Tribulus terrestris L., Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Raf. and Ricinus communis L., were collected from Peshawar and Attock Hills during June, 2009. It was observed that the average values revealed that P. harmala excelled in high fat, carbohydrate, protein and moisture contents than other two species, therefore it can be considered a good nutritive plant followed by F. indica that contained the highest fibre. The T. terrestris had the maximum protein and gross energy.The differences found in the proximate composition of these medicinal plants might be attributed to the habitat, environment and time of harvest. Chrozophora tinctoria and R. communis revealed variation in various analysed biochemicals. The average values showed that C. tinctoria had high the moisture, ash contents, protein, fats, fibre, carbohydrate and gross energy than its counterpart R. communis. The cultivation of Ricinus communis should be encouraged on large scale for the development of biodiesel that will help people. Its seeds can be helpful for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and insecticidal industries.

1703-1707 Download
21
ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED INVASIVE SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
SHAMIM AKHTAR1*, NAZNEEN BANGASH2, REHANA ASGHAR3, MUBASHRAH MUNIR4 AND NAUMAN KHALID5

ALLELOPATHIC ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED INVASIVE SPECIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Invader species are a great threat to local flora. Eight invader species of Pakistan were screened for their allelopathic activity through sandwich method. Toxic (inhibitory) and non-toxic (stimulatory) effects were assessed by recording their effect on germination and growth of lettuce. Radicle and plumule growth of lettuce were recorded at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations of each species. Among all species the growth activity was found to be concentration dependent. Except Eutcalyptus glabra all species resulted in inhibitory effects at 5, 10 and 50 mg leaves concentrations. Xanthium strumarium and Cannabis sativa showed strong inhibitory effects on radicle and plumule growth of lettuce. Maximum inhibition was recorded at highest concentration; even growth of lettuce was stopped with 50 mg leaves concentration of C. sativa.

1709-1713 Download
22
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SUNFLOWER ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ZAHIR MUHAMMAD* AND ABDUL MAJEED1

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF SUNFLOWER ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) AND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
ABSTRACT:
Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants.

1715-1718 Download
23
HARVESTING AND CONSUMPTION OF FUEL AND TIMBER WOOD IN RURAL AREA OF DISTRICT TANK, PAKISTAN
LAL BADSHAH1*, FARRUKH HUSSAIN1, ZAMAN SHER2 AND TANVIR BURNI1

HARVESTING AND CONSUMPTION OF FUEL AND TIMBER WOOD IN RURAL AREA OF DISTRICT TANK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study revealed that 90% of the rural people with different age group of District Tank, Pakistan depended upon firewood for catering. The total annual wood consumption for fueling by brick brewers, food sellers and domestic utilization was 18371 metric tons in this remote region. The saw machines also convert 13650 metric tons of timber wood yearly into logs and boards of various grades. The total wood consumption exceeds the quantity of wood harvested by tree fellers, farmers and wood sellers. Therefore the balance of over 13000 metric tons is sourced from neighboring forest of Tehsil Kulachi and Dera Ismail Khan. The quantity of wood removed and consumed for various purposes did not show a significant difference at α (0.05) among the six locations. However student t-test showed significant difference existed in the mean annual removal and consumption of wood in the area. The study also enumerated Acacia nilotica, Tamarix aphylla, and Sueda fruticosa as the best and preferred fuel species. While Acacia nilotica, Prosopis farcta and Dalbergia sisso as the frequently used timber species in the region. The criterion of firewood and lumber consumption was very conventional like durability in blaze and opposed to termite. Consequently, it is recommended scientific vegetation conservation strategies meant at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized used of timber products as a complimentary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of plant resources..

1719-1724 Download
24
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE AND ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW
MUGHAL QAYUM1, M. ZIA-Ul-HAQ2*, WAQAR A. KALEEM3, SHAKEEL AHMAD4, LUCA CALANI5, TERESA MAZZEO5, NICOLETTA PELLEGRINI5

ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF IMPATIENS BICOLOR ROYLE AND ZIZYPHUS OXYPHYLLA EDGEW
ABSTRACT:
The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of Impatiens bicolor Royle and Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew. The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 15.77 to 27.61 mg catechin equivalents/g of different parts of Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew., extract and 17.74 mg catechin equivalents/g for Impatiens bicolor Royle extract. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic compounds showed that ferulic acid-hexosides was the only compound detected in I. bicolor, while Z. oxyphylla fruit, stem and leaves exhibited several compounds. Total antioxidant capacity values measured by TEAC assay were 46.32 ± 0.89, 42.56 ± 1.65, 41.34 ± 0.20, and 48.58 ± 0.21 µmol/g of extract, while those measured by FRAP assay were 102.40 ± 0.18, 207.54 ± 7.91, 254.89 ± 4.20, and 233.00 ± 9.07 µmol Fe2+/g, for I. bicolor and Z. oxyphylla fruit, leaves and stem, respectively. TRAP values were 43.26 ± 1.27, 112.23 ± 0.00, 102.83 ± 1.66, and 117.37 ± 3.70 µmol/g of extract for I. bicolor and Z. oxyphylla fruit, leaves and stem respectively. The results indicate that these two plants may be a potential source of antioxidants.

