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Year 2015 , Volume  47, Issue 3
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1
GERMINATION RESPONSES OF LIMONIUM INSIGNE (COSS.) KUNTZE TO SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE
ISABEL C. DELGADO FERNÁNDEZ, ESTHER GIMÉNEZ LUQUE, FRANCISCO GÓMEZ MERCADO AND JOSÉ MANUEL MARRERO

GERMINATION RESPONSES OF LIMONIUM INSIGNE (COSS.) KUNTZE TO SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE
ABSTRACT:
Limonium insigne (Plumbaginaceae) is a perennial halophyte endemic to the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different salinities (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) on the seed germination of L. insigne under different temperature regimes (20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25 °C), both in a 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiod. Seed germination of L. insigne was affected significantly by salinity levels, temperature and their interaction. Maximum germination was observed in the least saline media (100 mM NaCl) and distilled water (0 mM NaCl) at 20/10 °C temperature. No seeds germinated at concentrations higher than 200 mM NaCl at the highest temperature (35/25 °C). The increase in salinity delayed the beginning and ending of germination, reduced final germination percentage and increased mean time to germination. The rate of germination decreased with an increase in salinity and temperature.

807-812 Download
2
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT OF PHRAGMITES KARKA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ZAINUL ABIDEEN1, MUHAMMAD QASIM1, AYSHA RASHEED1, M. YOUSUF ADNAN1, BILQUESS GUL1* AND M. AJMAL KHAN2

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT OF PHRAGMITES KARKA UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. is a halophytic grass found in inland saline marshes potentially useful for biofuel industry. Growth, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in different plant parts were investigated after 45 days NaCl (0,100, 200 and 400 mM) treatments. An increased in polyphenolic content (5.06 to 12.81 mg GAE g-1 DW) and antioxidant activity (0.64-3.21 IC50 mg ml-1 for DPPH and 9.09-17.91 mM Fe+2 g-1 DW for FRAP) was observed with the increasing salt concentrations among different plant parts. Increase in plant biomass, phenolic content and antioxidant activity with lower MDA at 100 mM NaCl indicates a strong protection against oxidative damage. Leaves exhibited highest polyphenol and antioxidant activity, followed by stem and root. Coefficient of regression shows the high predictability of antioxidant activity (0.705) and phenolic contents (0.763) with an increase in salinity. Our data indicates a link between production of polyphenolic antioxidants and salt stress in P. karka which indicates salinity as an effective tool to produce antioxidant rich biomass for industrial purposes.

813-818 Download
3
GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GLYCINE GRACILIS SEEDINGS UNDER DIFFERENT TYPES OF SALINE STRESSES
LIANXUAN SHI*, ZHAOLAI MENG, SHUANG MA, YONGJUAN WANG, MING XU & JINGYU XU

GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GLYCINE GRACILIS SEEDINGS UNDER DIFFERENT TYPES OF SALINE STRESSES
ABSTRACT:
Glycine gracilis was used as the experimental material. We tried to explore the difference in growth and photosynthetic characteristics of G. gracilis seedling under different types of salt stress, and revealed the physiological stress adaptation mechanisms for semi-wild soybean under salt stress. The results showed that low concentration salt stress increased the parameters of growth, but they were inhibited when plants were subjected to high concentration NS and AS. The inhibition effect of NS and low concentrations of AS on the total photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll contents was not significant, and they promoted the accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b. High concentrations of AS significantly inhibited the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids and reduced the value of chlorophyll a/b. The daily changes trend and daily means in PN, E, gs, WUE were significantly different under two types of salt stress. PNmax increased at the beginning and then decreased as AS rose. LCP of G. gracilis was negatively correlated with stress intensity under NS, but positively correlated with stress intensity for AS. For NS, Resp, Vcmax, Jmax and VTPU increased at first and then decreased as the salt concentration increasing. However, they gradually declined for AS. Studies have confirmed that the range for the inhibition effect on the growth of G. gracilis seedlings were different for the two types salt stress. The net photosynthetic rate of G. gracilis also decreased for different reasons. These results also showed that G. gracilis could adapt to the salt stress in certain extent.

819-828 Download
4
EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT GENOTYPES ON GROWTH AND CARBON ISOTOPES DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE
M.U. SHIRAZI1, M.A. KHAN1*, S.M. MUJTABA1, AISHA SHEREEN1, R.C. HOOD2, L. MAYR2, MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN1 AND WAJID MAHBOOB1

EVALUATION OF SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT GENOTYPES ON GROWTH AND CARBON ISOTOPES DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
Studies were conducted in green house to select suitable salt tolerant wheat genotypes on the basis of growth performance and carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) technique. Nine newly developed double haploids (DH) wheat genotypes were tested under gravel culture, along with salt tolerant (LU-26s) and high yielding (Sarsabz) checks. The crop was irrigated by non-saline (control) and saline (12dS/m) water and raised up to maturity, growth parameters (i.e. plant height, plant biomass, productive tillers, spike length, number of spiklets/spike, number of grains / spike, grain weight/ spike and grain yield/ 15 plants) were recorded after harvesting. Plant samples (straw) were collected and were analyzed for carbon isotopic ratio (C12/ C13) from IAEA laboratories Vienna Austria. The data showed that there was significant decrease in all the growth parameters due to salinity. On the basis of performance in different growth parameters it was found that wheat genotypes V3-DH, V9-DH, V10-DH, V13-DH, and LU-26s had good response at 12dSm-1, thus can be categorized as better performing genotypes. Studies on carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) showed a decreasing trend under salinity. Mean CID values were 20.86 and 17.49‰ under two environments (non saline and saline, respectively), showing an overall 19% decrease under salinity. Generally the wheat genotypes having higher grain yield also had high carbon isotopes discrimination (CID). The relationship between grain yield and CID (∆) was positive (R2 = 0.695). The genotypes V10-DH, V13-DH with lower decrease in CID (i.e. 1.2 & 11.0%, respectively), also had high grain yield under salinity. Therefore the studies suggest that we can include CID technique as one of the selection criteria for salt tolerance.

829-833 Download
5
IMPACT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL ON PROLINE AND MEMBRANE STABILITY INDEX FOR WATER STRESS REGIME IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)
SONIA GEORGE2, NASIR M. MINHAS2, SHAKEEL AHMAD JATOI1, SADAR UDDIN SIDDIQUI1 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR1*

IMPACT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL ON PROLINE AND MEMBRANE STABILITY INDEX FOR WATER STRESS REGIME IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)
ABSTRACT:
Drought is one of the most important constraints worldwide for crop growth including tomato. It adversely affects germination and seedling that ultimately reduces crop development and economic yield. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) gives an indication to abiotic stresses and has been used throughout world in various crops for successful screening and breeding against stresses. Contrarily proline protects plant tissues against stress through preventing molecular denaturation, scavenges reactive oxygen species and interacts with phospholipids. Present paper presents the results on PEG and proline estimation in tomato. The PEG screening reduced the experimental material and finally 20 genotypes (6232, 6233, 6234, 10584, 10587, 17889, 17902, 17904, 19288, 19289, 19290, 19291, 19893, Avinash-2, Feston, Nagina, Punjab Chohara, Ratan and T-4) from diverse origin were investigated for proline estimation, chlorophyll contents and membrane stability index that gave a clear reference for drought tolerance in tomato. All the techniques (PEG, Proline, MSI) related to drought screening were employed and their interactive interpretation will enable us to design future breeding strategies for tomato development under drought that is still a dream for man. Among 20 genotypes, “19291” possessed the highest proline contents hence was tolerant to drought conditions, although needs verification under actual drought for adaptability and yield potential. High MSI under stress was observed for Punjab Chuhara, Chuhara, Avinash-2, Ratan, 19893, 19291 and 6233.

