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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue 5
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
Identification of candidate proteins and networks related to salinity stress in shrub willow roots by comparative proteomic analysis
Sui Dezong, Wang Baosong, Xu Lian and Shi Shizheng

Identification of candidate proteins and networks related to salinity stress in shrub willow roots by comparative proteomic analysis
ABSTRACT:

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit plant growth. To understand the mechanism of shrub willow clones roots in response to salt stress and explore candidate proteins for plant breeding associated with salt stress, the total proteins from seedling roots of salt-sensitive cultivar JW9-6 and salt-tolerant cultivar JW2372 under salt stress for 2, 12 and 72 h, respectively, were analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis. Finally, 109 differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. By analyzing and camparing functions of the differentially expressed proteins, obtaining the conclusions as follows: 1) the majority functions including BP (metabolic process and protein folding), CC (cytoplasm and cell) and MF (cofactor, coenzyme binding and isomerase activity), regulated by root proteins, were differences between JW9-6 (salt-sensitive) and JW2372 (salt-tolerance) under salt stress; 2) six pathways were changed by salt stress, including pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, and cysteine and methionine metabolism; 3) the five proteins including glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, ATP synthase epsilon chain, phosphoglycerate kinase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 4 and adenosine kinase, could be candidate proteins for plant breeding associated with salt stress; 4) differences from the salt-responsive pathways between leaves and roots in the shrub willow clones could provide an important strategy for forest tree breeding involved in salt tolerance.

1627-1640 Download
2
Occurrence, comparative growth and composition of Tribulus terrestris L. under variable in-situ water stress
Ihsanullah Daur, Zahid H. Shah, Muhammad Z. Ihsan, Shahzad Ali, Muhammad Waqas, Hafiz M. Rehman, Abdallah A. Al-Feel, Ali K. Elsafori and Sayed S. Sohrab

Occurrence, comparative growth and composition of Tribulus terrestris L. under variable in-situ water stress
ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants are widely used in the present-day economy, and therefore, their study is of considerable interest both to botanists and to pharmacologists. Till date, few studies have been carried out on the economic valuation of medicinal plants growing under drought-stressed and unstressed natural in-situ conditions. In the present study, T. terrestris L. plants, which have not been investigated with respect to the above objective, were collected from different geographical and climatic conditions during 2015—2016, and their occurrence, comparative growth, and chemical compositions were determined. The results of the study indicated heterogeneous distribution of T. terrestris L. across the study area. The plant growth parameters including the number of stems plant-1, average length of stems, number of leaves plant-1, number of flowers plant-1, fresh biomass plant-1 and dry biomass plant-1 were found to decrease because of drought stress. However, the chemical composition, including total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, ferric-reducing ability of plasma assay (μM FeSO4 g-1), and free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition (%), and saponin content increased with drought stress. Mineral composition of plants was found to decrease with drought stress. Thus, the findings of this study are expected to be beneficial to researchers and medicinal plant businesses.

1641-1646 Download
3
Characterization of jasmonic acid-induced phenols in Vigna radiata under salt stress
Sirhindi Geetika, Ruqia Mushtaq, Mudasser Ahmad Mir, Mohammad Nassar Alyemeni, Pravej Alam and Parvaiz Ahmad

Characterization of jasmonic acid-induced phenols in Vigna radiata under salt stress
ABSTRACT:

The present study examined the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, quantitative and qualitative assay of phenolic compounds in 7-day-old Vigna radiata sprouts exposed to salt stress (130 mM NaCl). NaCl stress decreases root and shoot length and chlorophyll content as compared to control. However exogenous application of JA was found to ameliorate both root and shoot length and increase chlorophyll content of NaCl fed sprouts. JA enhances the activity of PAL, thus, raising the total levels of phenols and flavonoids. Our study demonstrates that exogenous JA can induce the production of phenolic acids (gallic acid and chlorogenic acid), simple phenols (catechol) and flavonoids (quercetin and flavones). These results support the hypothesis that JA alleviates salt stress by increasing the antioxidant potential of salt-exposed mung bean sprouts, thus, enhancing the health-boosting compounds in food plants.

1647-1654 Download
4
Promotive effects of epibrassinolide on plant growth, fruit yield, antioxidant, and mineral nutrition of saline stressed tomato plants
Selcuk Soylemez, Cengiz Kaya and Sema Karakas Dikilitas

Promotive effects of epibrassinolide on plant growth, fruit yield, antioxidant, and mineral nutrition of saline stressed tomato plants
ABSTRACT:

An experiment was designed in a glasshouse to test the mitigation effects of exogenously applied 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.cv. ‘H2274 F1’) plants grown at saline regime. The plants were subjected to 0 or 100 mMNaCl 10 days after germination and they were further grown for a week. At 17 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 0.5 or 1.0 µM EBL. Salinity resulted in significant decreases in dry matter, fruit yield, leaf water potential, leaf relative water content and maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm), but increased proline content, electrolyte leakage (EL), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and activities of enzymes such as, catalase (CAT; EC. 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1),and peroxidase (POD; EC. 1.11.1.7) in plants as compared to those in non-stressed plants. However, foliar application of EBL enhanced basic growth parameters, water relations and reduced the antioxidant enzymes, proline content, electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 and MDA contents. Salt stress enhanced root:shoot ratio, leaf sodium (Na+) contents and Na+:K+ ratio, but reduced mineral nutrients such as, phosphorus (P),  nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca2+ ) and potassium (K+) in the leaves and roots of both cultivars. Both doses of EBL resulted in increased N, P, K+ and Ca2+contents, whereas decreased Na+ in salt stressed plants. The findings indicate that foliar application of EBL can mitigate damage caused by salinity stress on tomato plants by lowering the levels of Na, H2O2, MDA, electrolyte leakage and increasing activities of key antioxidant enzymes in the leaves.

1655-1661 Download
5
Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the physiological characteristics of Indocalamus barbatus McClure seedlings under acid rain stress
Tao Wang, Wanhong Yang, Yinfeng Xie, Mei He, Xing Bu and Li Dai

Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the physiological characteristics of Indocalamus barbatus McClure seedlings under acid rain stress
ABSTRACT:

The effects of four concentrations (100, 400, 700, and 1000 mg/L) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, adonor of NO) on physiological characteristics were investigated in the leaves of bamboo (Indocalamus barbatus McClure) seedlings exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR; pH3.0) stress.The results showed that a foliar application of 100 - 400 mg/L SNP pretreatment mitigates the SAR-inflicted decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll (SPAD) content, soluble protein (SP) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the increase in peroxidase (POD) activity as well as in preventing an increase in membrane permeability (MP) and superoxide anion radical generation rate (O2­.). This promoting effect was most pronounced at 400 mg/L SNP treatment, which also exhibited a time-dependent effect. However, seedlings subjected to higher concentrations of SNP such as 700 or 1000 mg/L showed little recovery from damage, and even showed signs of toxic damage, demonstrating the concentration-dependent effect of NO against acid rain. Further analysis showed that acid rain exposure caused oxidative stress by elevating MP and O2­. in I. barbatus seedlings. Treatment with 400 mg/L SNP partly alleviated the acid rain toxicity by reducing O2­. and stimulating SOD and POD activities. The recovery of Pn, SPAD, and SP was also significantly correlated with oxidative status in the seedlings. Moreover, the changes in the physiological indicators mentioned above, were consistent with the morphological observations. Based on these results, it can be concluded that SNP exerted an advantageous effect on alleviating the inhibitory effect of acid rain by regulating the balance of ROS metabolism and reducing the accumulation of ROS. 