1725-1729 Download
25
KARYOLOGICAL STUDIES IN TEN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF DESERT LILY ALOE VERA FROM PAKISTAN
BUSHREEN JAHAN1*, AHSAN A. VAHIDY2, RAFAT SAEED1AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR3

KARYOLOGICAL STUDIES IN TEN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF DESERT LILY ALOE VERA FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
To enhance theoretical basis of Aloe feeding and provide cytological basement, the karyotype and morphology of mitotic chromosomes, ten different populations of Aloe vera collected from various geographical locations of Karachi, Pakistan were studied by aceto-orcein staining technique. The results showed that chromosome number of Aloe vera is 2n=14. The karyotype is bimodal and consists of 14 chromosomes (8 large and 6 small) predominantly with submedian, median and subterminal centromere. Average chromosome lengths among populations ranged from 7.95-2.36 μm.

1731-1734 Download
26
PRODUCTION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE PEPTIDES BY ENZYMATIC ZEIN HYDROLYSATE FROM MAIZE-ZEA MAYS SSP. MEXICANA INTROGRESSION LINE
LINGZHI WANG1*, MINGLI QU2, XIAOHUA ZHANG1 AND YANJIANG QIAO1*

PRODUCTION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE PEPTIDES BY ENZYMATIC ZEIN HYDROLYSATE FROM MAIZE-ZEA MAYS SSP. MEXICANA INTROGRESSION LINE
ABSTRACT:
Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 μg/ml and 22.9 μg/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food.

1735-1740 Download
27
PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SAFFLOWER YELLOW EXPOSURE ON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
FAIZAN ULLAH1*, ATIF ULLAH1, SULTAN MEHMOOD WAZIR1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF SAFFLOWER YELLOW EXPOSURE ON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of current investigation was to determine phytotoxic effects of safflower dye (safflower yellow) on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv. Rainbow. Safflower yellow was extracted in autoclaved distilled water and was applied at various concentrations (0.312%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%) to canola seeds in petri dishes under axenic conditions. Phenolics content was detected in dye solutions and was maximum (53 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 5% dye solution. The growth rate of canola was decreased with the increase of safflower dye concentration (p<0.05). Maximum inhibition in the activity of enzyme lipase in germinating seeds, germination (%), root and shoot length, root and shoot weight was exhibited by 5% dye solution. In response to the application of safflower dye, canola seedlings accumulated endogenous phenolics. Relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of seedling were reduced to a maximum level by 5% and 2.5% dye solutions. It was inferred that safflower dye exhibited phytotoxic effects at higher concentration on canola. The findings of the current investigation will help in safe disposal of safflower dye found in industrial effluents.

1741-1746 Download
28
RECOVERY OF LEAF ELONGATION DURING SHORT TERM OSMOTIC STRESS CORRELATES WITH OSMOTIC ADJUSTMENT AND CELL TURGOR RESTORATION IN DIFFERENT DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS
MOHAMED MAHDID1,2*, ABDELKRIM KAMELI1, CHRISTINA EHLERT2 AND THIERRY SIMONNEAU2

RECOVERY OF LEAF ELONGATION DURING SHORT TERM OSMOTIC STRESS CORRELATES WITH OSMOTIC ADJUSTMENT AND CELL TURGOR RESTORATION IN DIFFERENT DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
In order to investigate the responses of leaf elongation rate (LER), turgor and osmotic adjustment (OA) during a short-term stress (7 hours) imposed by PEG6000 and a recovery phase, three durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties [Inrat; MBB; and OZ ] were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Turgor was estimated using a cell pressure probe; osmotic potential as well as total sugars and potassium (K+) concentrations were estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone. Growth recovered rapidly and then stabilised at a lower value. A significant difference was found in % recovery of LER between the varieties. The cessation of growth after stress coincided with a decrease in turgor followed by a recovery period reaching control values in MBB and Inrat. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.83) between the reduction in turgor (∆ turgor) and % recovery of LER was found at 7 hours after stress. The difference in the partial recovery of LER between varieties was thus related to the capacity of partial turgor recovery. Partial turgor recovery is associated with sugar or K+ based OA which indicates its importance in maintaining high LER values under water deficit.

1747-1754 Download
29
DIRECT AND RESIDUAL EFFECT OF HAZARA ROCK PHOSPHATE (HRP) ON WHEAT AND SUCCEEDING MAIZE IN ALKALINE CALCAREOUS SOILS
MUHAMMAD NASEER* AND DOST MUHAMMAD

DIRECT AND RESIDUAL EFFECT OF HAZARA ROCK PHOSPHATE (HRP) ON WHEAT AND SUCCEEDING MAIZE IN ALKALINE CALCAREOUS SOILS
ABSTRACT:
The potential of Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) containing 18 % acid soluble P2O5 as cheaper substitute for costly commercial fertilizer for crop production, was evaluated. Field experiments were conducted on silty clay loam, calcareous (16 % CaCO3), high pH (8.6) soil where 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg HRP ha-1 was added to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cv “Serin” with three replications in RCB arrangement. Recommended doses of N and K were applied to all plots. Maize (Zea mays L.) cv “Babar” was grown as a succeeding crop for evaluating the residual effect of HRP as a source of P. Addition of HRP produced significant increase in wheat grain and biomass yield over control. HRP demonstrated a significant residual effect on grain and biomass yield over control. Similar increases were registered in the number of grains, grains spike-1 of wheat and cobs weight and grain weight cob-1 of maize. The variations induced by levels of HRP were mostly similar while the residual levels showed better results for higher doses compared to lower for maize yield and yield components. The soil analysis performed for the growth stages revealed significant water soluble P concentrations with HRP treatments over control suggesting sustained supply of P into the soil solution for crop growth and development. The total P uptake by both wheat and maize closely followed the pattern of WSP, which corroborated the yield data. It was concluded that HRP offer promise as alternate source of P, however, to ensure optimum crop production on high pH calcareous soil, some acidification after careful standardization will be advisable.

