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Year 2016 , Volume  48, Issue 5
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1
EFFECT OF PLANT-DERIVED SMOKE SOLUTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
M.A. WAHEED1*, MUHAMMAD JAMIL2, MUHAMMAD DAUD KHAN2, SHAKIRULLAH KHAN SHAKIR1, SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN1

EFFECT OF PLANT-DERIVED SMOKE SOLUTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Among abiotic stresses, salinity is an important factor reducing crop yield. Plant-derived smoke solutions have been used as growth promoters since last two decades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cymbopogon jwaracusa smoke extracts (1:100 and 1:400) on physiological and biochemical aspects of maize (Zea mays L.) under salt stress (100, 150, 200 and 250 mM). Results showed that seed germination percentage was improved up to 93% with smoke as compared to control (70%), while seedling vigor in term of root and shoot fresh weights and dry weights were also significantly increased in seeds primed with smoke extracts. Similarly, in case of alleviating solutions, there occurred a significant alleviation in the adverse effects of salt solutions when mixed smoke in all studied end points. Application of smoke solution has also increased the level of K+ and Ca+2 while reduced the level of Na+ content in maize. In addition, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, total nitrogen and protein contents were also alleviated with the application of smoke as compared to salt. There occurred an increase in the activities of Anti-oxidant in response of salt stress but overcome with the smoke application. It can be concluded that plant-derived smoke solution has the potential to alleviate the phytotoxic effects of saline condition and can increased the productivity in plants. Key words: Smoke, Salt stress, Cymbopogon, Zea mays, Germination, Growth, Biomasses.

1763-1774 Download
2
EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON TILLERING NODES TO THE GROWTH
YU QIONG1,2, GUO YUAN1,2, XIE ZHIXIA1, SUN KE1, XU JIN3, YANG TING1,2, LIU XIAOJING1

EFFECTS OF SALT STRESS ON TILLERING NODES TO THE GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheatwhen the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discoveredin two cultivarswhen tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discoveredin two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivarswhen tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. Key word: Tillering nodes, Salt stress, Winter wheat, Na+ accumulation, Soluble sugar, Proline, Anatomic analysis.

1775-1782 Download
3
ASSESSMENT OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN BELL PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) GENOTYPES ON THE BASIS OF GERMINATION, EMERGENCE AND GROWTH ATTRIBUTES
SANA TEHSEEN1*, CHAUDHRY MUHAMMAD AYYUB1, MUHAMMAD AMJAD1 AND RASHID AHMAD

ASSESSMENT OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN BELL PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) GENOTYPES ON THE BASIS OF GERMINATION, EMERGENCE AND GROWTH ATTRIBUTES
ABSTRACT:
Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes.

1783-1791 Download
4
INFLUENCE OF HEAT SHOCK ON GERMINATION, Na+ AND K+ LEAKAGE AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF IMBIBED CALLIGONUM SEEDS
J. REN* AND L. TAO

INFLUENCE OF HEAT SHOCK ON GERMINATION, Na+ AND K+ LEAKAGE AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF IMBIBED CALLIGONUM SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Relationships between mineral leakage and germination characteristics of five Calligonum seed in teat shock treatments were analyzed. The results suggested that heat shock stress for imbibing seeds significantly inhabited the germination and K+ leakage, and induced more seed transform death. The greater EC induced decreasing of germination of five Calligonum species, and seeds with more leakage of K+ performed greater germinability. Increasing of EC and Na+ leakage induced more seed dead. Na+ leakage and EC of germination medium always increased with temperature. K+ in seeds inhabited germination, Na+ in seeds determined the vigor of Calligonum seeds. Na+/K+ and EC both could be considered to be used for indications of seed vigor of Calligonum seeds.

1793-1798 Download
5
EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES INVOLVED IN CARBON AND NITROGEN METABOLISM AS WELL AS NUTRIENT STATUS IN LEAVES OF TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.)
CHENG QIN1, BAOFENG JIN2, YONGHONG TANG3, HAILUN LIU3, QIANG HU2, PUFAN ZHENG1, SITONG LI1, KAILUN MAO1, PENGBO ZHAO1, HUIDA LIAN1, NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM4 AND LIXIN ZHANG1

EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES INVOLVED IN CARBON AND NITROGEN METABOLISM AS WELL AS NUTRIENT STATUS IN LEAVES OF TOBACCO (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
A pot experiment was carried out to examine the influence of vermicompost application on some key enzymes and metabolites involved in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism as well as nutrient status in the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Two types of vermicompost with two application rates were used in this study. Regardless of application rate, both types of vermicompost significantly increased total N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents in the leaves. They also caused enhancements in contents of total soluble carbohydrates, reducing sugars, starch and total organic C as well as amylase and invertase activities involved in C metabolism, contents of soluble protein and nicotine in N metabolism in the leaves. With an increase in application rate, each vermicompost type had an increasing effect on almost all measured parameters except nitrate reductase activity. Regardless of vermicompost type, the high rate (50%) of application showed the best effects compared with controls. The effects of V1 type vermicompost were superior to those of V2 at the same application rate. Therefore, the above effects might appear to be dependent on both type and dose. Vermicompost could be considered as an effective organic matter for attaining improved plant nutrition as well as C and N metabolism.

1799-1803 Download
6
FOLIAR NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM APPLICATIONS IMPROVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITIES AND WATER RELATIONS IN SUNFLOWER UNDER MOISTURE DEFICIT CONDITION
RAI ALTAF HUSSAIN1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2*, RASHID AHMAD1, E A. WARAICH1 AND M. HUSSAIN3

FOLIAR NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM APPLICATIONS IMPROVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITIES AND WATER RELATIONS IN SUNFLOWER UNDER MOISTURE DEFICIT CONDITION
ABSTRACT:
This study investigated the influence of foliar supplementation of nitrogen (N) potassium (K) and their combination on photosynthetic activities, physiological indices and water relations of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids Hysen-33 and LG-5551under water deficit condition. Studies were conducted in a wire-house at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Treatments were two water stress levels [100 (control) and 60% field capacity (water deficit)], six levels of foliar spray (no spray, water spray, 1% N, 1% K, 0.5% N + 0.5% K and 1% N + 1% K) and each treatment was replicated three times. Results showed that water stress reduced the photosynthetic activities: Pn (photosynthetic rate), E (rate of tanspiration) and gs (stomatal conductance) and water relations i.e., ψw (water potential), ψs (osmotic potential) and ψp (turgor potential) . Soil moisture deficit also significantly reduced the plant height, root length, fresh and dry matter which consequently affected the plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and dry matter stress tolerance index (DMSI) in both sunflower hybrids. However, foliar supplementation with N and K or N+K improved the photosynthetic activities, water relations and physiological indices of both the sunflower hybrids. The findings of present study suggest that application of N+K is necessary to have high plant productivity.

1805-1811 Download
7
ANATOMICAL, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SALT TOLERANT TREE SPECIES GROWN IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
KHALID MAHMOOD*, ABDUL RASUL AWAN AND M. ISMAIL CHUGHTAI

ANATOMICAL, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SALT TOLERANT TREE SPECIES GROWN IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Some anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of four tree species were studied. Twelve wood logs each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora and Tamarix aphylla, collected from two saline sites near Lahore and Faisalabad, were analyzed in both green and air-dry (12% moisture) conditions. The tested tree species differed greatly with respect to different wood quality parameters. Maximum density (842 kg m-3) was observed in P. juliflora followed by E. camaldulensis (817 kg m-3), A. nilotica (701 kg m-3) and T. aphylla (635 kg m-3). Static bending strength was found maximum (1240 kg cm-2) in A. nilotica and minimum (778 kg cm-2) in T. aphylla. The modulus of elasticity ranged from 53735 to 86977 kg cm-2 with maximum value in A. nilotica and minimum in T. aphylla. The crushing strength parallel to grain was observed maximum in P. juliflora (610 kg cm-2) and minimum in A. nilotica (321 kg cm-2). Cleavage value was observed maximum (40 kg cm-1) in P. juliflora and minimum (31 kg cm-1) in E. camaldulensis.The results of impact bending indicated that the wood of P. juliflora has maximum (4.35 kg m-1) tendency to absorb sudden shocks and minimum in T. aphylla (1.47 kg m-1). Calorific value was observed maximum in E. camaldulensis (4900 kcal kg-1) and minimum in T. aphylla (4607 kcal kg-1). Overall, it is concluded that all tested tree species have strength properties comparable with Dalbergia sissoo wood and thus have good utilization potential for different wood products.

