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Year 2016 , Volume  48, Issue 6
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF ADAPTATION MECHANIAM IN GLYCINE SOJA SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE AND ALKALINE STRESSES
SHUAI SHAO1, MINGXIA LI1, DONGSHUANG YANG AND JING ZHANG ANG LIANXUAN SHI

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF ADAPTATION MECHANIAM IN GLYCINE SOJA SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE AND ALKALINE STRESSES
ABSTRACT:
The seedlings of Glycine soja were treated with varying saline stress and alkaline stress. The growth, photosynthesis and concentrations of inorganic ions in tissue sap of stressed seedlings were measured to elucidate the mechanism of saline and alkaline stress (high pH) damage to G. soja, and the differences between physiological adaptive mechanism to alkaline stress and saline stress. Our experimental data showed alkalinity had a more severe effects on G. soja seedlings than salinity in the similar concentration, severely inhibited shoot and root growth, and photosynthesis. Diurnal change of pN showed the bimodal curves getting less obvious and transformed to be single peak with increasing stress intensity which might be an efficient energy-conserving strategy for G. soja to adapt to saline and alkaline stress. Na+/K+ were all increased, with greater degrees of increasing under alkaline than under saline stress, cations and anions were almost not accumulated under high alkaline stress, while the influx of superfluous Na+ can be balanced by the accumulation of Cl-, SO42-, H2PO4- in root under saline stress. This indicated that the roots of G. soja were injured so severely that couldn’t absorb Na+ and keep ion balance under high alkaline stress including high-pH stress, which might lead to greater accumulation of Na+ in leaves under alkaline stress than that under saline stress, and then sharply reduced the growth and photosynthesis. pN of G. soja seedlings was promoted under low concentration saline and alkaline stresses. Na+/K+ were significant lower in leaves compare with that in roots, and a large amount of Na+ was accumulated in stems of G. soja seedlings under both stresses. Under alkaline stress, the K+, NO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ contents in leaves were increased with increasing Na+, and maintain high water content in root. Our results showed obvious differences between physiological adaptive mechanisms to saline stress and alkaline stress. This study would provide a theoretical basis for protection, screening and utilization of wild soybean and breeding new varieties of cultivated soybean.

2183-2193 Download
2
STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF IONIC RELATION IN ROOTS OF TYPHA DOMINGENSIS PERS. ECOTYPES UNDER SALT STRESS
NOREEN AKHTAR1, MANSOOR HAMEED1 AND RASHID AHMAD

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF IONIC RELATION IN ROOTS OF TYPHA DOMINGENSIS PERS. ECOTYPES UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
An investigation was carried out to evaluate ionic relation of roots on the basis of anatomical and physiological responses in differently adapted ecotypes of Typha domingensis Pers. under salinity stress. Six ecotypes were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab namely Jahlar, Sheikhupura, Sahianwala, Gatwala, Treemu and Knotti. Plants were grown in non-aerated waterlogged conditions and subjected to different salt levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mM of NaCl). The Sahianwala ecotype showed better performance under salt stress on the basis of structural modifications like thicker root, larger root aerenchymatous cavities and cortical cell area, and functional response like high K+ uptake and reduced uptake of Cl-. This ecotype also showed low reduction in root and shoot fresh weight as compared to all other ecotypes. The Knotti ecotype was the second best that relied on exceedingly large aerenchymatous cavities and reduced Cl‑ uptake for salt tolerance. The sensitive ecotypes from Sheikhupure and Treemu showed a significant decline in growth and most of the anatomical characteristics, in particular the root-cross-sectional area. Overall it was found that all ecotypes of Typha domingensis Pers. responded differently to salt stress, which indicates a heterogeneity on the root adaptive components.

2195-2203 Download
3
GLYCINEBETAINE-INDUCED MODULATION IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF OKRA UNDER SALT STRESS
HAFIZ MUHAMMAD SAEED1, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA1,3 AND MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM

GLYCINEBETAINE-INDUCED MODULATION IN SOME BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF OKRA UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Role of glycinebetaine (GB) in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) cv. Subz-pari plants grown under salinity stress was investigated under field conditions. The crop was planted under varying levels (0, 200 and 400 mg NaCl per kg of soil) of salinity stress. Foliar application of 75 mM GB was employed at two phases i.e. after 30 and 60 days of sowing. Imposition of salinity stress significantly increased leaf GB and proline contents but significantly reduced leaf chlorophyll content and physiological characteristics such as rate of photosynthesis (Pn), rate of transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf relative water content (LRWC). Exogenous application of GB significantly increased GB content but decreased proline content of leaves and improved various gas exchange characteristics/physiological parameters. The present results thus indicated that foliar application of GB (75 mM) can modulate various biochemical and gas exchange parameters of okra, grown under salt stress.

2205-2210 Download
4
SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF SOME SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS) VARIETIES ACCORDING TO HABITAT CONDITIONS CONTAINING DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BORIC ACID
GULCIN ISIK1*AND SEMA LEBLEBICI

SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF SOME SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS) VARIETIES ACCORDING TO HABITAT CONDITIONS CONTAINING DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BORIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
In this study, seeds belonging to two varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown for biodiesel production, RemziBey and Dinçer, were used. The seeds were germinated in Petri dishes containing double layer filter papers and exposed to 16 hours light/8 hours dark photoperiod, 25±1˚C, with three repetitions (100 seeds per dish x 3). Different boric acid concentrations (10, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 ppm) were applied on seeds. Observed data was analyzed by using JMP-SAS .As a result, it was observed that there is not an important statistically relationships between seed germination of Dinçer variety of Carthamus tinctorius and boric acid concentrations (r2= 0,120, t­= 30, 04, p<0,05). It was observed that there is a reverse proportion between seed germination of RemziBey variety of Carthamus tinctorius and boric acid concentrations. According to these results, seed germination rate was decreased with increasing concentration of boric acid as statistically significantly (r2= 0,623, t­= 8, 77, p<0,05).

2211-2214 Download
5
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES TO NACl SALINITY STRESS IN THREE ROEGNERIA (POACEAE) SPECIES
J IHONG XIE1,2#, YATING DAI1,2#, HUAIBIN MU1,2, YING DE1,2, HAO CHEN3, ZINIAN WU1,2, LINQING YU1,2 AND WEIBO REN

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES TO NACl SALINITY STRESS IN THREE ROEGNERIA (POACEAE) SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to identify the most tolerant species under salinity stress, amongst Roegneria turczaninovii (Drob.) Nevski var. macrathera Ohwi (R. turczaninovii), Roegneria stricta Keng (R. stricta) and Roegneria komarovii (Nevski) Nevski (R. komarovii). The seeds of three species were exposed to different NaCl concentrations (0, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 or 275 mmol/L) and the germination percentage (GP) was calculated after 7 days. Meanwhile, seedlings grown under normal condition at the two-leaf stage were subjected to 500 mL of NaCl solution (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mmol/L) for 7 days. Then the physical indicators such as plant height, root length, contents of chlorophyll (Chl), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, soluble sugars, relative water content (RWC); and the biochemical changes including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in three species under different concentrations of NaCl were determined. As a result, GP, plant height, root length, contents of Chl and RWC were reduced with the increase of concentration of NaCl, while MDA, proline, soluble sugars, SOD, POD and CAT were increased. R. komarovii achieved a higher GP; contents of Chl, RWC, proline, soluble sugars; SOD, POD and CAT activities; but a lower MDA content, compared to the other two species. Significant differences between any two species were detected (P < 0.05). R. komarovii is more resistant and tolerant in response to salinity stress than R. turczaninovii and R. stricta.

