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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 4
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1
DROUGHT EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS IN SEED ORCHARDS
TUĞRUL VAROL, HALİL BARIŞ ÖZEL AND NEBİ BİLİR

DROUGHT EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS IN SEED ORCHARDS
ABSTRACT:

Global climate change is one of the most important environmental problems, and it is also known that this change will lead to negative effects such as drought and increase in global temperature. This change is also estimated to increase its episodic effects negatively on growth and reproduction of the forest trees. In order to estimate the episodic or continuous effects of the drought, it is necessary to carry out studies based on long-term data. One of these studies are the investigation to be carried out on seed orchards that are one of the most important seed resources in forestry. Within this context, in this study, we determined to the reproductive and growth responses of the clones to the drought that continued in the most drought season (2012) for 2 subsequent years along with 65-year climate data for Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) and Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.). The relationships of SPEI values with seed characteristics and cone production were examined by using Spearman Correlation Analysis.

According to the results obtained from this study, it was found that the severe drought was effected the reproductive characteristics of both of red pine and cedar. The effect of drought on the number of cone (r=-0.810, P=0.022) in red pine and on the number of 1-year-old cones (r=-0.40, P=0.027) and on cone moisture (r=-0.715, P=0.022) in cedar was quite evident. These results indicate that approximately 65% of the change in number of cone in Red Pine and approximately 51% of the change in moisture content of the cones in cedar can be explained with the drought. From the data, it is clear that the drought is effective on the cone yield and seed characteristics in seed orchards of both of Red Pine and Taurus Cedar species.

1225-1229 Download
2
EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIENCY ON THE CELLULAR STATUS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENCES IN ANTHYLLIS SERICEA, A SAHARIAN PLANT
AYET SELMI, HOUDA DEBAYA, TEBRA TRIKI AND ALI FERCHICHI

EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIENCY ON THE CELLULAR STATUS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENCES IN ANTHYLLIS SERICEA, A SAHARIAN PLANT
ABSTRACT:

Drought is known as an important restricting factor of plant productivity in arid and semi arid areas of the world. The intended increase of temperature in many areas will intensify this problem. In this study the effect of drought stress was studied in a Saharan plant, Anthyllissericea, by Poly-ethylene glycol (PEG-6000) in three different treatments (-0.2 MPa (control), -1.2 MPa (moderate stress) and -2.1 MPa (severe stress)) after 14 days. Nitric oxide (NO) content, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), RWC, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant levels from the leaves were analyzed. Initially, plant growth, RWC and the water potentiel (Ñ°w) were decreased with increase of osmotic stress. Drought induces the increase of NO and hydrogen peroxide levels reaching maximum in severe stress period. MDA, proline content and soluble sugars were found to be higher under moderate and severe stress conditions. Plant employs enzymatic antioxidant system to avoid the subproduction of (ROS) resulting by drought. The analysis of CAT, APX and POD activities showed a significant increase during drought stress. Under moderate and severe stress treatments, the higher activities of H2O2, NO, CAT and POD showed a stronger system of antioxidant defences in the metabolic regulation during the applied stress.  These results propose that A. sericea has the capacity to activate important adaptative mechanisms under dry conditions involving activation of enzymatic antioxidative defense system and higher osmoprotectants accumulation.

 

1231-1237 Download
3
HORMONAL SEED PRIMING IMPROVES WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FIELD PERFORMANCE UNDER DROUGHT AND NON-STRESS CONDITIONS
ANEELA ULFAT, SYED ABDUL MAJID AND AMJAD HAMEED

HORMONAL SEED PRIMING IMPROVES WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FIELD PERFORMANCE UNDER DROUGHT AND NON-STRESS CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

Global warming and unexpected climatic change especially increased in temperature and drought incidence were forced the agri- scientist to develop long term future strategies required for all drought and temperature sensitive crops including wheat. The objective of this study was to explore the process of better wheat growth and development under premises of drought. Five wheat cultivars were used to study the effect of drought and to cope drought with hormonal priming. Wheat seeds were primed in 10-4 M concentration of Salicylic acid (SA) and Gibberellic acid (GA), control was also used. Yield and yield components were decreased under drought. PAKISTAN-13 had the highest grain yield under normal and stress condition. The highest yield reductions were found in CHAKWAL-50 under normal condition. Under stress condition CHAKWAL-50 also had minimum yield. Among five genotypes FSD-08 maintained its yield under drought stress as compared to other genotypes. Hormonal priming improved yield under normal condition and overcome the effect of stress under drought. Priming increased the grain yield in CHAKWAL-50 and other genotypes. PAKISTAN-13 had the highest harvest index under normal condition and also under stress condition. PAKISTAN-13 and FSD-08 had the highest stress tolerance index while SA priming increased the stress tolerance index in CHAKWAL-50. Total sugar and protein contents were increased under drought. In conclusion, under normal and drought stress genotypic difference was observed for yield and yield contributing traits. PAKISTAN 13 and FSD-08 were wining genotypes. Seed priming was able to overcome stress and increased yield. Stress tolerance index was also improved by using hormonal priming. Genotype response was different under normal and drought stress.

 

1239-1253 Download
4
ROLE OF OsWAK124, A RICE WALL-ASSOCIATED KINASE, IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METAL STRESSES
XIAOYAN YIN AND XUEWEN HOU

ROLE OF OsWAK124, A RICE WALL-ASSOCIATED KINASE, IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METAL STRESSES
ABSTRACT:

Members of the Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) family play important roles in both development and stress responses. There are about one hundred and twenty fiveOsWAKs annotated in the rice genome but their functions in rice growth and development are largely unknown. In this paper, we reported a functional role of the OsWAK124 (Os12g0266200) in rice heavy metal responses. Confocal GFP experiments located OsWAK124 in the cell wall and analyses of OsWAK124 promoter⸬GUS transgenic lines suggested that OsWAK124 promoter is primarily active at the meristematic tissues under normal growth condition. Under stress conditions, however, OsWAK124 promoter activity is induced in non-meristematic tissues, such as leaf, stem and root, and the activity in the meristematic tissues is further enhanced. Various transgenic rice lines carrying either RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression constructs were generated. Transgenic lines were tested for their responses to various stress conditions including salicylic acid, NaCl, AlCl3, CuSO4 and CdSO4. Our analyses showed that rice seedlings overexpressing OsWAK124 are more resistant to the three tested heavy metals (Al, Cu, and Cd), which suggested that OsWAK124, like some Arabidopsis WAK members, plays a role in environmental heavy metal stress responses.

1255-1261 Download
5
ENHANCED DUCKWEED ALKALI TOLERANCE BY OVERSPRESSION OF SERINE: GLYOXYLATE AMINOTRANSFRASE (ATAGT1)
DI WU, YUJIE HAN, FENGJIE WU, YERONG ZHU, XIAOLANZHANG, YING WEI, YONG WANG, CHEN ZHOU AND LIN YANG

ENHANCED DUCKWEED ALKALI TOLERANCE BY OVERSPRESSION OF SERINE: GLYOXYLATE AMINOTRANSFRASE (ATAGT1)
ABSTRACT:

Alkaline salts are more harmful to plants than neutral salts. Improvement on the alkaline tolerance in plants is important to make full use of the large area of saline-alkaline water. It has been proved that photorespiration pathway provides protection to plants under stress. In this study, Arabidopsis serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AtAGT1)transgenic duckweeds were studied to investigate the alkaline stress tolerance. Enhanced protection from damage to cell membrane was detected in transgenic duckweeds under Na2CO3 treatment. Also, in the transgenic duckweed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was decreased, and antioxidant enzyme activities were improved with alkaline condition. These results indicated that with the enhancement of photorespiration, antioxidant enzyme activities were improved, leading to the decline of ROS content under alkaline stress. These results also revealed the function of photorespiration enzyme during alkaline stress.

1263-1268 Download
6
ANALYSIS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE POTENTIAL IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT
SAMI ULLAH JAN, MUHAMMAD JAMIL, HADI ALIPOUR, MUHAMMAD FARAZ BHATTI AND ALVINA GUL

ANALYSIS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE POTENTIAL IN SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT
ABSTRACT:

Salinity is an important environmental constraint for agricultural crops including wheat. This experiment was performed to examine salinity tolerance in synthetic hexaploid wheats as compared to three commercial wheat varieties (Zarghoon-79, Kharchia and Shorawaki). All genotypes were grown at various salinity levels (0 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM) and then screened based on seed germination rate, length of root and shoot and fresh and dry weight of root and shoot. Biochemical parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids), ionic content (Na+, K+, Ca+), antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), total soluble protein (TSP) and total soluble sugar (TSS) were also conducted on these genotypes. The result of analysis of variance showed that for most traits, there were highly significant differences among salt concentrations, varieties and their interaction. The synthetic lines (genotypes 1 to 10) showed significant tolerance to different levels of salt (Sodium Chloride; NaCl) as compared to commercial wheat cultivars (Zarghoon-79, Kharchia and Shorawaki). Two synthetic lines; genotypes 2 and 4 performed the best under stress condition. It has also been observed that wheat seedlings performed better at 50 mM concentration of NaCl as compared to control (0 mM NaCl) and other levels of salt (100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM). Correlation analysis revealed that the increase of germination percentage, shoot and root length, fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and potassium were significantly correlated with the decrease in germination rate, sodium, calcium, SOD, POD, CAT, TSP and TSS.