1813-1818 Download
8
EFFECT ON POPULATION DYNAMICS TO HALOXYLON PERSICUM IN DIFFERENT EDAPHIC TYPES
YUYANG SONG*, XIAOJING HU AND CHAOBIN ZHOU

EFFECT ON POPULATION DYNAMICS TO HALOXYLON PERSICUM IN DIFFERENT EDAPHIC TYPES
ABSTRACT:
This study investigated the age class structure of H. persicum populations in different edaphic types in Gurbantünggüt desert and analyzed the survival rate, mortality rate and spectral analysis characteristics. The results showed that the survival curve of H. persicum populations tended to be the type of Deevey-Ⅲ, the mortality rate of H. persicum was high at early stage and low at late stage, There existed 2-4 death peak phases in the whole population life span. The natural regeneration process of the H. persicum population can be represented by the fluctuation of the distribution of the number of trees in different age classes. Spectral analysis showed that the fluctuation of H. persicum population was multi-harmonic superposition with large periodic containing small periodic, and had more than two periodic fluctuation. Upscaling process of spectral analysis indicated that the periodic fluctuation of H. persicum population becomes constant in relatively small sampling plot (4400-5600 m2), when it is growing under relatively good environmental conditions in the Gurbantünggüt desert. On the other hand, when the growing conditions are poor, large plot (4000-9200 m2) is needed to obtain constant population. Accordingly, different plot sizes should be used for spectral analysis to reveal the periodic fluctuation on the optimal scale.

1819-1824 Download
9
LEAF SURFACE ANATOMY IN SOME WOODY PLANTS FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO
RATIKANTA MAITI1, HUMBERTO GONZALEZ RODRÍGUEZ1*, PERLA CECILIA RODRÍGUEZ BALBOA1, JOSE GUADALUPE MARMOLEJO MONCIVAIS1, HAYDEE ALEJANDRA DUEÑAS TIJERINA1, JEFF CHRISTOFHER GONZALEZ DIAZ1 AND ARUNA KUMARI

LEAF SURFACE ANATOMY IN SOME WOODY PLANTS FROM NORTHEASTERN MEXICO
ABSTRACT:
Studies on leaf surface anatomy of woody plants and its significance are rare. The present study was undertaken in the Forest Science Faculty Experimental Research Station, UANL, Mexico, with objectives to determine the variability in leaf surface anatomy in the woody plants of the Tamaulipan thornscrub and its utility in taxonomy and possible adaptation to the prevailing semiarid conditions. The results show the presence of large variability in several leaf anatomical traits viz., waxy leaf surface, type of stomata, its size, and distribution. The species have been classified on the basis of various traits which can be used in species delimitation and adaptation to the semiarid condition such as waxy leaf surface, absence sparse stomata on the leaf surface, sunken stomata. The species identified as better adapters to semi-arid environments on the basis of the presence and absence of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surface viz., Eysenhardtia texana, Parkinsonia texana, Gymnosperma glutinosum, Celtis laevigata, Condalia hookeri and Karwinskia humboldtiana.

1825-1831 Download
10
THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-XIV.POLYGONACEAE
DURDANA KANWAL, RUBINA ABID AND M. QAISER

THE SEED ATLAS OF PAKISTAN-XIV.POLYGONACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Macro and micro morphological characters of seeds of 40 taxa belonging to the family Polygonaceae were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy including seed descriptions, keys and micrographs. Considerable variation was observed in seed size, shape, colour and surface at generic and specific levels. The present study provides an additional tool to strengthen the delimitation of taxa on the basis of seed morphology within the family Polygonaceae from Pakistan. This data is further analysed numerically by clustering to trace out the phylogenetic relationship of taxa at various levels.

1833-1848 Download
11
FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM AND PHENOLOGY OF TEHSIL HAVELIAN, DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, KP, PAKISTAN
SUMMAIRA SHAHEEN, ZAFAR IQBAL*, FARHANA IJAZ, JAN ALAM AND INAYAT UR RAHMAN

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, BIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM AND PHENOLOGY OF TEHSIL HAVELIAN, DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, KP, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Detailed field survey was carried out to assess the floristic composition, phenology, leaf and biological spectrum of Tehsil Havelian during 2011-2012. A total of 205 plant species belonging to 78 families were documented. According to plant habit there are 129 species of herbs, 38 species of trees and 38 species of shrubs. Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were dominant families with 15 species each, then Brassicaceae 11 species, Rosaceae and Papilionaceae with 10 species each. They were followed by Ranunculaceae with 9 species. All the remaining 72 families have less than 7 members. Flowering season was classified in two spells, first from March to July with 62.56% herbs, 19.48% shrubs, 18.46% trees, 2.56% grasses and 1.02% ferns. Second spell starts from August to November with 50% shrubs, 30% herbs and 20% trees. The life form classes were determined by the Raunkier’s method which reveals that the most dominant life form was Therophytes with 89 species (43.68%), followed by Nanophanerophytes 26 species (12.62%), Megaphanerophytes 20 species (9.70%), Mesophanerophytes 19 species (9.22%), Chamaephytes 15 species (7.28%), Hemicryptophytes 15 species (7.28%), Geophytes 11 species (5.33%), Lianas 6 species (2.91%), Microphanerophytes 3 species (1.45%) and Neophytes with 1 species (0.48%). As for as leaf size concerned, Microphyll was the most prevalent leaf size with 98 species (47.80%), followed by Nanophyll 55 spp. (26.82%), Leptophyll 28 species (13.65%), Mesophyll 16 spp. (7.80%) and Megaphyll contributing with 8 species (3.90%). Study reflects the overall ecological scenario and may be beneficial as reference study for conservation and sustainable use of plants.

1849-1859 Download
12
FLORAL DIVERSITY, COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION IN A MONTANE WETLAND IN HOGSBACK, THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA
MOHAMED YUSSUF OMAR1, ALFRED MAROYI2* AND JACOBUS JOHANNES VAN TOL

FLORAL DIVERSITY, COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION IN A MONTANE WETLAND IN HOGSBACK, THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific.

1861-1870 Download
13
FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN BAŞHEMŞİN VALLEY OF KAÇKAR MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK OF RİZE, TURKEY
HÜSEYIN BAYKAL1* AND VAGIF ATAMOV

FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN BAŞHEMŞİN VALLEY OF KAÇKAR MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK OF RİZE, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The floristical structure of Başhemşin and its environs as a protected and isolated area within Kaçkar Mountains National Park, situated in Rize, a province in the Blacksea region of Turkey, is studied. 1830 plant specimens were collected and 503 taxa were identified in 234 genera and 75 families. Sixteen Pteridophytes and 487 Spermatophytes were determined. Two of Spermatophytes are Gymnospermae while 485 of them are Angiospermae (98 Monocotyledones and 389 Dicotyledones). The richest families in taxa are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae (55 Asteraceae, 49 Poaceae, 28 Brassicaceae, and 27 Fabaceae). Phytogeographic elements are listed in order as: Euro-Siberian 247 (49.1%), Irano-Turanian 17 (3.4%), Mediterranean 6 (1.2%), multiregional-unknown phytogeographic root 233 (46.3%). Hemicryptophytes are the richest with 224 (44.5%) taxa and it is followed by cryptophytes 144 (28.6%), therophytes 53 (10.5%), chamaephytes 59 (11.7%), phanerophytes 19 (3.8%), vasicular parasites 2 (0.4%), nanophanerophytes/chamaephytes 1 (0.2%) and hydrophytes 1 (0.2%). 34 endemic taxa were determined (6.7%). 13 threatened taxa were detected in the research area and we determined that Sorbus caucasica Zinserl. var. yaltırıkii Gökşin population has fallen into CR endangered category with only 2 individuals in the study area.