2215-2222 Download
6
SELENIUM AMELIORATES CADMIUM STRESS-INDUCED DAMAGE BY IMPROVING ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
ABD_ALLAH E. F.1,2*, ABEER HASHEM3,4, ABDULAZIZ A. ALQARAWI1, DINA A. W. SOLIMAN3 AND MAI AHMAD ALGHAMD

SELENIUM AMELIORATES CADMIUM STRESS-INDUCED DAMAGE BY IMPROVING ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
ABSTRACT:
Present study was aimed to investigate the role of selenium in amelioration of cadmium stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cadmium treatment growth declined by reducing the pigment synthesis and increasing the oxidative damage to membranes. Selenium supplementation caused a significant decline in hydrogen peroxide production and hence the rate of lipid peroxidation which was well correlated with the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Proline increased due to supplementation of selenium and optimised the synthesis of nitric oxide for better counteracting the cadmium stress. Supplementation of selenium protected membrane structures in C. reinhardtii from the cadmium stress by maintaining the higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

2223-2231 Download
7
BIOFERTILIZER: A NOVEL FORMULATION FOR IMPROVING WHEAT GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD
TAMOOR UL HASSAN1 AND ASGHARI BANO

BIOFERTILIZER: A NOVEL FORMULATION FOR IMPROVING WHEAT GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas moraviensis strains were inoculated singly as well as in consortium with two different carriers i.e., maize straws and sugarcane husk in the formulation of biofertilizer. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains used in biofertilizer were phosphate solubilizer and exhibited strong antifungal activities. Both PGPR used in formulation was maintained 15–16.5×108 cfu g−1 in carrier material after 40d. The field experiment was conducted at Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad on wheat for two consecutive years (2011-2012) simultaneously in pots and field. Plants sampling for growth and physiological parameters was made after 57d of sowing and at maturity for yield parameters. Single inoculation of Pseudomonas moraviensis and Bacillus cereus with maize straw and sugarcane husk increased plant height and fresh weight by 18-30% and protein, proline, sugar contents and antioxidant activities by 25-40%. There were 20% increases in spike length, seeds/spike and seed weight in single inoculation. Co-inoculation of PGPR further increased plant growth, physiology and yield by 10-15% over single inoculation with carriers. PGPR consortium with sugarcane husk and maize straw (biofertilizer formulation) increased 20-30% plant growth chlorophyll, sugar, protein contents, antioxidants activities and yield parameters. It is inferred that carrier based biofertilzer effectively increased growth, maintained osmotic balance and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and yield parameters.

2233-2241 Download
8
COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH (TRIPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE) AND LOW (ROCK PHOSPHATE) GRADE P NUTRITION SOURCE ENRICHED WITH ORGANIC AMENDMENT IN MAIZE CROP
NOOR-US-SABAH1*, GHULAM SARWAR1, MUKKRAM ALI TAHIR1 AND SHER MUHAMMAD

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HIGH (TRIPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE) AND LOW (ROCK PHOSPHATE) GRADE P NUTRITION SOURCE ENRICHED WITH ORGANIC AMENDMENT IN MAIZE CROP
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan falls under arid to semi-arid climate and therefore, Pakistani soils are sufferer of phosphorus deficiency. Costly phosphatic commercial fertilizers and their unavailability at the time of crop demand is the burning issue in Pakistan. Under such circumstances, use of locally available rock phosphate (RP) grasps the interest of researchers now a day. Pakistan has blessed with considerable quantity of cheaper low grade RP in Abbottabad and Hazara districts of KPK province. Due to this scenario, a pot experiment was carried out to evaluate growth efficiency of maize crop by adding organic manure fortified with RP in comparison with TSP in normal soil (pHs= 8.15, ECe= 1.28 dSm-1, SAR = 4.77 mmol L-1, saturation percentage = 29% and sandy clay loam texture). The study was comprised of 7 treatments replicated three times including: T1 = Control (0 P); T2 = Recommended NK + organic material; T3 = Recommended NK + RRP; T4 = Recommended NK + RRP + OM; T5 = Recommended NK + TSP; T6 = Recommended NK + TSP + OM and T7 = N + K + TSP + ½ Organic manure. It was concluded that integrated use of organic amendment with RP (Local Hazara Red Rock Phosphate) and TSP proved superior as compared to their sole use on maize crop growth. A significant increase in available P concentration of the growth medium was observed due to addition of organic material along with TSP as a source of P. Addition of organic material also enhanced the soil carbon level as compared to control. It can be concluded that rock phosphate (RP) could be an effective and economic substitution for TSP when it is integrated with suitable organic amendment with specific size.

2243-2248 Download
9
DEBRANCHING IMPROVES MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS, FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD OF TOMATO
M. MONJURUL ALAM MONDAL1,2*, A. H. M. RAZZAQUE1 AND ADAM B. PUTEH

DEBRANCHING IMPROVES MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS, FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD OF TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Farmers are commercially cultivated tomato with different levels of shoot pruning but this production practice has not been defined clearly. The experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to assess the effect of different levels of debranching on morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters in determinate tomato cultivar cv. Binatomato-5. The debranching levels were: i) control, ii) only mainstem (MS), iii) MS with 2 branches, iv) MS with 3 branches and v) MS with 4 branches. Based on recommended spacing (50 cm × 50 cm), the higher fruit yield plant-1 as well as fruit yield per hectare were observed in more branch bearing plants of the treatment control (MS with 5-6 branches), MS with 3 branches and MS with 4 branches due to production of higher number of fruits plant-1 with being the highest in MS with 3 branches due to increase fruit size. The lowest fruit yield per plant as well as per hectare was observed in uniculm plants due to lower number of fruits per plant. This study suggests that plants that have MS with three branches may be recommended for commercial cultivation of tomato under sub-tropical condition.

2249-2253 Download
10
EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM AND POTASSIUM APPLICATION ON NODULATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIC)
FATHI A. OMER*, DILSOUZ N. ABBAS AND AHMED S. KHALAF

EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM AND POTASSIUM APPLICATION ON NODULATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIC)
ABSTRACT:
Two experiments were accomplished at Agriculture College farms (Duhok) and in pots during the winter growing season 2011-2012, to investigate the response of local lentil in terms of growth, yield and nodulation to different application methods and concentrations of molybdenum and potassium fertilizer. Both experiments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and included three factors (Molybdenum application methods; soaking or spraying; Mo-concentrations; 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm and Potassium fertilizer rates; 0, and 160 kg. ha-1).The results for field experiment indicated that most of the studied traits excluding plant height were not affected significantly by each of molybdenum application methods (Moa) or concentrations (Moc) and potassium fertilizer. Moa interaction with K was significant for number of pods (NPP), number of seeds (NSP) per plant and final seed yield per hectare (SYH). The final grain yield was positively correlated with each of number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and weight of grains. Regarding pot experiment, the foliar spraying of Mo produced higher seeds per plant (9.34).While seed soaking in Mo solution was superior in number of nodules per plant (179.4); 5 ppm of Mo was superior and recorded higher number of branches (2.665) as compared to control unit or other treatments followed by 15 ppm (2.552). The effect of K or its interactions with each of Moa and Moc was not significant on all studied traits in these experiments. While, the second order interaction of the three factors was significant for the number of pods, number of seeds per plant, seed yield, and 1000 grain weight.The results of field experiment were not encouraged concerning the single application of molybdenum or potassium fertilizers on the performance of lentil crop; hence they are not recommended in similar environments. In pots, foliar application of Mo can increase the seed yield while seed soaking is recommended in unfertile soil due to the increasing of nodules in roots.

2255-2259 Download
11
ETHYLMETHANESULFONATE MUTAGENESIS OF CUCUMBER FOR LARGE-SCALE MUTANT SCREENS
CUNBAO XUE1,2, CHAO WANG1,2, LIANXUE FAN1,2, NING HAO1,2, DANDAN ZOU1,2, QIAN ZHANG1,2, HUANXUAN CHEN1,2 AND TAO WU

ETHYLMETHANESULFONATE MUTAGENESIS OF CUCUMBER FOR LARGE-SCALE MUTANT SCREENS
ABSTRACT:
To broaden the genetic resources for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding, and to accelerate the systematic functional analysis of cucumber genes, a cucumber mutant library was constructed by using Ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutation in this study. A total of 2,200 seeds were treated with EMS solutions, and 421 M2 families were obtained, which showed a mutant frequency of 19.1%. Some visible mutant phenotypes, such as having few spines, long fruits, short fruits, pale green fruit color, and plants without flowers were identified in this study. This study will be helpful for the identification of causal genes and for the determination of interesting mutant phenotypes of cucumber in the future.