835-844 Download
6
APPRAISING DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN LOCAL ACCESSIONS OF SESBANIA [SESBANIA SESBAN (L.) MERRIL.] USING BIOMASS PRODUCTION, RELATIVE MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AS SELECTION CRITERIA
ZULFIQAR ALI1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, FAHAD AL-QURAINY3, SALIM KHAN3 AND NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM4

APPRAISING DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN LOCAL ACCESSIONS OF SESBANIA [SESBANIA SESBAN (L.) MERRIL.] USING BIOMASS PRODUCTION, RELATIVE MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY AS SELECTION CRITERIA
ABSTRACT:
In order to identify accessions/lines of sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L.) Merril.] which could produce high quantity of forage for livestock in hot and arid environments, eight diverse accessions (Shahpur, Sialkot, Khanewal 1, Khanewal 2, Sahianwala, Bhowana 1, Bhowana 2 and Chiniot) collected from different regions of Punjab, Pakistan were screened for drought tolerance using relative membrane permeability and photosynthetic capacity as selection criteria. Plant fresh and dry biomass and gas exchange characteristics [net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), sub-stomatal CO2 conc. (Ci) and water-use efficiency (A/E)] of all sesbania accessions were affected adversely due to water shortage, but the response of all sesbania cultivars was not consistent to dry conditions appraised using different physiological parameters. On the basis of plant biomass production under dry conditions, accessions Shahpur, Khanewal 2, Sahianwala and Bhowana 2 were ranked as superior, whereas Sialkot was ranked as the poorest performer of all accessions, so the earlier accessions could be grown on arid or semi-arid soils with some plausible management practices.

845-850 Download
7
IMPROVEMENT IN THE BIOENERGETICS SYSTEM OF PLANTS UNDER Hg STRESS ENVIRONMENT VIA SEAWEEDS
RAFIA AZMAT* AND SHABAN ASKARI

IMPROVEMENT IN THE BIOENERGETICS SYSTEM OF PLANTS UNDER Hg STRESS ENVIRONMENT VIA SEAWEEDS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones.

851-858 Download
8
IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC LIGHT RESPONSE EQUATIONS WITH UNIFIED PARAMETERS FOR RICE LEAVES WITH DIFFERENT SPAD VALUES
JUNZENG XU1,2*, YANHUA WANG 2, SHIHONG YANG2, SHIZHANG PENG1 AND WEILI KONG2,3

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC LIGHT RESPONSE EQUATIONS WITH UNIFIED PARAMETERS FOR RICE LEAVES WITH DIFFERENT SPAD VALUES
ABSTRACT:
The rectangular hyperbola (RH), Mitscherlich (M) and YE equation were applied to describe the photosynthetic light response (PLR) curves measured from rice leaves with different SPAD values, to reveal the relationship between SPAD values and parameters in different equations, and to establish the modified PLR equations. The parameters in PLR equations are largely varied. SPAD value, as an indicator of leaf N contents, was highly correlated to the parameter of Pnmax in RH, M and YE equations. Incorporating the factor SPAD into PLR equations, the modified equations (MRH, MM, and MYE) were established which were feasible to describing the PLR curves for leaves with different SPAD values using the identical parameters for the ten PLR curves as a whole, and perform much better than the general PLR equations (GRH, GM, and GYE). It indicated that incorporating easy available indicators of leaf physiological and morphological traits in the PLR equations, such as SPAD as an indicator of leaf N or Chlorophyll contents, is an easy way to overcome the shortcoming of parameters variation in PLR equations between individuals of the same specie growing in different environments. Further validation should be done for different crops with both SPAD and other possible factors.

877-882 Download
9
HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE STUDIES FOR BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS IN F2-3 INTROGRESSED FAMILIES OF BRASSICA
NADIA KHAN, FARHATULLAH, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL, HAFSA NAHEED AND SANA ABID*

HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE STUDIES FOR BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS IN F2-3 INTROGRESSED FAMILIES OF BRASSICA
ABSTRACT:
Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus × B. juncea, B. napus × B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development.

883-888 Download
10
COUPLING EFFECTS OF WATER AND FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF CATALPA BUNGEI SEEDLINGS
QUAN QIU1, JIYUE LI1*, JUNHUI WANG2, QIAN HE1, LEI DONG1, JIANWEI MA3, JINGJING BAI1 AND JUNWEN WU1

COUPLING EFFECTS OF WATER AND FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF CATALPA BUNGEI SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:
In pot experiments using a rotatable central composite design, the effects of soil water content and fertilizer application, and their connection to seedling stem height (SH), ground diameter (GD), biomass yield (BY), and leaf area (LA), were examined in seedlings of Catalpa bungei clone 004-1 using response surface methodology. Our results indicated that nitrogen application (N) and the soil water content (W) had positive effects on all four growth parameters. The size sequence of the effects was N>W; however, phosphorus application (P) exerted significantly positive effects only on BY and LA. A monofactor effects analysis indicated that changes in the four parameters with increases in W, N, and P were all parabolic. Moreover, the interactions of W×N were found to have significantly positive effects on the four growth parameters, which initially increased and then decreased with increasing N when W was fixed, and with increasing W when N was fixed. The interaction of W×P had a significantly positive effect on SH. The optimized combination was determined by establishing a multi-objective decision model based on the four parameters, when the actual W, N, and P values reached 74.605% of the field capacity, 4.710 g・plant-1, and 2.009 g・plant-1, respectively. Under these conditions, C. bungei seedlings achieved maximum growth. These recommendations will conserve water and improve production, and they provide a basic theory for seedling culture and afforestation of C. bungei. In addition, our model fitting results showed that the biomass yield of fine roots (diameter ≤2 mm) was closely correlated with SH and GD.

889-896 Download
11
EFFECTS OF METHYL-JASMONATE ON 9-METHOXYCANTHIN-6-ONE CONTENT IN EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (TONGKAT ALI) ROOT CULTURE
FAM MAY CHEE1, XAVIER RATHINAM1, MONICA DANIAL2, CHAN KIT LAM3, MA HAI QUI3 AND SREERAMANAN SUBRAMANIAM2*

EFFECTS OF METHYL-JASMONATE ON 9-METHOXYCANTHIN-6-ONE CONTENT IN EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA (TONGKAT ALI) ROOT CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Eurycoma longifolia is a flowering plant from the Simaroubaceae family and it has been identified as one of the most intriguing medicinal plants in Malaysia. In the present study, the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, an alkaloid compound was determined with various methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations using root culture via liquid system. Quantification of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was confirmed by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantitative analysis using HPLC displayed highest concentration of 9-methoxycanthin-6- one content in the absence of MeJA treatment (control) followed by increasing concentrations of MeJA (1, 10 and 100 μM). Microanatomical analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has shown that root hair morphology of E.longifolia does not change significantly, whereas roots hair displayed rough surfaces with increases MeJA concentrations. Therefore,