1755-1761 Download
30
CHANGES IN GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF TWO SELECTED MAIZE VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL (NPK) AND ORGANIC (BAT’S MANURE) FERTILIZERS IN PALA (CHAD) GROWN FIELD
WAGUE RIDINE1,2, ALBERT NGAKOU2*, MBAILAO MBAIGUINAM3, FABIENNE NAMBA4 AND PATAI ANNA5

CHANGES IN GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF TWO SELECTED MAIZE VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL (NPK) AND ORGANIC (BAT’S MANURE) FERTILIZERS IN PALA (CHAD) GROWN FIELD
ABSTRACT:
The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat’s manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat’s manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat’s manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat’s manure; T4 with 75% bat’s manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat’s manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat’s manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE–W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat’s manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer.

1763-1770 Download
31
ENHANCING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA IN TWO SOIL SAMPLES BY USING COW MANURE AS AMENDMENT
RO ANYASI*1 AND HI ATAGANA2

ENHANCING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA IN TWO SOIL SAMPLES BY USING COW MANURE AS AMENDMENT
ABSTRACT:
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of cow manure on the growth of Chromolaena odorata propagated for the purpose of phytoremediation of organic contaminant in soil. Cow manure was mixed separately with two soil types: clay soil and sandy-loam soils in a ratio of 9:1 (soil:manure) and put into 2 L PVC pots, the homogenized soil types were measured into 2 L PVC planting pots. Selected sprouting stem cuttings of Chromolaena odorata were transplanted into the pots containing the soil-manure mixture. Nutrient status of the soil was monitored weekly through the period of experimentation and the growth of the plants and biomass accumulation were measured. Control experiment was set up with manure. Survival of plants after transplanting was highest for cuttings transplanting after 3 weeks (95%) and 5 weeks (50%) of sprouting in the nursery. Profuse growth of plants in the both amended soil types were observed when compared with the control. Biomass accumulation was significantly higher in amended soils compared to the control. This study has shown that organic manure amendment to both soil types can enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of Chromolaena odorata. This is a good indication that the amendment could be beneficial in soil phytoremediation studies involving C. odorata.

1771-1779 Download
32
MALABSORPTION OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND EFFECTS OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON CONTINUOUSLY CROPPED CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. VAR. ANNUUM
XIN-HUA YE1, ZUN-LIAN ZHAO1*, QIAN ZHOU1, HU-BING ZHAO2, CHANG-MEI GUO1, LIAN-LIAN SHI3 AND JIAN-WEI GUO1

MALABSORPTION OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND EFFECTS OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON CONTINUOUSLY CROPPED CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. VAR. ANNUUM
ABSTRACT:
Cayenne pepper (C. annuum var. annuum) cultivar known as line No. 5 was used to establish a reference baseline for fertilization experiments under conditions of continuous cropping versus crop rotation. The effects of continuous cropping on absorption of 11 essential nutrient elements and fruit yield were studied. Concurrently, we also examined the effects of foliar application of urea + KH2PO4 and Fe + B + Zn + Mn on nutrient absorption due to continuous cropping. The results showed that, compared with peppers grown in rotation soil, continuous cropping affected the uptake of eight elements (P, K, Mg, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu) and transport of these elements to the aerial parts of the plant, although the element concentrations in continuous cropping soil were not lower than those in rotation soil. Continuous cropping caused a decline in fruit yield. The impact of continuous cropping on the uptake of trace elements was greater than it was for macro elements. Foliar application of urea + KH2PO4 significantly improved the P, Mg, Fe, and Mo content of continuously-cropped pepper plants, but did not significantly improve the content of N and K, and there was an antagonistic effect on Zn uptake. Foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn, significantly increased the Fe, B, Zn, Mn, and P content in the plants; Ca uptake in the leaves and fruits was promoted to a certain degree, but there was obvious antagonism toward Mo and Cu uptake in the stems, leaves and fruits. Pepper fruit yields were significantly increased by foliar application of urea + KH2PO4 or foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn. However the effects of foliar application of Fe + B + Zn + Mn on increased production were significantly better than the effects of foliar application of urea + KH2 PO4.