1269-1278 Download
7
DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS OF SEED SHAPE INFLUENCED BY HEAT STRESS IN DIVERSE BREAD WHEAT GERMPLASM
MUHAMMAD JAMIL, AAMIR ALI, ABDUL GHAFOOR, KHALID FAROOQ AKBAR, ABDUL AZIZ NAPAR, NAIMA HUMA NAVEED, NASIM AHMAD YASIN, ALVINA GUL AND A. MUJEEB-KAZI

DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS OF SEED SHAPE INFLUENCED BY HEAT STRESS IN DIVERSE BREAD WHEAT GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:

Shape changes in wheat grain under heat stress become necessary to determine when shrinkage causes quality loss. High throughput seed morpho-metery is required to quantify the shape changes precisely. In this study, shrinkage of the seed under heat stress has been quantified thus can be used as the indicator of heat stress. Randomized complete block design was followed in which 49 genotypes were examined in 16 replicates, under two treatments (normal and late sown). SmartGrain software was used to quantify the digital images of seeds picked up from two treatments for each genotype in 16 replicates. Seed shape descriptors (length, width, length width ratio, area, perimeter, circularity) were precisely and robustly determined by the use of this software. ANOVA results showed significant effect of heat stress on seed shape. Critical difference, chi-square value mentioned the disparity in seed shape of normal and stressed wheat crop. Maximum heat susceptibility index for seed area was noted (2.38) and the minimum remained (0.02). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the relative importance of seed shape attributes and genotype by explaining about 85.02% (F1 = 59.87 % and F 2 = 25.16 %) variability.

1279-1284 Download
8
EFFECT OF PROLONGED PHOTOPERIOD ON MORPHOLOGY, BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN POST- TRANSPLANT TAXUS CUSPIDATA SEEDLINGS
YAN ZHAO, ZI WANG, HONGXU WEI, YAJING BAO AND PENG GUO

EFFECT OF PROLONGED PHOTOPERIOD ON MORPHOLOGY, BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN POST- TRANSPLANT TAXUS CUSPIDATA SEEDLINGS
ABSTRACT:

Both threats and interest are the reasons for studying conservation and restoration programs of yew species. The seedling growth rate of slowly-growing species has been found to accelerate under prolonged photoperiod relative to that under the natural one, but the illumination effect has rarely been identified on yew species especially at their post-transplant stage. In the present study, one-year-old Taxus cuspidata seedlings were fed with exponential fertilization at the rate of 80 mg N/seedling under the prolonged photoperiod (18 h per day) with natural photoperiod (10.5 h per day) as the control in Northeast China. In the subsequent spring, seedlings were sampled to identify their post-transplant responses. Compared to the natural photoperiod, prolonged photoperiod increased seedling height, RCD, root length, and number of FOLR by 70% (p<0.0001), 30% (p=0.0037), 31% (p=0.0128), and 76% (P=0.0002), respectively. In addition, prolonged photoperiod increased dry mass in new shoot, old shoot, and root by 140%, 200%, and 153% (all P values <0.0001), respectively. In response to prolonged photoperiod, whole-plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents and utilizaitons decreased with the decline of N concentration in new shoot and P concentration in annual organ, respectively. Our results indicated that prolonged photoperiod did not promote, but stimulated, growth and biomass accumulation of transplanted T. cuspidata seedlings due to inherent decline of nutrient utilization for new growth.

1285-1290 Download
9
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT JUVENILE MIXED PLANTATIONS ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHYSIOLOGY OF PINUS YUNNANENSIS FRANCH.
YUAN ZHENG, GUANG-LONG OU, JIN-LONG CHEN, DAN-DAN CHEN, GUO-YUAN LIU, QI-QIN LI, SHI-HAO ZHANG AND MING-YUE HAN

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT JUVENILE MIXED PLANTATIONS ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHYSIOLOGY OF PINUS YUNNANENSIS FRANCH.
ABSTRACT:

The growth characteristics, photosynthetic gas exchange features, physiological and biochemical resistance, and soil nutrition contents of different juvenile mixed plantations were analyzed. Moreover, the synergic effect mechanism of the different species was elucidated to improve the stand quality of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. plantations and guide the screening of P. yunnanensis mixed plantations. The mixed plantations were P. yunnanensisAlnus nepalensisQuercus acutissima, P. yunnanensisA. nepalensisCyclobalanopsis glaucoides, and P. yunnanensisQ. acutissima–C. glaucoides. Individual juvenile plantations of pure P. yunnanensis, A. nepalensis, Q. acutissima, and C. glaucoides were used as control groups. Results showed that pure P. yunnanensis juvenile plantation consumed more soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total potassium (TK) than the other plantations. This plantation also showed poorer growth characteristics, poorer photosynthetic capability, lower water utilization efficiency (WUE), and biochemical resistance in infertile soil, as shown by the nutrition and water competition. Increasing soil organic matters, TN, TP, and TK of the different mixed plantations evidently enhanced height, ground diameter growth rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), WUE, carboxylation efficiency (CE), soluble sugar (SS) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, different mixed forests slightly influenced the characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange and physiological and biochemical resistance of A. nepalensis. All stand types facilitated growth of tree height and basal diameter of Q. acutissima sapling. Although Q. acutissima inhibited physiological and biochemical resistance of leaves to a certain extent, they increased WUE significantly. Different stand types slightly influenced growth features, Pn, Tr, and WUE of C. glaucoides sapling. Moreover, they inhibited the osmotic adjustment system and SOD activity of C. glaucoides to a certain extent, indicating that C. glaucoides was not a well-associated broad-leaf species of P. yunnanensis juvenile mixed plantations. Therefore, P. yunnanensisA. nepalensisQ. acutissima is an optimal mixed plantation, which is beneficial for increasing growth rate, Pn, and WUE, as well as for recovering soil fertility.

1291-1298 Download
10
RESPONSE OF SPATIAL POINT PATTERN OF HALOSTACHYS CASPICA POPULATION TO GROUND WATER DEPTH
PANXIN NIU, MEI WANG, PING JIANG, MINGYAN LI AND GUANGMING CHU

RESPONSE OF SPATIAL POINT PATTERN OF HALOSTACHYS CASPICA POPULATION TO GROUND WATER DEPTH
ABSTRACT:

We subjected Halostachys caspica populations to three groundwater depths: shallow (< 2.5 m), middle (2.5–4.5 m), and deep (> 4.5 m) in the sample plots, at the diluvial fan of the South Junggar Basin. Both the spatial pattern and spatial association of the population among all three groundwater depths and four growth stages were studied to investigate the impact of groundwater depth on the formation and persistence mechanism of the spatial pattern of Halostachys caspica populations. In this study, Ripley’s K function was utilized to characterize spatial patterns and intraspecific associations of H. caspica in three 1-ha plots, as well as to study their relationship with groundwater depth. The seedling supplement severely decreased with increasing groundwater depth, and the population structure changed noticeably due to increased amount of dead standing plants. Different growth stagesof the H. caspica population all had aggregated distributions at small scale in the three groundwater depth areas. With increasing scales, the aggregation intensity weakened in all growth stages. Distribution was aggregated at 50 m scales in both the shallow and middle groundwater depth areas, while the deep groundwater depth area followed a random distribution. 

1299-1305 Download
11
EFFECT OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2ON NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION AND N UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY IN WINTER RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ZHEN-HUA ZHANG, SHENG LU, WEN-MING WANG, JOE EUGENE LEPO, CHUN-YUN GUAN, ABDELBAGI M. ISMAIL AND HAI-XING SONG

EFFECT OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2ON NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION AND N UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY IN WINTER RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.)
ABSTRACT:

We characterized the responses of plant dry biomass, nitrogen (N) distribution and N-utilization efficiency (NUtE) to changes in CO2 concentration through exposure and culture of winter rape under normal-(380 μmol·mol-1) and elevated-CO2 (760 μmol·mol-1) conditions. Brassica napus (Xiangyou 15) was used as an agriculturally important model plant. Plants were cultivated in a greenhouse with sand culture under normal- (15 mmol·L-1) and limited-N (5 mmol·L-1) conditions. NUtE increased with elevated CO2 regardless of whether N was limited. NUtE was higher under N limitation than under normal N conditions for both normal- and elevated-CO2 conditions. 15N labeling was used to assess the distribution of N from vegetative- to reproductive-organs.Ndistribution within the plant and during different developmental stages was affected by CO2 concentration and the level of N application. A higher proportion of N was found in siliques at the harvest stage for N-limited plants compared to normal-N plants. The proportion of N absorbed into siliques after the stem elongation stage under elevated-CO2 conditions was significantly higher than under normal CO2. The proportion of N transport, as well as the total amount of N, absorbed at the stem elongation stage from vegetative organs into siliques under elevated CO2 was significantly lower than under normal-CO2 conditions. However, the proportion of N absorbed at the stem elongation stage and thus lost from the silique under elevated CO2 was significantly higher than under normal CO2. In conclusion, limited N or elevated CO2 generally benefitted plant NUtE. In addition, after the stem elongation stage, elevated CO2 promoted the redistribution of N from plant vegetative tissues to reproductive organs; however, elevated CO2 during or before stem elongation had the opposite effect.