1663-1672 Download
6
Effects of soil drought stress on plant regeneration efficiency and endogenous hormone levels of immature embryos in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Xiaomin Bie, Ke Wang, Chang Liu, Yongwei Liu, Lipu Du, Xinguo Mao and Xingguo Ye

Effects of soil drought stress on plant regeneration efficiency and endogenous hormone levels of immature embryos in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
ABSTRACT:

In this study, the water supply in soil for wheat mother donor plants was controlled, leading to drought stress conditions, and the relative soil water content (RSWC) was measured in different soil depths. The immature embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 13 days post anthesis (DPA) were used to test regeneration capacity. The accumulation of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) including abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the wheat embryos grown under the two conditions was measured. The results indicated that RSWC difference between the drought treatment and the irrigated control was more than 13% at the various soil depths, with the maximum difference was observed at 40 cm depth. Tissue culture evaluation showed that the plant regeneration efficiency of the immature embryos grown under drought stress treatment was significantly higher than that of the tissues grown under the control condition. Assay for PGR found that the drought stress caused obviously increased concentration of endogenous ABA and H2O2, and slightly decreased level of IAA in the target tissues. Therefore, it seems that the concentration of endogenous ABA, IAA, and H2O2 in immature wheat embryos is very important in regeneration capacity. Drought stress can improve the regeneration capacity by changing the levels of ABA, IAA, and H2O2. Our results would be helpful to efficient development of genetically modified wheat plants through improvement of regeneration via manipulating the endogenous PGRs.

1673-1679 Download
7
Photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence reaction to different shade stresses of weak light sensitive maize
Jian Wang, Haijiao Huang, Sen Jia, Xuemei Zhong, Fenghai Li, Kuangye Zhang and Zhensheng Shi

Photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence reaction to different shade stresses of weak light sensitive maize
ABSTRACT:

A split-plot experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different shade stresses on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize leaves.The experiment was designed on the south farm of Special Corn Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, China.Data was collected from the day maize tasseled (Jul. 21) to the beginning of grouting (Aug.12 ) under 18%, 28%, 38%, 60%, and 75% shade stress to determine indexes such as photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence after 15 days of shade treatment. Pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Shennong 98A (a barren stalk inbred line) and Shennong 98B (an un-barren stalk inbred line) were used as experimental materials to further reveal photosynthetic mechanisms of weak light sensitive maize when exposed to weak light conditions. Thus, a foundation was establishedfor high density-resistant (shade resistant) corn breeding,while identifying weak light sensitive varieties. After shading treatment, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll content of both varieties increased, chlorophyll b content first increased, followed by a decrease, while the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance showed a gradually decreasing trend. The changing trends of photochemical quenching coefficient(qp) and effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII)were similar, ΦPSII and qP increased significantly as shading stress increased from 18% to 38%;however, ΦPSII and qP declined significantly under 60% and 75% shading stresses. The changing trend of NPQ was opposite to ΦPSII and qP. A comparison of both inbred lines showed that photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Shennong 98B were superior to Shennong 98A. This study revealed the relationships between weak light sensitive lines and shade intensities by comparing differences in photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters.

1681-1688 Download
8

Response and stevioside levels of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) grown at different light intensity and water availability


Diah Rachmawati, Sudjino and Isna Jati Asiyah

Response and stevioside levels of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) grown at different light intensity and water availability


ABSTRACT:

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has a great potency to be cultivated and developed as a raw material for natural sweetener, sugar cane substitution, and as synthetic sugar substitution because it has sweetness level of 300 times higher than sugar cane. Suitable cultivation techniques are needed to increase crop productivity. Whereas environmental factors such as light intensity and water availability play an important role on plant growth and development. The objectives of this research was to study the response and stevioside level of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) grown at different light intensities and water availability. The experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design consisted of two factors: light intensities (100%, 50%, and 25%) and water availability (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of feld capacity). The variables observed were the plant height, number of nodes, number of leaves, plant biomass, shoot-root ratio, chlorophyll content, density and stomata index and stevioside level. The results showed that the light intensity and water availability significantly affected growth attibutes,  but there was no effect on levels of chlorophyll as well as the density and index of stomata. Light intensity of 100% and water availability of 100% caused a greater increased of plant height, number of nodes, number of leaves, and plant biomass compared to other treatments. Stevioside level tended to increase at low light intensity, whereas water availability did not affect the stevioside level. 

1689-1695 Download
9
Growth attributes and distributional pattern of halophytic Cyperus laevigatus L. along salinity and altitude gradients
Mehwish Naseer, Mansoor Hameed, Farooq Ahmad and Shahzad Maqsood Ahmad Basra

Growth attributes and distributional pattern of halophytic Cyperus laevigatus L. along salinity and altitude gradients
ABSTRACT:

To examine the growth response and distributional pattern of a potential hydro-halophyte, Cyperus laevigatus L., a detailed survey of Punjab province was conducted. Sixteen habitats possessing different salinity and altitude levels were explored and different soil and eco-morphological parameters were assessed. C. laevigatus growing at Pakka Anna with heavily sat-affected sandy loam soil and low altitude showed the maximum growth, however, many other habitats with higher salinity and low altitude showed reduced growth like Sangla Hill and Sargodha as compared to Pakka Anna. Therefore, it was concluded that distribution and growth of C. laevigatus was not due to either salinity or altitude, but depends on the combined effect of many environmental factors like soil texture, ECe, altitude etc. however, the degree of tolerance of this species was extremely high not only along salinity but also with altitude

1697-1707 Download
10
Growth, physiological responses and secondary metabolite production in Pinellia ternata under different light intensities
Yuhang Chen, Yun Chen, Qiaosheng Guo, Guosheng Zhu, Changlin Wang and Zuoyi Liu

Growth, physiological responses and secondary metabolite production in Pinellia ternata under different light intensities
ABSTRACT:

Pinellia ternate (Thunb.) Breit (Araceae) is a shade-tolerant perennial medicinal plant, but its optimum light intensity is not sufficiently known. Hence, the influence of light intensity on the physiological responses, growth and secondary metabolic products in P. ternata under four light conditions (15%, 25%, 45% and 100% of full sunlight) in a greenhouse were to be investigated. The results show that the fresh and dry tuber weight, leaf area, tuber number and propagation index were highest in P. ternata grown under the intermediate light level (45% sunlight). In contrast, 15% sunlight induced the lowest growth parameters but the highest plant height. Sunlight from 15% to 45% significantly increased the chlorophyll concentration compared to that under full sunlight conditions. Moreover, 100% sunlight enhanced the POD and CAT activities and induced MDA, total alkaloid, guanosineand succinic acid accumulation. The maximum yields of total alkaloids, guanosineand succinic acid occurred under 45% sunlight. Overall, 45% sunlight was the most efficient way of improving the tuber yields and qualities of P. ternata. These results suggest that P. ternata is suitable for growth in a moderate-low-light environment and an appropriate light control can produce higher tuber and secondary metabolite yields within agroforestry systems.