1781-1788 Download
33
MECHANISMS OF NITROGEN RE-DISTRIBUTION IN RESPONSE TO ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND THE EFFECTS ON NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY IN BRASSICA NAPUS DURING LATER GROWTH STAGES
ZHENHUA ZHANG1,2*∆, WENMING WANG1∆, CHUNYUN GUAN3, QIANG LIU1,2, XIANGMIN RONG1,2, YONGLIANG HAN1,2, JIANGWEI PENG1,2, QIONG LIAO1, YING YU1 AND HAIXING SONG1,2*

MECHANISMS OF NITROGEN RE-DISTRIBUTION IN RESPONSE TO ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND THE EFFECTS ON NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY IN BRASSICA NAPUS DURING LATER GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
In order to investigate the mechanisms of nitrogen (N) re-distribution in response to proteolytic enzyme (PE), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) activities and the effects on N use efficiency (NUE). Two oilseed rape genotypes were grown in sand culture in a greenhouse under normal (15.0 mmol L-1 NO3-) and limited-N (7.5 mmol L-1 NO3-) levels. Isotope (15N) labeling and enzyme inhibitors against the PE, GS and GOGAT enzymes were used. We found that, when the two genotypes were subjected to specific inhibitors of PE, GS, and GOGAT, the activities of these enzymes were significantly decreased, resulting in reduced N re-distributed from leaf to grain, as well as reduced NUE. L-glutamine and free amino acid contents in the phloem sap were primarily influenced by PE and GS activities, whereas grain yield was primary regulated by GOGAT activity during the later growth stages. These findings suggest that PE, GS, and GOGAT are key enzymes for the regulation of N re-distribution in plant tissues during later growth stages, with grain yield and NUE of oilseed rape being positively regulated by PE, GS and GOGAT activities.

1789-1795 Download
34
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND IRRIGATION ON GLUTEN PROTEIN COMPOSITION AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO “YELLOW BERRY” DISORDER IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM)
BENJAMÍN RAMÍREZ-WONG1, FRANCISCO RODRÍGUEZ-FÉLIX1*, PATRICIA I. TORRES-CHÁVEZ1, CONCEPCIÓN L. MEDINA-RODRÍGUEZ1, EDITH A. MATUS-BARBA1,2 AND ANA I. LEDESMA-OSUNA1

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND IRRIGATION ON GLUTEN PROTEIN COMPOSITION AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO “YELLOW BERRY” DISORDER IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM)
ABSTRACT:
In Mexico and the rest of the world, the presence of “yellow berry” (YB) in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum) has been related with poor quality, this defect is associated with low protein content in the grains. However, the quality of the wheat depends not only on the protein content, but also on the composition of the gluten proteins. The effect of the various agronomic factors on the composition of wheat gluten has been a subject of study worldwide. However, in Mexico, wheat quality still remains an issue, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal agronomic conditions to produce wheat with good-quality gluten. For this reason, the effects of nitrogen (N) rates and irrigations on the amount of gliadin subclasses, glutenin subunits (two main groups) and grain protein content as well as the relation of these proteins to the YB content in wheat grains were investigated. The experiment was conducted on arable farmland in the Valley of Empalme, Sonora, Mexico (27º 58’ N, 110º 49’ W; 10 m altitude), during the fall-winter period of 2009-2010. Tarachi, the hard wheat cultivar studied, was selected for its relative susceptibility to the presence of elevated YB content in mature wheat kernels. Three levels of N (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (1, 2 or 3 auxiliary irrigations) were studied. Using a N rate of 150 kg ha-1 with 3 auxiliary irrigations, wheat with good-quality gluten was obtained. The results suggest that the YB disorder is primarily related to the amount of protein in the wheat grain.

1797-1804 Download
35
ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL AND METALLOID LEVELS IN SPINACH (SPINACIA OLERACEA L.) GROWN IN WASTEWATER IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF SARGODHA, PAKISTAN
KAFEEL AHMAD1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, ASMA ASHFAQ1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3* AND SUMAIRA YASMIN1

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL AND METALLOID LEVELS IN SPINACH (SPINACIA OLERACEA L.) GROWN IN WASTEWATER IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF SARGODHA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Heavy metal-induced pollution causes an adverse effect on the agricultural production system. In the present study we studied the pattern of accumulation of different metals in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) irrigated with wastewater. Considerably elevated concentrations of metals were observed in the wastewater irrigated soil and vegetable. For example, the levels Mo, Cd and Pb in the vegetable exceeded the permissible limit suggested by the World Health Organization. A significant and positive correlation was observed between the soil and vegetable in terms of levels of different metals. Transfer coefficients for Cr, Zn and Cu were above 0.5 which indicated high level of metal contamination mainly due to anthropogenic activities in the study site. The pollution load index was also considerably high for the spinach plants growing on the metal contaminated soil suggesting that proper management of the study area is required to protect all vegetables being grown therein from the accumulation of high levels of different metals examined in the present study.

1805-1810 Download
36
FOLIAR AND SOIL NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION IN CONIFER FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGION OF PAKISTAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH
MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI1*, SYED SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, IMRAN AHMED KHAN3 AND NASRULLAH KHAN4

FOLIAR AND SOIL NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION IN CONIFER FORESTS OF MOIST TEMPERATE AREAS OF HIMALAYAN AND HINDUKUSH REGION OF PAKISTAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
Foliar nutrient concentration for the dominant conifer species (Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara) of moist temperate areas of Himalayan and Hindukush region of Pakistan was evaluated. Soils samples and conifer needles were collected from forests at 41 sites in the study area. Six macro and seven micronutrients were analyzed for both soils and tissue. The mean nutrient levels and variability for each species was evaluated. The gradients in tissue nutrients were exposed by means of correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence (CCA), for each species. The first CA axis of Pinus wallichiana data was significantly correlated with soil N, P and K (p<0.05). The second CA axis was correlated with P, B and Ca, while the third was correlated with K and Mg (p<0.05). The first CA axis of Abies pindrow was not correlated with any soil nutrients, but the second axis showed correlation with soil Ca (p<0.05) and the third with S, Fe and N (p at the most 0.05). Cedrus deodara CA axes were not markedly correlated with soil nutrients. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) exposed the correlation structure between tissue nutrient and soil nutrient matrices with similar results thereby supporting the results of CA.