1307-1315 Download
12
MANGANESE ACCUMULATION AND ANATOMICAL CHANGES IN MASSON PINE (PINUS MASSONIANA) GROWING UNDER HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF MANGANESE
DEYAN LI, YUNCHAO ZHOU AND JIEFANG GONG

MANGANESE ACCUMULATION AND ANATOMICAL CHANGES IN MASSON PINE (PINUS MASSONIANA) GROWING UNDER HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF MANGANESE
ABSTRACT:

Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) is especially good at accumulating manganese (Mn). Studying the manganese accumulation and anatomical changes in masson pine growing under high concentrations of Mn can provide a theoretical basis for exploring the adaptations and assessing the remediation effects of masson pine under Mn-contaminated environment. Using a sand culture method, a series of high manganese treatments were performed to study the growth, manganese accumulation in organs, and anatomical structure of needles and stems of masson pine when compared to masson pine that received Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Our results showed that the parenchyma cells and vascular bundles in the needles of masson pine changed disproportionately to maintain growth under high concentrations of Mn, and similar patterns were observed for the xylem and pith in the stem. At low concentrations of Mn, masson pine stems and needles displayed an even and regular anatomical structure, but the cell arrangement became scattered with increasingly higher Mn treatments; especially in the 30 mmol·L-1 treatment, masson pine growth was inhibited and severe toxicity occurred. With higher Mn treatments, more Mn accumulated in masson pine. Needles, stems and roots of masson pine accumulated about 24, 24 and 27 times more Mn in the 30 mmol·L-1 treatment than in the normal treatment of 0.0091 mmol·L-1. Results indicate that masson pine could be planted in Mn-contaminated environments to rehabilitate the soil.

1317-1322 Download
13
NOTES ON CICHOREAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR: SOME ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
ABDUL GHAFOOR, MUHAMMAD QAISER AND ROOHI ABID

NOTES ON CICHOREAE (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR: SOME ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
ABSTRACT:
In this study, 9 new combinations, 6 at species level and 3 at varietal level in the tribe Cichoreae have been proposed from Pakistan and Kashmir. Of these, seven taxa, previously placed in Cicerbita Wallr. and one species of Prenanthes L. are now transferred in the genera viz., Melanoseris Decne and Lactuca L. A new combination, Crepidiastrum afghanicum (Podlech) A. Ghafoor & Qaiser comb. nov., is also proposed. This taxon is a new record for Pakistan. In order to validate the new combinations and records, basionym, complete reference and a key to differentiate all the four genera viz., Lactuca, Cicerbita, Melanoseris and Perenenthes is also given.

1323-1325 Download
14
A NEW GENERIC RECORD OF ASTERACEAE (SOLIVA ANTHEMIFOLIA (JUSS.) SWEET & SOLIVA PTEROSPERMA (JUSS.): ADDITION TO THE ALIEN INVASIVE FLORA OF PAKISTAN
IRAM MUJAHID AND ASAD SHABBIR

A NEW GENERIC RECORD OF ASTERACEAE (SOLIVA ANTHEMIFOLIA (JUSS.) SWEET & SOLIVA PTEROSPERMA (JUSS.): ADDITION TO THE ALIEN INVASIVE FLORA OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

The genus Soliva of family Asteraceae is first time reported for the flora of Pakistan. Soliva anthemifolia (Juss.) Sweet and Soliva pterosperma (Juss.) Less have been reported first time growing as problematic weeds in the turf and natural areas of different regions in the Province Punjab, Pakistan. Both species are widely distributed and reported as major invasive weeds of turf as well as recreational parks. Recently, Soliva anthemifolia is also reported as emerging problematic weed in fodder crops and S. pterosperma has become a noxious invasive species of turf. A detailed description with illustrations, geographic distribution, phenology, invasive potential, economic importance and management approaches of both species are described.

1327-1333 Download
15
A NEW SPECIES OF SCORZONERA L. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RAZA MEHDI AND RUBINA ABID

A NEW SPECIES OF SCORZONERA L. (CICHORIEAE- ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Scorzonera baluchistanica R. Mehdi, R. Abid & M. Qaiser is presented as a new species from Pakistan. Its detail description with illustration and a comparison with two closely related species i.e., S. Koelpinioides Rech.f. and S. longipapposa Rech.f. along with key is also provided.

1335-1338 Download
16
USING AFLP TO IDENTIFYGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN CASSIA SPECIES FROM THAILAND
ANUSARA SIHANAT, PIYARAT PARINYAPONG CHAREONSAP, NIJSIRI RUANGRUNGSI AND KANCHANA RUNGSIHIRUNRAT

USING AFLP TO IDENTIFYGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS IN CASSIA SPECIES FROM THAILAND
ABSTRACT:

Several species of Cassia are used in Thai folk medicine as a laxative and a treatment for skin infections. However, the taxonomy of the GenusCassia is quite complex and intriguing. Thus, the correct identification of the species of this genus is necessary for efficacy and safety. The phylogenetic relationships among the 16 species of Cassiagenus existing in Thailand were evaluated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Combinations of 70 primers were screened and eleven primer combinations produced a total of 849 distinct and reproducible bands ranging from 60 to 100 bands with an average of 77.18 bands per primer combination. The genetic distances were calculated based on the AFLP bands that had been amplified using the eleven primer combinations. The similarity indices (SI) ranged from 0.25 to 0.78. The dendrogram was created using the Unweighted Pair Group Method of the Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) and the genotypes were divided into two major groups. The results indicate that the phylogenetic relationships are associated with the morphological characterization. In conclusion, an AFLP marker could be an efficient and reliable tool for the identification of a Cassia species.

1339-1344 Download
17
KARYOMORPHOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENUS BELLEVALIA (ASPARAGACEAE) IN TURKEY
SERPİL DEMİRCİ KAYIRAN AND NERİMAN ÖZHATAY

KARYOMORPHOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENUS BELLEVALIA (ASPARAGACEAE) IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:

As part of the karyological studies of the Asparagaceae grow in the KahramanmaraÅŸ province, chromosome number and chromosomes morphology of three Bellevalia species have been determined: B. macrobotrys 2n= 8; B. gracilis 2n= 8, 16, B. tauri 2n= 8. This is the first karyotype reconstruction for B. macrobotrys. B. tauri is an endemic species to Turkey. Photographs of the mitotic metaphase plates and drawings with the idiograms are given. Additionally, idiograms and karyotypes of the species were performed by the use of Cameram© software.

1345-1350 Download
18
VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AMONG BLUE PINE (PINUS WALLICHIANA) COMMUNITIES IN HINDUKUSH RANGES OF SWAT, PAKISTAN
INAYAT UR RAHMAN, NASRULLAH KHAN AND KISHWAR ALI

VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AMONG BLUE PINE (PINUS WALLICHIANA) COMMUNITIES IN HINDUKUSH RANGES OF SWAT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Pinus wallichiana dominated forest communities, located in the Hindukush ranges of Swat, Pakistan were analysed for variability in the cone and seed traits. The results disclosed significant variability in mean values, critical difference, co-efficient of variation, broad sense heritability, genetic gain and genetic advance.  Genotypic variance (Vg) and genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) were noted to be lower than the corresponding environmental variance (Ve) and environmental coefficient of variability (ECV) for most of the parameters which clearly shows that these traits are under the control of environment. Both Number of male clusters/branch and 100 seeds weight are heritable traits as having higher genotypic variance and genotypic coefficient of variance. Traits like 100 seeds weight, Number of male cluster/branch, number of female cones/tree, female cone weight and number of sterile scales/cone showed moderate to high percentage of heritability indicates that these traits are under strong genetic control. These heritable additive genetic traits can be used for future breeding and tree improvement plans for the species. It is further concluded that the alleged traits should be given priority while selecting superior genotypes. 

1351-1357 Download
19
FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY OF IBODI MONKEY FOREST, IBODI, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
KOMOLAFE EMMANUEL TIMILEHIN, OKE SAMSON OLAJIDE, ODELEYE ADEMAYOWA1 AND OLATUNJI OLUSANYA

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY OF IBODI MONKEY FOREST, IBODI, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
ABSTRACT:

This study investigated the floristic composition and vegetation structure among different physiognomies in Ibodi Monkey forest, Ibodi, Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. It also assessed the effects of anthropogenic activities on the forest with a view to providing detailed information on the floristic composition structure and diversity of species of the standing vegetation of the forest.