1709-1716 Download
11
Diurnal and seasonal variations in photosynthesis, leaf water potential and soil water content of six alfalfa cultivars on the semiarid Loess Plateau
Z. Wang, J. B. Liu, J. Chen, M. Li, G.X. Su, B.C. Xu and J. Huang

Diurnal and seasonal variations in photosynthesis, leaf water potential and soil water content of six alfalfa cultivars on the semiarid Loess Plateau
ABSTRACT:

Leaf photosynthesis, leaf water potential and soil water content were compared among six commonly used alfalfa cultivars (i.e. Polaris, Alfalfaqueen, Algonquin, Sanditi, Ningxia, and Xinjiang Daye) in a semiarid region on the Loess Plateau from May to September 2014. Daily leaf water potential (ψL) was monitored at four-hour intervals at 6:00, 10:00, 14:00 and 18:00. Leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN) and transpiration rate (E) were measured at two-hour intervals on the same day from 6:00 to 18:00. The variation trend and difference of ψL, PN and E were analyzed among the six alfalfa cultivars. Cv. Polaris had significantly lower instantaneous and daily mean value in May, and there were no significant differences in other five cultivars and in other three months. Cvs. Ningxia and Xinjiang Daye had relatively lower daily mean PN value among the six cultivars in each month. Cv. Algonquin showed lower water potential gradient between ψML and ψSL in each month among the six cultivars. Our results suggest that introduced cultivars of alfalfa have similar fluctuations in photosynthesis and leaf water status as domestic cultivars, while they have relatively higher PN and water use efficiency (WUE), which is favorable for them to quickly adapt to the environment.

1717-1724 Download
12
Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China
Sehrish Sadia, Jin-Tun Zhang, Akash Tariq, Xiaohang Bai, Arshad Ali Shedayi, Ke Cao, Paras Mazari, Sidra Aslam and Latif Ahmad

Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China
ABSTRACT:

Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry.

1725-1734 Download
13
Leaf phenology characteristics of greening tree species and implications for greening in coastal saline land
Xiaolei Zhao, Hong Jiang, Hongyu Du, Bin He and Yongli Cai

Leaf phenology characteristics of greening tree species and implications for greening in coastal saline land
ABSTRACT:

Phenological characteristics of greening tree species in coastal saline land can not only determine the best afforestation time, but also guide the landscape configuration of plant communities. Taking 28 greening tree species in coastal saline area as the study objects, we investigated and analyzed the leaf emergence and leaf abscission phenology for one year in 2015. We found that the beginning of leaf emergence was from mid-March to early May, 2015 and mainly concentrated in the mid to late April, 2015 and the ending of leaf emergence was from early April to late May, 2015. Afforestation time for introducing 28 greening tree species was suggested from March to May. The beginning of leaf abscission ranged from early October to early November, 2015 and was mainly concentrated in October, 2015, while the ending of leaf abscission ranged from early November, 2015 to early January, 2016 and mainly concentrated in the period from late November to late December, 2015. According to the time of leaf emergence and the time of leaf abscission, the 28 tree species were divided into four categories. Tree species in the same category had the relative synchronicities and were similar in phenological matching relationship in leaf emergence and leaf abscission phenology. Therefore, they had certain mutual replacement function in landscape configuration. Landscape configuration of tree species could be conducted according to time of leaf emergence and leaf abscission. Tree species with early or late leaf emergence time and with early or late leaf abscission time could be planted together.

1735-1742 Download
14
Comparison of species richness and diversity at natural stands and plantations of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.)
Hüseyin Bariş Tecimen, Orhan Sevgi, Muhammet Akkaya, Ece Sevgi, Çağla Kizilarslan Hançer and Ernaz Altundağ Çakir

Comparison of species richness and diversity at natural stands and plantations of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.)
ABSTRACT:

In recent years, plantation areas are criticized for the reduction of species diversity and deterioration of habitat quality. The effects of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations on species diversity were investigated in this study to enlighten the situation. A total of 73 sample areas were investigated from north western Turkey (Biga-Çanakkale) region, including 25 native and 48 plantation areas. Taxa of the sample areas were identified and species diversity and similarity analysis was performed. We found significantly lower number of plant species at plantation areas than natural areas at Pekmezli (4 yr old stand) and Kargı Çiftliği (25 yr old stand) blocks with p values 0.016 and 0.005 respectively. Shannon-Wiener index values of plantation areas were found to be 3.04 and 3.23 with p values 0.027 and 0.007 in Pekmezli and Kargı Çiftliği respectively. The Sorensen similarity analysis showed that, there was a higher similarity pattern in natural areas than in plantation areas. It was concluded that the plantation activities only in the areas of Pekmezli and Kargı Çiftliği negatively affected the number of species and diversity index values. 

1743-1748 Download
15
Dendroecological studies of Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don along the elevational gradient of Manaslu conservation area, Nepal Himalaya
Prabinarana, Dinesh R. Bhuju, Madan Koirala and Chuenchit Boonchird

Dendroecological studies of Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don along the elevational gradient of Manaslu conservation area, Nepal Himalaya
ABSTRACT:

The increase in temperature due to global warming is affecting forest ecosystems worldwide. At the treeline ecotone growth is usually restricted by low temperatures. Recently, the impacts of climate change have been visible with the upward shift of the Himalaya fir (Abies spectabilis) in Nepal. Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don grows at the treeline ecotone and subalpine forest. Hardly any studies have been carried on this species in Nepal. The local people have reported that this species has been seen colonizing upper altitude in recent years, however, these needs to be verified with dendroecological studies. The study aims to assess the response of R. campanulatum to climatic variability and to evaluate the relationship of its basal diameter (Groundline) and age using dendroecological methods. Results reveal that the basal diameter was found to be significantly correlated with age (r2= 0.824, p<0.00001). Using the basal diameter age equations, attempts were made to study the age distribution along the altitudinal gradient. The species limit was observed at 4090 m asl. The age structure differed along the altitudinal gradient with multi age cohorts below the treeline and younger cohorts above the treeline. Results show that this species is migrating up at a rate of 24.7m per decade.