1811-1827 Download
37
IMPACT OF AUTOVEHICULAR DENSITY AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.
M. KABIR*, M. ZAFAR IQBAL, M. SHAFIQ AND ZIA-UR-REHMAN FAROOQI

IMPACT OF AUTOVEHICULAR DENSITY AND BIOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.
ABSTRACT:
The impact of auto-vehicular pollution on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. growing along different polluted roads of Karachi was evaluated. Reductions in leaves parameters such as leaf area, leaf fresh and dry weight of A. indica were observed at University Campus, University Road, Board Office Road, Shaheed-e-Millat Road and Shahrah-e-Faisal during different seasons of the years from, 2008-2009. Some visual observations as leaf color, fruit and seed production were also recorded periodically, which showed variation at different sites. Results indicated that A. indica at control site were growing as fast as they were given the favorable resources such as bio-climatic factors which include heat index, chill, humidity, temperature and wind speed naturally available to them but road-side pollution stressed the growth. Climatic conditions were comparatively different on the city roads as compared to the University Campus. The automobiles density has significantly (p<0.05) reduced the leaf area of A. indica at Shahrah-e-Faisal in summer season (July, 2008). The soil of the studied area showed a high percentage of CaCO3, slightly alkaline pH, electrical conductivity (E.C.), total dissolved salts (T.D.S.) in city roads as compared to University Campus soil. These findings demonstrated that traffic density and harsh bio-climatic conditions showed poor appearance and reduction in the qualitative characters and biomass of A. indica.

1829-1835 Download
38
A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL, YIELD AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SAINFOIN SPECIES (ONOBRYCHIS SPP.) NATIVE TO EAST ANATOLIA
MELIH OKCU 1* AND SÜLEYMAN ŞENGÜL2

A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL, YIELD AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SAINFOIN SPECIES (ONOBRYCHIS SPP.) NATIVE TO EAST ANATOLIA
ABSTRACT:
Objective of the present study is to identify the species belonging to the genus Onobrychis (Fabaceae) growing native in and around Erzurum, and to determine their overall prevalence and morphological and quality characteristics. Species samples were collected from different locations in flowering periods of 2007, 2008 and 2009. At the end of the study, totally 10 genotypes were found representing 8 species and 2 sub-species. It was found that leaf length and leaflet frequency were the largest in O. atropatana var. grandiflora, the number of leaflets was the highest in O. viciifolia, the length and width of leaflets were maximum in O. radiata, the number of main branches and the number of fascicles in main branches were in O. hajastana, crude ash rate was highest in O. stenostachya, plant fresh and dry weight, ADF and NDF rate were highest in O. cornuta, where as crude protein rate was slightly higher in O. stenostachya subsp. sosnowskyi than other taxa.

1837-1842 Download
39
EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF SILVER NITRATE ON ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN WATERMELON PLANTS
MARCELINO CABRERA-DE LA FUENTE1, HORTENSIA ORTEGA-ORTIZ2, ADALBERTO BENAVIDES-MENDOZA1*, ALBERTO SANDOVAL-RANGEL1

EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF SILVER NITRATE ON ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN WATERMELON PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
In this experiment we studied the absorption of silver by watermelon plants of the variety Jubilee, as well as the effect on the lycopene content and antioxidant status. The treatments were based on a silver nitrate solution of different concentrations: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 200 mg∙L-1, applied at intervals of 8 days throughout the crop cycle. The determination of silver content was performed by atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), whereas the detection of the silver particles inside plant tissues was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By analyzing the data obtained in the experiment, a statistically significant difference was detected between treatments and between different plant organs. There was a greater accumulation of silver in the roots of plants and the content was positively related to the rate of application of AgNO3. The antioxidant status analyzed in the fruits increased three times in the plants exposed to 30 mg∙L-1 AgNO3 concentration. Meanwhile, lycopene content decreased with increased concentration of silver in solution and showed the highest content with 30 mg∙L-1 AgNO3.

1843-1846 Download
40
STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WILD SOYBEAN SEED COAT RELATED TO ITS PERMEABILITY
DANG TOAN VU2, VIJAYANAND VELUSAMY1,3 AND EUIHO PARK1*

STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WILD SOYBEAN SEED COAT RELATED TO ITS PERMEABILITY
ABSTRACT:
Four wild and two cultivated soybeans were examined for the water imbibition and relationships with seed coat structure, histochemical and epicatechin content using light, fluorescence, electron microscope, and HPLC technique.Cultivated cultivars, Pungsan and Chungja showed the highest water permeability, while the wild soybean lines, YWS16 and YWS136 showed moderate, and YWS1420 and YWS1459 did not absorb water for 24 hours. Seed coat surface of Pungsan, Chungja, YWS16, and YWS16 showed free deposits with rarely thin deposits exposing a cutin layer, while those of YWS1420 and YWS1459 were thick, rarely exposing the cuticle. In permeable genotypes, several cracks were found and the size of the cracks ranged from 1 to 2 μm. However, in impermeable genotypes, the cracks were not found in all seeds except for the tiny cracks (0.1 - 0.2 μm) in YWS1459. The free deposit with lager cuticle cracks on the seed coat surface seems to be related to permeability of wild soybean seed coat.