1871-1876 Download
14
A UNIQUE MOUNTAINOUS VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION – A CASE STUDY ON THE NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE ILI RIVER VALLEY
ZHONG-PING TIAN1,2, XIU-LING WANG1, XIAO-YI ZHAO1, LI ZHUANG

A UNIQUE MOUNTAINOUS VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION – A CASE STUDY ON THE NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE ILI RIVER VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
Patterns of plant diversity and soil factors along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Ili River Valley were examined. Plant and environment characteristics were surveyed from 1000~2200 m. There were a total of 155 vascular plant, 133 herbage, 18 shrub, and 7 tree species in 44 sampled plots. The plant richness of vegetation types generally showed a special pattern along altitude, with a bimodal change of plant species number at 100m intervals of altitude samples. The two belts of higher plant richness were in transient areas between vegetation types, the first in areas from low-mountain desert to forest, and the other from dry grass to coniferous forest. Matching the change of richness of plant species to environmental factors along altitude by GAM model and relation analysis revealed that the environmental factors controlling species richness and their patterns were the combined effects of soil salt and nutrition. Water was more important at lower altitude, and temperature at higher altitude, the role of the inversion layer at high altitude coniferous forest species diversity appearing to rise. Soil nutrition and salt also showed a similar distribution pattern of diversity. Especially, diversity index and soil salinity showed a strong correlation. This study provides insights into plant diversity conservation of Ili River Valley in Tianshan Mountain.

1877-1886 Download
15
SHORT-TERM DROUGHT ASSESSMENT IN PAKISTAN AND ADJOINING AREAS BY REMOTE SENSING MODIS-NDVI DATA: A POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
IMRAN AHMED KHAN1, MUDASSAR HASSAN ARSALAN2, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3*, NAZIA KIRAN1 AND MUHAMMAD AJAIB

SHORT-TERM DROUGHT ASSESSMENT IN PAKISTAN AND ADJOINING AREAS BY REMOTE SENSING MODIS-NDVI DATA: A POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ABSTRACT:
Currently normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extensively used for appraise vegetation composition, structure, stratification and distribution. Spatial and temporal rainfall distribution and its effect on NDVI can be helpful for drought examining. This study has been done to improved comprehend this association. The response of vegetation growth to current climate change in Pakistan and adjoining south Asian countries (22–42°N, 60–80°E) were investigated by analyzing the time series of the NDVI maps. We also obtained and analyzed time series of different variable i.e. rainfall, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and soil temperature model data, through NASA Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) system, during Jan- Dec, 2014 for every three month interval. The NOAA Climate Prediction Center from International Research institute (IRI) for climate and society’s platform was also used for rainfall anomaly data. We found that NDVI values varies and depend on land cover types and its spatial location and dependant on rainfall. We found a strong positive relationship among NDVI, rainfall and soil moisture. Seasonal variations of rainfall are having also affects on evapotranspiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture conditions. Key words: Vegetation assessment, Normalized difference Vegetation index (NDVI), Remote sensing, Drought assessment, Drought monitoring, Climate, Pakistan.

1887-1892 Download
16
ALPINE PLANT DISTRIBUTION AND THERMIC VEGETATION INDICATOR ON GLORIA SUMMITS IN THE CENTRAL GREATER CAUCASUS
KHATUNA GIGAURI1*, MAIA AKHALKATSI2, OTAR ABDALADZE1 AND GEORGE NAKHUTSRISHVILI

ALPINE PLANT DISTRIBUTION AND THERMIC VEGETATION INDICATOR ON GLORIA SUMMITS IN THE CENTRAL GREATER CAUCASUS
ABSTRACT:
The distribution of plant species within alpine areas is often directly related to climate or climate-influenced ecological factors. Responding to observed changes in plant species, cover and composition on the GLORIA summits in the Central Caucasus, an extensive setup of 1m x 1m permanent plots was established at the treeline-alpine zones and nival ecotone (between 2240 and 3024 m a.s.l.) on the main watershed range of the Central Greater Caucasus nearby the Cross Pass, Kazbegi region, Georgia. Recording was repeated in a representative selection of 64 quadrates in 2008. The local climatic factors - average soil T°C and growing degree days (GDD) did not show significant increasing trends. For detection of climate warming we used two indices: thermic vegetation indicator S and thermophilization indicator D. They were varying along altitudinal and exposition gradients. The thermic vegetation indicator decrease in all monitoring summits. The abundance rank of the dominant and endemic species did not change during monitoring period.

1893-1902 Download
17
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS IN TRITICALE USING GGE BIPLOT AND AMMI ANALYSIS
ENVER KENDAL1*, MEHMET SALİH SAYAR2, SERTAC TEKDAL3, HUSNU AKTAS AND MEHMET KARAMAN

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS IN TRITICALE USING GGE BIPLOT AND AMMI ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
We examined the effects of late spring frost on grain yield (GY) and quality of spring triticale (× Triticosecale) genotypes, based on genotype plus genotype × environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis. The study included a total of 25 genotypes, including 20 advanced lines, 3 triticale varieties, and 2 candidate lines. The genotypes were evaluated for GY and quality traits during the 2012/2013 (normal season) and 2013/2014 (late spring frost) seasons. We observed significant differences between seasons for GY and quality traits, as affected by changing environmental conditions over the two seasons. Late spring frost caused a statistically significant 50% reduction in GY, 7.1% reduction in test weight (TW), and 26.1% reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW); however, it positively affected protein content (PC), and it increased by 42.6%. We observed that early heading genotypes were differently affected by late spring frost, compared to late maturing genotypes, in terms of GY, TW, and TGW. The GGE biplot analysis highlighted three and four distinct groups of traits in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, respectively. Results from the GGE biplot analysis revealed that G12 and G16 were stable and ideal genotypes for all of the traits in the 2012/2013 season, and G10 and G23 were stable and ideal for the 2013/2014 season. In addition, G10 was the best genotype averaged over the two growing seasons. The genotypes G9, G13, and G17 were more stable and higher yielding, based on Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, compared to the remaining genotypes.

1903-1913 Download
18
MODULATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF CHILLING IN VICIA FABA L. BY METHYL JASMONATE INVOLVES CHANGES IN ANTIOXIDANT METABOLISM AND METABOLITES
ELSAYED FATHI ABD_ALLAH1,2*, ABDULAZIZ A. ALQARAWI1, SARAH A. AL-RASHED3, ABEER HASHEM3,4 ASMA A. AL-HUQAIL 3 AND NORAH SALIM ALDOSARI

MODULATION OF ADVERSE IMPACT OF CHILLING IN VICIA FABA L. BY METHYL JASMONATE INVOLVES CHANGES IN ANTIOXIDANT METABOLISM AND METABOLITES
ABSTRACT:
We conducted experiments to assess the effect of chilling (10oC) stress on growth, nitrogen and antioxidant components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and the role of methyl jasmonate (MJ 25 µM) in growth regulation and amelioration of chilling stress. Chilling temperature significantly reduced growth and pigment synthesis which was however significantly improved by application of MJ. Nodule growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen content were negatively affected by chilling and MJ application caused significant improvement in these attributes. Application of MJ significantly enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in reduced oxidative damage. Chilling stressed plants exhibited higher lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide. Ascorbic acid and phenol contents were observed to increase by 8.4% and 7.9% due to MJ providing strength to plants against chilling stress. In addition application of MJ was observed to maintain optimal levels of abscissic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) resulting in coordinated regulation of defence mechanisms against chilling stress.

1915-1923 Download
19
INFLUENCE OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND THEIR METHOD OF APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SUNFLOWER
ABDUL AZIZ KHAN BARAICH1*, ALLAH WADHAYO GANDAHI2, SHAMSUDDIN TUNIO1 AND QAMARUDDIN CHACHAR

INFLUENCE OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND THEIR METHOD OF APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SUNFLOWER
ABSTRACT:
The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62.

1925-1932 Download
20
GENOTYPE-BY-SOWING DATE INTERACTION EFFECTS ON COTTON YIELD AND QUALITY IN IRRIGATED CONDITION OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN, PAKISTAN
KHALID USMAN1*, AYATULLAH2, NIAMATULLAH KHAN3 AND SOHRAB KHAN

GENOTYPE-BY-SOWING DATE INTERACTION EFFECTS ON COTTON YIELD AND QUALITY IN IRRIGATED CONDITION OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cotton is a major export commodity of Pakistan. It is affected by variable environmental conditions throughout the country which limits its production. A 2-year field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of six sowing dates on yield and quality attributes of four cotton genotypes. The experiments were laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots treatments were six sowing dates, namely March 20, April 4, April 19, May 4, May 19, and June 3 while subplots treatments were four approved transgenic varieties of cotton (CIM-598, CIM-599, CIM-602, and Ali Akber-703). Results revealed that earlier planting produced more vegetative growth rather than lint yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield and quality. The results further indicate that the genotype CIM-599 scored first rank in number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness, and fiber uniformity when sown on April 19. CIM-598 was the next suitable genotype after CIM-599 which produced higher yield and quality traits in April 19 sowing. Earlier and later sowing than April 19 resulted in lower cotton yield and quality characters due to unfavorable environmental conditions and shorter growth period, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-599 sown on April 19 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.