897-904 Download
12
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL PROPERTIES AND NATURAL REGENERATION PATTERN OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA FOREST IN ZIARAT, BALOCHISTAN
ATTA MUHAMMAD SARANGZAI1, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI2, MOINUDDIN AHMED2, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN3, SAADULLAH KHAN LAGHARI1 AND ALIA AHMED1

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL PROPERTIES AND NATURAL REGENERATION PATTERN OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA FOREST IN ZIARAT, BALOCHISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In this study relationship of soil properties with the natural regeneration pattern of Juniperus excelsa forests of Ziarat was evaluated. Thirty stands were quantitatively sampled from different areas of Ziarat, Balochistan. Out of 30 stands we observed sufficient recruitment of Juniper seedlings in 27 stands. Diverse regeneration pattern was observed among and within sampling locations. Zizri Tore Sagran occupied highest seedling numbers i.e. 439 plants ha-¹ on north-east facing slope at 2948m altitude. Nishpa valley had 99 plants ha-¹ on south west facing slope at 2660m altitude, which is lowest density. In this study we computed 194±103 plants ha-¹ overall density and 67±21 cm² ha-1 average basal area. Mild relationship was observed between seedling numbers and stand density while stand basal area and seedling numbers exhibited positive significant correlation (r=0.281, p<.05). Soil characteristics showed significant differences among the variables at significant levels of (p<0.01) and (p<0.05). Generally, the vegetative characteristics of Juniperus excelsa in the study area had significant correlation with the soil characteristics. The combine data showed balanced size class structures of J-shaped distribution.

905-910 Download
13
DYNAMICS OF THE POPULATION QUANTITY OF JUGLANS MANDSHURICA MAXIM. IN DIFFERENT HABITATS IN XINJIANG, CHINA
WEI ZHANG1,2, YUNFEI YANG1* AND JIANDONG LI1

DYNAMICS OF THE POPULATION QUANTITY OF JUGLANS MANDSHURICA MAXIM. IN DIFFERENT HABITATS IN XINJIANG, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Transects were arranged on the shady and sunny slopes, as well as at different elevations of the main, eastern, central, and western gullies in the Wild Walnut Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, China to survey a large sample of Juglans mandshurica. The structures of height class and diameter at breast height (DBH) class were used to represent age structure to compare and analyze the dynamics of the population quantity of J. mandshurica in different habitats. Results showed that J. mandshurica population comprises numerous young seedlings, which develop into young plants with a high death rate. The number of adult plants is stable. J. mandshurica population is r-strategists in the young stage, and k-strategists supplemented by r-strategists in the juvenile and subsequent stages. The structures of height class and DBH class fluctuate at different slope aspects and elevations. The growth of young seedlings into adult plants is discontinuous. Tree height and DBH are relatively uniform in the same age class, and the coefficient of variation is independent of slope aspect and elevation. The maximum numbers of age classes in J. mandshurica population with different height and DBH classes differ at three elevations. Low- and medium-age classes are dominant in all situations. That is, population is mainly composed of juvenile and adult trees, and age structure is classified as a growth type. Without strong external interference, J. mandshurica population will maintain its superior position in the community.

911-918 Download
14
REACTION OF THE LITHUANIAN ALFALFA BREEDING POPULATIONS TO PHOMA MEDICAGINIS UNDER COOL TEMPERATE CLIMATE CONDITIONS
AURELIJA LIATUKIENĖ1, ŽILVINAS LIATUKAS1* AND VYTAUTAS RUZGAS1

REACTION OF THE LITHUANIAN ALFALFA BREEDING POPULATIONS TO PHOMA MEDICAGINIS UNDER COOL TEMPERATE CLIMATE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The alfalfa Phoma medicaginis resistance was evaluated on 100 accessions with different development date. Weather conditions favoured high disease pressure and differentiation of tested accessions was not clear in 2011. Accessions were compared by maximal disease severity (DS) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). DS ranged from 10 to 60% and AUDPC value ranged 119–727 in 2009. DS and AUDPC values were higher in 2010 and 2011, DS ranged 40–65 and 66–68% and AUDPC ranged 2263–2928 and 2853–3006. Development date of accessions showed low impact on resistance. The correlations between DS and AUDPC results of accessions across years highly varied (r=–0.189 – 0.828**) due to low differentiation of accessions resistance. Selection of alfalfa material promising by Phoma medicaginis resistance should be done under conditions moderately favourable for development of this disease.

919-925 Download
15
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF THE FORT RANIKOT AND ADJOINING AREA (KIRTHAR RANGE)
MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ HUSSAIN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF THE FORT RANIKOT AND ADJOINING AREA (KIRTHAR RANGE)
ABSTRACT:
The plant biodiversity, floristic composition and phytosociological attributes of the vascular plants of Fort Ranikot were analyzed. A total of 107 taxa were collected belonging to 41 families and 78 genera. The largest family was Poaceae containing 9 taxa, while the other major families were Papilionaceae with 6 species; Asclepiadaceae, Mimosaceae, and Solanaceae comprising of 5 species each respectively. Majority of the taxa are common throughout the study area, however, 6 species Viz. Aristolochia bracteolata, Physorrhynchus brahuicus, Plantago ciliata, Polygala erioptera, Salvadora persica and Viola stocksii were found to be very rare. The flora is dominated by Chamaephyte, followed by Therophytes, Phanerophytes, Hemicryptophytes and climbers. The aim of the present study is to provide comprehensive inventory of the study area along with its phytosociology and ecological parameters. Collectively on the basis of important value index six plants communities were recognized from different sites of the study area. The study area was categorized into six ecological sites on the basis of microclimatic conditions and topography. For comparison in these sites similarity index, beta diversity, diversity index, species evenness and maturity index was also calculated. The soil texture classes varied from loam to sandy loam and slit loam with pH of 7.78-8.24, electrical conductivity varied from 687-827 EC µS/cm, Total dissolved salts varied from 0.36-0.71 mg-1, CaCo3 varied from 3.48-4.21% and organic matter varied from 0.39-1.24%. Present study predict that there are certain edaphic factors, altitudinal variation, soil texture and amount of organic matter which are responsible for variation in vegetation.

927-935 Download
16
A SYSTEMATIC REVISION ON CARALLUMA SPECIES OF SAUDI ARABIA BASED ON KARYOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA
S.M. SHARAWY1,2*, E.A. KAMEL3,5 , E.A.K. KARAKISH1,4 AND M.H.A. LOUTFY5

A SYSTEMATIC REVISION ON CARALLUMA SPECIES OF SAUDI ARABIA BASED ON KARYOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA
ABSTRACT:
A systematic revision of 13 species of the genus Caralluma (Apocynaceae – Asclepiadoideae – Ceropegieae) from the flora of Saudi Arabia based on the evaluation of karyological and molecular data was carried out. Karyotype criteria and polyploid variations were discussed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) techniques were also used in this study to distinguish these species. Karyotype features of the studied species and molecular data were used to reassess the relationships of the 13 species of Caralluma in the light of the current systems of classification.