Seven plots of 25 m x 25 m dimension were established within three physiognomies in the forest; Regrowth forest (RF), Tree fallow (TF) and Cocoa plantation. (CP) A total of 209 individual woody species were encountered in the seven plots. The highest density of woody species was found in the RF (1483), followed by CP (1072) and TF (792). The basal area in CP was the highest (21.44) while RF had the lowest (2.5567) with TF having an intermediate value (6.283). Crown area also indicated that RF had the highest cover while TF had the lowest crown area. Shannon-Wiener, Evenness, Richness indices followed the order RF > TF > CP. Similarity index was highest between CP and TF and lowest between RF and CP. The study concluded that Ibodi monkey forest has been influenced by human disturbance in form of selective logging of economic species, agriculture (shifting cultivation) and seasonal bush burning.

1359-1371 Download
20
MEASURING SPECIES DIVERSITY IN A SUBTROPICAL FOREST ACROSS A TREE SIZE GRADIENT: A COMPARISON OF DIVERSITY INDICES
XIANDONG KE, ZHIYAO SU, YANQIU HU, YI ZHOU AND MINGFENG XU

MEASURING SPECIES DIVERSITY IN A SUBTROPICAL FOREST ACROSS A TREE SIZE GRADIENT: A COMPARISON OF DIVERSITY INDICES
ABSTRACT:

Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson′s diversity index together with other metrics, e.g., richness, number of stems per species or species-specific density (N: S ratio), and kurtosis, were applied to characterize the woody plant diversity patterns of a subtropical broadleaved forest in south China. The aims of our study were to compare the efficacy and sensitivity to community diversity measures between Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson′s diversity index. Tree census data from a 5-ha sample plot was partitioned into 3 datasets by diameter class to represent 3 distinct woody plant communities for the characterization of diversity across communities. The 5-ha sample plot of the forest had a total abundance of 23,301 tree stems ≥ 1 cm DBH and a richness of 139 species. The majority of tree stems were seedlings (41.1%) and saplings (38.8%), whereas canopy trees only accounted for 20.1% of the total tree stems. Both Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson′s diversity index decreased significantly in response to a decrease in the N: S ratio across the datasets, but Shannon-Wiener index was more sensitive to plot-based richness changes and had a higher efficacy in predicting changes in species richness. Our findings are contrary to the general belief that Shannon-Wiener index is an insensitive measure of the character of the N: S relationship and have demonstrated that it remains a good measure for species diversity in plant community studies for its sensitivity and efficacy. We also suggest that the kurtosis statistic can be used as a new diversity measure due to its sensitivity to diversity change.

1373-1379 Download
21
DETERMINATION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN LITTER FALL OF MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
ZHILA HEMATI, MAHMOOD HOSSAIN AND ROZAINAH M.Z

DETERMINATION OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN LITTER FALL OF MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
ABSTRACT:

Mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia are typical of tropical forest setting. Nevertheless, the state of the mangrove forests has led to various classifications; natural and degraded mangroves. The study aimed to utilize litter fall (production and standing crop) potential as a means of evaluating the degree of productivity of the mangrove types across seasons, in addition to  determining the abundance of carbon and nitrogen in the Peninsular mangrove forest. Leaf litter accounted for more than 70% of the total litter production in both natural and degraded mangroves, and the peak month for such production was December; 82.7% and 82.2%, for Sungai Haji Dorani and Kuala Selangor Nature Park, respectively. The degraded mangrove recorded higher concentration of total N (6.16 mg/g) than the natural mangrove forest (5.60 mg/g) at significant level. However, the organic carbon (CO) content across the litter parts varied with the three seasons.  The CO of leaf litter was at the peak during the dry season, however, analysis on the branch and fruit revealed that during the intermediate and wet seasons CO level could be higher than the concentration observed at dry season. Though, the study concluded that both mangrove types in Peninsular Malaysia showed high similarity in the degree of litter production, yet the identified differences suggest that counter measures need to be adopted in order to protect mangroves from degradation and possible productivity loss.

1381-1386 Download
22
EVALUATION OF THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF RHODODENDRON AFGHANICUM AITCH. & HEMSL.: A NARROW ENDEMIC SPECIES FOR PAKISTAN
SAID MUHAMMAD, JAN ALAM, FARHANA IJAZ, ZAFAR IQBAL, INAYAT-UR-RAHMAN, ABDUL MAJID AND NIAZ ALI

EVALUATION OF THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF RHODODENDRON AFGHANICUM AITCH. & HEMSL.: A NARROW ENDEMIC SPECIES FOR PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

The conservation status of Rhododendron afghanicum Aitch. & Hemsl. (Ericaceae) has been evaluated according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 2001. This species is exclusively endemic to Kurram Agency, Pakistan. Previously, this species was reported from Shend Toi, Kurram Agency. In the current assessment, 7 localities were traced out during field studies conducted from 2011 to 2013. Based on population size (979 individuals), Extent of occurrence (354.881 km2), Area of occupancy (116.511 km2) and severely anthropogenic impacts i.e., uprooting and deforestation, Rhododendron afghanicum has been classified as Endangered (EN) according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria 2001. Both in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures have been proposed for its effective protection.

1387-1394 Download
23
GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND STOMATAL BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO ECOTYPIC ADAPTATIONS IN CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS.
AASMA TUFAIL, FAROOQ AHMAD, MANSOOR HAMEED AND RASHID AHMAD

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND STOMATAL BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO ECOTYPIC ADAPTATIONS IN CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS.
ABSTRACT:

Evolution has great ecological significance in terms of plant morphological and stomatal characteristics that must have been genetically fixed during the long evolutionary period. Impact of environmental conditions on growth and stomatal features of twelve ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon that were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated. The collected ecotypes Derawar Fort-saline desert (DF-SD), Muzaffar garh-River bank (M-RB), Khabbeki Lake-hyper saline (KL-HS), Ucchali Lake-hyper saline (UL-HS), Kalar Kahar Lake-saline (KKL-S), Treemu-saline wetland (T-SW), Sahianwala-saline wetland (S-SW), Sahianwala-hyper saline (S-HS), Pakka Anna-hyper saline (PA-HS), Pakka Anna-reclaimed field (PA-RF), Botanic Garden-non saline (BG-NS) and Gatwala-saline semiarid (G-SSA) were grown in controlled environments at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad till their acclimatization to evaluate genetically fixed characteristics. After 6-month growth in soil, the plants were transferred to half-strength Hoagland’s nutrient medium. There was a huge variation in all morphological characteristics recorded during the investigation, which were due to environmental heterogeniety to which these ecotypes were originally adapted. An exclusive feature of the DF-SD ecotypes is the long and numerous roots, and tillering capacity that surpassed all other ecotypes. Leaves per plant were also exceptionally high that may improve the photosymthetic efficiency of the plant. It showed a good potential of overall growth and biomass production. The robust growth was also recorded in the KKL-S ecotypes, and this can be related to the complete dominance of these two ecotypes in their respective habitats. Small stomata were recorded in the three ecotypes (DF-SD, KL-HS and PA-HS), which are of great ecological significance. Stomatal shape, however, is different in different ecotypes, but its contribution towards stress tolerance is still to be investigated.

1395-1403 Download
24
APPRAISAL OF GUAR [CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB.] ACCESSIONS FOR FORAGE PURPOSE UNDER THE TYPICAL SAUDI ARABIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ENCOMPASSING HIGH TEMPERATURE, SALINITY AND DROUGHT
AREF ALSHAMERI, FAHAD AL-QURAINY, SALIM KHAN, MOHAMMAD NADEEM, ABDEL-RHMAN GAAFAR, MOHAMED TARROUM, ABDULHAFED ALAMERI, SALEH ALANSI AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

APPRAISAL OF GUAR [CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB.] ACCESSIONS FOR FORAGE PURPOSE UNDER THE TYPICAL SAUDI ARABIAN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ENCOMPASSING HIGH TEMPERATURE, SALINITY AND DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:

Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) being a  summer annual legume is widely grown in some Asian countries primarily for three major purposes, i.e., cattle forage,  as a green manure and for industry. Guar is relatively drought-tolerant compared to many other summer forages and it is well adapted to arid and semi-arid climates with high temperatures. We identified high-biomass-producing guar accessions in the hot, dry, and saline growth conditions of Saudi Arabia. We compared the performance of 24 introduced guar accessions as potential forage crop in Saudi Arabia, examining some key morphological traits and biomass production under water-limited and saline conditions in a greenhouse receiving natural sunlight and ambient temperature.The irrigation treatments were: 100% (Control), 80%, 60%, and 40% field capacity (FC), while salinity treatments were: Control (0 mM NaCl), 75 mM, 150 mM, and 200 mM NaCl. Accessions BWP 5595, 24320, Chiniot 1, Chiniot 2, Kaloorkot 2, and BWP 5599 had higher fresh and dry biomass than that of BR-99, BR-90, 027340, 24333, 24332, Khanewal Local 2, and Bhawana 2; the former accessions were therefore considered drought-tolerant, while the latter drought-susceptible. Accessions 24320, BWP 5595, Chiniot 1, Chiniot 2, and 22159 were found to be more salt-tolerant than BWP 5589, 24333, Bhowana 2, 24287, 027340, and BWP5596. Overall, BWP 5595 and 24320 are drought- and salt-tolerant, respectively, while Khanewal Local 2 and BWP 5589 are drought-sensitive and salt-sensitive, respectively. Future guar breeding programs could use these germplasm resources to improve crops against conditions of drought, high salinity, and heat in Saudi Arabia.