1933-1944 Download
21
VARIATION, HERITABILITY AND ASSOCIATION OF YIELD, FIBER AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN A NEAR LONG STAPLE UPLAND COTTON POPULATION
DEYI SHAO, TAO WANG, HAIPING ZHANG, JIANMEI ZHU AND FEIYU TANG

VARIATION, HERITABILITY AND ASSOCIATION OF YIELD, FIBER AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN A NEAR LONG STAPLE UPLAND COTTON POPULATION
ABSTRACT:
Development of near long staple (NLS) cotton germplasm represents a remarkable improvement in fiber properties of upland genotypes without compromising yield potential. This study aimed to evaluate a NLS population for variability in yield, fiber and morphological traits, investigate heritability and genetic advance of these traits, and analyze the interrelationships among them. The NLS lines exhibited large variation for lint yield per hectare and bolls per plant, while little variation for fiber properties. The highest genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variation were recorded by lint yield per hectare (25.10%, 23.00%) followed by bolls per plant (18.88%, 16.38%). High heritability along with high response to selection was documented in plant height, bolls per plant and lint yield per hectare indicating that the additive gene function model in the inheritance of these traits and direct selection can be profitably applied on them. Favourable associations were found among fiber length, strength and fineness in this population. It is concluded that there is a great potential in the NSL population for further enhancing yield while maintaining high fiber quality.

1945-1949 Download
22
CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND LEVELS OF ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEINS IN LYCIUM BARBARUM’S FRUIT
HAN BAO1, GUO QI ZHENG1*, GUO LIANG QI1 , XUE LING SU1 AND JUN WANG

CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND LEVELS OF ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEINS IN LYCIUM BARBARUM’S FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
Lycium barbarum L. contains several polysaccarides which are identified as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and are considered having extensive biological effects and potential health benefits. The crudepolysaccharides were isolated from L. barbarum fruits and then AGPs were purified from the polysaccharides by precipitation. Ten kinds of antibodies (JIM7, JIM8, JIM12, JIM94, JIM13, MAC204, JIM11, JIM19, JIM20, JIM5) were selected from 30 kinds of antibodies by reacting with purified AGPs in Elisa screening.Western blot analysis confirmed that the anti-arabinogalactan protein antibodies (JIM94, JIM8, JIM13, MAC204) and anti-pectins antibodies (JIM11, JIM20, JIM5) were effective. Immunolocalization of AGPs showed that these proteins accumulated mainly in the partly parenchyma cells of the exocarp, in the vascular bundles of the mesocarp, and even in the endocarp. Subcellular immunolocalization of AGPs showed that the proteins localized in the plasma and vacuole membranes, vesicles, plastid, mitochondria and other organelles in fruit parenchyma cells. These data suggested that AGPs may take a role as lubricants in fruit parenchyma cell to avoid cell rupture at the rapid growth stage.

1951-1963 Download
23
BURKHOLDERIA SP. KCTC 11096BP MODULATES PEPPER GROWTH AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
SANG-MO KANG1, MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN2, MUHAMMAD WAQAS1,2, JIN-HO KIM4, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI5 AND IN-JUNG LEE1

BURKHOLDERIA SP. KCTC 11096BP MODULATES PEPPER GROWTH AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
ABSTRACT:
Biological control of crop diseases is desirable for sustainable agriculture as it minimizes chemical inputs in the agricultural system and promotes eco-friendly environment. We analyzed the favorable role of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP against the pathogen Phytophthora capsici in pepper. We screen thirty rhizobateria for their anti-pathogen activity, and found that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP exhibits maximum growth inhibition of the pathogen P. capsici. The bacterium inoculation to pepper plants significantly enhanced growth attributes of pepper in infected and control treatments. The total proteins (10.9%), and the amino acids viz. glycine (4.08 ug/g), leucine (3.3 ug/g), and alanine (3.26 ug/g) were preset in considerably higher quantities in Burkholderia sp. applied treatments as compare to control. The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of the host plant was up-regulated by Burkholderia sp. KCTC, as endogenous salicylic acid (235.5 ng/g) and jasmonic acid (22.8 ng/g) levels were found higher in such treatments. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP mitigates the adverse effects of P. capsici on pepper crop and can improve crop productivity at the field level.

1965-1970 Download
24
METABOLOMIC ANALYSIS OF FEMALE AND MALE PLANTS OF PISTACIA CHINENSIS BUNGE
XIN LI, SHI JIANG* AND CAO MAN

METABOLOMIC ANALYSIS OF FEMALE AND MALE PLANTS OF PISTACIA CHINENSIS BUNGE
ABSTRACT:
Pistacia chinensis Bunge is dioecious. The female and male plants have different economic values. In addition to the large differences in floral organ shape on the outside, the male and female plants also have remarkable differences in ecological adaptability and physiological and biochemical characteristics. Thus, studying whether these differences in biological characteristics between male and female plants are caused by metabolic differences is necessary. Our results showed 56 kinds of different metabolites (p≤0.05) among the 235 metabolites detected between the female and male Pistacia plants, in which the contents of 20 kinds of metabolites in female plants were more than those in male plants, whereas the contents of 36 kinds of metabolites in male plants were more than those in female plants. Principal component analysis showed that the differences in peptide and hormone metabolites between the male and female plants of P. chinensis Bunge were the most significant. These differences may be the most important reason for the different biological characteristics between the male and female plants of P. chinensis Bunge.

1971-1977 Download
25
MOLECULAR AND MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME EGYPTIAN DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS/LINES
OSAMA M. SALEH1*, NAHLA HAMIEDELDIN1, AHMED F. KHAFAGA1 AND RASHAD M. SHOAIB

MOLECULAR AND MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME EGYPTIAN DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS/LINES
ABSTRACT:
Grains of eight durum wheat cultivars were tested for identification of genetic relationship among molecular, anatomical and morphological levels. On the molecular level, two techniques have been used; Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR). Amplification of RAPD primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to thirteen fragments. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0% to 100%. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 69%. Amplification of ISSR primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to twelve fragments. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 68%. The grain’s coat morphology was reticulated in all taxa. There were variations with regard to the alignment and the shape of network and architecture of interspaces enclosed by raised line. Reticulate surface patterns appeared some variations ranged from weakly reticulate such as G 413 to strongly reticulate such as G 203. Stem cuticles of all cultivars were thick except cultivar; Benisweif 1. For leaf anatomy, all cultivars had epidermis composed of one layer of thick wall cells except cultivars; G 203 and Benisweif 1. Key words: Durum wheat, RAPD, ISSR, Morphology, Anatomy.

1979-1988 Download
26
SMALL-SCALE ISOLATION OF MEIOCYTES FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA ANTHERS FOR CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSES
JUNHUA LI1,3,*√, JINHONG YUAN1,3√, KANG JI1, YANLING ZHANG2, JUAN WANG1, SHASHA ZHANG1, SHUBO LIU1, PENGFEI QIU1, NING LI1 AND MINGJUN LI

SMALL-SCALE ISOLATION OF MEIOCYTES FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA ANTHERS FOR CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSES
ABSTRACT:
In flowering plants, the meiocytes develop within nourishing tissues – the anthers or the ovaries. Although most plants bear one or more anthers in each bisexual or male flower, the size of anthers that undergo meiosis is relatively small, and each anther contains only a small fraction of male meiocytes. As a consequence, the isolation of plant meiocytes is very challenging due to their relative inaccessibility. Efficient manual dissection of meiocytes from young Arabidopsis anthers for cytological and cytogenetic analyses is technically challenging. Indirect detection of cellular or nuclear phenotypes is impaired by poor penetration of the reagents, and cell type-specific imaging is deminished by the lack of clarity in whole-mount tissues. Here, we describe a method that allows the efficient isolation of male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Anthers undergoing meiosis were dissected and collected into appropriate isolation/labeling buffer, depending on the downstream application. Meiocytes were released by crushing with a cover slip on a glass slide. The isolated meiocytes could be analyzed using a microscope. The technical skills required are simple, and the procedure does not require any special equipment. Isolated meiocytes are suitable for a variety of dowstream applications, such as cell morphological investigation, reporter gene assays, chromosome analyses, and callose staining.