2261-2266 Download
12
GROWTH AND YIELD OF RAIN FED WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS INTEGRATED WITH GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE
SAFDAR ALI1*, MUHAMMAD AZIM MALIK1, MUHAMMAD NAVEED TAHIR1 AND MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN

GROWTH AND YIELD OF RAIN FED WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS INTEGRATED WITH GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE
ABSTRACT:
In rainfed areas, tillage is primarily done for moisture conservation and weed control. However, excessive tilling not only harms the soil health but also increases the cost of production. To find out the sustainable and economical tillage combination, response of wheat was studied under different tillage systems integrated with glyphosate herbicide through field experiments conducted at University Research Farm of Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2012-2014 for two consecutive seasons. Principal component analysis proved that the plant height, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index of wheat were highest in treatment where one moldboard plowing was done followed by eight cultivations without using glyphosate in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system having enhanced root proliferation and moisture conservation, thus allowing plants to extract more nutrients and water from the deeper soil layers; whereas, the number of tillers per square meter, number of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and number of grains per spike of wheat were maximum where one moldboard plowing was done followed by two applications of glyphosate herbicide in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system during 1st year of experiment when unexpected high rainfall was occurred during crop growth stage. Cluster analysis also categorized these two treatments into same category on the base of all agronomic parameters studied. The highest yield (3.5132 t ha-1) and (3.1242 t ha-1) was obtained from where one moldboard plowing was done following eight cultivations without using glyphosate followed by the treatment where one moldboard plowing was done following four cultivations without using glyphosate, respectively and were statistically at par with each other. Therefore one moldboard plowing following four cultivations is recommended for taking higher and economical yield in Pothwar Region of Pakistan.

2267-2275 Download
13
SEED BANK DYNAMICS OF GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA L. (BRIQ.), IN A ARID SHRUB LAND OF SINDH
SYLVIA SABIR AND SEEMI AZIZ

SEED BANK DYNAMICS OF GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA L. (BRIQ.), IN A ARID SHRUB LAND OF SINDH
ABSTRACT:
The present research aims to understand the seed bank dynamics of a selected shrub land of Sindh. Studies were conducted for two consecutive years (2012 & 2013). Mostly annual species were observed to be growing on the study site which exhibited persistent nature of seed bank and few perennial species were also collected. Existing vegetation was well represented in the seed bank samples in both years however; the seed bank species in 2013 were not well represented in the above ground vegetation which was related to increased site disturbance. Seed densities for most species were highest before rainfall with a gradual decrease after rainfall. The onset of dispersal caused significant increase in seed densities in the third collection i.e., in soil samples collected after seed rain. Enhanced surface disturbance in the year 2013 caused a decline in overall seed count.

2277-2280 Download
14
INTEGRATION OF BIOCHAR AND LEGUMES IN SUMMER GAP FOR ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT UNDER CEREAL BASED CROPPING SYSTEM
FAZAL JALAL1, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, KAWSAR ALI2*, FAZAL MUNSIF1, MUHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN3 AND BUSHRA KHAN

INTEGRATION OF BIOCHAR AND LEGUMES IN SUMMER GAP FOR ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT UNDER CEREAL BASED CROPPING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Biochar application is gaining popularity in agriculture system as prime technology in sustainable context. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e., mungbean, cowpea and Sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 to subsequent wheat crop. Biohcar application and plots previously sown with legumes improved thousand grain weight of wheat crop. Nitrogen application increased thousand spikes m-2, grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional 'summer gap' crop.

2281-2288 Download
15
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SELENIUM CONCENTRATION IN GRAINS OF WHEAT AND BARLEY SPECIES
BAKHT NISA MANGAN1,2*, MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUE LASHARI2, LIU HUI1, MUHARAM ALI2, ABDUL WAHID BALOCH2AND WENIG SONG `

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SELENIUM CONCENTRATION IN GRAINS OF WHEAT AND BARLEY SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Macro and micro nutrients are essential for human health and growth development. It is reported that about three million people are suffering from nutrient deficiencies all over the world. Various sources are available like: vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and cereals to overcome these deficiencies. Among cereals, wheat and barley are main source to meet the requirement of this dietary element. Two year studies were conducted to investigate the Se concentration in grains of different wheat (T. aestivum L., T. turgidum L. and T. durum L.) and barley (H. spontaneum L. and H. vulgare L.) species originated from different parts of the world. Results indicated that the durum and emmer wheat grains contain higher Se level in both studied years (70.5 and 72.9μg kg-1 in 2012 and 74.1 and 73.2 μg kg-1 in 2013 respectively). Among H. spontaneum L. collected from six populations, Mahola population of barley showed remarkable variations in grain Se concentration ranged from 88.3-437.2 and 90.2-439.5μg kg-1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The information obtained from the findings helps in identifying the lines of wild barley that have more Se uptake and accumulation capability. According to the conclusion of the study that H. Spontaneum L. had greater genetic variation for Se as compare to other species of wheat and barley.

2289-2296 Download
16
NIAB-852: A NEW HIGH YIELDING AND BETTER FIBRE QUALITY COTTON MUTANT DEVELOPED THROUGH POLLEN IRRADIATION TECHNIQUE
SAJJAD HAIDAR*, MUHAMMAD ASLAM AND M. AHSAN UL HAQ

NIAB-852: A NEW HIGH YIELDING AND BETTER FIBRE QUALITY COTTON MUTANT DEVELOPED THROUGH POLLEN IRRADIATION TECHNIQUE
ABSTRACT:
The new high yielding and better quality cotton mutant NIAB-852 was developed through pollen irradiation technique. This paper describers about the development of cotton mutant through induction of mutations and its evaluation. A cross between NIAB-78 (local variety) and REBA-288 (exotic line) using gamma irradiated male pollen @ 10 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays before cross pollination was attempted. The objective was to create new genetic variability and select the desirable new cotton mutants. After irradiation followed by hybridization subsequent generations were raised to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment. Significant variations from control/parents were observed. From M1 generation, the M2 population was grown and different desirable mutants having higher yield, early maturity, resistance/tolerance to diseases were selected. These were evaluated for yield potential and desirable other economic traits in different generations till uniformity were achieved. From selected mutants, an elite mutant i.e. NIAB-852 was finally selected for further evaluation. It has a suitable plant type, better leaf foliage, moderately hairy, early maturing and higher yield potential with acceptable fiber quality traits. It was evaluated for seed cotton yield, adaptability, resistance/tolerance to diseases, and fibre quality in different trials. It produced 16.4% higher seed cotton yield as compared to standard variety CIM-496 in local trials at NIAB. It also produced higher seed cotton yield in regional (23.4%), provincial (18.6%) and national (26.8%) coordinated adaptability trials compared with standard. On an average of all trials, NIAB-852 produced seed cotton yield of 3153 kg.ha-1 compared to standard CIM-496 (2674 kg.ha-1) producing 18.0% higher seed cotton yield. It also performed better than standards in different regions/provinces by producing 4% to 17% higher seed cotton yield. The mutant NIAB-852 has desirable fibre quality traits i.e. GOT 38.8 %, fibre length 30.1 mm (long staple category), fibre fineness 4.68 µg/inch, uniformity index 83.1%, fibre maturity 81.1% and fibre strength 94.3 TPPSI. It has characteristics of good boll bearing, rapid boll formation at later stages and better tolerance to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease and insect’s pests due to early maturity. From these results it is concluded that low dose pollen irradiation technique in cotton has effectively stimulate/increase the agronomical characters and tolerance to disease.

2297-2305 Download
17
SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE IN THE FAMILY MALVACEAE
RUBINA ABID*, AFSHEEN ATHER AND M. QAISER

SEED MORPHOLOGY AND ITS TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE IN THE FAMILY MALVACEAE
ABSTRACT:
The seed morphological studies of 75 taxa belonging to 6 sub-families of the family Malvaceae were carried out from Pakistan. In Pakistan the family Malvaceae is represented by 6 sub-families viz., Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae, Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae. The seed macro and micro morphological characters are examined, using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed seed morphological descriptions, micrographs and keys based on seed characters are also provided. A variety in various quantitative and qualitative seed characters was observed. The micro-morphological characters of seeds are quite significant to strengthen the taxonomic decisions within the family Malvaceae at various levels. The data obtained from the seed morphological characters were analyzed numerically to trace out the phylogenetic affinities for the taxa within the family Malvaceae from Pakistan.