1749-1755 Download
16
Angiospermic fossilpollen isolated fromthe shele of Bara formation, Rani Kot, Sindh, Pakistan
Shabab Ali Khan, Basir Ahmed, Syeda Salehatahir, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Fahim Arshad and Humaira Naz

Angiospermic fossilpollen isolated fromthe shele of Bara formation, Rani Kot, Sindh, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:

The present paper describes a variety of pollen obtained through maceration procedure from the carbonaceous shale of Bara Formation located near Ranikot Fort, Sindh, Pakistan. Pollen are attributed to following angiospermic families ’viz. Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Nymphaeaceae and Myricaceae. The data inferred from the research work revealed that climatic conditions of the region were warm humid tropical to sub-tropical at the time of the deposition of Bara Formation.

1757-1761 Download
17
Hypericum ekerii (Hypericaceae), a new species from Turkey
Ebru Yüce Babacan, Zeki Aytaç and Münevver Pinar

Hypericum ekerii (Hypericaceae), a new species from Turkey
ABSTRACT:

Hypericum ekerii Yüce & Aytaç sp. nov. (Hypericaceae) is described and illustrated from Düzgün Baba Mountain in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The new taxon grows on volcanic rocks in Tunceli Province. It is closely related to H. capitatum Choisy s.l. an Irano-Turanian element of Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters were discussed. The pollen characters of threetaxa were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

1763-1768 Download
18
Anatomical and pharmacognostic study of Iphiona grantioides (Boiss.) Anderb. and Pluchea arguta Boiss. subsp. glabra Qaiser
Shahida Naveed, Muhammad Ibrar, Inayatullah and Muhammad Qasim Kakar

Anatomical and pharmacognostic study of Iphiona grantioides (Boiss.) Anderb. and Pluchea arguta Boiss. subsp. glabra Qaiser
ABSTRACT:

Anatomical and pharmacognostic study of two plants Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra of family asteraceae was carried out during 2014. Iphiona grantioides is a perennial herb, with soft aerial parts and woody base, covered with glandular trichomes. Pluchea arguta.subsp. glabra is an erect, branched, stout shrub having pungent smell, with terete and glabrous stem with obovate, dentate, sessile, glabrous leaves  varying  1.5 to 3cm in length and  0.3 to 2.0 cm in  width. In Iphiona grantioides, stomatal number and stomatal index value were 120 to 150 (130) and 12 to 15 (13) per mm2. Vein iselet and vein termination number were 8 to 10 (9) and 7 to 10 (8) per mm2 respectively, while the palisade ratio ranged between 5 to 6 (6.75). In Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra stomatal number and stomatal index value were in the range of 110 to 160 (130) and 10 to 12 (11) per mm2 and vein iselet and vein termination number were 10 to 12 (11) and 6 to 9 (8) per mm2 respectively, with 6 to 7 (7.5) palisade ratio. Anatomical study of stems of both Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra, share almost same features. Higher total ash content was recorded for stem (7.06%) compared to leaf value (3.33%) for Iphiona. In Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra total ash values were in the range of 7.82% (leaf), 6.12% (stem) to 5.6% (root). Leaf powder of Iphiona grantioides and Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra showed presence of  different tissues. Powder drug exhibited fluorescence when treated with different reagents under UV and ordinary day light. Results of extraction with solvents revealed that highest extractive values were observed for the leaf aqueous extract of Iphiona grantioides (46.2%), and leaf ethyl acetate extract of Pluchea arguta subsp. glabra (30%). The present study will be helpful in the identification of these two important medicinal plants. 

1769-1777 Download
19
The epiphytic bryophyte flora and vegetation of Boraboy and Destek forests (Amasya, Turkey)
Mevlüt Alataş, Nevzat Batan, Tülay Ezer and Güray Uyar

The epiphytic bryophyte flora and vegetation of Boraboy and Destek forests (Amasya, Turkey)
ABSTRACT:

In this study, epiphytic bryophyte flora and vegetation were investigated of Boraboy and Destek forests in Amasya province (Turkey). A total of 22 bryophyte taxa (19 mosses, 3 liverworts) were recorded in the research site. As a result of the investigation of 32 sampling releves taken from the trunks by the Braun-Blanquet method, two epiphytic bryophyte associations (Orthotrichetum pallentisand Orthotrichetum striati) belonging to the Ulotion crispaealliance were detected. Among these syntaxa Orthotrichetum pallentiswas recorded for the first time from Turkey. Furthermore, the life forms and life strategies spectrum in syntaxa were analyzed. Analysis result indicates a distinct correlation between life forms, strategies and ecological conditions of the area. Weft and cushion are dominant life forms, Perennial stayers with high sexual reproductive effort is dominant life strategy in the syntaxa. In addition, the ecological characteristics of bryophyte taxa were evaluated. According to these results the largest number of epiphytic bryophytes in the area are mesophytic, sciophyte and subneutrophyte. 

1779-1786 Download
20
Medicinal plant diversity use for gynecological disorders among the rural communities of northern Pakistan
Shehla Shinwari, Mushtaq Ahmad, Guolin Zhang, Sarwat Jahan and Shazia Sultana

Medicinal plant diversity use for gynecological disorders among the rural communities of northern Pakistan
ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to documentation of medicinal plants specifically used for gynecological disorders by the rural communities of, Northern Pakistan. Ethnomedicinal data was collected from 156 informants, including local people and traditional healers, through a well- structured questionnaire which falls under the category of participatory rural appraisal (PRA). The informants reported 67 plant species belonging 62 genera of 43 families used to treat gynecological disorders. Among the plant parts used, leaves were found to be highly utilized (28 %) followed by roots (25%), whole plant (21%), seeds (9%), bark (7%), flowers (4%), fruits (4%) and bulb (2%). Methods of preparation fall into various categories like decoction (37%), fresh parts (14%), infusion (9%), powder (9%), paste (9%), boiled (3%), extract (9%), juice, latex and poultice (1.5%). Folk treatment of gynecological disorders is prevalent among the indigenous communities of the area due to its remoteness and limited modern medical facilities. The survey reports sixty seven plants used to treat thirty one gynecological disorders which provide a baseline data for further pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

1787-1799 Download
21
Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution from vehicular emissions in district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Syeda Sadiqa Firdous, Safina Naz, Hamayun Shaheen and Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar

Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution from vehicular emissions in district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:

In the present study epiphytic lichen mapping was done by Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) for the assessment of impact of vehicular pollution on lichen diversity in the Hajira city and its north sites of District Poonch Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Vehicular emission is one of the sources of air pollution in the cities. Six transects and 25 sites (4 sites each 5km distance/transect with Hajira City (HC at 0km) as common site were selected for the present study.  It is recorded that on increasing distance from the HC lichens diversity also increased. Lowest IAP value 38 at 0 km and highest 145 at 15 or 20 km distance was recorded. However some sites at a distance of 20 km showed decreased trend in lichen taxa because of undulating topography, change in zonation with changes in selection of trees and wind pattern. In the data higher IAP value indicated better air quality. A total of 42 lichens species were recorded from the study sites. Based on Ecological Index (Q), Ramalina fraxinia, Flavoparmelia flavientior, Xanthoria ucrainica, X. candelaria, Parmelia minarum, Physconia grisea, Parmelina carporrhizans, Parmelia squarrosa, P. succinata P. hyperopta, Bulbothrix laevigatula, Hypogymnia physodes, Melanelixia fulginosa, Lepraria finkii, etc., were sensitive in response to air pollution in the study area. It is concluded that IAP is a good approach in determination of air quality using bioindicators. This method proved simple, quick and cheap and vast areas are surveyed in a relatively short time at a relatively low cost.