1989-1992 Download
27
AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)
ZAHOOR AHMAD SAJID* AND FAHEEM AFTAB

AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 µM 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2°C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 µm) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 µM 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2°C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication.

1993-1997 Download
28
DIRECT REGENERATION AND EFFICIENT IN VITRO ROOT DEVELOPMENT STUDIES IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
TASAWAR SULTANA1, NADIA MAJEED1, FARIHA KHAN2, ATA UR REHMAN3 AND S.M. SAQLAN NAQVI

DIRECT REGENERATION AND EFFICIENT IN VITRO ROOT DEVELOPMENT STUDIES IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK)
ABSTRACT:
Lentil is a self-pollinating annual crop with increasing demand all over the world due to its high protein content and easy digestibility. However, like many other crops lentil too needs improvement for which conventional as well as biotechnological tools are to be employed. This study was aimed at development of tissue culture protocol especially targeting improved root development to ensure their establishment in soil in order to use their potential towards genetic manipulation. Two Pakistani lentil cultivars, Masoor-2002 and Manshera-89 were used to obtain cotyledonary nodes, epicotyl and hypocotyl explants. The explants were cultured on shoot regeneration medium containing different concentration of kinetin, BAP and tyrosine with the addition of GA3, with or without charcoal for shoot development. Masoor-2002, showed the highest frequency of shoot development on MS medium containing 5.5 mg/L tyrosine, 0.25 mg/L kinetin, 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L GA3, using cotyledonary node as explant. The addition of 2 g/L of charcoal in shoot medium resulted in healthier plants, but the number of shoots were reduced. Regarding the effect of age of explants on regeneration frequency, cotyledonary nodes of age 4-6 days had higher regeneration potential. Well-developed shoots were shifted to rooting medium containing different concentration of auxin with or without charcoal. Healthier and more roots were observed on medium containing 4 mg/L IAA with addition of 2 g/L charcoal. Plants were better established (70% survival) in a soil mix containing perlite, vermiculite and peat moss in 1:1:1 ratio. Key words: Regeneration, Explant, Cytokinin, Auxin, Rooting, Charcoal, Lentil.

1999-2004 Download
29
DNA FINGERPRINTING OF SOME PAKISTANI DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS USING ISSR MARKERS
AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR1,3*, SAIFULLAH KHAN1,2, G. SARWAR MARKHAND3, NAHEED KAUSER1 AND RAFAT SAEED

DNA FINGERPRINTING OF SOME PAKISTANI DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS USING ISSR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Date palm is one of the oldest cultivated and economically important fruit trees. First time Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers were used with twenty five economically important date palm cultivars of Pakistan for DNA fingerprinting analysis. Samples were collected from four provinces of Pakistan i.e., Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Balochistan. The study was carried out using seven ISSR markers. The twenty five date palm cultivars showed variation at the DNA level. The ISSR primers showed high polymorphism (84%) in the studied date palm cultivars. Dice’s similarity index was in range from 0.608 to 0.980 and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) divided twenty five date palm cultivars into two main clusters and sub-clusters. However ISSR markers efficiently discriminated for assessing genetic diversity among commercial Pakistani date palm cultivars.

2005-2010 Download
30
GENETIC RELATEDNESS AMONG SOLANUM L. SPECIES ASSAYED BY SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ISOZYME MARKERS
SHAWKAT M. AHMED1,2* AND MOHAMED A. FADL

GENETIC RELATEDNESS AMONG SOLANUM L. SPECIES ASSAYED BY SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ISOZYME MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
In spite of their economic and medicinal value, no adequate attention has been paid to the diversity, characterization and taxonomical identification of Solanum L. species in Saudi Arabia. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of seed coat morphology and isozyme electrophoresis were employed for studying the genetic variability and relationships among seven Solanum L. species namely; S. incanum L., S. nigrum L., S. villosum L., S. schemprianum Hochst, S. galabratum Dunal, S. lycopersicum L. and S. melongena L. collected from Taif highlands. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation of seed coat sculpturing showed three basic patterns namely; rugulate, reticulate and levigate. The analyses on six enzymes were coded by 19 loci. The number of alleles ranged from one to three with a mean of 1.58 alleles per locus. The proportion of polymorphic loci for Solanum L.species ranged from 0.87 for S. nigrum L.and S. villosum L.to 0.80 for S. lycopersicum L. The mean observed heterozygosity varied from 0.00 to 1.00, while mean expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00 and 0.5. The UPGMA phenogram confirmed the extensive genetic diversity existed in the studied Solanum L. species and showed the close relationship between S. incanum L. and S. melongena L.

2011-2016 Download
31
NOVEL GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE ALIEN D-GENOME SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT (2n=6x=42, AABBDD) GERMPLASM FOR VARIOUS PHENOLOGY TRAITS
RABIA MASOOD1, NIAZ ALI1, MUHAMMAD JAMIL2, KHATIBA BIBI1, J.C. RUDD3 AND A. MUJEEB-KAZI2,

NOVEL GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE ALIEN D-GENOME SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT (2n=6x=42, AABBDD) GERMPLASM FOR VARIOUS PHENOLOGY TRAITS
ABSTRACT:
The current study evaluates genetic penetrance and expressivity of an alien genome introgression in a set of 117 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) accessions. These SHW’s have originated from durum wheat /accessions with three sets of durum wheat cultivars ALTAR 84, D67.2 and CERCETA as the female and diverse Ae. tauschii accessions as the pollen parents. Diversity of the 12 important traits (Growth habit, pigmentation, chlorophyll content, leaf area index, crop digital ground cover, awn size, awn length, and several seed digital imaging parameters)revealed significant variation for the respective traits, leading to the conclusion that Ae. tauschii accessions have tremendous diversity than the durum controls. Further, the value deviations within each attribute had a range of being lower or higher than their durum wheat female parents and these observations allowed us to use the variations as selective sieves and narrow down the desirable SHW’s that would be advantageous to exploit for wheat breeding and cultivar improvement programs. Selections were made and a group of 41SHWaccessions were identified that will after an intermediate DNA diversity evaluation form a crisper final set for user friendly utilization. The range of selections shows multiple trait advantages for exploitation in both irrigated and rain-fed conditions. This pivotal study sets the foundation to better define the D genome SHW’s for efficient utilization in future research investigations. Our results have implications in widening the genetic base of hexaploid bread wheat and may facilitate the development of agronomically desirable wheat cultivars Key words: Synthetic hexaploid wheats, D-genome, Genetic penetrance and expressivity, Phenology, Diversity.

2017-2024 Download
32
INTRASPECIFIC RELATIONSHIP WITHIN THE GENUS CONVOLVULUS L. INFERRED BY rbcL GENE USING DIFFERENT PHYLOGENETIC APPROACHES
SHAZIA KOUSAR1, SYEDA QAMARUNNISA2, ANJUM PARVEEN3* AND ISHRAT JAMIL

INTRASPECIFIC RELATIONSHIP WITHIN THE GENUS CONVOLVULUS L. INFERRED BY rbcL GENE USING DIFFERENT PHYLOGENETIC APPROACHES
ABSTRACT:
A molecular systematics analysis was conducted using sequence data of chloroplast rbcL gene for the genus Convolvulus L., by distance and character based phylogenetic methods. Fifteen representative members from genus Convolvulus L., were included as ingroup whereas two members from a sister family Solanaceae were taken as outgroup to root the tree. Intraspecific relationships within Convolvulus were inferred by distance matrix, maximum parsimony and bayesian analysis. Transition/transversion ratio was also calculated and it was revealed that in the investigated Convolvulus species, transitional changes were more prevalent in rbcL gene. The nature of rbcL gene in the present study was observed to be conserved, as it does not show major variations between examined species. Distance matrix represented the minimal genetic variations between some species (C. glomeratus and C. pyrrhotrichus), thus exhibiting them as close relatives. The result of parsimonious and bayesian analysis revealed almost similar clades however maximum parsimony based tree was unable to establish relationship between some Convolvulus species. The bayesian inference method was found to be the method of choice for establishing intraspecific associations between Convolvulus species using rbcL data as it clearly defined the connections supported by posterior probability values.