1847-1857 Download
41
ESSENTIAL OIL AND COMPOSITION OF ANISE (PIMPINELLA ANISUM L.) WITH VARYING SEED RATES AND ROW SPACING
HABIB ULLAH1*, ATHAR MAHMOOD2 AND BERND HONERMEIER3

ESSENTIAL OIL AND COMPOSITION OF ANISE (PIMPINELLA ANISUM L.) WITH VARYING SEED RATES AND ROW SPACING
ABSTRACT:
Two year study was carried out to explore the effect of seed rate and row spacing on the fruit yield, essential oil yield and composition of aniseed. The study factors included seed rate (6 g, 12 g, 24 g/10 m2) and row spacing (15 cm, 25 cm, 37.5 cm. A significantly higher fruit yield was produced at narrow row spacing of 15 cm among treatments. Wider row spacing produced markedly higher essential oil than narrow row spacing. Essential oil accumulation decreased as planting densities increased. The major constituent of anise oil was trans-anethole (82.1%) followed by γ-himachalene (7.0%). The quality parameters including estragol, γ-himachalene and trans-anethole were significantly affected by different row spacing. Plant grown at 37.5 cm row spacing accumulated the highest estragol and trans-anethole concentration among the row spacing treatments. It can be concluded that higher plant density and wider row spacing increased the disease infestation and lodging cultivar Enza Zaden in current study exhibited high concentration trans-anethole in essential oil composition therefore is a good quality chemotype.

1859-1864 Download
42
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN TOMATO THROUGH AGGLOMERATIVE HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS
QUMER IQBAL*, MUHAMMAD YUSSOUF SALEEM, AMJAD HAMEED AND MUHAMMAD ASGHAR

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN TOMATO THROUGH AGGLOMERATIVE HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
For the improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits, existence of variability has prime importance in plant breeding. Data on different morphological and reproductive traits of 47 tomato genotypes were analyzed for correlation,agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) to select genotypes and traits for future breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between yield and yield components like fruit diameter, single fruit weight and number of fruits plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis depicted first three PCs with Eigen-value higher than 1 contributing 81.72% of total variability for different traits. The PC-I showed positive factor loadings for all the traits except number of fruits plant-1. The contribution of single fruit weight and fruit diameter was highest in PC-1. Cluster analysis grouped all genotypes into five divergent clusters. The genotypes in cluster-II and cluster-V exhibited uniform maturity and higher yield. The D2 statistics confirmed highest distance between cluster- III and cluster-V while maximum similarity was observed in cluster-II and cluster-III. It is therefore suggested that crosses between genotypes of cluster-II and cluster-V with those of cluster-I and cluster-III may exhibit heterosis in F1 for hybrid breeding and for selection of superior genotypes in succeeding generations for cross breeding programme.

1865-1870 Download
43
COMBINING ABILITY FOR MATURITY AND PLANT HEIGHT IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ADNAN NASIM1, FARHATULLAH1*, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, SYED MUHAMMAD AZAM1, ZEESHAN NASIM2 AND M. AFZAL1

COMBINING ABILITY FOR MATURITY AND PLANT HEIGHT IN BRASSICA RAPA (L.) SSP. DICHOTOMA (ROXB.) HANELT
ABSTRACT:
A 5 × 5 F1 diallel cross hybrids of Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt along with parents were evaluated through combining ability for days to flowering (initiation and completion), days to maturity and plant height. Highly significant differences were recorded for all the traits. Mean squares due to general, specific and reciprocal combining ability were significant for all the traits except plant height for which the latter two components were non-significant. Prevalence of additive (plant height), non-additive (days to flowering completion; days to maturity) and reciprocal effects (days to flowering initiation) were detected. Parental line G-403 was best general combiner for all the traits. The F1 hybrids G-902 × G-265 (days to flowering initiation), G-902 × G-403 (days to flowering completion), G-265 × G-1500 (days to maturity) and G-909 × G-265 (plant height) were superior and may be exploited for future breeding programs.

1871-1875 Download
44
IN VITRO FLOWERING AND FRUITING IN CULTURE OF DENDROBIUM OFFICINATE KIMURA ET MIGO. (ORCHIDACEAE)
XIN QIAN, CAIXIA WANG, TONG OUYANG AND MIN TIAN*

IN VITRO FLOWERING AND FRUITING IN CULTURE OF DENDROBIUM OFFICINATE KIMURA ET MIGO. (ORCHIDACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Dendrobium officinate Kimura et Migo. is a rare and endangered perennial orchid, which is valued for its attractive flowers and medicinal uses. Its three-to-five-year breeding cycle makes propagation difficult, so we investigated In vitro production of flowers and seeds for this species. Calluses were induced from shoot-tip explants of D. officinate on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium with 0.2 mg L-1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.05 mg L-1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Multiple shoots were regenerated after protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were transferred onto the same basal medium with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The plantlets, 2-4 cm in height, maintained In vitro were induced to flower, and the highest rates of inflorescence (83.2%) and normal flowers (73.6%) were produced on the MS medium with 15% (v/v) coconut water and 0.1 mg L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) within 9 weeks. Histological analysis showed the origin of the floral primordial and normal morphologies of the pollen and female organs. The normal flowers were artificially pollinated and capsules developed. Viable seeds were produced and most of them germinated on the MS medium. This reproduction system could be used to study the molecular basis of flowering or to improve plant breeding programs.