2307-2341 Download
18
MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF LEAF AND ITS GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIATION OF CITRUS CAVALERIEI FROM YUNNAN
FENGJUAN MOU1, KUN MA1, SHIZHU MA2, SHENGZHI DUAN3 AND YIGUO L

MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF LEAF AND ITS GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIATION OF CITRUS CAVALERIEI FROM YUNNAN
ABSTRACT:
The orange species Citrus cavaleriei is endemic to China and its unifoliate compound leaves are characterized by the well-developed wing leaf. Nine populations from Yunnan Province were studied, based on ten leaf characters, including the total length of leaf (TLL), the length of wing leaf (LWL), the width of wing leaf (WWL), the length of leaflet (LL), the width of leaflet (WL), LWL/WWL, LL/WL, LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, and WWL/WL. The results show that the maximums of most leaf characters are in the Weixin Population while the minimums are in the Yangbi Population; the variation of most leaf characters in Yangbi Population is highest and that in Suijiang Population and Eshan-1 Population is lowest; the variations of WWL in all populations were higher, while that of LWL/TLL is lower; the variance of every character among populations is very significant; the correlation between the most leaf characters is very positively or negatively significant. Meanwhile the longitude has a very significant correlation with all leaf characters; the latitude with LL, WL, TLL, and LL/WL has a very significant positive correlation, that with WWL has a significant positive correlation, and that with LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, WWL/WL, and LWL/WWL has a very significant negative correlation; the correlation between the altitude and LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, WWL/WL, and LWL/WWL are positively significant and that between the altitude and LL, WL, TLL, WWL, LWL, and LL/WL were extremely negatively significant. The clustering of ten leaf characters from nine populations is in accordance with the geographical distribution, especially the longitude.

2343-2350 Download
19
CARBON STOCKS ASSESSMENT IN SUBTROPICAL FOREST TYPES OF KASHMIR HIMALAYAS
HAMAYUN SHAHEEN*, RAJA WAQAR AHMAD KHAN, KARAMIT HUSSAIN, TARIQ SAIFF ULLAH, MUHAMMAD NASIR AND ANSAR MEHMOOD

CARBON STOCKS ASSESSMENT IN SUBTROPICAL FOREST TYPES OF KASHMIR HIMALAYAS
ABSTRACT:
Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential.

2351-2357 Download
20
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE GRAIN FILLING OF WINTER WHEAT
ZHAOTANG SHANG1,2, SHUN SHANG3, JIAN YU4, JING WU5 AND DONG JIANG1

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE GRAIN FILLING OF WINTER WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g·d−1·(10a)−1 of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in −1.35 g·d−1·(10a)−1 of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g·d−1·(10a)−1 of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g·d−1·(10a)−1. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation.

2359-2366 Download
21
TOPOGRAPHIC CONTROLS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS RHODODENDRONS IN THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE NANLING MOUNTAINS, SOUTH CHINA
LU ZHANG*, DING MA, XIAO-LI JING AND ZHI-YAO SU

TOPOGRAPHIC CONTROLS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS RHODODENDRONS IN THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE NANLING MOUNTAINS, SOUTH CHINA
ABSTRACT:
Rhododendrons, one of the traditional flowering plants in China and overseas, are famous for their beautiful flowers. However, only a few indigenous Rhododendron plants are used for landscaping in China. To determine the ecological role of distribution of Rhododendrons, and analyse whether and how major topographic factors influence the distribution and growth of indigenous Rhododendrons, a total of one hundred and two plots (10 m × 10 m, 100 m2) were laid out in the southern slope of the Nanling Mountains, South China (700–1900 m a.s.l.). We found that the topography affecting the Rhododendron species, i.e., Rhododendron simiarum, R. cavaleriei, R. bachii, R. championae, R. kwangtungense R. fortune, R. chunii., and there are different patterns among species. The richness and abundance of the seven indigenous Rhododendrons depaned on topographical gradient, greater higher elevation, intermediate slope steepness, convex slopes and shady aspect. By contrast, sunny habitats and habitat at low positions in the slope had fewer rhododendron plants. Non–parametric Kruskal–Wallis test and canonical correspondence analysis showed that altitude, position in the slope, slope shape and slope aspect had significant effects on the total abundance of Rhododendrons (p<0.05) compared with slope steepness. Indicator species analysis identified were indicative of altitude (four species), slope aspect (one species), position in the slope (one species), and slope shape (two species), respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of indigenous Rhododendron plants to topographic factors has significant implications for species conservation and potential for use in landscaping.

2367-2374 Download
22
CHARACTERIZATION OF LEAF, FLOWER, AND POD MORPHOLOGY AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA VARIETIES (THEOBROMA CACAO L.)
LAM THI VIET HA1,3,5*, PHUNG THI HANG2, HELENA EVERAERT1,5, HAYLEY ROTTIERS1,5, LAM PHAN TUNG ANH3,TRAN NHAN DUNG3,PHAM HONG DUC PHUOC4, HA THANH TOAN3, KOEN DEWETTINCK1 AND KATHY MESSENS5

CHARACTERIZATION OF LEAF, FLOWER, AND POD MORPHOLOGY AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA VARIETIES (THEOBROMA CACAO L.)
ABSTRACT:
This study examined the morphological traits of 63 cocoa varieties that have been imported and cultivated in Vietnam. These cocoa varieties were collected from five regions in Southern Vietnam and were classified into three groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. Their morphological features were individually evaluated and analysed. This included leaf characteristics (leaf and stem anatomy) and flower features (ligule shape, anther number, pollen, stamen and ovule, fruit, seed). The results of this study showed a large variation across all morphological characteristics of the evaluated cocoa varieties. The Vietnamese cocoa flower showed a diversity of morphological characteristics including five shapes of ligule (oval, broad, deltoid, elliptic and sub-lanceolate) and each stamen also has a bilobed anther with the exception of trilobed anther for TD11. Furthermore, the shape of pollen grains was found homogeneous in all 63 varieties. The colour of the stamens and ovules was purple and white respectively for all examined samples. Three kinds of fruit shapes were identified, namely Angoleta, Amelonado and Cundeamor, and these were of various colours. Additionally, an anatomical analysis on the midrib structure of the leaves from the 63 varieties showed the highest similarity, likewise the stem structure. The colour of young leaves was observed as being green and red. This is the primary research that scrutinizes the morphological biodiversity of Vietnamese cocoa varieties during the three-decade development of the Vietnam cocoa project. The results have a practical applicationsfor cocoa cross-breeding and botanical taxonomy.

2375-2383 Download
23
GRASS PRODUCTIVITY AND CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE CHOLISTAN DESERT RANGELANDS
MUHAMMAD RAFAY1, MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH1, TANVEER HUSSAIN1, TAHIRA RUBY2 AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI3

GRASS PRODUCTIVITY AND CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE CHOLISTAN DESERT RANGELANDS
ABSTRACT:
Cholistan desert is hot and an arid rangeland located in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. The wet season lasts from June to September, whereas dry season falls from October to January with seasonal and annual variation in rainfall and temperature. The monthly sampling over 2 year’s period was carried to determine the grass productivity from 20 sites during 2010-12. The average dry biomass production of grasses was 263.22 Kg/ha during the dry season, whereas the same was 370.22 kg/ha in wet season. The maximum carrying capacity (17.25 ha/AU/year) was observed in the wet season, while the same was the lowest (24.2 ha/AU/year) during the dry season. Based on the results, it is concluded that the Cholistan rangeland is degraded due to overgrazing resulting into reduction in biomass production especially during the dry season coupled with the removal of palatable species from the whole rangeland. There is need to manage proper stocking rate during the growing season along with the introduction of high yielding livestock breeds that may help to reduce grazing pressure and improve productivity.