2025-2030 Download
33
STUDIES ON TWO ECONOMICALLY AND MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS, RHODIOLA CRENULATA AND RHODIOLA FASTIGIATA OF TIBET AND SICHUAN PROVINCE, CHINA
TAO LI* AND XUAN HE

STUDIES ON TWO ECONOMICALLY AND MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS, RHODIOLA CRENULATA AND RHODIOLA FASTIGIATA OF TIBET AND SICHUAN PROVINCE, CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Taxonomic assessment of two species of Rhodiola, Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola fastigiata was carried out and compared with two famous species, Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola pachyclados. HPLC and Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy techniques with the discriminant analysis and partial least squares regression (PLS) analysis were used for identification, classification, standardization and quality control of these species, Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola fastigiata. A rapid, nondestructive and innovative Fourier transform Near-Infrared spectroscopy analysis method with chemometrics techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of rhodionin was developed. On the basis of WHO recommendation utilizing authentic techniques as HPLC and Near-Infrared spectroscopy, it is ascertained that Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola fastigiata are two distinct species of Sichuan province and Tibet in China. Key words: Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy; HPLC; Rhodiola crenulata; Rhodiola fastigiata; Rhodionin; Partial least squares; Discriminant analysis.

2031-2038 Download
34
TAXONOMIC, PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL AUTHENTICATION OF COLCHICUM LUTEUM BAKER (SURANJANTALKH) FROM ITS COMMERCIAL ADULTERANT
SIDRA NISAR AHMED1, MUSHTAQ AHMAD1*, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 AND SHELA SHINWARI

TAXONOMIC, PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL AUTHENTICATION OF COLCHICUM LUTEUM BAKER (SURANJANTALKH) FROM ITS COMMERCIAL ADULTERANT
ABSTRACT:
The main objective of current study is to elucidate taxonomic, pharmacognostic and physicochemical behavior of Colchicum luteum (Suranjantalkh) for its proper identification and authentication from its cheap and tasteless adulterant. Colchicum luteum is one of the most rare and hence expensive medicinal plants. It is an active part of many unani formulations due to presence of an alkaloid colchicine which is claimed to be effective in arthritis, gout, rheumatism and internal injuries. In order to overcome demand of its corm, suppliers and herb sellers adultered bulbs of a monocotyledon plant Narcissus tazetta. This type of study reveals to be helpful in differentiating plants on basis of leaf epidermal anatomy, palynology, phamacognosy and physicochemical values. It is an important step in field of herbal medicine to provide pure and original medicinal plants to yield their maximum effectiveness.

2039-2045 Download
35
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHERS AND POLLEN IN BRAZILIAN HETEROSTYLIC SPECIES OF ERYTHROXYLUM (ERYTHROXYLACEAE): AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH LUCIANA DA SILVA1
CAROLINNY LARA FERNANDES2, EDSON SIMÃO3 AND ADRIANA TIEMI NAKAMURA3

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHERS AND POLLEN IN BRAZILIAN HETEROSTYLIC SPECIES OF ERYTHROXYLUM (ERYTHROXYLACEAE): AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH LUCIANA DA SILVA1
ABSTRACT:
This study describes the development of anthers and pollen in heterostylic flowers of two species of Erythroxylum. The features of anthers and their developmental pattern, which is of the dicotyledonous type, do not vary according to morphs or species. The pollen grains of both morphs show differences in their morphology, development, and content stored as a reserve source. In both species, thrum (short-styled) flowers presented bicellular pollen grains, while pin (long-styled) ones yielded bi- and tricellular pollen grains. The presence of inviable pollen grains in the two flower morphs of both species and the malformation of one of the four microsporanges in the thrum flowers of E. campestre are noteworthy. We verified that features found both in the anther wall and in the pollen grains could be related to the reproductive success and adaptation of the species to the Brazilian savanna biome. Key words: Tapetum, Distyly, Microsporogenesis, Microgametogenesis.

2047-2055 Download
36
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME UNEXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHOLISTAN DESERT
GHULAM MUSTAFA1, SIBTAIN AHMED1, NISAR AHMED2 AND AMER JAMIL

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME UNEXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHOLISTAN DESERT
ABSTRACT:
Ethnobotanical survey plays a vital role for the discovery of novel crude drugs from reported medicinal plants. In folklore traditions the plant extracts or decoctions have been used to treat different diseases representing a basis of chemical entities but without knowledge of their nature. The present study was planned to conduct biochemical profiling of five indigenous medicinal plants of Cholistan desert of Pakistan to be used as potential chief constituents in the drug discovery practice. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirmed the presence of various important secondary metabolites viz isoflavones, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolics, flavonoids and non-alkaloids. Methanolic extracts of Suaeda fruticosa and Solanum surattense showed significant antibacterial activities with mean halo diameters of 19.5 ± 0.3 mm and 14.8 ± 0.5 mm respectively, and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Biochemical profiling of selected plants is reported for the first time. The methanolic extracts of Fagonia indica and S. fruticosa were found to have maximum numbers of phytochemicals. The occurrence of various bioactive compounds confirmed the studied plants against various diseases as local people of Cholistan desert still have a solid belief on herbal remedies for their elementary healthcare issues. Isolation of individual active constituents from each plant reported here may proceed to find some novel natural drugs. Key words: Medicinal plants; Cholistan desert; Biochemical profiling; Antibacterial activity; Secondary metabolites.

2057-2062 Download
37
PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC BRASSICA JUNCEA WITH THE SYNTHETIC CHITINASE GENE (NIC) CONFERRING RESISTANCE TO ALTERNARIA BRASSICICOLA
IQBAL MUNIR1*, WAGMA HUSSAN1, MOHAMMAD SAYYAR KHAN KAZI1, FARHATULLAH2, AFAQ AHMAD MIAN1, AQIB IQBAL1 AND RAHEEL MUNIR

PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC BRASSICA JUNCEA WITH THE SYNTHETIC CHITINASE GENE (NIC) CONFERRING RESISTANCE TO ALTERNARIA BRASSICICOLA
ABSTRACT:
Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. Key words: Chitinase, Brassica, Transgenic plants, Antifungal activity.

2063-2070 Download
38
DETECTION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER SPP. CAUSING HUANGLONGBING (HLB) IN INDIGENOUS CITRUS CULTIVARS IN PAKISTAN
AMBREEN ZAFARULLAH, SHAGUFTA NAZ* AND FAIZA SALEEM

DETECTION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CANDIDATUS LIBERIBACTER SPP. CAUSING HUANGLONGBING (HLB) IN INDIGENOUS CITRUS CULTIVARS IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is one of major devastating citrus diseases all over the world. This disease is caused by fastidious α-proteobacterium, Candidatus liberibacter spp. and is transmitted by grafting as well as psyllids Diaphorina citri or Trioza erytreae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the huanglongbing (HLB) infectious pathogen in commercial (Kinnow and sweet oranges) varieties by using molecular markers such as 16S rRNA, 16S/23S rRNA and outer membrane protein fragments from symptomatic leaves of assorted citrus varieties. DNA extracted from forty different citrus (including mandarin and sweet oranges) varieties having HLB-symptomatic plants from different orchards of Pakistan. Gene-specific primers for 16SrDNA, 16S/23S rDNA and outer membrane protein (OMP) gene regions were used for identification of Ca. liberibacter spp. An amplified fragment of 1174 bp from 16SrDNA, 900 bp of 16S/23S rRNA and 600 bp was observed for OMP gene fragments of Asian isolates. The resulted fragments were TA cloned and sequenced from both strands. The infectious bacterium was identified as Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus and was found in 17 samples (42%). The seasonal variation on prevalence of Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus in citrus varieties was well observed. It declined during spring season due to unfavourable temperature and humidity for Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus because disease symptoms showed mostly at low humidity and warm temperature (up to 35°C). Key words: Huanglongbing, Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, Outer membrane protein, Diaphorina citri, α-proteobacterium.

2071-2076 Download
39
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLESHY PORED MUSHROOMS: NEOBOLETUS LURIDIFORMIS AND HORTIBOLETUS RUBELLUS FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
SAMINA SARWAR1, SANA JABEEN2, ABDUL NASIR KHALID2 AND BRYN MASSON DENTINGER

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLESHY PORED MUSHROOMS: NEOBOLETUS LURIDIFORMIS AND HORTIBOLETUS RUBELLUS FROM WESTERN HIMALAYAN RANGE OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. Key words: Boletus, Cedrus, nrDNA , taxon.