937-950 Download
17
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE RARE PLANT, DYSOSMA PLEIANTHA (BERBERIDACEAE): BREEDING SYSTEM, POLLINATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION
XI GONG1, BI-CAI GUAN2,*, SHI-LIANG ZHOU3 AND GANG GE2

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE RARE PLANT, DYSOSMA PLEIANTHA (BERBERIDACEAE): BREEDING SYSTEM, POLLINATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION
ABSTRACT:
Dysosma pleiantha is an endangered and endemic species in China. We have reported the flowering phenology, breeding system and pollinator activity of the species distributed in Tianmu Mountain (Zhejiang Province) nature reserves. Flowering occurred during the months of early April to late May, with the peak in the middle of the April, and was synchronous across all four subpopulations. The anthesis of an intact inflorescence lasted from sixteen to twenty-three days with eight to eleven days blossom of an individual flower. In D. pleiantha, the morphological development of flowers and fruit leading to the development of mature seeds takes place over a period 3–5 months from flowering. The average of pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) was 18 898.7. The pollen transfer in this species was mainly performed by flies, Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Muscidae). Controlled pollination experiments indicated D. pleiantha was obligate xenogamyous and selfincompatible, and pollination was pollinator-dependent. Controlled pollination experiments showed that the mean fruit set (%) under the natural condition (17.1%) was markedly lower than that of manual cross-pollination (75.6%). It was concluded that pollen-limitation and mate limitation were responsible for the low fruit set of D. pleiantha in the field. Thus, the identification and translocation of compatible mating types to create reproductively viable populations were essential for the recovery of the rare species.

951-957 Download
18
FLORAL ONTOGENY OF TWO JATROPHA SPECIES (EUPHORBIACEAE S.S) AND ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS
HUANFANG LIU1*, SHULING LIN2 AND JINGPING LIAO1

FLORAL ONTOGENY OF TWO JATROPHA SPECIES (EUPHORBIACEAE S.S) AND ITS SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Floral ontogeny of Jatropha multifida L. and Jatropha integerrima Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These two species possess unisexual male flowers and bisexual (with unfunctional staminodes) female flowers. In both male and female flowers, five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence on the periphery of the floral apex and initiate anticlockwise or clockwise in different floral buds. Five petal primordia initiate simultaneously alternate to sepals. Dicyclic stamens (obdiplostemony) arise in both male and female flowers. In J. multifida, five outer stamen primordia arise first simultaneously and then three inner stamens initiate simultaneously. However, in J. integerrima, ten stamen primordia arranged in two whorls initiate simultaneously. While the ovary is absent in the male flowers, in the female flowers, three carpel primordia appear simultaneously. With further development of the ovary the stamens degenerate in the female flowers, whereas in the male flowers, the stamens grow normally. Ancestral state reconstruction using MacClade indicates that stamen simultaneous vs. non-simultaneous initiation supports the phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequence.

959-965 Download
19
GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF POTENTILLA ANSERINA DETERMINED BY ANALYZING SMALL-SCALE PATCHY HABITATS
KAIYUN XIE1,3, XIANG ZHAO2, YINGJUN ZHANG3, KUANGHU DONG2, FENGHE1, LIQIANG WAN1 AND XIANGLIN LI1*

GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF POTENTILLA ANSERINA DETERMINED BY ANALYZING SMALL-SCALE PATCHY HABITATS
ABSTRACT:
Patchy distribution of plant populations is a hallmark of saline grassland ecosystem at Weiyuan, YouYu County, Shanxi Province, north China. According to species composition and community dominance, the grassland was divided into 8 patches. First, we investigated and analyzed community characteristics, including α diversity and soil properties (soil moisture, bulk density, pH value, basicity) of the 8 patches of the grassland and found that the 8 patches were obviously divided into 2 categories. Patches I, II, and III formed group 1, and the other patches were included in group 2. The soil moisture, bulk density, pH value, and basicity in group 1 were lower than those in group 2 (p<0.05). Next, we selected Potentilla anserina as a representative species and measured its growth characteristics in each patch and found its root length (df = 46, |t| = 5.84, p<0.0001), spacer length (df = 118, |t|= 3.61, p=0.0005), and stolon length (df =118, |t| = 2.53, p=0.0127) were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2. We concluded that under relatively good habitat conditions, Potentilla anserina adopted breadth foraging strategy, increased its stolons number, which reduced the risk of death and promoted valid survival by spreading in the available space. On the contrary, under relatively poor habitat conditions and in a highly competitive environment, Potentilla anserina adopted the strength foraging strategy to acquire resource from farther places by increasing its spacer and stolon lengths or rapidly explore new habitats to avoid unfavorable environments.

967-978 Download
20
GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF TRICHODERMA POLYSPORUM ON ORGANIC SUBSTRATES BY ADDITION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES
ABDUL QAYOOM RAJPUT AND SALEEM SHAHZAD*

GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF TRICHODERMA POLYSPORUM ON ORGANIC SUBSTRATES BY ADDITION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES
ABSTRACT:
During the present study nine different organic substrates viz., rice grains, sorghum grains, wheat grains, millet grains, wheat straw, rice husk, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were used for mass multiplication of Trichoderma polysporum. Grains, especially sorghum grains were found to be the best substrate for T. polysporum. Wheat straw and rice husk were less suitable, whereas, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were not suitable for growth of the fungus. Sucrose @ 30,000 ppm and ammonium nitrate @ 3,000 ppm were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and sporulation of T. polysporum. Amendment of the selected C and N sources to wheat straw, rice husk and millet grains resulted in significantly higher growth and conidia production by T. polysporum as compared to un-amended substrates. Sorghum and rice grains showed suppression in growth and sporulation of T. polysporum when amended with C and N sources. During studies on shelf life, populations of T. polysporum attained the peck at 60-135 days intervals on different substrates and declined gradually thereafter. However, even after 330 days, the populations were greater than the population at 0-day. At 345-360 days interval, populations were less than the initial populations at 0- days. Shelf life on C+N amended wheat straw and rice husk were more as compared to un-amended substrates.

979-986 Download
21
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-XI. URTICACEAE RUBINA ABID*, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER
Seed morphology and its numerical analysis of the 9 taxa belonging to the family Urticaceae carried out with the help of scanning electron microscopy. Seed micro and macro morphological characters were significantly helpful to trace the phenetic relations

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-XI. URTICACEAE RUBINA ABID*, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER
ABSTRACT:
Key words: Seed morphology, Phenetic relationship, Urticaceae, Pakistan.

987-994 Download
22
GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF PEGANUM HARMALA EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF VICIA FABA L. AND DNA USING NUCLEAR MICROSATELLITES
LAILA MEKKI*1, MOHAMMED A. HUSSEIN2 AND HASSAN MANSOUR1

GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF PEGANUM HARMALA EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF VICIA FABA L. AND DNA USING NUCLEAR MICROSATELLITES
ABSTRACT:
Assessment of genotoxins-induced DNA damage and mutations at molecular level is important in ecogenotoxicology. Treatment with Peganum harmala crude extract can result in cytotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Mutagenesis is indicative of genetic instability and can be assayed using microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The application of SSR marker analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) apparatus showed differences in SSR profiles within the extract as well as between the two extracts. All the 12 SSR primer pairs used produced amplification products which showed 100% polymorphism. The total number of scoreable loci obtained with the 12 used primers were 112 alleles. Of the 112 alleles detected 12 alleles (10.7 %) were considered as zero alleles. Three alleles produced by various primers were detected at locus VfG_22 to 15 at locus VfG_693 and VfG_873, with an average of 9.3 bands/SSR. The discrimination power of each SSR locus was estimated by the PIC, which ranged from 0.47 for locus VfG_22 to 0.88 for locus VfG_693 with a mean of 0.70. About 83.3% of the 18 alleles observed in untreated samples using the 12 primers disappeared from almost all the treatments with water and ethanol extracts. Statistical analysis of morphometric traits showed significant differences between the two extracts in all studied traits except the percentage of germination and root dry weight which were non significant. However, on the other hand significant differences were observed between treatments and the control for all the traits studied.