2385-2390 Download
24
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ESTIMATION OF GENOTYPE × ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION OF INDIGENOUS BUCKWHEAT GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
ZAKIR H. FACHO1*, FARHATULLAH1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1 NAQIB ULLAH KHAN AND SAJID ALI

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ESTIMATION OF GENOTYPE × ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION OF INDIGENOUS BUCKWHEAT GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A two-year study (2011 and 2012) was conducted at two locations (Skardu and Ghanche) of Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan to characterize and estimate genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for 20 buckwheat genotypes collected from 18 locations of Gilgit - Baltistan, Pakistan. The GE interaction was studied using a set of six quantitative descriptors. Wide range of variations was recorded for flowering, maturity, plant height, 1000 grain weight, grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. Significant differences in locations for all traits were recorded. Years × locations interactions was also significant (p≤ 0.05) for all traits except grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. Similarly, genotype × location × year interaction existed for most of the traits except plant height, grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. The genotype Sh-914 (29.91 g) excelled in 1000-grain weight, followed by Rd-915 (27.04 g). Maximum grains plant-1 were produced by Sh-914 (323.62) followed by the genotype Gh-918 (229.16). Maximum grain yield of 2010.27 kg ha-1 was produced by genotype Sh-914, followed by the genotype Gh-918 (1910.40 kg ha-1). Days to flowering, days to maturity, and 1000 grain weight were the major contributors towards genetic divergence among the buckwheat genotypes. Moderate to high estimates of broad-sense heritability and selection response were observed for traits at two test locations. Cluster analysis based on morphological and yield related traits classified buckwheat genotypes of two species (Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum) into three main groups. The clustering pattern revealed that genotypes collected from the same location were grouped into different clusters. Data obtained on the basis of Dendrogram showed differences for various phenological and yield traits among buckwheat genotypes. Buckwheat genotypes Sh-914 and Gh-918 performed well at Skardu and Sh-914 and Rd-915 at Ghanche .The information on the existing genetic variability for morphological and yield component traits would serve as basis for genetic improvement in Buckwheat breeding programs.

2391-2398 Download
25
PHYLOGENETIC RECONSTRUCTION BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW WORLD SPIROIDES INFERRED FROM PLASTID TRNL-F AND NRDNA ITS SEQUENCES
GULZAR KHAN1,3, FA-QI ZHANG1,2 , QING-BO GAO1, PENG-CHENG FU1,3, RUI XING1,3, JIU-LI WANG1,3, HAI-RUI LIU1,3 AND SHI-LONG CHEN

PHYLOGENETIC RECONSTRUCTION BETWEEN THE OLD AND NEW WORLD SPIROIDES INFERRED FROM PLASTID TRNL-F AND NRDNA ITS SEQUENCES
ABSTRACT:
Distribution of similar taxa between the East Asia (old world) and new worlds fascinated the Botanists and Bio-geographers since the Linnaean time. The current study represents phylogenetic investigation of 39 Spiraea L., species covering their entire distribution in the new world (America) to the old world (Tibet PR China). In this study we used both plastidial marker (trnL-F) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS). Phylogeny among the species implemented in the program PAUP* while divergence time was calibrated in BEAST 1.7.5. The analysis revealed that all 39 species of the genus are monophyletic. The study further suggested that ancestors of Spiraea were in the new world but their center of diversification is in East Asia. The estimated divergence time showed that S. virginiana endemic to North America is the oldest species with divergence time 21.1 MY. The divergence time of Spiraea species with disjunct distribution in the new world, Europe and East Asia e.g., S. hypericifolia, S. chamaedryfolia, S. douglasii, S. salicifolia and S. latifolia ranged from 7.44-1.83 MY with most during Pliocene (within the last 5 MY). The results concluded that isolation of Spiraea species occurred during the severe eco-climatic fluctuations period throughout the late Tertiary and Quaternary.

2399-2407 Download
26
ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG RAPESEED CULTIVARS AND BREEDING LINES BY SRAP AND SSR MOLECULAR MARKERS
SIRAJ AHMED CHANNA1,2,†, HONGYUN TIAN1,†, HONG QI WU1 AND SHENG WU HU

ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG RAPESEED CULTIVARS AND BREEDING LINES BY SRAP AND SSR MOLECULAR MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
The knowledge of genetic diversity is very important for developing new rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. The genetic diversity among 77 rapeseed accessions, including 22 varieties and 55 advanced breeding lines were analyzed by 47 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and 56 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 270 SRAP and 194 SSR polymorphic fragments were detected with an average of 5.74 and 3.46 for SRAP and SSR primer, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the 77 accessions into five major clusters. Cluster I contained spring and winter type varieties from Czech Republic and semi-winter varieties and their respective breeding lines from China. The 16 elite breeding lines discovered in Cluster II, III, IV and V indicated higher genetic distance than accessions in Cluster I. The principal component analysis and structure analysis exhibited similar results to the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic diversity of the selected breeding lines was comparable to the rapeseed varieties, and variation among varieties and lines was significant. The diverse and unique group of 16 elite breeding lines detected in this study can be utilized in the future breeding program as a source for development of commercial varieties with more desirable characters.

2409-2422 Download
27
ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES BETWEEN MALE FERTILE AND MALE STERILE FLOWER BUDS OF MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.)
ZHIQIANG HOU1,2, DAOCHENG TANG2 AND NAN TANG

ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES BETWEEN MALE FERTILE AND MALE STERILE FLOWER BUDS OF MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Male sterility is an important approach in utilization of heterosis in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Study on the mechanism of male sterility is very important, especially in mining of fertility-related genes. Three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed between male fertile and male sterile flower buds of marigold. Out of 1920 clones, five hundred and six positive clones were verified by dot-blot hybridization. Two hundred and eighty-six non-redundant ESTs were obtained of which, one hundred and ninety-two ESTs corresponding to proteins with known functions. Through GO function annotation, fifteen candidate genes that may have a function in male sterility were identified. These genes involved in hormone pathways and cell cycles as well as encoded transcription factors and protein kinases. Further more, five of them were verified by quantitative real-time PCR, they were CDKB2;1 functioned in cell division, AMS involved in anther wall tapetum development, LAP3 played a role in pollen exine formation, ACOS5 and CYP703A2 involved in sporopollenin biosynthetic process. This is the first study that constructing cDNA libraries containing differentially expressed gene pools associate with male fertility using SSH strategy, and provides a first step to understand the mechanism of male reproductive development in marigold.

2423-2431 Download
28
CONVENTIONAL BREEDING ENHANCES GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PISUM SATIVUM (L.) DETECTED THROUGH SDS-PAGE
ASAF KHAN1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2, AJMAL IQBAL1, SYED FAZAL WADOOD1, NAUSHEEN1, AND MOHAMMAD NISAR

CONVENTIONAL BREEDING ENHANCES GENETIC DIVERSITY IN PISUM SATIVUM (L.) DETECTED THROUGH SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study, twenty homozygous segregante of edible pea were developed through conventional breeding (2004- 2015). The seed storage proteins were extracted from the seeds of each line and run through Slab-vertical gel Electrophoresis. After staining and de-staining the Electrophoregram was divided into two zones (R-I and R-II). The R-1 was consists of five bands (B-1, 2, 3, 4 & 5) ranging from 180KDa to 34KDa, which calculated < 1% genetic diversity (GD). Out of which B-1, 2 and 3 were polymorphic, while B-4 and B-5 were monomorphic. Due to strong genetic association and low level of GD, the R-I divided the total germplasm into two clusters. Similarly, R-II was comprised of nine bands ranging from 33KDa -10KDa. All the loci were polymorphic and showed >39% genetic diversity. The R-II divided the total lines into four clusters. In cluster plating, 43.74% lines were grouped in C-03, 30.43% in C-01, 13.39% in C-04 and 8.69% in C-02. Variation in bands profile and multiple clustering authenticates that conventional plant breeding enhances the level of genetic variation in seed storage protein profile in pea germplasm detected through SDS-PAGE.

2433-2438 Download
29
HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM BREVISUBULATUM)
WANLI GUO1 2*, NAZIM HUSSAIN1, ZAHRA JABEEN3, RUI WU2, JIANG WANG1 AND BAO LIU

HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRAGMENTED POPULATIONS OF WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM BREVISUBULATUM)
ABSTRACT:
Hordeum brevisubulatum(Trin.) Link., a tolerant ofdiverse abiotic stresses,is a wild barley,distributed in Songnen Plain of China. However, many populations of this wild barley are fragmented and/ordispeared during the last few decadesmainly due to anthropogeniceffects. The decrease in fragmented populations may affect the genetic diversity and structure of the populations, and in turn their survival potential.Five fragmented and four unfragmented populations (FP and UFP) in Songnen Plain were analyzed using two types of DNA marker namely, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP). The genetic diversities (0.162AFLP and 0.239SSAP) of five FPs [SB1, SB2, DBS, QZJ and QG]were higher than those (0.126AFLP and 0.20SSAP) of four UFPs [SS1, SS2, FY1 and FY2], although the later one (the UFPs) had large population size. Moreover, the 5FPsalso showed higher population genetic differentiation (GST, 0.197AFLP and 0.192SSAP) comparing with 4 UFPs (0.086AFLP and 0.108SSAP). The habitat fragmentation could improve the genetic variability, and lead to heterogeneous impact on different genome regions in H. brevisubulatum.