1877-1882 Download
45
THE EFFECTS OF CELLULASE ON CAPSAICIN PRODUCTION IN FREELY SUSPENDED CELLS AND IMMOBILIZED CELL CULTURES OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.
CEMIL ISLEK1*, A.S. USTUN2 AND E. KOC2

THE EFFECTS OF CELLULASE ON CAPSAICIN PRODUCTION IN FREELY SUSPENDED CELLS AND IMMOBILIZED CELL CULTURES OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.
ABSTRACT:
The effect of different concentrations of cellulase on the production of capsaicin in freely suspended cell and immobilized cell cultures of Kahramanmaraş pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) were studied. Calluses were obtained from in vitro germinated hypocotyl explants of pepper seedlings and cell suspensions were prepared from these calluses. Immobilized cell suspension cultures with calcium alginate and free cell suspension cultures were obtained by using cell suspensions. Elicitor such as cellulase (5-30 µg/ml), was applied both for the free and immobilized cell suspensions and control group without elicitor was prepared. The concentration of capsaicin in freely suspended cells, immobilized cells and their filtrates were identified by HPLC after extraction with ethyl acetate. It was found that the immobilization process had an increasing effect on the capsaicin accumulation. The concentration of capsaicin in the immobilized cells for both control groups and elicitor added samples was higher than the free cells. In general, capsaicin concentration in the filtrate for free cells was higher than the immobilized cells. When all the cellulase and the sampling hours were compared, the highest capsaicin concentration for the immobilized cells was determined as 362,91 µg/g f.w. at the 24th hour for 30 µg/ml cellulase applied samples.

1883-1887 Download
46
QTL MAPPING OF WHEAT DOUBLED HAPLOIDS FOR CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE KINETICS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS IMPOSED AT ANTHESIS STAGE
MEHMOONA ILYAS1, NOSHIN ILYAS1, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD1, ALVINA GUL KAZI2, ABDUL MUJEEB KAZI3 AND ABDUL WAHEED4*

QTL MAPPING OF WHEAT DOUBLED HAPLOIDS FOR CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE KINETICS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS IMPOSED AT ANTHESIS STAGE
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is one of the major environmental constraints to crop plants including wheat worldwide. Synthetic hexaploid can act as a vehicle for improving crop tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Doubled haploid population consisting of one hundred and forty individuals derived from cross of Opata and SH223 was used in the present study to identify genomic regions associated with various quantitative attributes of physiological nature. Doubled haploid mapping population was phenotyped for chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics under control and drought stress imposed at anthesis stage. Genotyping of population was accomplished by utilizing two hundred and sixty one polymorphic Gaterslaben wheat microsatellites and Beltsville agriculture research center simple sequence repeats. Linkage map of doubled haploid population comprising of 19 linkage groups and covering map length of two thousands six hundred and twenty six (2626) cM was constructed using map maker software. Major and minor QTLs associated with quantitative traits were identified using QGene software. Major QTL for chlorophyll content (QTc.wwc-1B-S11) of doubled haploid mapping population under anthesis drought stress was mapped on chromosome 1B and explained 10.09 percent of phenotypic variation at LOD score of 5.5. Seven major and minor QTLs for PCFK of doubled haploids were identified on chromosome 1B, 7A and 7D under control and drought stress at anthesis stage. The identified QTLs are of prime importance for high resolution mapping in synthetic hexaploid wheat. Genomic synteny of doubled haploids was observed with rice chromosome 2, 4, 7 and maize chromosome 7 owing to occurrence of orthologous QTLs for chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence respectively.

1889-1897 Download
47
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING FUZZY LOGIC DESIGN
SIKANDER ALI* AND IKRAM UL HAQ

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING FUZZY LOGIC DESIGN
ABSTRACT:
The inherent non-linearity of citric acid fermentation from Aspergillus niger renders its control difficult, so there is a need to fine-tune the bioreactor performance for maximum production of citric acid in batch culture. For this, fuzzy logic is becoming a popular tool to handle non-linearity of a batch process. The present manuscript deals with fuzzy logic control of citric acid accretion by A. niger in a stirred tank reactor using blackstrap sugarcane molasses as a basal fermentation medium. The customary batches were termed as ‘control’ while those under fuzzy logic were ‘experimental’. The performance of fuzzy logic control of stirred tank reactor was found to be very encouraging for enhanced production of citric acid. The comparison of kinetic parameters showed improved citrate synthase ability of experimental culture (Yp/x = 7.042 g/g). When the culture grown on 150 g/l carbohydrates was monitored for Qp, Qs and Yp/s, there was significant enhancement in these variables over the control. Specific productivity of culture (qp = 0.070 g/g cells/h) was several fold increased. The enthalpy (ΔHD = 70.5 kJ/mol) and entropy of activation (ΔS = -144 J/mol/K) of enzyme for citric acid biosynthesis, free energies for transition state formation and substrate binding for sucrose hydrolysis of experimental were substantially improved.