 

1801-1810 Download
22
Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds
Saeed Moori and Hamid Reza Eisvand

Plant growth regulators and ascorbic acid effects on physiological quality of wheat seedlings obtained from deteriorated seeds
ABSTRACT:

This study attempted to examine the effect of seed priming using plant growth regulators and vitamin C on the physiological traits of non-aged and aged seeds of wheat and their obtained seedlings. Accelerated aging (AA) method (40°C, RH=100% for 72h) was used for aging seeds. The seeds were pre-treated by gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroid (BR), and ascorbic acid (AS). Some seed traits such as germination and electric conductivity (EC) and seedling traits such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content (SP), soluble sugar (SS), and proline were measured seven days after germination. The results showed that accelerated aging of seeds reduces the germination percentage and speed, increases soluble sugar, and reduces soluble protein, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedling. Pre-treatment of the aged seed by GA had the maximum positive impact on seed germination and seedling growth. Priming improved germination indices, quality of seedling, and seedling resistance against the oxidative stress caused by AA. It also improved cell membrane integrity and thus reduced seeds’ EC. Priming increased the activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in both aged and non-aged seeds. When the deteriorated seeds were primed, proline and SS contents of the seedling increased significantly, but SP and MDA decreased. In general, pre-treatment of the non-aged and aged seeds by gibberellin improved the physiological quality of the seed and seedling.

1811-1819 Download
23
Identification of genomic regions conferring drought tolerance in bread wheat using ISSR markers
Rana Haroon Maqsood, Muhammad Waqas Amjid, Muhammad Asif Saleem, Ghulam Shabbir and Ihsan Khaliq

Identification of genomic regions conferring drought tolerance in bread wheat using ISSR markers
ABSTRACT:

Drought stress is one of ever escalating and disastrous situation for plantadaptations under changing climate. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis was done to identify chromosomal locations containing QTLs for photosynthetic rate, relative water content and cell membrane stability under drought stress conditions. An F2 population was developed from an intraspecific cross between a drought tolerant genotype (Chakawal-50) and a drought susceptible genotype (9436) of Triticum aestivum. A total of 30 ISSR markers were used to screen both parents. Only 4 ISSR markers were found polymorphic which were used to score 180 F2 plants. A total of 73 bands produced were found polymorphic from these 4 markers using capillary electrophoresis. One QTL was found linked to Photosynthetic rate on chromosome 3A, one to relative water contents on chromosome 4D and one to cell membrane thermo-stability on chromosome 2B, respectively. As these traits were also positively correlated with thousand grain weight, so indirectly these QTLs might improve plant yield under limited water conditions. Therefore, these QTLs may be used through marker assisted selection while breeding wheat under limited water conditions

1821-1827 Download
24
Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree
Ninette Lotter, Kasimu Ghandi Ibrahim, Eliton Chivandi, Busisani W. Lembede, Trevor T. Nyakudya and Kennedy H. Erlwanger

Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree
ABSTRACT:

Rapanea melanophloeos(Cape beech)is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to Southern Africa which produces edible fruit. Seed samples obtained from ripe fruit of the Cape beech trees had their proximate analysis and lipid profiling done. The dry matter and ash contributed 91.29 ± 0.00 %, 1.50 ± 0.01 % of the mass of the seed. Whilst the other proximate analytes namely crude fibre, crude protein andether extract made up 5.71 ± 0.43 %, 10.50 ± 0.49 % and 4.75 ± 0.09 %of the mass of the seeds respectively. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed Linoleic acid (50.43 ± 0.38 %) to be the most dominant. R. melanophloeos seeds are not a viable source of nutrients.

1829-1832 Download
25
Impact of industrial effluents on growth of dominant tree species of Islamabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Fahd Bhatti, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf, Zanab Masoom and Sabeeqa Usman Malik

Impact of industrial effluents on growth of dominant tree species of Islamabad, Pakistan
ABSTRACT:

Heavy industrialization has resulted in water pollution and environmental degradation. Ever-increasing pollution adversely affected living organisms on the Earth. The present study was focused on analyzing industrial effluents originating from industrial estate Islamabad (the capital city of Pakistan). Dominant tree-species of Islamabad such as Acacia modesta, Grevillea robusta, Bauhinia variegate (L.), Cassia fistula (L.), Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Terminalia arjuna (Roxburgh), Pongamia pinnata (L.), and Melia azedarach (L.) were selected to examine the tolerance of these tree-species against industrial effluents. One year old uniform saplings of nine selected species were transplanted into soil filled polythene tubes for the experiment. The collected samples of effluents were analyzed for water quality parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, and heavy metals concentration. The pH of effluent sample was low (acidic) whereas electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were higher than described FAO standards for irrigation water. Results also indicated higher concentration of heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni and Mg) in the industrial effluents. Saplings were irrigated with assorted water treatments and their effects on shoot and leaf growth was observed. Analysis of the data indicated decline in growth of all tree species irrigated with effluent based treatments. However, Acacia modesta, Albizia lebbeck, Melia azedarach, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia arjuna relatively performed better and showed tolerance against industrial effluents.

1833-1839 Download
26
Allelopathic potential of Argemone ochroleuca from different habitats on seed germination of native species and cultivated crops
Basharat A. Dar, Saud L. Al-Rowaily, Abdulaziz M. Assaeed, Magdy I. El-Bana¬, Ahmed K. Hegazy and Jahangir A. Malik

Allelopathic potential of Argemone ochroleuca from different habitats on seed germination of native species and cultivated crops
ABSTRACT:

Allelopathy has been regarded as a mechanism for the successful exotic plant invasion, but this mechanism has not been evaluated for Argemone ochroleuca Sweet; an invasive weed in rangelands and farmlands of the Arabian Peninsula. We investigated whether wild native range plant species (Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Salvia aegyptiaca L.) and forage crops (Hordeum vulgare L. and Medicago sativa L.) respond differently to potential allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from roots and shoots of A. ochroleuca growing in two habitats; rangelands and farmlands. Almost all the germination indices were sensitive enough to establish the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts. Inhibition of seed germination of the test species showed species-specific; concentration, organ and habitat dependent response with highest inhibition occurring at 100% concentration of shoot extract from rangeland habitat. Seed germination of F. aegyptia was the most sensitive to different aqueous concentrations extracted from the two habitats, whereas H. vulgare seed germination was the least sensitive. The results suggest different organs of A. ochroleuca exhibit sufficient allelopathic potential in different habitats. 