2439-2451 Download
30
CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE SQUALENE EPOXIDASE GENES IN PANAX VIETNAMENSIS VAR. FUSCIDICUS, A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT WITH HIGH CONTENT OF OCOTILLOL-TYPE GINSENOSIDES
CHUN-HUA MA1,2,†, NI-HAO JIANG1,3,†, MING-HUA DENG2, JUN-WEN CHEN1, SHENG-CHAO YANG1, GUANG-QIANG LONG1 AND GUANG-HUI ZHANG

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE SQUALENE EPOXIDASE GENES IN PANAX VIETNAMENSIS VAR. FUSCIDICUS, A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT WITH HIGH CONTENT OF OCOTILLOL-TYPE GINSENOSIDES
ABSTRACT:
Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, is a new variety of Panax. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. It is also one of the most prized medicinal plants used in traditional ethnic minority medicine systems. This species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, especially majonoside R2, which make this plant particularly suitable for identification of the SE genes responsible for the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. Three cDNAs encoding SE were cloned from P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, and their molecular characterizations were investigated. The tissue-specific expression patterns of the three SE genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The transcription levels of these genes in Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated leaves of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus were also estimated by RT-qPCR. PvfSE, PvfSE2 and PvfSE3 differed in predicted membrane-spanning helices. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these SE into three different clades. The three PvfSE isoforms were all most highly expressed in leaves. Moreover, they exhibited different response patterns under MeJA induction. The three PvfSE isoforms may play different roles in sterol or ginsenoside biosynthesis in this herb This report is the first attempt to clone and expression analysis of SE from P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus and provides a new foundation for further understanding the role of SE in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.

2453-2465 Download
31
COMPARISON OF AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED WHEAT AND BARLEY TRANSFORMATION WITH NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE 2 (NDPK2) GENE
UMMARA WAHEED1, WENDY HARWOOD2, MARK SMEDLEY2, SANG-SOO KWAK3, RAZA AHMAD1 AND MOHMMAD MAROOF SHAH

COMPARISON OF AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED WHEAT AND BARLEY TRANSFORMATION WITH NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE 2 (NDPK2) GENE
ABSTRACT:
An efficient and reliable transformation system is imperative for improvement of important crop species like barley and wheat. Wheat transformation is complex due to larger genome size and polyploidy while barley has a limitation of genotypic dependency. The objective of current study was to compare the relative transformation efficiency of wheat and barley using specific expression vector pBRACT 214-NDPK2 constructed through gateway cloning carrying Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene. The vector was used to compare the transformation response in both crops using immature embryos through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Both wheat and barley showed different responses towards callus induction and regeneration. Immature embryos of 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter was found optimum for wheat callus induction while 1 to 1.5 mm for barley. Both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were found in wheat with significantly greater tendency for embryogenecity in barley. The overall regeneration response was found different for all transformed wheat and barley cultivars. Wheat cultivars showed good response initially that drastically slowed down in later stages with the exception of Fielder that reached to the green shoots with good roots. The barley transformed lines showed good regeneration response as compared to wheat. PCR analysis of putative transformants using genomic DNA showed a maximum of 27% transformation efficiency in barely. No true transformation response was obtained in all cultivars of wheat used in this study. The protocol developed for wheat and barley transformation will greatly be helpful in crop improvement programme through genetic engineering especially in diploid relatives of cereals.

2467-2475 Download
32
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TOMATO FOR FRUIT MORPHOLOGY, COMPOSITION AND YIELD
KHURRAM ZIAF1*, MUHAMMAD AMJAD1, AMIR SHAKEEL2, MARYAM AZHAR1 AND ASIF SAEED

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TOMATO FOR FRUIT MORPHOLOGY, COMPOSITION AND YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits.

2477-2483 Download
33
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND ITS DERIVED FRACTIONS FROM THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS NEPETA LEAVIGATA, NEPETAKURRAMENSIS AND RHYNCHOSIA RENIFORMIS
NISAR AHMAD1, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2*, JAVID HUSSAIN3 AND IJAZ AHMAD

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND ITS DERIVED FRACTIONS FROM THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS NEPETA LEAVIGATA, NEPETAKURRAMENSIS AND RHYNCHOSIA RENIFORMIS
ABSTRACT:
The extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants species Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were tested for insecticidal activities and preliminary phytochemical evaluation with the intention of standardization and proper manage of bioactive principles in such heterogonous botanicals and to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extracts and fractions from Nepeta plants showed moderate to strong insecticidal activity. Among the fractions from Nepeta kurramensis the n-butanol fraction showed strongest insecticidal activity with 89% mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum followed by methanol extract with 88% mortality ratio and in case of Nepeta leavigata the potential activity was showed by methanol extracts with 93% mortality rate against the tested insect. Surprisingly none of the extract / fractions obtained from Rhynchosia reniformis plant exhibited any insecticidal activity. The phytochemicals screening results revealed that both species of Nepeta showed similar phytochemicals profile. The group of chemicals terpenes, flavonoids and glycosides were observed in all the extracts/fractions of Nepeta plants. While phenolic compounds, acidic compounds and alkaloids were found in methanolic extracts, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The Rhynchosia reniformis was observed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and fats.

2485-2487 Download
34
AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION AND DIRECT SHOOT REGENERATION IN IRANIAN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) CULTIVAR FALAT- CH.
NAHEED KAUSER1,4, SAIFULLAH KHAN1*, SEYED ABOLGHASEM MOHAMMADI2, BEHZAD GHAREYAZIE3*, EBRAHIM DORANI ULIAIE2 AND BANAFSHEH DARVISHROHANI

AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION AND DIRECT SHOOT REGENERATION IN IRANIAN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L.) CULTIVAR FALAT- CH.
ABSTRACT:
Falat CH is an important commercial tomato cultivar being used in Iran. In this article an optimized protocol with increased transformation and regeneration rate for this tomato variety is reported. Several explants including cotyledon, leaf and hypocotyl were evaluated for direct shoot formation and the effect of various combinations of BAP, Zeatin, IAA and IBA were studied. It is the first report on two cytokinins BAP and Zeatin in various combinations to evaluate the synergetic effect of cytokinins on direct shoot regeneration. The synergetic combination of 1.5mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l Zeatin and 0.2 mg/l IAA was considered as the best treatment which resulted in higher plant regeneration rates from all of the explants over previous reported methods. Using the best regeneration treatment obtained, the HBsAg gene was transferred into the tomato explants using Agrobacterium mediated transformation technique Percent of the putative transgenic plants regenerated was 68%. PCR of putative transformed plants showed that 87.1% of regenerated plants amplified nptII and HBsAg gene when specifically designed primers were used; giving a final transformation rate of 34.85%.

2489-2498 Download
35
IN VITRO REGENERATION OF FIVE WHEAT GENOTYPES FROM IMMATURE ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS
MUHAMMAD ILYAS KHOKHAR1*, MUHAMMAD ZAFFAR IQBAL1 AND JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF FIVE WHEAT GENOTYPES FROM IMMATURE ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS
ABSTRACT:
This study examined the ability to induce callus from immature zygotic embryos of five wheat genotypes (Lu 26, WH 543, Zamindar 80, BT-002 and Seher-06) in response to 2, 4 and 6 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Callus induction was most effective (41% averaged across the 5 genotypes) in the presence of 2 mg/L 2,4-D. Callus induction was highest in Lu 26 (34%) followed by WH 543 (33%). Highest percentage shoot formation (33%) from callus was possible on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 300 mg casein hydrolysate. BT-002 responded best to shoot formation (26%) followed by WH 543 (24%). Under these optimal conditions, callus could form within 7.4 days and shoots within 20.87 days (fastest growth averaged across the 5 genotypes). Zamindar-80 responded best by taking fewest days to initiate callus formation (7.88 days) while Lu 26 took the least amount of time to form shoots (23.25 days). This study provides a rapid and efficient, as well as cultivar-independent protocol for the indirect formation of shoots from callus, the first such report for WH 543, Zamindar 80, BT-002 and Seher-06. This protocol may be a useful protocol for transgenic wheat plants that are derived from the genetic transformation of callus, either by particle bombardment or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to produce, for example, insect- or herbicide-resistant plants, since a rapid and effective regeneration protocol is an essential first step for the successful regeneration of transgenic plants.