1899-1903 Download
48
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL BACTERIA CONTAINING ACC DEAMINASE FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE RESOURCE ON DRY-FARMING LANDS
PENG ZHENG1, LIXIN ZHANG1*, LI TIAN1, LING ZHANG1, FUCAI CHEN1, BINGZHI LI2* AND ZHIYAN CUI1

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL BACTERIA CONTAINING ACC DEAMINASE FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE RESOURCE ON DRY-FARMING LANDS
ABSTRACT:
Soil-microbe-plant interactions are known to be intricate and they can greatly influence the crop vigor and yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase can markedly affect plant metabolic processes under stress conditions. In the present study, we isolated 300 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of maize or apple grown in drought-hit soil including four different locations of the Loess Plateau, China. Of all isolated strains, four with ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 28.88 to 155.12 nmol alpha-ketobutyrate mg-1 h-1) were further studied by determining their biological characters and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. All four strains showed positive performance in terms of arabinose, citrate utilization, urease, indol, glucose and melibiose. In connection with the results of biochemical characters and phylogenetic analysis, these strains commonly belong to three different genera: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Raoultella and four different species: Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Raoultella planticola. Although some researchers have reported their performance under stress conditions, we are the first to report Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola and Raoultella planticola containing ACC deaminase under drought stress. These findings are a reasonable explanation to their superb ability of causing stress-resistance in maize (Zea mays) or apple (Malus domestica) plants. The presence of diverse PGPR possessing potential ACC deaminase activity may be beneficial for enhancing crop production under different stress conditions.

1905-1910 Download
49
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PRODUCTION OF CELLULASES FROM THREE STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER
MUHAMMAD SOHAIL, AQEEL AHMAD AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN*

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PRODUCTION OF CELLULASES FROM THREE STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER
ABSTRACT:
Three strains of Aspergillus niger were retrieved from culture collection of the Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan and were studied for their ability to produce cellulases. Cultivation at different temperatures and in presence of various carbon sources revealed that all the three strains produced more amounts of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase and filter-paperase activities at 35oC; carboxymethyl cellulose promotes the production of filter paperase and endoglucanase activities whereas salicin induced β-glucosidase activity. Experiments on growth and enzyme production kinetics showed that generation time and hence volumetric rate of biomass production is influenced by the carbon source used in the medium; simple carbon source, such as glucose favored the growth of all the strains. Cellulases from all the strains showed optimum activity at temperature >50oC and under acidic range of pH, while melting temperature was 64-65oC. These findings affirm that cellulases from A. niger are potential candidates as alternative to Trichoderma cellulases.

1911-1914 Download
50
PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH STEM END ROT OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CULTIVARS IN POSTHARVEST FRUIT LOSSES
AMBREEN MAQSOOD1, ABDUL REHMAN3, ISHTIAQ AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD NAFEES1, MOAZZAM JAMIL1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2* AND IRFAN ASHRAF1

PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH STEM END ROT OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CULTIVARS IN POSTHARVEST FRUIT LOSSES
ABSTRACT:
Stem end rot majorly contribute in post-harvest losses of mango during storage. Maximum disease incidence (70%) was recorded in Sindhari cultivar followed by Chaunsa (64%), Fajri (62.5%) and 50% in both Langra and Anwar ratol. In vitro studies were carried out to identifyfungal pathogens responsible for rotting and decaying mango fruits during storage along with isolation and testing their pathogencity on healthy fruits. Results revealed that all selected commercial mango varieties infected by stem end rot. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasidodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger, Dothiorella domonicana were identified from Sindhri mango fruits, in which of C. gloeosporioides was found the most prevalent. Phomopsis mangiferae, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Altrnaria spp. Aspergillus niger, A. flavis were found in Chaunsa and Phomopsis mangiferae was most prevalent, while Botryodiplodia theobromae caused infection to locally cosumed Fajri variety. Effect of abiotic factors like pH, temperature, light intensity and carbon sources were tested against these isolates. The most efficient carbon source was glucose, which supported the maximum growth of the P. mangiferae and L. Theobromae, while C. gloeosporioides had maximum growth on lactose. All fungi had maximum growth at pH range of 6-6.5 and temperature range of 25-30oC on PDA medium. Alternate cycles of 12hr light and 12 hr darkness resulted maximum mycelial growth as compared to the 24 hour continuous exposure to either dark or light. Susceptibility of fungi with cultivars and intensity of spread under specific abiotic conditions provides basic information in this paper to minimize stem end rot of mango in field and storage conditions.

1915-1920 Download
51
ACTIVITY OF WATER CONTENT AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF LENS CULINARIS L. (LENTIL)
SUMMIAYA RAHIM AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

ACTIVITY OF WATER CONTENT AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF LENS CULINARIS L. (LENTIL)
ABSTRACT:
Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4⁰C and room temperature (25-30⁰C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi.

1921-1924 Download
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