1841-1848 Download
27
Effects of shading and organic fertilizers on tomato yield and quality
Harun Özer

Effects of shading and organic fertilizers on tomato yield and quality
ABSTRACT:

The present study was carried out to determine the effects of 50% shading and three different organic fertilizers [rice husk compost (RHC), broad bean green manure (B) and turnip residues (T)] on yield and quality parameters of tomatoes cv. Sumela F1 grown in the field. The plants grown in shade (50 %) had a higher (p˂0.01) leaf chlorophyll content and leaf photosynthetic rate, fruit yield, firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and vitamin C than those grown unshaded. The highest leaf photosynthetic rate (88.31µmol O2 m-2 s-1), fruit firmness (19.62 N) and fruit vitamin C content (38.44mg 100 g-1) were obtained from turnip residues (T) treatment under shading. The highest values for SSC (5.6%), yield (3.97 kgper plant) and leaf chlorophyll content (46.68 CCI) were obtained fromshaded and broad bean green manure treatment

1849-1855 Download
28
Evaluation of cultivated tomato germplasm resources
Yuting Wang, Wenzhen Li, Chen Lu, Shaozhu Fan, Chaobin Fu, Mingsuo Chen and Lingxia Zhao

Evaluation of cultivated tomato germplasm resources
ABSTRACT:

Lack of germplasm resources has severely limited genetic improvement of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in China. To potentially solve this issue, a total of 127 cultivated tomato accessions were introduced from the United States, Department of Agriculture (Geneva, NY, USA). These accessions have been disseminated to North America from Europe by a different route than the cultivated tomatoes in China, and have a different genetic background. A phylogenetic tree was drawn using 47 morphological markers, and a core germplasm collection comprising 20 tomato accessions was identified. Important quality traits such as fruit size, carotenoid levels, total soluble solids (TSS), fruit color and fruit softnesswere further examined in this core tomato germplasm collection. The results provide valuable information about this breeding material for genetic improvement of tomato in China. In order to save time and labor during the evaluation of the tomato germplasm resources, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce dimensionalities, and it was found that the first 14 principal components contributed to 72.18% of the 47 phenotypes in the 127 tomato accessions. If the analysis of the core germplasm collection and the PCA analysis were used to evaluate other tomato germplasm resources, it could enhance breeding, and in addition it could also provide an important reference for evaluation of germplasm resources in other crops

1857-1865 Download
29
Enhancing the fertility of an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using lime in combination with bio-organic fertilizer
Alia Farhana, J., J. Shamshuddin, C.I. Fauziah, M.H.A. Husni and Q.A. Panhwar

Enhancing the fertility of an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using lime in combination with bio-organic fertilizer
ABSTRACT:

The acid sulfate soils contain pyrite (FeS2) which is due to oxidation results in the production of high amount of acidity, aluminum and iron significantly affecting rice growth. A glasshouse study was arranged to determine the effect of ground magnesium limestone (GML) in combination with bio-organic fertilizer (JITUTM) application on the chemical properties of soils and rice yield. Three rice seedlings were transplanted in pots which were previously amended with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha GML with or without bio-organic fertilizer. The common rice varieties (MR 219 and MR 253) were cultivated for two seasons in the same pots. The critical Fe2+ and Al3+ activities for MR 219 were 14.45 and 4.23 µM, while for MR 253 were 7.45 and 5.53 µM, respectively. However, without applying the amendments, rice grown on the soils was affected severely by the high acidity (Fe2+ and Al3+ toxicity). The soil pH increased to 5 and the higher grain yield of MR 219 (99.77 and 121.38 g/pot) and MR253 (98.63 and 112.60 g/pot) was in first and second season with the application of 2 t GML application combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha respectively. In addition, 1000 grain weight, number of panicle, number of spikelets panicle-1 and the percentage of filled spikelet, were also higher than without the soil amendments. Hence, the infertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice cultivation in Malaysia can be improved by applying 2 t GML/ha combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha for two seasons in long run

1867-1875 Download
30
Does biomass have impact on selecting Vigna mungo for organic farming under rain-fed conditions?
Abdul Ghafoor, Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Kashif Ilyas and Aamir Ali

Does biomass have impact on selecting Vigna mungo for organic farming under rain-fed conditions?
ABSTRACT:

Under emerging challenges of climate change and enhanced demands for organic vegetable protein, black gram is a potential commodity that can successfully be grown with zero inputs due to favorable genes eco-friendly agricultural system. Seventy seven genotypes evaluated for three consecutive years indicated variability attributed genetic differences. The clustering patterns were affected by environmental effects that were further determined by principal components. Although performance for the germplasm was affected by the year effects, especially for maturity duration, however on the basis of average performance, 11 genotypes were identified and among these 45304, 45920 and 45921) were earlier than the check and produced considerably high grain yield. Selected genotypes are suggested for future testing under wide range of agro-ecological regions. It was obvious that the selected genotypes exhibited higher biomass that was partitioned to the economic yield, it should the selection criterion for suitable cultivars under rain-fed condition. Breeding program can utilize selected genotypes to improve black gram for organic farming

1877-1884 Download
31
Breeding system and parental effect on fruit characters of Idesia polycarpa (Flacourtiaceae), a promising plant for biodiesel, in northwest China
Shu-Hui Wang, Cang-Fu Jin, Zhou-Qi Li, Yu Li and Qing Xie

Breeding system and parental effect on fruit characters of Idesia polycarpa (Flacourtiaceae), a promising plant for biodiesel, in northwest China
ABSTRACT:

Idesia polycarpa Maxim. is a promising plant for biodiesel in China. We have reported the flowering phenology, breeding system and parental effect on fruit characters of this species distributed in Qinling-Bashan Mountain (Shaanxi Province) nature reserve. As a dioecious plant, the male and female flowered almost synchronously. The anthesis was from around 10th of May and proceeded until the end of May or the beginning of June at population level. To determine the breeding system of I. polycarpa, three pollination treatments were carried out on every three female plants: natural pollination (NP), apomixy (AP) and cross pollination (CP). Reproductive success of apoximy treatment indicated that, as a dioecious plant, I. polycarpa could also reproduce by apomixis. However, the mean fruit set under apomixy treatment was markerly lower (3.6–13.33%) than that of two pollination treatments (>65.69%). Fruit quality (fruit length, fruit width, 100 fruit weight, seed production and seed germination) of the cross pollination treatment was greater than the other two treatments, suggested that pollen competition in cross pollination treatment was the most intense in three treatments. To study parental effect on fruit characters, cross pollination was carried out with three female plants and three male plants. The result showed that maternal parents (P<0.001) and parental interaction significantly affected all the fruit characters (including 100 fruit weight, pulp/fruit ratio, oil content and seed germination) while paternal parents showed significant effects on 100 fruit weight, pulp/fruit ratio and seed germination. Fruit set was only significantly affected by maternal parents (P=0.001). Our findings will facilitate future breeding programs of I. polycarpa in parental selection.