2499-2504 Download
36
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF IPHIONA GRANTIOIDES AND PLUCHEA ARGUTA SUBSP. GLABRA QAISER
SHAHIDA NAVEED1*, MUHAMMAD IBRAR2 AND INAYATULLAH KHAN

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF IPHIONA GRANTIOIDES AND PLUCHEA ARGUTA SUBSP. GLABRA QAISER
ABSTRACT:
The crude ethanolic extracts (EE) derived from different parts of Iphiona grantioides (flower, leaf, stem and root) and Pluchea arguta subsp.glabra Qaiser (leaf, stem and root) were screened In vitro for possible antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal activities and phytochemical profile. Results for phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various important primary and secondary metabolites including carbohydrates, protein, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, phytosterol, tri-terphenoids and volatile oil in the ethanolic extracts (EE) of different parts of I. grantioides and P. arguta. Significant antibacterial activity was observed for flower and leaf (EE) of I. grantioides against Klebsiela pneumonia and Escherichia coli, while moderate antibacterial activity was showed by extracts from other parts of this plant. Similarly P. arguta leaf (EE) showed significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Micrococcus luteus than its stem and root’s extract. The crude ethanolic extract of all parts of I. grantioides and P. arguta proved a rich source of fungicidal potential. Both the plants proved to have antioxidant potential by exhibiting DPPH radical scavenging activity. So it may be concluded from the present investigations that I. grantioides and P. arguta, both have a wide range of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties and can be utilized for the development of antimicrobial drugs for human beings, animals and as safe pesticides in agricultural practices as well as could be an important source of natural radical scavengers.

2505-2511 Download
37
IDENTIFICATION OF A THYMIDINE KINASE (RUTK1) HOMOLOG DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED IN BLACKBERRY (RUBUS L.) PRICKLES
CHUNHONG ZHANG, HAIYAN YANG, XIAOMIN WANG, WEILIN LI AND WENLONG WU

IDENTIFICATION OF A THYMIDINE KINASE (RUTK1) HOMOLOG DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED IN BLACKBERRY (RUBUS L.) PRICKLES
ABSTRACT:
Thymidine kinase (TK) is a key enzyme in controlling DNA synthesis and plays an important role in cell proliferation. However, our understanding on the TK functions in plants is still limited. From an earlier comparative transcriptome analysis of shoot apex of blackberry cv. Boysenberry and its bud mutant cv. Ningzhi 1 with fewer and thinner prickles, we found a unigene homologous to TK, RuTK1 which was differentially expressed between them. In this study, the cDNA and genomic DNA (gDNA) sequences of RuTK1 were further analyzed. RuTK1 revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 660 bp coding for 219 amino acid residues. The gDNA sequence, which contains four exons and three introns, is relatively conserved in most plant TK homologs. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the TK proteins from plants were classified into three groups. In each group, TKs from the same family were relatively concentrated, and RuTK1 was classified to the dicotyledoneae class and closer to those from Rosaceae. RuTK1 was highly expressed in prickles at the early stage in Boysenberry compared to in Ningzhi1. In addition, RuTK1 expression was similarly greater in mature prickles at the late stage in both cultivars, which implies a possible involvement of RuTK1 in the cell cycle at the early stage of prickle formation. These results provide a novel foundation for the further elucidation of blackberry prickle development mechanism and the functions of TKs in plants.

2513-2520 Download
38
BIOFERTILIZER POTENTIAL OF RESIDUAL BIOMASS OF AKK [CALOTROPIS PROCERA (AIT.) AIT. F.)]
NAVEED AHMAD1,2, FAROOQ ANWAR3,4*, SOHAIL HAMEED2, MUHAMMAD SHAHID5, AND SHAUKAT ALI SHAHID6

BIOFERTILIZER POTENTIAL OF RESIDUAL BIOMASS OF AKK [CALOTROPIS PROCERA (AIT.) AIT. F.)]
ABSTRACT:
The biofertilizer potential of residual biomass, derived from two parts that is flowers and leaves of Akk,was investigated in terms of its applications as a substrate for phyto-beneficial bacterial growth and subsequent inorganic phosphate solubilizing agent. The residual biomass was obtained after the extraction of antioxidants from the leaves and flowers of Akk using different solvent systems. The treatment with residual biomass of Akk (RBA) significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the growth of Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 and Rhizobium sp. E-11 as compared to control (without residual biomass). Maximum microbial growth in terms of optical density (0.92-1.22) was observed for residual biomass sample extracted with aqueous acetone against the control (0.58-0.68). On the other hand, maximum phosphate solubilization (589.27-611.32 µg mL-1) was recorded for aqueous ethanol extracted residual biomass while the minimum (246.31-382.15 µg mL-1) for aqueous acetone extracted residual biomass against the control (576.65µg mL-1). The present study revealed that the tested RBAcan be explored as an effective bio-inoculant to supplement synthetic inorganic phosphate fertilizers. However, some appropriate in-vitro assays should be conducted to optimize and standardize the quantity and mesh size of residual biomass prior to use in biofertilizer production as carrier material.

2521-2525 Download
39
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITY FROM SEEDS OF SALICORNIA BEGELOVII COLLECTED FROM AL JUBAIL, EASTERN PROVINCE, SAUDI ARABIA
SARAH A. AL-RASHED1, MOHAMED M. IBRAHIM1,2, MAYSA M.A. HATATA2 AND GEHAN A. EL-GAALY1

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITY FROM SEEDS OF SALICORNIA BEGELOVII COLLECTED FROM AL JUBAIL, EASTERN PROVINCE, SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
Salicornia begelovii Torr displays excessive biotechnological prospective as a salt-water irrigated crop. Qualitative and quantitative compositions of fatty acids were analyzed in the seeds of Salicornia begelovii collected from the eastern region, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Hexane extraction of the seed oil from Salicornia begelovii yielded 29% of total lipids. The GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy) investigation of the hexane extracts revealed five major peaks for the seed oil: 72.5 wt.% linoleic-ω6 acid (18:2), 7.4 wt.% palmitic acid (16:0), 13.3 wt.% oleic acid (18:1), 2.14 wt.% stearic acid (18:0) and 2.3 wt.% linolenic-ω3 acid (18:3). The quantity of the both saturated palmitic and stearic acids amounted (9.18%) in S. begelovii seed oil. The antioxidant capability of S. begelovii seed oil were determined and expressed by hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and radical scavenging effects of the extract on DPPH free radical were studied. The composition of the oil was nutritive and medical health value was high, in addition to, it’s composition very similar to that of safflower oil. No unwanted fatty acid constituents were established in S. begelovii seed oil, and it could be suggested for biofuel fabrication.

2527-2533 Download
40
DYNAMICS OF SUGAR-METABOLIC ENZYMES AND SUGARS ACCUMULATION DURING WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS) FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
HUIJUN ZHANG1* AND YU GE2

DYNAMICS OF SUGAR-METABOLIC ENZYMES AND SUGARS ACCUMULATION DURING WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS) FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT:
We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type “w2”, a low-sugar type (“w1”), and their hybrid. In “w2”, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose:hexoses ratio, 0.71). In “W1”, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose:hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of “W1” (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of “W2”, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In “W1”, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in “W1” than in “W2” at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in “W1”.