2077-2083 Download
40
MANAGEMENT OF VASCULAR WILT OF LENTIL THROUGH HOST PLANT RESISTANCE, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AND CHEMICALS
KHOLA RAFIQUE1*, CHAUDHARY ABDUL RAUF1, FARAH NAZ1 AND GHULAM SHABBIR

MANAGEMENT OF VASCULAR WILT OF LENTIL THROUGH HOST PLANT RESISTANCE, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS AND CHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
The management of devastating lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) wilt disease was investigated through evaluation of host plant resistance, biological control agents and seed treatment with different fungicides against a known most aggressive isolate i.e. FWL12 (KP297995) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis. The In vitro screening of germplasm (23 advanced lines and cultivars) for host resistance by root dip method revealed five cultivars viz. Markaz-09, Masoor-86, Masoor-2006, Punjab Masoor-00518 and Punjab Masoor-09 resistant with 20 to 46.67% incidence, 4.44 to 12.95% severity index and 9.60 to 24.94% yield reduction compared with highly susceptible (100% incidence) local lentil line (NARC-08-1). The later line was treated with Trichoderma species as antagonists in pot experiment by drenching. The bio-control treatment revealed maximum positive effect of T. harzianum (26.7% incidence, 8.9% severity index and 16.27% yield reduction), followed by T. viride (66.7% incidence, 17.8% severity index and 31.13% yield reduction). On inoculated untreated control, the fungus produced the characteristic wilt symptoms and significantly caused increased severity index, incidence and decreased 100% yield. In vitro evaluation of four fungicides at five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 ppm) revealed maximum inhibition of the test fungus with benomyl (85.9%), followed by thiophanate methyl (81.2%). Determination of the efficacy of two best fungicides viz. benomyl and thiophanate methyl in reducing wilt infection through In vivo seed treatment of NARC-08-1 in previously inoculated potting mixture revealed 100% seed germination and suppressed wilt disease, the most effective being benomyl with 6.7% incidence, 1.5% wilt severity and 17.16% yield reduction compared to the control. The study concluded that the genetic diversity already present in lentil cultivars is an important source, which could be exploited for breeding wilt resistant lentil genotypes. Moreover, being seed and soil-borne, the disease could effectively be managed using the reported biological control agents and systemic fungicides in integrated disease management of lentil wilt.

2085-2092 Download
41
UTILIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTHARVEST PATHOGENS OF TOMATO
MUHAMMAD USMAN GHAZANFAR1*, MUZAMMIL HUSSAIN1,3, MUHAMMAD IMRAN HAMID1,3 AND SAMI ULLAH ANSARI

UTILIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF POSTHARVEST PATHOGENS OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Twenty five isolates of Trichoderma, Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. were obtained from rhizosphere of tomato growing fields using soil dilution technique on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and nutrient agar (NA) medium. Screening of these isolates were done against Geotrichum candidum, Trichothecium roseum and Rhizopus oryzae, causal agents of sour rot, pink mold rot and Rhizopus soft rot of tomato under the laboratory conditions. One promising isolate of each Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens from the twenty five isolates were chosen and further evaluated as potential biological control agents (BCAs) against three important postharvest pathogens of tomato. Dual culture and spore concentration assay revealed that all three isolates inhibited radial growth of G. candidum, T. roseum and R. oryzae. Tomato fruits were inoculated with 25µl suspension of l08 cfu mL-1 for T. harzianum and l08cfu mL-1for each Bacillus sp. and P.fluorescens. Twenty four hours later the treated fruits were inoculated with 25µl of 105 conidia/mL of each of three postharvest pathogens. The results showed that P. fluorescens provided good control (78.1%) of G. candidum and (82.2%) R. oryzae, while, T. harzianum proved less effective to control all three pathogens. Bacillus spp. was only effective (88.4%) against T. roseum. Hence, our results depicted that Bacillus spp. and P. fluorescens proved to be a potential antagonist of T. roseum and R. oryzae however, all the tested BCAs were not consistent in their action against three postharvest pathogens of tomato.

2093-2100 Download
42
INFLUENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND ROCK PHOSPHATE ON GROWTH AND QUALITY OF LENTIL
TABASSUM YASEEN1, KAWSAR ALI2*, FAZAL MUNSIF3, ABDUR RAB4, MASOOD AHMAD4, MUHAMMAD ISRAR5, AND AZIZ KHAN BARAICH

INFLUENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND ROCK PHOSPHATE ON GROWTH AND QUALITY OF LENTIL
ABSTRACT:
Effective inoculation of legumes has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in N & P-limiting (due to improvement in nutrients fixation) environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, the current experiment was conducted to study the influence of rock phosphorus fertilization, Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM) and Rhizobium inoculation on growth and yield parameters of Lens culinaris (NARC.2008-4). In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the effect of different inoculation practices on crop quality in comparison with control (no inoculation).The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications during winter (2010-11 and 2012-13) at the Department of Botany University of Peshawar Pakistan. Overall, inoculated plant performed superior in terms of plant growth and quality over control. All plants measured parameters (Leaf chlorophyll content, seed protein, fiber and ash content, plant height, number of seed pod-1, leaves plant-1, flowers plant-1, pods plant-1, pod length and thousand seed weight) were highest in plant samples inoculated with VAM and Rhizobium in combination as compared to sole application of VAM or Rhizobium. Combined inoculation of VAM and Rhizobium caused 10, 24, 17, 21 and 14% increase in seed protein content, leaf chlorophyll content, seed fiber content, seed ash content and number of seed pod-1 over sole application of VAM and Rhizobium when averaged over two years. Combined application of Rhizobium + VAM enhanced seed yield plant-1 by 45% over control and 24% and 28% over sole inoculation of VAM and Rhizobium respectively. It is therefore concluded that dual inoculation of VAM + Rhizobium and rock phosphate may be of only limited consequence in high input agricultural systems.

2101-2107 Download
43
EFFECT OF RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION AND HUMIC ACID APPLICATION ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CROP
SHAKEEL AHMAD1, IHSANULLAH DAUR*1, SAMIR GAMIL AL-SOLAIMANI1, SAJID MAHMOOD1, AHMED A. BAKHASHWAIN1, MOHAMED HUSSEIN MADKOUR 2 AND MUHAMMAD YASIR

EFFECT OF RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION AND HUMIC ACID APPLICATION ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) CROP
ABSTRACT:
This study investigated eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and humic acid (HA) as bio-stimulants to improve the growth, yield and nutrition of canola (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we isolated 20 indigenous rhizobacterial strains that were subsequently screened and characterized for their plant growth promoting traits. After that one promising PGPR strain identified as Acinetobacter pittii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was selected for field trial. The field experiment was conducted using RCB design with split-plot arrangement that was replicated four times. Three levels of humic acid (0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1) as main plot factor and two treatments of PGPR (with and without PGPR) as sub-plot factor were used. Data was recorded on plant height (cm), root dry matter plant-1, number of lateral root plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield(kg ha-1), oil content (%), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents and uptake. For most of the above mentioned parameters, significant enhancement was observed with the increment of humic acid, and also PGPR treatments were better than their respective control treatments. Maximum values of these parameters were recorded for the interaction of 20 kg HA ha-1 with the PGPR strain. It can be concluded that integrated application of HA and PGPR is a better strategy to improve nutrition and yield of canola. Key words: Rhizobacteria, Canola, Humic acid, Yield Components, Oil Content.

2109-2120 Download
44
STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZATION POTENTIAL OF BACTERIA AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS LOCATIONS OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PROVINCE
FAZLI WAHID*, MUHAMMAD SHARIF, MUHAMMAD AZIM KHAN AND MUHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN

STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZATION POTENTIAL OF BACTERIA AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS LOCATIONS OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PROVINCE
ABSTRACT:
The soils of Pakistan are alkaline calcareous in nature and its high pH makes phosphorus (P) unavailable for plants uptake. Chemical sources of P fertilizers are a costly and detrimental practice. Therefore, investigations were conducted to determine the native status of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in three different zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. In order to select the efficient PSB strains for solubility enhancement of P from rock phosphate (RP), rhizosphere soil samples were collected from irrigated and rainfed fields of maize, sorghum, pastures and vegetables. Population density of PSB ranged from 1.7×107 to 2.7×108 CFU g-1 rhizosphere soil. The bacterial strains Coccus, Streptoccocus and Bacillus sp. were identified on the basis of their microscopic, phenotypic and morphological characters. Most of the AM fungal spores identified were belonging to Glomus mosseae and Glomus intradices. A range of 02-35 spores per 20 g air dried soil were recorded.The PSB strains such as Coccus DIM7, Streptococcus PIM6 and Bacillus sp. PIS7 solubilized more P from RP than any other strain in both of the liquid and solid medium. Results show that areas under investigations are rich in P solubilizing micro flora providing a rich source for inoculum production. Moreover, the PSB strains have the capability to solubilize P from RP that can be used as biofertilizers for optimum crop production.