995-1006 Download
23
ETHNOMEDICINAL REVIEW OF FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANTS BELONGING TO FAMILY APIACEAE OF PAKISTAN
AZIZ-UL-IKRAM1, NADIA BATOOL ZAHRA1, ZABTA K. SHINWARI1,2* AND MOHAMMAD QAISER3

ETHNOMEDICINAL REVIEW OF FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANTS BELONGING TO FAMILY APIACEAE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The use of herbs for therapeutic purpose is as old as human history. In Pakistan a major part of population is dependent on the traditional medicine derived from plants for primary health care system. The interest in the use of traditional system of medicine has gained popularity globally. The developed countries are shifting their focus to further research based on the indigenous knowledge collected from aboriginal people. The present study reviews the ethno-medicinal uses of family Apiaceae reported from Pakistan. Out of 167 species reported from Pakistan, 66 are found to be used medicinally. Most commonly treated disorders by use of Apiaceae herbal flora are gastrointestinal tract and liver disorders (28%) followed by cough, cold and respiratory tract problems (11%). The plant parts frequently used are roots (22%) followed by whole plant material (19%), leaf material (18%), fruit (13%), seed (12%), stem, flower, aerial parts (5%) and sap (1%). It is suggested to carry out similar studies for other families to explore the indigenous knowledge for the development of commercial products and to collectively document the scattered existing knowledge.

1007-1014 Download
24
EVALUATION AND SCREENING OF RESISTANCE TO REPLANT IN GERMPLASM OF GRAPE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ITS RESISTANCE
XIUWUGUO1#, SHIJIE XU1#, KUN LI1*, HONGGANG XIE2, ZHENDONG LIU1, YINSHAN GUO1 AND CHENGXIANG LI1

EVALUATION AND SCREENING OF RESISTANCE TO REPLANT IN GERMPLASM OF GRAPE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ITS RESISTANCE
ABSTRACT:
The aim of the present work was to screen out grape germplasms resisting to replant obstacle, and to analyze their resistant mechanism. Here we used 94 grape resources as the testing materials. The cuttings of each resource were planted in pot filled with control (normal) soil as well as replanting soil. After 2 years investigation, ‘101-14’, ‘8612’were screened for replant-susceptible resources, and ‘Mcadams’, ‘Dawuhezi’ were screened for replant-resisting resource. Under replanting stress, resources with resistance exhibited an increase in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ, and net photosynthetic rate improved. The MDA content of ‘Mcadams’ planted in normal soil was 25.62% lower than that planted in replant soil, and showed a strong resistance. For ‘Dawuhezi’, the protected enzyme SOD and PPO could be activated under replanting stress, which effectively avoided the harm of active oxygen to the seedling, presenting a more vigorous plant growth.

1015-1022 Download
25
BIOCHAR: A NOVEL TOOL TO ENHANCE WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL FERTILITY ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS UNDER WHEAT-MAIZE-WHEAT CROPPING PATTERN
K. ALI1*, M. ARIF1, M.T. JAN1, T. YASEEN2, M. WAQAS1 AND F. MUNSIF1

BIOCHAR: A NOVEL TOOL TO ENHANCE WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL FERTILITY ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS UNDER WHEAT-MAIZE-WHEAT CROPPING PATTERN
ABSTRACT:
The application of organic matter is an important element for preserving long-term soil fertility because it is the reservoir of metabolic energy, which drives soil biological processes involved in nutrient availability. Two years field experiments were conducted for the assessment of the interactive effect of biochar with synthetic fertilizer and farmyard manure. Biochar application at the rate of 25 t ha-1 increased spikes m-2 by 6.64%, grains spike-1 by 5.6%, thousand grain weight by 3.73, grain yield by 9.96%, biological yield by 15.36%, phosphorus use efficiency by 29.03% and grain phosphorus uptake by 19.67% in comparison with no biochar treated plots. Likewise, biochar application significantly increased soil carbon(C), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by 54.02, 61.39 and 18.41%, respectively. Similarly, farmyard manure at the rate of 10 t ha-1 resulted in significantly higher yield components, grain yield, soil C, P and K than 5 t ha-1 . Likewise, mineral nitrogen application at the rate of 120 kg ha-1 improved wheat yield and yield components with no significant effect on soil C, P and K contents. It is concluded that application biochar either alone or in combination with FYM or mineral nitrogen improved yield and yield components of wheat and soil quality in wheat-maize cropping pattern.

1023-1031 Download
26
EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ON THE GROWTH OF AGAVE ANGUSTIFOLIA HAW. (MAGUEY ESPADÍN)
ANGÉLICA BAUTISTA-CRUZ1, VERÓNICA MARTÍNEZ-GALLEGOS1,2, LUCÍA MARTÍNEZ-MARTÍNEZ3 AND GABINO MARTÍNEZ GUTIÉRREZ1

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ON THE GROWTH OF AGAVE ANGUSTIFOLIA HAW. (MAGUEY ESPADÍN)
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of maguey espadín (Agave angustifolia Haw.). A total of nine strains of PSB, previously isolated in the maguey rhizosphere and identified as PSBVa, PSBVb, PSBVf, PSBHa, PSBHc, PSBHd, PSBMg, PSBMh and PSBMi were tested on maguey plants grown in phosphorus-deficient sterilized and unsterilized soils of three sites where maguey is grown (valley, hill and mountain) under greenhouse conditions. Aerial dry weight and the total weight of maguey plants inoculated with PSBMh in unsterile mountain soil increased by 12.14% and 10.99% respectively, compared with the uninoculated control. Total root dry weight increased by 17.85% with PSBMh in sterile mountain soils and by 11.64% with PSBMg in unsterile mountain soils, with respect to the uninoculated sterile and unsterile control respectively. Plant stem diameter increased by 13.61% with PSBVb in unsterile valley soil, compared to the uninoculated control. Root length was 56.84% higher with PSBMi in unsterile mountain soils than the uninoculated control. Plant leaf number increased by 35% with PSBHd in unsterile hill soil, with respect to the uninoculated control. In all treatments, the available phosphorus at harvest was higher than pre-planting levels. This study suggests that isolated PSBMh, PSBMg and PSBMi are the most efficient biofertilizers for maguey espadín cultivation.