1885-1890 Download
32
Genetic diversity of Brassica rapa L. indigenous landraces based on cluster and principal component analyses
Naushad Ali, Farhatullah, Naqib Ullah Khan, Malik Ashiq Rabbani, Ijaz Hussain, Sardar Ali, Sher Aslam Khan and Muhammad Qasim Kakar

Genetic diversity of Brassica rapa L. indigenous landraces based on cluster and principal component analyses
ABSTRACT:

Genetic variability was explored in locally collected 85 Brassica rapa accessions by using morphological markers. The experimental material was collected from diverse locations of Pakistan. These experiments were conducted under the agro-climatic conditions of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan for two consecutive years 2012 and 2013. Data were recorded on various morphological and biochemical traits vacillating from flowering till its maturity and was analyzed by using two statistical procedures i.e., cluster and principal component analysis. Reasonable level of variation was recorded for various morphological and oil quality traits. High level of variation was recorded for seed yield followed by maturity, glucosinolate contents, plant height and flowering time. During 2012, cluster analysis categorized the 85 accessions into seven main groups, while in 2013 the same accessions were divided into six main groups. During 2012, first five principal components (PCs) accounted for 52.02% of variations among the studied accessions using morphological traits. Out of 52.02%, PC1 had 17.29%, PC2 contributed 10.13%, PC3 (9.51%), PC4 (7.98%) and the share of variability produced by PC5 was 7.11%. During 2013, the contributions of these accessions were 27.46% (PC1), 11.33% (PC2), 8.70% (PC3), 7.27% (PC4) and 6.38% (PC5) with an overall contribution of 61.14% variability. Based on present study, the four accessions i.e., 821, 844, 850 and 860 have been identified as potential genotypes which could be used in future breeding program.

1891-1901 Download
33
PEG-mediated symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Chitpan Kativat and Piyada Alisha Tantasawat

PEG-mediated symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
ABSTRACT:

Symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusions were evaluated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) PI441983 and 10A lines. The optimal cytoplasmic inactivation procedure and conditions for induced fusion of protoplasts by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) were developed. The cell division activities of hypocotyl protoplasts of the 10A line with a cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) trait were inhibited with different concentrations of iodoacetic acid (IOA; 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mM) and incubation periods (15 and 20 min) to generate a recipient parent for a normal cytoplasm trait. The optimal inactivation was achieved with 20 min incubation in 1.5 mM IOA, which was the lowest concentration leading to low levels of both cell division (20.41%) and colony formation (3.70%). When various concentrations of PEG 8000 (0, 10, 20 and 30% (w/v)) and fusion periods (10, 15 and 20 min) were used to induce fusion between hypocotyl protoplasts of the 10A line and mesophyll protoplasts with a normal cytoplasm trait of the PI441983 line (donor parent), 20% (w/v) PEG 8000 for 15 min was found to be optimal for induced fusion, giving a high frequency of binary fusion (26.16%) and lowfrequency of multi fusion (12.96%). When both symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion procedures were performed, fusion products could develop, divide and form colonies in the culture medium, and also have a tendency to generate microcalli. However, the densities of protoplast-derived colonies in asymmetric fusion were lower than those in symmetric fusion. The efficient procedures developed in this study will be beneficial for future sunflower breeding programs for hybrid production

1903-1910 Download
34
Role of various supplementary materials with cotton waste substrate for production of Pleurotus ostreatus an oyster mushroom
Nasir Ahmad Khan, Afshan Amjad, Rana Binyamin, Abdul Rehman and Osama Bin Abdul Hafeez

Role of various supplementary materials with cotton waste substrate for production of Pleurotus ostreatus an oyster mushroom
ABSTRACT:

Pleurotusostreatus exhibit a lot of medicinal properties and mostly grown on different residual waste material in Asia. In past mushroom mostly grown on agricultural waste, but now a day to improve the composition of substrate different supplementary materials are used. Current study based on the impact of various supplementary materials on production of oyster mushroom. Cotton waste supplemented with 5 percent of wheat bran, rice bran, and gram flour was evaluated for spawn running, yield performance and biological efficiency of Pleurotusostreatus. Supplements have significant effect on spawn running, yield performance and biological efficiency. Wheat bran gave best results followed by rice bran and gram flour. Supplements improve the nutritional status of cotton waste substrate which resulted in better mushroom growth. Cotton is an important crop of Asia, so current research is a valuable contribution for utilization of its waste material in an efficient manner with addition of supplements to it. These outcomes will be helpful for further optimizing the best combination of cotton waste substrate with supplements.

1911-1915 Download
35
Comparative antimicrobial, phytotoxic and heamaglutination potential of Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract and its zinc nano-particles
Aamir Aziz, Ibrar Khan, Sadiq Azam, Shaista Mehnaz and Bashir Ahmad

Comparative antimicrobial, phytotoxic and heamaglutination potential of Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract and its zinc nano-particles
ABSTRACT:

The aim of the current study was to synthesize Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) of Eriobotrya japonica, their characterization using standard procedures and its screening for various pharmacological activities; antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and heamaglutination in comparison with the methanolic, ethanolicand Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions. The UV-Visible absorption spectra of ZnNPs showed peaks at 455 nm and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of various functional groups such as, hydroxyl, amide, carbonyl, aldehyde, and alkynes. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the particle size was between 30-60 nm with spherical shape. The presence of Zinc along with other elements, such as C, O, S, Si, and K, was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), andthe mean size was 33nm as indicated in X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The results of percent antibacterial activity for the methanolic, ethanolic and EtOAc fractions of E. japonica against E. coli was 62, 59.2, 44.4, P. aeruginosa 44.4, 40.7, 37, S. aureus 69.2, 46.1, 50, A. baumannii 52.1, 43.4, 0, M. morganii 59, 40.9, 68, MRSA 73.6, 52.6, 0 and P. vulgaris 60, 52, 64. The Zn NPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against MRSA (94%) and P. vulgaris (92%), good against S. aureus (73%) and M. morganii (63.6%), moderate against E. coli (48.1%) and A. baumannii (43.4%) and low against P. aeruginosa (37%), respectively. The methanolic, ethanolic and EtOAc fractions of E. japonica showed low (<24%) and no antifungal activity against the tested fungal pathogens. The antifungal activity of Zn NPs against the test fungal pathogens was; A. parasiticus (30%), P. notatum and A. niger (40%), P. chrysogenum (55%), H. pseudocrispula (60%) while it was inactive against V. longisporum. The methanolic, ethanolic and EtOAc extract of E. japonica showed 50, 50 and 60% growth regulation at 1000, 50, 40 and 60% at 100 µg/ml, while at 10 µg/ml, 40, 20 and 50%, respectively, against Lemna minor. Phytotoxic activity of ZnNPs against L.minor at 1000, 100 and 10µg/ml was 60 50 and 30%, respectively. The results indicated that the selected plants lack phytolectin as no heamaglutination was observed