2121-2130 Download
45
STUDY OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS ON SEED GERMINATION AND FUNGAL GROWTH
ASMA HANIF AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

STUDY OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS ON SEED GERMINATION AND FUNGAL GROWTH
ABSTRACT:
In vitro, seeds of mung bean, sunflower, okra and mash bean were treated with homeopathic drugs namely Arnica montana and Thuja occidentalis (30C) were evaluated against root rot fungi. Different concentrations like 100, 75 and 50% v/v were tested to investigate seeds germination and inhibition of root rot fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Results indicated that treated seeds of mung bean, sunflower, okra and mash bean with pure homeopathic drugs (100% v/v) by A. montana and T. occidentalis (30C) showed complete germination (100%), greater root length and excellent inhibition of root infecting pathogens. However, tested seeds treated with 75 and 50% v/v concentrations (prepared from 30C) by homeopathic drugs, respectively recorded significant increase in germination, root length and maximum zone of inhibition. Key words: Homeopathic drugs, Seed treatment, Concentrations, Germination, Inhibition of root rot fungi.

2131-2138 Download
46
ROLE OF MUNGBEAN ROOT NODULE ASSOCIATED FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS AND RHIZOBIA IN SUPPRESSING THE ROOT ROTTING FUNGI AND ROOT KNOT NEMATODES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
RUBINA NOREEN1, ASMA SHAFIQUE1, SYED ABID ALI2, HABIBA3, VIQAR SULTANA4, JEHAN ARA3 AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE

ROLE OF MUNGBEAN ROOT NODULE ASSOCIATED FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS AND RHIZOBIA IN SUPPRESSING THE ROOT ROTTING FUNGI AND ROOT KNOT NEMATODES IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Three isolates each of fluorescent Pseudomonas (NAFP-19, NAFP-31 and NAFP-32) and rhizobia (NFB- 103, NFB-107 and NFB-109) which were originally isolated from root nodules of mungbean (Vigna radiata) showed significant biocontrol activity in the screen house and under field condition, against root rotting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani evaluated on chickpea. Biocontrol potential of these isolates was also evaluated against Meloidogyne incognita, the root knot nematode. Application of Pseudomonas and rhizobial isolates as a soil drench, separately or mixed significantly reduced root rot disease under screen house and field conditions. Nematode’s penetration in roots was also found significantly less in rhizobia or Pseudomonas treatments used separately or mixed as compared to control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas treated plants produced greater number of nodules per plant than control plants and about equal to rhizobia treated plants, indicating that root nodule associated fluorescent Pseudomonas enhance root nodulation.

2139-2145 Download
47
SAP BURN INJURY MANAGEMENT OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) IN SRI LANKA
N. KRISHNAPILLAI1* AND R.S.WILSON WIJERATNAM

SAP BURN INJURY MANAGEMENT OF MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) IN SRI LANKA
ABSTRACT:
Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - ‘Willard’, ‘Karuthakolumban’, ‘Chembaddan’ and ‘Ambalavi’ - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 & 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 & 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in ‘Karuthakolumban’. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in ‘Willard’, ‘Chembaddan’ and ‘Ambalavi’ mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in ‘Chembaddan’ and ‘Ambalavi’ mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. Key words: Mango cultivars, Postharvest disorder, GRAS compounds, Sap management dynamics, Fruit quality.

2147-2152 Download
48
EVALUATIONS OF EPILITHIC DIATOMS AND BIOTIC INDEX IN SAKARYA RIVER, TURKEY
ARZU MORKOYUNLU YÜCE1* AND ARİF GÖNÜLOL

EVALUATIONS OF EPILITHIC DIATOMS AND BIOTIC INDEX IN SAKARYA RIVER, TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Diversity and ecology in the diatoms of Sakarya River were investigated between October 2009 - September 2010. As a result, Navicula radiosa Kütz was the dominant taxa at the first and fourth stations. Gomphonema olivaceum (Horrn.) Brébisson, Craticula cuspidata (Kütz.) D.G. Mann, Rhoicosphaenia abbreviata (C. Agardh) Lange-Bertalot, and Nitzschia recta Hantzsch ex Rabenhorst taxa were found to be widespread throughout the research. Significant correlation was identified between SI and DI-CH and between TI and DI-CH in the epilithic diatoms. The minimum correlation was identified between SI and TI. Based on the assessments, according to SI, the fourth station was classified as II-III quality class, or critically polluted. Other stations were classified as II quality class, or moderately polluted. According to TI, the first station was determined to be II-III (mesotroph-eutroph) quality class. Second, third and fourth stations were found to be III (polytroph) quality class. According to DI-CH, the fourth station was classified as quality class IV (moderately polluted), while the first, second and third stations were determined as III (less polluted) quality class. The environmental variables on the RDA diagram were selected (p<0.05) according to Monte Carlo permutation test. The first and second axis explained 89% of variation of the species in the correspondence analysis. Additionally, the first and second axis explained relationship between species and environmental variables at the rate of 34.6% and 61.1%. The RDA axes scores allow us to distinguish 5 diatom species assemblages with a total of 25 species.

2153-2158 Download
49
PINUS ENGELMANNII CARR. IN NORTHWESTERN MEXICO: A REVIEW
ISRAEL JAIME ÁVILA-FLORES1, JOSÉ CIRO HERNÁNDEZ-DÍAZ2*, M. SOCORRO GONZÁLEZ-ELIZONDO3, JOSÉ ÁNGEL PRIETO-RUÍZ4 AND CHRISTIAN WEHENKEL

PINUS ENGELMANNII CARR. IN NORTHWESTERN MEXICO: A REVIEW
ABSTRACT:
Pinus engelmannii Carr., commonly known as real pine, Apache pine, Arizona long leaf pine and red pine, covers an area of about 2,450,000 ha in Mexico and extends along the Sierra Madre Occidental to the southwestern United States. It is one of the most important forest species in northwestern Mexico owing to its valuable wood properties, wide distribution and large timber volume harvested. It is widely harvested for lumber and also used in conservation and restoration programmes. The aim of this literature review is to provide a summary of relevant and current information about this species, its botanical classification, ecology, distribution, genetics, physiology, health, nursery reproduction, silviculture and management. Although the species is used in most conservation, restoration and commercial plantation programmes in northwestern Mexico, the available literature scarcely addresses many of the issues considered in this review. This indicates the need for further research to add to existing knowledge about Pinus engelmannii and thus improve the use and conservation of this important Pinaceae species in northwestern Mexico.

2159-2166 Download
50
DNA BARCODING: A TOOL FOR STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS (HMPS) OF LAMIACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
NADIA BATOOL ZAHRA1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI1, 2 AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

DNA BARCODING: A TOOL FOR STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS (HMPS) OF LAMIACEAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
There has been a considerable interest worldwide in traditional and alternative medicine, particularly herbal products over the past few decades but the adulteration or contamination of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) is a potential threat to consumer safety. The fact highlights the importance of an effective and accurate science integrated method for taxonomic identification of the medicinal plants and their HMPs. DNA barcoding is a molecular technique which has made it possible to identify the herbs and to find the adulterants in HMPs. The current study was designed on DNA barcoding of medicinal plants of family Lamiaceae for their correct identification and to fix the problem of adulteration for protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination. Many Lamiaceae species are used as traditional medicines, as culinary herbs, spices and as source of essential oils. HMPs representing 32 Lamiaceae plant samples were purchased/collected from three herbal stores (Pansar stores) in Islamabad and a herbal pharmaceutical industry. We selected three plastid loci rbcL, matK and psbA-trnH to barcode these HMPs. MEGABLAST sequence comparison was performed to verify the taxonomic identity of the samples. We found four mislabeled samples and two product substitutions. The overall amplification success for rbcL and matK was 87% and 81% while psbA-trnH showed 69%. matK and psbA-trnH were able to distinguish the species relatively better with 40% success rate than rbcL (16%). On the whole we generated a total of 22 genus-level barcodes (78%) and 12 species-level barcodes (44%). The species-level identification was considerably low due to insufficient reference data and selection of plastid markers. Therefore, it is recommended to develop herbal barcode library for adequate availability of reference sequence data and addition of nuclear markers. DNA barcoding can help the regulatory authorities to devise a mechanism for quality control and can largely support the herbal pharmaceutical industries to restore the eroded consumer confidence.

2167-2174 Download