1033-1038 Download
27
THE CONTRIBUTION OF INTRASPECIFIC TRAIT VARIABILITY TO PLANT COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY PATTERNS ON THE NICHE-NEUTRAL CONTINUUM
YINGHUI YANG1, GANG WANG1* AND YOUCAI XIONG2

THE CONTRIBUTION OF INTRASPECIFIC TRAIT VARIABILITY TO PLANT COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY PATTERNS ON THE NICHE-NEUTRAL CONTINUUM
ABSTRACT:
Many trait-based plant investigations have neglected the intraspecific trait variations. A lot of ecologists consider that this is unreasonable, because intraspecific variation significantly affects various ecological dynamics. However, it is not feasible to record the traits of each plant individually at every community site. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine in which circumstances it is most important to account for intraspecific trait variations. We conducted analyses using a trait-based niche–neutral continuum model integrating inter- and intraspecific variance. Then we tested the model through three popular community pattern indexes generated from four kinds of community assembly processes. The results showed that it was more important to consider intraspecific variations in plant communities with large niche overlaps. In such cases, including intraspecific variation increases the number of species and strongly affects the community’s abundance structure. In contrast, when there is strong niche differentiation, the contribution of plant intraspecific variation could be neglected. In addition, the species richness and rank–abundance curve were insensitive to the magnitude of intraspecific variation, but plant trait distribution increased exponentially when intraspecific variation was included. Our results will be useful when designing field studies, to determine which data are most informative for various community types.

1039-1050 Download
28
VALIDATION AND USE OF DNA MARKERS FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPYA)
MAHWISH EJAZ1, MUHAMMAD IQBAL1*, MUHAMMAD NAEEMULLAH2, IFTIKHAR AHMED1, ARMGHAN SHAHZAD1, M. SHAHID MASOOD3 AND GHULAM M. ALI1

VALIDATION AND USE OF DNA MARKERS FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPYA)
ABSTRACT:
Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production.

1051-1059 Download
29
GENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG NINE RHODODENDRON SPECIES IN QINLING MOUNTAINS, CHINA USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM MARKERS
BING ZHAO*, JING-JING XU AND XI-ZI ZHENG

GENETIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG NINE RHODODENDRON SPECIES IN QINLING MOUNTAINS, CHINA USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic relationships of nine species of Rhododendron in the Qinling Mountains were evaluated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 440 amplification products were obtained using nine selected AFLP markers, of which 421 (95.40%) showed polymorphism. With these polymorphic products, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). R. calophytum, R. hypoglaucum and R. clementinae, belonging to Subgen Hymenanthes, gathered together, and the species derived from Subgen Rhododendron and Subgen Tsutsusi formed another two groups. R. tsinlingense, R. purdomii, R. Taibaiense and R. capitatum (Subsect. Lapponica), and R. concinnum (Subsect. Triflora) were clustered as one group, but they belong to difference subsect. and R. purdomii and R. Taibaiense showed the closest genetic distance, but both species differed greatly in morphological characteristics.These results showed that the genetic relationships among nine Rhododendron species, determined by AFLP markers, were partially related to their taxonomic position, geography distribution and morphological classification. The present study will benefit the identification and conservation of Rhododendron, and the development of new Rhododendron cultivar.

1069-1074 Download
30
IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MAPPING OF REGULATORY ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTION IN atpβ GENE PROMOTER FROM DIFFERENT TOMATO VARIETIES
MAHAM HASSAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD1*

IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MAPPING OF REGULATORY ELEMENTS AND CORRESPONDING PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTION IN atpβ GENE PROMOTER FROM DIFFERENT TOMATO VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
Chloroplast atpB gene encodes the β-subunit of ATP synthase having a function in the synthesis of ATP. ATP synthase is usually present in the mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes as well as in prokaryotes with a highly conserved structure. With the aim to study the functional diversity, atpB gene promoter from Solanum lycopersicum varieties (VCT-1, 127, PETO-86, LBR-16, Continental, LBR-06, CLN-2498D, CLN-2777, LBR-09) was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. BLAST tool analyzed the sequences. Cis acting elements were predicted using Consite tool in the promoter region as these elements have importance in gene regulation and maps of the cis-acting elements were constructed with the help of DOG software for each variety. It was seen from the constructed maps that the distribution pattern of trans-acting elements was quite diverse in the atpB promoter of studied tomato varieties. Various trans-acting elements (HMG-IY, HFH-2, TBP, c-Fos and SOX17) were docked with respective DNA sequence using HADDOCK online software. Main focus was on the analysis of DNA-protein interactions and for this purpose; hydrogen bonds formed with either phosphate backbone or base of DNA were checked. Particularly interactions between amino acid and base pairing were checked. It was revealed that Arginine and Lysine had a greater probability to interact with Thymine and Adenine as compared to other bases and all bonds formed were feasible as their distances were less than 3.5 Ao. During the analysis of interactions, it was also found that Lysine, Arginine, Asparagine and Serine are well capable to bind with Thymine while Glycine and Lysine have made bonds mostly with Adenine.

1075-1086 Download
31
RELATIONSHIP OF ASCORBIC ACID METABOLISM WITH THE CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
JINFEN WEN1†, MINGHUA DENG1,2†, JINLONG HUO2†, HAISHAN ZHU2, XIONGZE DAI3, ZHUQING ZHANG3, JUNHENG LV2 AND XUEXIAO ZOU3*

RELATIONSHIP OF ASCORBIC ACID METABOLISM WITH THE CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY IN PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of Ascorbic Acid (ASA) in the CMS-pepper anthers, the metabolism changes in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, antioxidants contents and ROS scavenging enzymatic activities were investigated in the anther mitochondria of CMS-9704A and maintainer-9704B. At the abortion stage, anthers of CMS-9704A had higher contents of ROS than those of the maintainer. Simultaneously, there were lower contents of ASA and glutathione (GSH) in stage 2 and 3, and the lower activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione perodixase (GPX) in stage 3 in scavenging ROS in the anthers of the CMS line than maintainer. The expression level of APX and GPX in stage 3 in anthers of CMS-9704A was obviously inhibited when ROS produced with a great deal during anther stage; however the gene expression kept normal in the maintainer. Excessive accumulation of ROS, significant reduction activities and gene expression level of ROS-scavenging enzyme were coinstantaneous with CMS.

1087-1093 Download
32
DETERMINATION OF GENOMIC DIVERSITY WITHIN MUTANT LEMON (CITRUS LIMON L.) AND MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
ILKNUR POLAT*, ERTUGRUL TURGUTOGLU AND SENAY KURT

DETERMINATION OF GENOMIC DIVERSITY WITHIN MUTANT LEMON (CITRUS LIMON L.) AND MANDARIN (CITRUS RETICULATA) USING MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Mutation breeding is considered to be successful in order to obtain new cultivars and expanding the genetic source of new varieties of lemon and mandarin in Citrus. In this study, different doses of gamma radiation (60Co) have been used to generate novel mutants of the common variety Yerli Yuvarlak lemon and Yerli mandarin. The differences within the mutants were examined using simple sequence repeats (SSR) and sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A total of 26 SSR primers and 28 SRAP primer combinations were screened for linkage to the different traits. Six SSR primers were showed polymorphism and closely linked to shoot tip color in lemon. Whereas, all of SRAP primer combinations were not produce any scorable polymorphic bands in both Yerli Yuvarlak lemon and Yerli mandarin. In this study, SSR and SRAP molecular markers were used together for first time to determination the genetic differences in citrus mutation breeding in the world.