2535-2538 Download
41
MUTAGENIC STRAIN IMPROVEMENT OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER (MBL-1511) AND OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR BOOSTED LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
SIDRA1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1,2*, MUHAMMAD ALI5, FAROOQ LATIF3, ROHEENA ABDULLAH4 AND MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM RAJOKA

MUTAGENIC STRAIN IMPROVEMENT OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER (MBL-1511) AND OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR BOOSTED LIPOLYTIC POTENTIAL THROUGH SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
In present study an isolated hyper producer of Aspergillus niger (MBL-1511) was treated for sodium azide mutagenesis. Results showed 147.27 % enhanced extracellular lipase activity after 150 minutes of sodium azide treatment. Wild and mutant hyper lipase producer strains were exploited to submerged fermentation (SmF). Brassica meal as an additive agro waste product to the basal medium was optimized. Experimental conditions optima were 10% inoculum size, 30oC temperature, 96 h rate of fermentation and pH 6 for maximum lipases production. Molasses and Ammonium nitrate were optimized as the best carbon and nitrogen sources (0.6% and 0.4%) w/v respectively and sunflower oil 1% (v/v) as better inducer. Finally, an effective mutant [MBL-1511SA-4(150 min)] having of 176.10% enhanced extracellular lipases production over wild (MBL-1511) strain was acquired.

2539-2548 Download
42
LARCH (LARIX GMELINII) BULK SOIL PHENOLIC ACIDS PROMOTE MANCHURIAN WALNUT (JUGLANS MANSHURICA) GROWTH AND SOILMICROORGANISM BIOMASS
LI JI1, SALAHUDDIN1, 4, JIE ZHANG1, LIXIN YOU2, CHUNTING HE3 AND LIXUE YANG

LARCH (LARIX GMELINII) BULK SOIL PHENOLIC ACIDS PROMOTE MANCHURIAN WALNUT (JUGLANS MANSHURICA) GROWTH AND SOILMICROORGANISM BIOMASS
ABSTRACT:
The current study investigated the effect of seasonal variation on larch root exudates and the impact of some phenolic acids allelopathic on soil microbes and seedling growth. The soil microbial profiles were determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) digest method, whereas phenolic acids identification and their concentration in larch rhizosphere and bulk soil was determined by HPLC during spring, summer and autumn 2011. Combinations of four phenolic acids concentration (2, 4-2 hydroxy acid, 7-hydroxy coumarin, ferulic acid and abietic acids) were added to Manchurian walnut seedling pot soil and their PLFA profile and seedling biomass was measured after seedling harvest. Results indicated that seasonal variation of larch total root exudates was highest in soil in autumn and summer than spring . Bulk phenolic acids exerted stimulation effect on the microbial biomass and Manchurian seedling biomass. The rhizosphere soil phenolic acids had a negative impact on the microbial biomass and seedling growth due to high phenolic acids concentration. Principal component analysis explained 63.6% and 65.5% of total variation in PLFA composition in larch rhizosphere and bulk soil. Thus, bulk soil phenolic acid combination, particularly 7-hydroxyl coumarin + ferulic acid, has considerable stimulative impact on seedling and microbial biomass.

2549-2556 Download
43
PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION BY USING PLACKETT-BURMAN DESIGN AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE FROM ASPERGILLUS TUBINGENSIS SY 1
SAIRA YAHYA1, SADAF JAHANGIR1, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT2, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL1 AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN1

PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION BY USING PLACKETT-BURMAN DESIGN AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE FROM ASPERGILLUS TUBINGENSIS SY 1
ABSTRACT:
Amylases are omnipresent and exceedingly demanded industrial enzymes. In this study, the conditions of extracellular amylase production from a fungal strain A. tubingensis SY1 were statistically optimized by applying Plackett-Burman equation, under submerged fermentation conditions. Maximum enzyme activity was noted in a medium containing (g/L); Starch (5.0), Peptone (10.0), KH2PO4 (2.0), NH4NO3 (3.0), KCl (1.0), MgSO4.7H2O (1.0), FeSO4.7H2O (0.01), Agitation (200 rpm) with an inoculum size 1%. As witnessed from Pareto chart; variables that were most important for amylase production were Peptone, agitation; MgSO4.7H2O followed by inoculum size. Partial characterization of the crude enzyme revealed that the optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was 60oC and 5.6, respectively. The residual activity of the enzyme was reduced to 50% after storage for ~3h at 44°- 64°C. The enzyme was, however, stable at a pH range of 3.6 - 5.6 for up to 3h.

2557-2561 Download
44
SPIROGYRA AS AN EFFICIENT BIOSORBENT OF CADMIUM: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH
ATIF YAQUB1*, MUHAMMAD SHARIF MUGHAL2 AND HAMID MUKHTAR

SPIROGYRA AS AN EFFICIENT BIOSORBENT OF CADMIUM: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH
ABSTRACT:
The biosorption capacity of Spirogyra sp. biomass was evaluated for removal of cadmium (Cd) from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to optimize various parameters, such as pH, contact time and biomass concentration which affect biosorption. The recorded maximum biosorption capacity was 47 mg/g, while the optimum values for pH, temperature, contact time, and biosorbent concentrations were 5.0, 30°C, 120 min, and 1mg/L, respectively. The data were fitted for various adsorption isotherms, such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin; Langmuir theorem was found to be the most suitable, showing monolayer adsorption. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was fitted for the interpretation of kinetic modeling and was found to be compatible with interpretation of the data. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as as entropy (∆H), enthalpy (∆S), Arhenius constant (Ao) and the energy of activation (Ea) were calculated which indicated that the process was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible under the experimental conditions. FTIR spectra showed the presence of a number of electronegative functional groups on algal surface that were capable of binding to Cd (II) ion.

2563-2570 Download
45
BANANA (MUSA. SPP.) STRAIN ‘HD-1’ APPRAISAL
GAO LONGYAN, LI XINGUO*, LI YUANYUAN, WANG LINGXIA, JIANG XUEFEI, ZHOU SHUANGYUN AND ZENG CHUANSHENG

BANANA (MUSA. SPP.) STRAIN ‘HD-1’ APPRAISAL
ABSTRACT:
Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa.spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain ‘HD-1’ with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds’ classification, the pseudostem of banana strain ‘HD-1’ is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3×, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, ‘HD-1’ is classified as ‘1B’ type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana 'HD-1' has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that ‘HD-1’ exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are ‘susceptible’ and ‘high sensitivity’ respectively. We conclude that ‘HD-1’ has stronger resistance ability toFusarium wilt than Brazil banana.

2571-2586 Download
46
UV-B RADIATION INHIBITS THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
WENKAI CAI1,3, XIANG GAO1,3, JINLU HU1,3, LANZHOU CHEN2, XIAOYAN LI1, YONGDING LIU1 AND GAOHONG WANG

UV-B RADIATION INHIBITS THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
ABSTRACT:
UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity.

2587-2593 Download
47
ECTOPIC EXPRESSION OF MPF2-LIKE PROTEIN WSA206 LEADS TO ARREST IN SILIQUE AND SEED DEVELOPMENT IN HETEROLOGOUS HOST
MUHAMMAD RAMZAN KHAN

ECTOPIC EXPRESSION OF MPF2-LIKE PROTEIN WSA206 LEADS TO ARREST IN SILIQUE AND SEED DEVELOPMENT IN HETEROLOGOUS HOST
ABSTRACT:
MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 clade of MADS-box transcription factors are mostly involved in calyx inflation, floral reversion and fertility. However their role in fertility remained enigmatic. In this study we transformed WSA206 gene paralog - originated through genome duplication in a Solanaceous plant Withaniasomnifera - ectopically in a heterologous host Arabidopsis thaliana. Interesting phenotypes in floral organs and fruits were observed. Overexpression of WSA206 leads to arrest in silique development. The siliques were compressed and size was drastically reduced from 34mm to 3mm. Along with siliques, the seed development was also suppressed as revealed by shriveling of seeds and reduction in seed number. In extreme cases the siliques were devoid of any seeds. In cases where seeds developed, these were impaired in viability. Besides, the transgenic Arabidopsis also exhibited exorbitant growth of calyx to an extent that it resembled inflated calyx in Solanaceae. The calyx remained persistent and encapsulated the under-developed siliques containing non-viable seeds inside. Thus, fertility and sepal development are tightly coupled traits that are controlled by WSA206paralog in heterologous system.

2595-2597 Download