1405-1413 Download
25
BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LYCORIS SPRENGERI BULBLETS (AMARYLLIDACEAE) TO EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED N-(2-CHLORO-4-PYRIDYL)-N1-PHENYLUREA (CPPU)
ZIMING REN, YIPING XIA, LINFANG SHE, YUMIAN XIAO, DONG ZHANG AND XUESI LV

BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LYCORIS SPRENGERI BULBLETS (AMARYLLIDACEAE) TO EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED N-(2-CHLORO-4-PYRIDYL)-N1-PHENYLUREA (CPPU)
ABSTRACT:

Bulblets of Lycoris sprengeri (Amaryllidaceae) were obtained by cutting. Sixconcentrations of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N1-phenylurea (CPPU) solutions were sprayed on leaves from one-year-old bulblets during their green period. Fresh weight, diameter,carbohydrate content, activity of starch metabolism-related enzymes and levels of endogenous hormones of bulblets were determined. The effects of CPPU treatment on bulblet development and biochemical and physiological indices of L. sprengeri were analyzed using the determined values. The results showed that CPPU treatment at an appropriate concentration promoted the enlargement of L. sprengeri bulblets; the optimal concentration was 7.5 mg L-1. Bulblet growth showed a significant positive correlation with starch content and the activities of soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch-bound starch synthase (GBSS). Bulblet growth showed anextremely significant positive correlation with the ratio of endogenous gibberellic acid/abscisic acid (GA/ABA). The GA/ABA ratio showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of (α+β)-amylase and GBSS. The exogenous application of CPPU promoted the synthesis and accumulation of starch in the bulblets of L. sprengeri and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes; an increase in the endogenous GA/ABA ratio had a synergistic effect.

1415-1421 Download
26
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN REGENERATED TISSUES OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT ATROPA ACUMINATA
FAIZ ALI KHAN, BILAL HAIDER ABBASI, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI AND SAFDAR HUSSAIN SHAH

ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN REGENERATED TISSUES OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT ATROPA ACUMINATA
ABSTRACT:

Due to random exploitation from natural resources, an efficient regeneration system of medicinally important but rare plant species, Atropa acuminata for conservation was inevitable. Leaf explants were incubated on MS medium with different level of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) alone and in combination for callus induction and induced organogenesis. After 4 weeks of culture, callus induction was recorded with the highest frequency with 1.0 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) supplement. After 5 weeks of subsequent sub-culturing, optimum shoot induction frequency of 89% was achieved with 1.0 mg/l TDZ and 1.0 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) supplement. Highest number of shoots/explant (8.2) were recorded on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA)+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Shoots in elongation medium was recorded 5.8 cm long in two medium i.e., 1.0 mg/l TDZ supplement and 1.0 mg/l TDZ+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Successful In vitro rooting was induced on MS medium with all applied level of indole butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated shoots with well developed roots were successfully acclimatized in sterilized soil and transferred to greenhouse conditions. Furthermore higher activity for detoxifying DPPH free radical was shown by regenerated shoots in this medicinally important plant species.

1423-1427 Download
27
MODELLING OF TOMATO STEM DIAMETER GROWTH RATE BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
ZHIYU ZUO, JIE TAN, LIN LI, HANPING MAO, XIAODONG ZHANG, LIJUAN QIN, TIANYUAN LV AND MINMIN ZHUO

MODELLING OF TOMATO STEM DIAMETER GROWTH RATE BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
ABSTRACT:

The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato.

1429-1434 Download
28
A COMPARISON STUDY OF PERMEABLE AND IMPERMEABLE SEED COATS OF LEGUME SEED CROPS REVEALS THE PERMEABILITY RELATED STRUCTURE DIFFERENCE
ZHIHUI LUAN, JIMIN ZHAO, DIANKUN SHAO, DAOWEI ZHOU, LIHUI ZHANG, WEI ZHENG5 AND QI SUN

A COMPARISON STUDY OF PERMEABLE AND IMPERMEABLE SEED COATS OF LEGUME SEED CROPS REVEALS THE PERMEABILITY RELATED STRUCTURE DIFFERENCE
ABSTRACT:

Impermeability of Legume seeds is commonly related to physicaldormancy, which is useful for seed preservation but problematical for the soybean food industry. The primary aim of this study was tocharacterize the structure difference between permeable and impermeable seed coats, revealing thewater-controlling structures and demonstrating the water uptake process. Threemeasurements of water uptakefor four Legume species were carried out. The general anatomy of micropyle and seed coat were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dye tracking was carried out to investigate the pathway of water movement during imbibition. The mature seed coat of four species contained three layers of cells. SEM observationsrevealed that the impermeable coat differs from the permeable one. Layer thickness has no direct relationship to the permeability of Legume seeds. The micropyle opening could be observed in permeable seed coats. Osteosclereids could impede the uptake of water; the layer of the osteosclereid near the embryo is hydrophilic and distal sideis hydrophobic. The present research provided a varietyof information related to the permeability of Legume seeds. The coat structures of permeable and impermeable micropyles are different in several aspects. A novel finding is that the outer surface of the osteosclereid layer is essential to permeability. 

1435-1441 Download
29
GC-MS-BASED METABOLOMICS ANALYSIS OF TRANSGENIC RICE WITH HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN
WEI FU, LING WANG, HAO LI, DAICHANG YANG AND SHUIFANG ZHU

GC-MS-BASED METABOLOMICS ANALYSIS OF TRANSGENIC RICE WITH HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN
ABSTRACT:

This study was to analyze the difference of the metabolite profiles between non-transgenic (TP309-8) and human serum albumin (HSA) transgenic rice (TP309-HSA-8, TP309-HSA-9, corresponding to 8th and 9th generation) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analyses methods including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). As a result, 12 differential metabolites were identified between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-8, of which 6 were known compounds (trehalose, citric acid, valine, glycine, asparagine and pantothenic acid) and they were enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and antidyslipidemic agents pathways, respectively. There were 4 different compounds between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-HSA-9, including known compounds [asparagine and oleic acid (C18:1)]. However, no pathways were enriched for them. Our findings preliminarily reveal transgenic HSA may be beneficial for rice growth and providing more essential amino acid for human beings by altering the metabolite profiles.

1443-1448 Download
30
GENETIC VARIATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF CULTIVATED AND WEEDY TYPES OF PERILLA SPECIES IN KOREA AND JAPAN USING MULTI DNA MARKERS
YAN-LIN SUN, SHI-LIN ZHENG, JU-KYONG LEE AND SOON-KWAN HONG

GENETIC VARIATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF CULTIVATED AND WEEDY TYPES OF PERILLA SPECIES IN KOREA AND JAPAN USING MULTI DNA MARKERS
ABSTRACT:

The genus Perilla, known as an oil crop or a Chinese medicine, vegetable crop, is widely cultivated in East Asia. It occurs in two distinct varieties, var. frutescens and var. crispa, and their genetic relationship is still obscure. To understand the genetic diversity and relationships of the cultivated and weedy types of Perilla crops in Korea, Japan and China, we evaluated the genetic variation of 20 accessions by 3 rDNA markers. Among these three markers, the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of Perilla crops showed less sequence variations than the 5S and 18S genes. There were abundant variable nucleotide sites appearing in the 5S and 18S genes. Especially in the 18S gene, the variable nucleotide sites showed specificity between some Perilla type and other varieties. JPN1 showed 6 special variable nucleotide sites differing from other varieties, resulting in the farthest phylogenetic relationship in the 18S tree. CHI15 shared 8 special variable sites, also showing far phylogenetic relationship with other varieties. According to the sequence analysis result, the cultivated types of Korean var. frutescens showed relatively more genetic diversity than those of Japanese var. frutescens, while Korean var. crispa showed lower genetic diversity than those of Japanese var. crispa. However, the intra- or inter-variety genetic distance did not have significant difference. This work provided more sequence resources of Perilla crops and evidences to evaluate the genetic variation and relationships. Our result would help molecular type identification, functional plant breeding and trait improvement of Perilla crops.

 

1449-1458 Download
31
CHARACTERIZATION AND TISSUE-DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF FAD2 GENES IN BRASSICA NAPUS
LI ZHUANG, YU SHI CONG, LIANG HAO, LIU YING ZE, WU YONG CHENG, GUO SHI XING AND LIN LILI

CHARACTERIZATION AND TISSUE-DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF FAD2 GENES IN BRASSICA NAPUS
ABSTRACT:

In this study, genome DNA and RNAof fad2 genes from three types of oleic acid content from B. napus were isolated by PCR amplification, respectively, the results showed that not only had nucleotides sequences little differences from three types of oleic acid content B. napus, but also that of genome DNA and cDNA had still little differences from B. napus as far as specific one type of rape. Different genotypes fad2-I and fad2-II could be easily distinguished by sequence analysis of the cDNAs in G type and CK type except in D type. By analysis on cDNAs, specific differences could be found in three types of rape when compared with the sequence from Genebank. Conserved domains prediction and phylogenetic analysis showed that both six transmembrane domains and three H boxes could be found in FAD2 protein from three types of oleic acid content B. napus, respectively. BnFAD2-I and BnFAD2-II belonged to different classes and class I could be divided into two kinds. By QPCR, expression pattern of fad2 gene in different tissues showed that simple division of fad2-Iand fad2-II was not apply to all oleic acid content B. napus. By southern blot, there were differences in copy numbers of fad2 genes on different oleic acid content B. napus.