1095-1102 Download
33
RELATIONSHIPS EVALUATION ON SIX HERBAL SPECIES (CURCUMA) BY DNA BARCODING
JIABIN DENG 1 , JIA LIU1, KHAWAJA SHAFIQUE AHMAD3, CHUNBANG DING1, LI ZHANG1, YONGHONG ZHOU2 AND RUIWU YANG1*

RELATIONSHIPS EVALUATION ON SIX HERBAL SPECIES (CURCUMA) BY DNA BARCODING
ABSTRACT:
Three chloroplast regions, rbcL, psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ were applied to assess the genetic relationships among six Curcuma medicinal species, which are difficult to distinguish from morphology. The Maximum Parsimony tree was conducted by Kimura 2-parameter model with MEGA 4. The genetic relationships were linked with geographical distributions among these six species; Curcuma sichuanensis is a mutation species of Curcuma longa, Curcuma sichuanensis couldn’t be defined as a single species, and Curcuma chuanhuangjiang is an individual species.

1103-1109 Download
34
STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF SHOOTS AND LEAVES OF CAMELLIA OLEIFERA FROM DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS
WEI WU1,2Փ, JUANJUAN HU1Փ, WENJUN DUAN3, YAFEI SHEN1, ZHIHUA CAO4 AND QINGLONG SHU1*

STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF SHOOTS AND LEAVES OF CAMELLIA OLEIFERA FROM DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS
ABSTRACT:
The correlation between chemical components of shoot and leaf of Camellia oleifera and elevations were discussed, to provide theoretical basis for taking effective cultivation measures to promote the cold resistance of C. oleifera in the future “Northward Movement of C. oleifera”. The ratio of bound water to free water of the leaf, as well as the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracts were determined. The results showed that: In different elevations, the ratio of bound water to free water of the leaf varied from 0.11-0.22, the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracts varied from 25.08%-62.72%, 7.72%-36.61%, 11.80%-30.29% and 7.66%-8.57% respectively. In the same elevation, the content of benzene-ethanol extracts of leaf was higher than that of shoot, and the contents of other materials were quite the contrary. The elevation was positively correlated with the ratio of bound water to free water and the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin and benzene-ethanol extracs. The chemical components of shoot and leaf represented extremely significant difference (p<0.01) among different elevations. In the future northward movement of C. oleifera, for the climate characteristics of cooler regions and higher elevation, a serious of cultivation measures, improving the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, lignin, benzene-ethanol extracts and the ratio of water to free water, were taken to improve the cold resistance of C. oleifera.

1111-1114 Download
35
IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF AN EFFICIENT DICOT CONSTITUTIVE PROMOTER FROM TOMATO
SARDAR BACHA1, ASIA KHATOON1, MUHAMMAD ASIF1, JOSHUA YUAN2 AND AFTAB BASHIR1*

IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF AN EFFICIENT DICOT CONSTITUTIVE PROMOTER FROM TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
The regulatory sequence of sucrose synthase (susy) was explored in HTGS and screened using various bioinformatics tools for promoter prediction and identification of functional regulatory motifs. Transcription start site (TSS) was predicted in the promoter sequence. Species specific motifs were identified by using Plant PAN database. The Plant Care predicted various light responsive, hormone inducible and tissue specific motifs in the full length promoter which may be essential for the constitutive expression governed by this promoter. Full length susy promoter isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) drove maximum transient expression of GUS gene in various tissues of tobacco, cotton and peas. The susy promoter identified and analyzed in this study is suitable for transgene expression in economically important agricultural crops, especially to avoid strong over-expression.

1115-1120 Download
36
PRODUCTION OF RENNIN-LIKE ACID PROTEASE BY MUCOR PUSILLUS THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
SUNILA DAUDI, HAMID MUKHTAR*, ASAD-UR-REHMAN AND IKRAM-UL-HAQ

PRODUCTION OF RENNIN-LIKE ACID PROTEASE BY MUCOR PUSILLUS THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU.

1121-1127 Download
37
SEED PRIMING WITH EXTRACTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Willd. ex Delile AND SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI (L.) PLANT PARTS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI AND GROWTH OF PLANTS
HIRA RAFI, SHAHNAZ DAWAR* AND M. JAVED ZAKI

SEED PRIMING WITH EXTRACTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Willd. ex Delile AND SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI (L.) PLANT PARTS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI AND GROWTH OF PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants.

1129-1135 Download
38
IDENTIFICATION OF FINE-LEAVED SPECIES OF GENUS FESTUCA BY MOLECULAR METHODS
VACLOVAS STUKONIS, RITA ARMONIENĖ, NIJOLĖ LEMEŽIENĖ, VILMA KEMEŠYTĖ* AND GRAŽINA STATKEVIČIŪTĖ

IDENTIFICATION OF FINE-LEAVED SPECIES OF GENUS FESTUCA BY MOLECULAR METHODS
ABSTRACT:
Festuca (L.) is a taxonomically complex genus of family Poaceae. The fine-leaved species of fescue are well adapted to grow in sandy and dry habitats, therefore, they can be used for establishment of lawns of minimal maintenance as well as recultivations of damaged soils. Breeding for the new varieties to meet these purposes requires reliable methods for identification of the species. The discrimination of fine-leaved fescue species based on morphological features is rather difficult, therefore reliable molecular marker would greatly facilitate it and eliminate the need to wait till floral organs are fully formed. Seven fine-leaved species of genus Festuca collected in Lithuania, namely, F. ovina, F. trachyphylla, F. polesica, F. psammophila, F. sabulosa, F. pseudovina and F. wolgensis were investigated at the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The ISSR markers, seed storage proteins and isozymes were tested for their ability to distinguish between the fine-leaved species of the genus Festuca. Seed storage protein and ISSR fingerprint profiles could be used to distinguish between fine-leaved species of Festuca, except for closely related F. sabulosa and F. polesica species. Isozyme fingerprints did not contain sufficient number of species specific bands and were not feasible to discriminate between species.

1137-1142 Download
39
ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DATE PALM ACCESSIONS OF DIVERSE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ORIGIN
M. SALMAN HAIDER1, IQRAR A. KHAN1, M.J. JASKANI1, SUMMAR A. NAQVI*1, MANSOOR HAMEED2, MUHAMMAD AZAM1, ASIF A. KHAN3 AND JEAN C. PINTAUD4

ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DATE PALM ACCESSIONS OF DIVERSE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ORIGIN
ABSTRACT:
Sixteen Pakistani date palm cultivars from diverse origins were characterized morphologically to assess the similarity level, the overall point of polymorphism and important agronomic traits existing in the germplasm present in Pakistan. Forty two qualitative and quantitative features were explored and subjected to multivariate analyses. The results brought out important differences in phenotypic characters in all date palm cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that trunk length and diameter, total number of leaves, rachis length, leaflets length and width, number of leaflets per side, number of pinnae planes, length and grouping of spines were highly divergent. Similarly cluster analyses (CA) also revealed phenotypic diversity among date palm cultivars and, some close association or heterogeneity was also observed within cultivars of the same origin.

1143-1151 Download
40
NATURAL INCIDENCE OF AFLATOXINS, MYCOLOGICAL PROFILE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIGENIC STRAINS IN CHICKPEA FLOUR
SAIRA MUSHTAQ1, ABIDA AKRAM1, NAFEESA QUDSIA HANIF2, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1*, ZAHID AKRAM3, SHAISTA AKHUND1 AND BRIAN GAGOSH NAYYAR1

NATURAL INCIDENCE OF AFLATOXINS, MYCOLOGICAL PROFILE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AFLATOXIGENIC STRAINS IN CHICKPEA FLOUR
ABSTRACT:
The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%).

1153-1160 Download
41
COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES AND EXOTIC GERMPLASM UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF TANDO JAM
IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN*, NIGHAT SEEMA, SABOOHI RAZA AND SHAFQUAT YASMINE

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE SOMACLONES AND EXOTIC GERMPLASM UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF TANDO JAM
ABSTRACT:
A field trial was conducted at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, during the season of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Twenty nine sugarcane genotypes (13 soma-clones and 16 exotic clones) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Ten important agronomic characters were measured out of which three were cane yield contributing traits and seven were quality parameters. Statistically significant differences were observed for all the characters among genotypes. Clone CP92-1198 (exotic) and somaclone NIA-1026P3 had shown substantial superiority for cane and sugar yield (t/ha). Low values of coefficient of variations exhibited accuracy of experiment. Quality and quantitative traits showed strong negative correlation, causing selection breeding difficult in sugarcane.

1161-1166 Download
42
ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF SALT IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
ABD_ALLAH, E.F.1*, HASHEM ABEER2,3, ALQARAWI, A.A.1 AND ALWHIBI MONA, S.2

ALLEVIATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF SALT IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance.

1167-1176 Download
43
MANAGEMENT OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CAPSICI BY LEAF EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA
SHAZIA SHAFIQUE*, MUHAMMAD ASIF AND SOBIYA SHAFIQUE

MANAGEMENT OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CAPSICI BY LEAF EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA
ABSTRACT:
Fusarium wilt of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important disease in Pakistan that causes significant yield losses. In the present study, pathogenicity test was conducted using four strains of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici and ten chili varieties. It revealed that strain B was the most pathogenic strain and variety sky red was the most susceptible while variety Anchal was the most resistant against F. oxysporum strain B. Antifungal bioassays were conducted to find out antimycotic effect of extracts of fruit, bark and leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook.) against F. oxysporum. Ten concentrations (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 5%) of methanolic extracts of each plant part were employed against the target pathogen. Leaf extract imparted the maximum (up to 98%) and significant suppression in fungal growth while fruit and bark extracts proved less effective exhibiting only 50–60% reduction in fungal mycelial growth. The work concludes that methanolic extract of leaves of E. citriodora have potential to restrain the disastrous effects of the pathogenic fungus as the plant extracts of Eucalyptus conferred about 85% disease control in chilli plants with significantly high intensity of defense related enzymes under pathogenic stress.

1177-1182 Download
44
MOLECULAR MAPPING OF STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENE YrSE5756 IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS TRANSFER TO COMMON WHEAT
Y.J. WANG1, C.Y. WANG1, H. ZHANG1, M. ALI2, F. XUE3, X.L. LIU1, C.H. CHEN1 AND W.Q. JI1*

MOLECULAR MAPPING OF STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENE YrSE5756 IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS TRANSFER TO COMMON WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an important germplasm resource for transfer of beneficial genes from alien species to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Synthetic hexaploid wheat SE5756 confers a high level of resistance against a wide range of races of Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici Eriks. et Henn.(Pst). The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance pattern, adjacent molecular markers, and chromosomal location of the stripe rust resistance gene in SE5756 and to develop new germplasm. We constructed a segregating population of 116 F2 plants and corresponding F2:3 families from a cross between SE5756 and Xinong979 with Pst races CYR32. Genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene, tentatively designated as YrSE5756, was responsible for seedling stage stripe rust resistance in SE5756. A genetic map, encompassing Xwmc626, Xwmc269, Xgwm11, Xbarx137, Xwmc419, Xwmc85, Xgpw5237, Xwmc134, WE173, Xwmc631, and YrSE5756, spanned 70.1 cM on chromosome 1BS. Xwmc419 and Xwmc85 were flanking markers tightly linked to YrSE5756 at genetic distances of 2.3 and 1.8 cM. Typical adult plant responses of the SE5756, varieties of the carrier Yr10 and Yr15, Chuanmai 42 (Yr24/Yr26), Yuanfeng 175 (Yr24/Yr26) and Huixianhong resistant to mixture Pst races (CYR32, CYR33 and V26) were experimented. The results showed that YrSE5756 was likely a new resistance stripe rust gene different from Yr24/Yr26, Yr10 and Yr15. From cross and backcross populations of SE5756/Xinong 979, we developed four new wheat lines with large seeds, stripe rust resistance, and improved agronomic traits: N07178-1, N07178-2, N08256-1, and N08256-2. These new germplasm lines could serve as sources of resistance to stripe rust in wheat breeding. SE5756 has the very vital significance in the development of breeding and expand our resistance germplasm resource gene pool.

1183-1189 Download
45
BIOFORTIFICATION OF IRON IN CHICKPEA BY PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
SAIRA KHALID, HAFIZ NAEEM ASGHAR*, MUHAMMD JAVED AKHTAR, ANA ASLAM AND ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR

BIOFORTIFICATION OF IRON IN CHICKPEA BY PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA
ABSTRACT:
Iron deficiency is a major nutritional disorder being responsible to affect millions of people around the globe. Its malnutrition may be reduced through biofortification: a process to produce micronutrient enriched staple food. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can fortify iron content within edible plant tissues by enhancing its availability through various mechanisms. In a pot study, five bacterial isolates (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were tested for improving plant growth and bioavailable iron (Fe) content in chickpea where Fe was applied in the form of iron sulphate solution. Results showed that inoculation with PGPR significantly enhanced the plant height, root length, root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights and Fe content compared to un-inoculated control plants. Application of FeSO4 significantly improved the Fe content upto 100 and 173% in grain and shoot respectively, as compared to control. Application of PGPR along with iron showed 81 and 75% increase in grain and shoot iron contents, respectively, over control. These results suggested that PGPR can help plants to uptake extra Fe from soil, if soil is supplemented with additional Fe. These findings advocate that microbial assisted biofortification in grain can alleviate micronutrient deficiency in humans especially in resource limited countries.

1191-1194 Download
46
ENHANCEMENT OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) GROWTH BY BIO-FERTILIZERS OF NOSTOC MUSCORUM AND NOSTOC RIVULARE
ESSAM NAGEH SHOLKAMY*, HESHAM M. EL-KOMY2 AND HAYSSAM M. ALI1,3

ENHANCEMENT OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.) GROWTH BY BIO-FERTILIZERS OF NOSTOC MUSCORUM AND NOSTOC RIVULARE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study the nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare was evaluated in vitro; the test showed that Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare have the ability to fix nitrogen. In a pot experiment under field conditions, the results of the present study showed that inoculation of the soybean plant with Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare, either alone or in combination with N-fertilizer at 50 and 100 kg N/ha, caused a significant increase in the growth of these plants, as reflected in plant height, leaf area, weight of plant as well as the legume weight of soybeans. The combination of biofertilization and N-fertilization, especially at 100 kg N/ha, had more effect on both the growth of soybeans and nitrogenase activity compared to biofertilization alone. Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare are a promising biofertilizers for achieving an efficient association between N2 fixing cyanobacteria and soybeans; and thus enhancement of the growth.

1199-1204 Download
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