 

1459-1469 Download
32
GENETIC ITEMIZATION OF EXOTIC SUGARCANE CLONES ON THE BASIS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS
NIGHAT SEEMA, MUHAMMAD TAHIR KHAN, IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN AND SHAFQUAT YASMEEN

GENETIC ITEMIZATION OF EXOTIC SUGARCANE CLONES ON THE BASIS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS
ABSTRACT:

Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 & 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward’s linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan.

1471-1478 Download
33
EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL COMPONENTS FROM THE FRUIT PEELINGS OF SINDHRI AND LANGRA VARIETIES OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
FEROZA SHAR BALOCH, SYEDA SALEHA TAHIR, SYED TUFAIL HUSSAIN SHERAZ, NABILA SHAH JILANI, ABDUL LATIF KHOKHAR AND MUHAMMAD TAHIR RAJPUT

EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL COMPONENTS FROM THE FRUIT PEELINGS OF SINDHRI AND LANGRA VARIETIES OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
ABSTRACT:

The present study was carried out to evaluate essential oil contents found in the fruit peelings of the two varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica L.), belonging to family Anacardiaceae which is commonly called Cashew family. Genus Mangifera has about forty species in S.E. Asia and Indo Malaya region. Several Mango varieties are cultivated in many areas of Pakistan. For this study GC-MS was used for the characterization of the extracted essential oil. Two Mango varieties namely, Sindhri and Langra were selected from Mirpurkhas district. Essential oil was extracted from Mango peelings by hydro distillation method. The total 34 essential oil components ranging between 0.16-49.4% identified from the Sindhri and Langra Mango varieties. Bicyclo [4.1.0] hept-3-ene, 3, 7, 7-trimethyl-, (1S) was found abundant in both varieties with 49.46% and 47.93%, respectively. Yield of essential oil was found to be 3.25% in fresh Mango fruit peelings of Sindhri, whereas 1.04% was present in Langra variety. Result of present study indicated that peelings of Mango varieties could be used as a source of many useful components.

1479-1484 Download
34
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL AND PHYTO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTED SAMPLES OF VIOLA PILOSA
JEHAN BAKHT, MARIA KHAN PANNI AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL AND PHYTO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTED SAMPLES OF VIOLA PILOSA
ABSTRACT:

Investigation of susceptibility of medicinal plants for bacterial pathogens is significant for suitable choice of treatment. Different solvent extracted samples of Viola pilosa shoots were investigated for their antibacterial and phytochemical activities using 0.5, 1 and 2 mg disc-1 concentrations. The antibacterial bioassay was assayed by disc diffusion method against six microbes. The studies revealed that ethyl acetate extracted fractions resulted in maximum growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at 2000 µg disc-1 concentration. Similarly, Xanthomonas campestris and Klebsiella pneumonia were found more susceptible to n-butanol extract. Maximum reduction in the activity of B. subtilis and E. coli was recorded by n-hexane fractions at two mg per disc. The most susceptible microbe was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results further revealed that all the tested microbes were found completely resistant to water extracted fractions at all the tested concentrations measuring 0% ZI. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various bioactive compounds including flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, fats, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins.

1485-1489 Download
35
THE ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF OXALIS RUBRA ON SEEDLINGS OF VERONICA PERSICA UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
CAN DAI, WEN-JIE LUO, KUO LIAO, ZHONG-QIANG LI, JING PANG AND ZHENG-XIANG WANG

THE ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF OXALIS RUBRA ON SEEDLINGS OF VERONICA PERSICA UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
ABSTRACT:

Allelopathy is an important ecological mechanism in nature, which is extensively investigated and acknowledged as an innate characteristic. Less is known how the direction and strength of allelopathy may change with different environments in living plants. We studied the allelopathic potential of Oxalis rubra on seedlings of Veronica persica, a cosmopolitan weed, planted under two environments (light incubator and laboratory) with fundamental difference in light intensity. In the light incubator, O. rubra showed a moderate level of inhibition on the leaf growth of V. persica, probably due to a higher concentration or faster release of allelochemicals owing to high resource availability. On the contrary, the presence of O. rubra played a significant role in promoting the survival of V. persica seedlings in the laboratory, likely ascribed to water retention by O. rubra plants or stimulatory allelopathy in the different environment. Our study contributes to empirical investigations on how allelopathy varies with different conditions and points out the importance of environmental heterogeneity on allelopathy.

1491-1496 Download
36
ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN PROFILE AND POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF GUAIACUM OFFICINALE LINN.
SHAISTA ZEB, ANJUM PERVEEN AND MUNEEBA KHAN

ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN PROFILE AND POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF GUAIACUM OFFICINALE LINN.
ABSTRACT:

Asthma and allergic rhinitis is triggered by the pollen of trees, grasses and weeds. Guaiacum officinale L. tree is widely cultivated along with the road side. This species was selected to check its allergenic role.Pollen morphology of Guaiacum officinale was examined by Light microsco4pe (LM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollen grains of Guaiacum officinale were prolate shape, having tricolpate aperture, and rugulate tectum. Pollen protein concentration of G. officinale was determined by Bradford’s assay and qualitative protein analysis of pollen was done by SDS–PAGE(Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).Total protein content in the pollen extract was 24.28mg/g of pollen. The SDS-PAGE pollen grains protein analysis showed 07 different protein bands. The molecular weight of separated proteins ranged from 25 to 65kDa. Biochemical analysis of G. officinale pollen grains revealed the presence of low molecular weight proteins therefore it is strongly suggested that this species must be considered as a potent allergy causing species. This research would help for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the bronchial allergy suffering patients.

1497-1500 Download
37
CONFIRMATION OF RESISTANCE IN LITTLESEED CANARYGRASS (PHALARIS MINOR RETZ) TO ACCASE INHIBITORS IN CENTRAL PUNJAB-PAKISTAN AND ALTERNATIVE HERBICIDES FOR ITS MANAGEMENT
TASAWER ABBAS, MUHAMMAD ATHER NADEEM, ASIF TANVEER, AMAR MATLOOB, NAILA FAROOQ, NILDA ROMA BURGOS AND BHAGIRATH SINGH CHAUHAN

CONFIRMATION OF RESISTANCE IN LITTLESEED CANARYGRASS (PHALARIS MINOR RETZ) TO ACCASE INHIBITORS IN CENTRAL PUNJAB-PAKISTAN AND ALTERNATIVE HERBICIDES FOR ITS MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:

Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) infests wheat and other winter crops in Pakistan and many other countries. Studies were conducted in Pakistan to confirm littleseed canarygrass resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and to appraise the efficacy of other postemergence herbicides against this grassy weed. A field survey was conducted to collect putative fenoxaprop-resistant seeds from various districts of the central Punjab in March 2015. Dose-response assays were conducted in the greenhouse to confirm resistance to fenoxaprop. The response of fenoxaprop-resistant littleseed canarygrass to diverse herbicide molecules like clodinafop-propargyl, metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron was also evaluated in further dose-response bioassays. All accessions manifested variable resistance to fenoxaprop, which ranged from 2.52- to 6.00-fold. The resistant accessions also showed low-level cross-resistance (two-fold) to clodinafop. Metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron were still effective in controlling fenoxaprop-resistant canarygrass. This is the first scientific documentation of resistance to ACCase inhibitor herbicides in central Punjab, Pakistan. The use of alternative herbicides in conjunction with other agronomic practices is crucial for sustainable wheat production in the country. 

1501-1507 Download
38
METABOLIC FINGERPRINTING OF BACTERIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
AQSA ZAHEER AND ZAKIA LATIF

METABOLIC FINGERPRINTING OF BACTERIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas 

1509-1516 Download
39
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS SPP. REVEALED BY RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA FINGERPRINTING
NASIR AHMAD KHAN, RANA BINYAMIN, FAISAL SAEED AWAN, AZEEM IQBAL KHAN AND MUHAMMAD WASEEM

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS SPP. REVEALED BY RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA FINGERPRINTING
ABSTRACT:

The Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) cultivation is a profitable agribusiness and having high significance due its nutritive and therapeutic value. Due to deficient knowledge on Pleurotus mushroom genetics seven strains of Oyster mushroom, two local and five exotic were studied for their genetic diversity through RAPD markers. It was clear from similarity matrix that similarity index ranges from 45 to 72%. The cluster analysis of combined data set of all the markers resulted in three major clades, while isolate P-17 remains ungrouped and shown to be the most diverse strain of the seven. During amplification of genomic DNA yielded 70 fragments that could be scored, of which 41 were polymorphic, with an average of 2.73 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with random primers ranged from three to six. Polymorphism ranged from 0% to 83.33%, with an overall 58% polymorphism. The allele frequency of RAPD primers ranged from 0.71 to 1.00 while the polymorphic information content highest for the primer GL-C-20 (0.29) followed by the primers GL A-20 and GL C-16 that is zero, indicating medium level of polymorphism among the strains of Oyster mushroom.  The objective of the study was to characterize Pleurotus strains collected from different origins and to find out the variability at molecular level.

1517-1521 Download
40
COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CARRIERS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICACY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM FOR ENHANCING WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER SALT AFFECTED FIELD CONDITIONS
SALMAN SHAHZAD, MUHAMMAD YAHYA KHAN, ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR, HAFIZ NAEEM ASGHAR AND USMAN KHALID CHAUDHRY

COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CARRIERS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICACY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM FOR ENHANCING WHEAT PRODUCTION UNDER SALT AFFECTED FIELD CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

Salinity is one of the most crucial problems for sustainable agriculture which is severely affecting crop growth and decreasing the food production. On another hand, burgeoning population in the world demands to produce more food. So, there is a need of hours to increase agricultural production particularly cereals from salt affected soils by adopting cost effective and environment friendly approaches. Use of bio-inoculants with salt tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be a promising option to enhance the production of cereals in salt affected soils. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate different carriers compost, peat, biogas slurry and press mud along with PGPR to enhance wheat production under salinity stress. Consortium containing equal proportion of three PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus strain Y5, Bacillus sp. Y14 and Bacillus subtilis strain Y16) was used with different carriers for seed coating. Finely ground and sterilized carriers were mixed in broth and coated on the surface of wheat seeds with different carriers. Coated seeds were sown in saline field with salinity range of 10−13 dS m−1. Results revealed that multi−strain bacterial inoculation improved the gas exchange, ionic, biochemical, growth and yield attributes of wheat crop under salinity stress. However, use of different carriers further improved the efficacy of multi−strain inoculation and significantly increased growth, yield and physiological parameters of wheat. The results of compost, peat and biogas slurry as carrier for bio−inoculants were statistically similar.

1523-1530 Download
41
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF COPPER STRESS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS OF ELSHOLTZIA SPLENDENS
YUELING LI, ZEXIN JIN AND JUNMIN LI

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF COPPER STRESS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS OF ELSHOLTZIA SPLENDENS
ABSTRACT:

To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO2 concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO2saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments.

1531-1540 Download
42
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS ON SELECTION OF SYNERGISTIC HALOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA FOR INDUCING SALINITY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT
MUHAMMAD YAHYA KHAN, ZAHIR AHMAD ZAHIR, HAFIZ NAEEM ASGHAR AND EJAZ AHMAD WARAICH

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS ON SELECTION OF SYNERGISTIC HALOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA FOR INDUCING SALINITY TOLERANCE IN WHEAT
ABSTRACT:

Halotolerant bacteria having 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase activity were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and further screened for their plant growth promoting potentials in planta by using wheat as test crop under salinity stress. ACC-deaminase activity ranged from 85 to 399 nmol α-ketobutyrate mg-1 hr-1 of these rhizobacteria. In absence of L-tryptophan, out of 25 rhizobacteria, 16 were able to produce IAA equivalents while nine did not produce auxins as IAA equivalents. Production of IAA equivalents ranged from 1.45 to 12.32 µg mL-1 in absence of L-tryptophan. While, in the presence of L-tryptophan, all the 25 rhizobacteria produced auxins as IAA equivalents and it ranged from 3.10 to 34.76 µg mL-1. Out of 25 rhizobacterial isolates, seven isolates were recognized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which were statistically significant for improving growth of wheat under saline conditions. These seven halotolerant PGPR were tested for their compatibility of growth and synergism with each other. Out of 7, only three isolates were found synergistic and they showed abilities to coexist. Sequencing of rrs (16S rRNA) gene of these PGPR strains and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these 3 PGPR strains are Bacillus cereus strain Y5, Bacillus sp. Y14 and Bacillus subtilis strain Y16. It is concluded that rhizobacteria varying in ACC-deaminase activity differentially respond to influence plant growth under salinity stress. 

1541-1551 Download
43
POTATO BLACK SCURF, PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND FUNGITOXIC EFFICACY OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ISOLATES IN HILLY AREAS OF GILGIT-BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
AZHAR HUSSAIN, SHER WALI KHAN, MUHAMMAD SAEED AWAN, SARTAJ ALI, QAMMAR ABBAS, ZULFIQAR ALI AND SHAUKAT ALI

POTATO BLACK SCURF, PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND FUNGITOXIC EFFICACY OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ISOLATES IN HILLY AREAS OF GILGIT-BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Potato is the main cash crop of Gilgit-Baltistan in particular of buffer zone of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP). There are many biotic and abiotic threats to its production. Amongst them the black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major constraint. In order to assess black scurf of potato a comprehensive survey was carried out in four main valleys of the region consisting of 24 villages. The survey revealed that valley wise mean disease prevalence was high in Bagrote (63.85±9.06) and low in Haramosh (45.40±14.62). Maximum mean disease incidence and severity were recorded in Hoper valley while least disease incidence appeared in Haramosh and severity in Bagrote valley. Production practices as risk factor were assessed through a questionnaire. The majority of farmers performed activities in field that were supportive to the black scurf epidemics, such as, use of pits for storage of late harvested potato tuber for growing in next season, table potato, lack of general awareness about black scurf, not maintaining proper depth of sowing, irrigation, harvesting time and crop rotation. In vitro efficacy of three fungicides at different concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm were tested against Rhizoctonia solani isolates. Results indicated that increase of fungicide concentration significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of respective isolates. However, sensitivity reaction of each of isolates against each fungicide was also differential.  Fungicide ridomil gold and mencozeb showed more toxic effect against the fungus compared to vitavax. 

1553-1560 Download
44
INVESTIGATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC AND ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF FAGONIA INDICA L. EXTRACT AND EXTRACT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AgNPs)
IKRAM ULLAH, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI AND ALI TALHA KHALIL

INVESTIGATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC AND ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF FAGONIA INDICA L. EXTRACT AND EXTRACT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AgNPs)
ABSTRACT:

Leishmaniasis is one of the globally neglected tropical disease cause by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. In Pakistan, cutaneous leishmaniasis is more sporadic in the Afghan refugee camps, which is concern for the local villager and Pakistani population. In the current study an approache was made to synthesise biogenic silver nanoparticles using Fagonia indica leaf extract. Furthermore, the antileishmanial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated compared to the crude extracts against Leishmania tropica which is the causative agent of cutenious leishmaniasis. MTT cell viability assay was used to determine the non toxicological concentration of the extract and nanoparticle in macrophage cell lines (J774), and the antileishmanial activity. We found that silver nanoparticles are not toxic to macropage cell above 30 µg/ml. where as the IC50 against leishmania parsites was calculated as 8.16±0.63 µg/ml and 4.8±0.819 µg/ml for extract and AgNPs respectively. We also determine the infection index of the parasite in the macrophage cell. The infectivity of parasites also decreases as compared to control group after activation of macrophages. We further, evaluate the mechanism of growth inhibition using Griess reagent for the estimation of nitrogen oxide. We found that both the extract and AgNPs produce an elevated level of nitrogen oxide free radical. These radical produce oxidative stress in the cell that lead to the reduced metabolic activities of the parasites and ultimate death. Overall, the results indicate that Fagonia indica leves extract and AgNPs are potent antileishmanial agents.

1561-1568 Download
45
BIOSYNTHESIS OF ERGOT ALKALOIDS FROM PENICILLIUM COMMUNE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)
MEMUNA GHAFOOR SHAHID, SHAHJAHAN BAIG, MUHAMMAD NADEEM, TANZEEM AKBAR CHEEMA, RUBINA NELOFAR AND MUHAMMAD SALEEM

BIOSYNTHESIS OF ERGOT ALKALOIDS FROM PENICILLIUM COMMUNE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)
ABSTRACT:

The present study employed the response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical technique, for the identification, screening and optimization of fermentation factors to produce ergot alkaloids under laboratory conditions by Penicillium commune. The static surface culture fermentation technique helped to enhance the production of ergot alkaloids. In the first step Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of ten factors, including nine ingredients of fermentation medium and one process parameter. It was found that sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO4.7H2O played the pivotal role in enhancing the yield of ergot alkaloids. In the second step, the effect of concentration levels of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO4.7H2O was further optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) under the same fermentation conditions. The optimized concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO4.7H2O were 41%, 39% and 0.11% respectively, which significantly enhanced the yield of ergot alkaloids.

1569-1578 Download
46
CORRELATION BETWEEN SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SOIL-BORNE MYCOFLORA IN CUCUMBER TUNNELS
HALIMA QUDSIA, ARSHAD JAVAID, RASHID MAHMOOD AND NAUREEN AKHTAR

CORRELATION BETWEEN SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SOIL-BORNE MYCOFLORA IN CUCUMBER TUNNELS
ABSTRACT:

Twelve soil samples were collected from fields of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) tunnels from various localities of Lahore and Shekhupura districts, Pakistan. Soil samples were analyzed for various characteristics viz. pH, ECe, organic matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil mycoflora was isolated using dilution plate method. Soil pH, ECe, organic matter, N, P and K were in the range of 7.42–8.13, 107–2520 (µS cm-1), 0.98–1.40%, 0.039–0.070%, 7–357 mg kg-1 and 88–946 mg kg-1 in different soil samples, respectively. A total of 18 fungal species belonging to 10 genera viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Emericella, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium and Sclerotium were isolated from various soil samples. Saprophytic fungi were more prevalent than pathogenic ones. Number of colonies of saprophytic fungi ranged from 360–2754 g-1 soil in different samples. In contrast, number of pathogenic fungal colonies were limited to 1–234 g-1 soil. Number of colonies of pathogenic fungi were positively and significantly correlated with soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. This study concludes that high nitrogen and organic matter in cucumber tunnels favour population of pathogenic fungi. 

1579-1583 Download
47
EVALUATION OF TOMATO GENOTYPES AGAINST TOMATO MOSAIC VIRUS (ToMV) AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS
NAJEEB ULLAH, ASAD ALI, MUSHARAF AHMAD, MUHAMMAD FAHIM, NASEERUD DIN AND FAYAZ AHMAD

EVALUATION OF TOMATO GENOTYPES AGAINST TOMATO MOSAIC VIRUS (ToMV) AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS
ABSTRACT:

The use of resistant varieties is an effective, economic and environment friendly management of plant diseases particularly those caused by viruses. This paper reports, evaluation of 21 different tomato genotypes to find out resistance sources against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and to study effect of the virus on yield contributing parameters. The virus identity was confirmed both by Direct Antibody Coating Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (DAC-ELISA) and differential host assay. Characteristic necrotic lesions were observed on differential hosts viz., Nicotiana tabacum var. White burly and Chenopodium amaranticolor after10 and 3-4 days of inoculation, respectively. Upon ToMV inoculation, plants of accession No. 017902 developed no symptoms and were rated as highly resistant. Its resistance was further confirmed by both DAC-ELISA and indicator host assay, while the remaining genotypes displayed a range of symptoms. Plants of accession No. 017883 showed lowest percent disease index (PDI) and were rated as resistant, while plants of cultivar Red jumbo showed maximum PDI (44.97%) and were rated as susceptible. In susceptible genotypes average ELISA absorbance A405 value (2.19) was found higher than resistant one (1.05), while in control healthy plants ELISA absorbance A405 was 0.18. Maximum virus titre 2.73 and 0.91 were found in leaf and root tissues of cultivar Red jumbo, respectively. Among tested genotypes, one was highly resistant, one resistant, four moderately susceptible and 15 were susceptible. The virus significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the yield contributing parameters i.e. plant height, fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight in susceptible genotypes.

1585-1592 Download
48
OCCURRENCE OF FRUIT-ROT OF CHILLI IN SINDH AND THEIR BIOMANAGEMENT UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
FAISAL HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD ABID, IRAM US SALAM, MUHAMMADI, FARZANA, MUHAMMAD AKBAR AND ALAMDAR HUSSAIN

OCCURRENCE OF FRUIT-ROT OF CHILLI IN SINDH AND THEIR BIOMANAGEMENT UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

The fungal pathogens were isolated from the affected samples of Chilli plants collected from different areas of Sindh. The affected fruits/pods of chilli were collected from the centrally located large godowns and small storing units for the identification and isolation of fungi. Fruits/pods were significantly infected by Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. terreus. During the study, it was observed that Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were extensively and intensively infecting the fruit of Chilli crop. Four antagonistic fungi, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium commune and Trichoderma harzianum were screened against the above mentioned plant pathogenic fungi In vitro which suppressed the growth of pathogenic fungi. In addition, it disclosed that T. harzianum and P. lilacinus were found antagonistic against Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. terreus and A. niger as it resulted a strong suppressive effect on the growth and mycelial development.

1593-1597 Download
49
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MYROTHECIUM LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. CAUSED BY MYROTHECIUM RORIDUM TODE IN AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
SUMERA NAZ, SALIK NAWAZ KHAN, JAFARGHOLI IMANI, GHULAM MOHY-UD-DIN AND SHUMAILA FAROOQ

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MYROTHECIUM LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. CAUSED BY MYROTHECIUM RORIDUM TODE IN AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

A series of field surveys were carried out during July-October 2012-14 for the development of disease distribution map and updating the index of Myrothecium leaf spot of Momordica charantia (Bitter gourd) in Punjab province. A total of 29 districts were surveyed belonging to 9 sub agro ecological zones of Punjab. The index was calculated on the basis of incidence, prevalence and severity of the disease. The information from stakeholders was gathered through field scouting, formal and informal discussions. Data on socioeconomics was collected by a structured questionnaire. The symptomatic plants and soil specimens were collected form diseased field and transferred to lab for onward studies on host-pathogen characterization and management. Infection development on the plant was investigated on a (0-5) visual severity rating scale. Fungus was isolated, identified on morphological and molecular characteristics as Myrothecium roridum and cultures were deposited to First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan (Accession # FCBP 1155) and Leibniz-institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Germany (Accession # DSM 28971). Data gathered highlighted dominance of the disease in mixed cropping zone of Punjab province. Highest disease index (31%) was recorded in mixed cropping zone and lowest (3%) in D.G khan zone. However its severity may vary due to adopted cultural and chemical practices by individual farmers. The investigations strengthen the involvement of irrigation technique, soil type and cropping history in introduction and sporadic occurrence of the disease.

1599-1604 Download
50
PATHOGENIC CHARACTERIZATION OF LASIODIPLODIA CAUSING STEM END ROT OF MANGO AND ITS CONTROL USING BOTANICALS
SADIA FIDA ULLAH, YAWAR HUSSAIN AND SHAZIA IRAM

PATHOGENIC CHARACTERIZATION OF LASIODIPLODIA CAUSING STEM END ROT OF MANGO AND ITS CONTROL USING BOTANICALS
ABSTRACT:

Two widely cultivated mango fruit varieties White chounsa and Sindhri were collected from two major mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh Provinces of Pakistan. This study was focused on pathological characterization of predominant postharvest diseases such as stem end rot of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and evaluation of bio-control activity by different plant extracts. L. theobromae aggressiveness of isolates was tested by artificial inoculations under controlled conditions, all isolates proved pathogenic in varying degree of aggressiveness on (Sindhri and White chounsa) with reference to control. Calculated standard error mean varied in lesion area produced by pathogens 6–63cm2 (Sindhri) and 60-170 cm2 (White chounsa). Re-isolation of respective fungi verified the Koch’s postulates. Plant extract of Datura stramonium, Aloe-vera, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, were used to control the radial growth of L. theobromae. Comparative analysis showed D. Stramonium and E. camaldulensis extracts most efficiently reduced the growth of Lasiodiplodia isolates, in comparison to Aloe-vera extract, restrict the 15-20% growth. All pathological results and treatments were significant at p<0.05 through ANOVA. This study emphasizes the behavior of pathogens which could be helpful in mango breeding to introduce resistance toward Lasiodiplodia and referred plants provide the best alternative of chemical fungicides. 

1605-1613 Download
51
CONTROLLING FUSARIUM WILT DISEASE IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) USING TILLERED ONION BULB EXTRACT
ZHANG YUSHU, QIU GUO, ZHANG YANAN, LI YUTING AND WANG XUEZHENG

CONTROLLING FUSARIUM WILT DISEASE IN MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) USING TILLERED ONION BULB EXTRACT
ABSTRACT:

Melon wilt disease is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. This disease incur of the heavy economic loss in melon crops. To decrease damage to melons, many control methods have been developed. However, many of the current control methods have limitations and disadvantages. For example, fungicides may cause health concerns for both humans and the environment due to high toxin content and the presence of residues. Therefore, biological control methods that reduce or eliminate the risk of environmental contamination and threats to human health are urgently needed to solve these issues and to protect melon crops from wilt disease.In this research, we assessed the efficacy of tillered onion bulb extract (TOE) for biocontrol of melon wilt disease in melon. Different concentrations of the TOE have been shown to have inhibitory effects on Fusariumspore germination and growth, pathogenic bacterial biomass, and fungal sporulation, with increased inhibitory effects at higher TOE concentrations. In melon wilt disease, concentrations of TOE greater than 250 mg/mL produced the highest protective effects in both susceptible and resistant melon cultivars. The disease index in resistant varieties was 18%, and the disease control effect was 63.51%, while the disease index in susceptible varieties was 21.41%, and the disease control effect reached 65.96%. These values indicate stronger control effects than those achieved using 40% Ning WP melon blight. High concentrations (over 500 mg/mL) of TOE had strong inhibitory effects on melon seed germination and the activity of protective enzymes in melon cultivars. 

1615-1623 Download