1917-1924 Download
36
Glutenin subunits, gliadin patterns and glutopeak characteristics of Turkey’s doubled haploid wheat lines
Imren Kutlu, Merve Carikci, Ozcan Yorgancilar, Aysel Yorgancilar, Yasar Karaduman and Zeynep Sirel

Glutenin subunits, gliadin patterns and glutopeak characteristics of Turkey’s doubled haploid wheat lines
ABSTRACT:

In this study, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), gliadin patterns, some bread-making quality parameters of doubled haploid wheat lines and their relationships were examined. It appeared from the dendrogram, drawn according to gliadin patterns that there was a variation between genotypes. Additionally, γ-, β- and α-gliadin units were correlated with gluten quality. HMW-GS compositions of doubled haploid lines were very diverse. Subunit 5+10 related high bread-making quality potential was observed in 59 genotypes and the Glu-1 scores changed from 8 to10. This indicates that these genotypes may have a great potential for high bread-making quality. In the study, positive correlations were found among the Glu-1 loci and/or score and the gluten strength characteristics and the SDS sedimentation test. Those doubled haploid population has an important potential in elaboration the contributions made by a number of diverse high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin alleles to the gluten strength characteristics in a set of homogeneous lines of wheat, espicially DNA-based researches for example QTL mapping, marker development. This study and information gained from future researches will increase awareness among wheat quality breeders

1925-1932 Download
37
Drought stress shapes the root-associated bacterial and fungal community structure in soybean genotypes
Jianfeng Zhang, Fahad Nasir, Yufeng Kong, Lei Tian, Asfa Batool, Ali Bahadur, Xiujun Li and Chunjie Tian

Drought stress shapes the root-associated bacterial and fungal community structure in soybean genotypes
ABSTRACT:

Drought stress is one of the key abiotic stresses restraining the crop growth and production worldwide. Drought stress can also influence the structure and function of rhizosphere microbiome. The main objective of current investigation was to explore the effects of drought stress on shaping bacterial and fungal community structure in the wild and cultivated-type soybean genotypes. The results revealed that under drought, higher accumulation of osmolytes (sugar and proline) contents and NCED1 transcript were found in wild soybean (Glycine soja) as compared to the cultivated soybean (Glycine max), which elucidate that wild soybean genotype was more drought tolerant. Moreover, dehydration stress significantly suppressed the fungal diversity of the two host plants,though the diversity of the bacterial community in G. soja was significantly increased.Sulfitobacter sp. was only found in wild soybean. There was an increase in the proportion of Bradyrhizobium sp. under drought in two soybean genotypes whereas Sphingomonas sp. significantly enhanced in wild genotype. Our results indicated that G. soja a wild soybean genotype was highly drought tolerant than G. max, and established more microbial association by increasing the number of bacterial community and diversity than G. max. Therefore, this study provides a new evidence for improving soybean drought tolerant genotypes by studying the mechanism of plant-microbe interaction. 

1933-1942 Download
38
Arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress in Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L.
Amber Raza and Muhammad Shafiq Chaudhry

Arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress in Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L.
ABSTRACT:

Community structure and ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was studied in the present study using two host plant species i.e. Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L. under CuSO4 stress. Five levels of copper sulfate (CuSO4)  i.e. 0 ppm (control), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm, and 100 ppm were used to elucidate their influence on mycorrhizal community. Results showed that some spores disappeared with increased metal content while other spores were abundant even at a high level of stress. Present studies supported the stress tolerance mechanism conferred by AMF spore density and diversity. Value of Simpson index was shown to decrease from 3.58 to 2.42. Shannon index value was changed from 0.27 to 0.51. Similar rise in the values was observed for spore diversity i.e. 20.94 to 79.13. However, it may be concluded that spore ecotypes might vary in their abundance depending upon the host plant and soil physical-chemical characters that control the metal availability to plants. Among all the four plant varieties, ghotki chilli seemed to have less species associated with it. It can be concluded that when compared to the control, more mycorrhizal types were found to be associated with plants under stress which could prove the tolerance of mycorrhizae against the heavy metals and their positive role in protecting plant from the toxicity of heavy metals

1943-1948 Download
39
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) using the micro-plate method
Ikram Ullah, Abdul Wakeel, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Ali Talha Khalil and Muhammad Ali

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) using the micro-plate method
ABSTRACT:

Isatis tinctoria L. has well-documented history as conventional therapeutic herb. In present study its crude extract was examined for broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using micro-titer plate method. Four different plant parts were extracted with 14 different solvents. All fractions were analyzed against seven bacterial and four fungal strains. Ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-hexane and acetone showed maximum antibacterial activity with minimum IC50 value (≤200 µg/ml). Leaves>branches> roots>flower is the order of different parts based on antibacterial activity. Although, in some cases like against Klebsiella pneumonia and Micrococcus luteus the flower showed better results as compared to other parts. Roots showed better results against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts showed better antimicrobial activity as compared to antibiotics (cefotaxime). The activity of the extracts against gram positive was better than gram negative. For antifungal activity, ethyl acetate > n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1) > chloroform> acetone was the order of the fraction with increasing growth inhibition rate. All the parts (except branches) were observed having antifungal activity. The most resistant strains found in this study were Mucor mycosis, none of the fraction have more than 30% inhibition on used concentration. Plant crude extract being having broad spectrum antimicrobial activity is suggested for pre-clinical and clinical trials.

1949-1957 Download
40
Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Jae-Man Park, In-Jung Lee, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah and Abeer Hashem

Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth
ABSTRACT:

Weeds are major challenges in crop cultivation and cause yield loss. The bacteria based bio-herbicides are emerging against chemical herbicides. This study was aimed to explore the bio-herbicide effect ofsalt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on various weed species. The efficacy of I-3 bacterial isolates against weed growth was compared with I-4-5 bacterial strain. The bacterial strains, I-3 and I-4-5 inhibited the seed germination of Cyperus microiria Maxim. Enterobacter sp. I-3 showed higher weed control activity than I-4-5. It was confirmed with growth reduction of C. microiria Maxim. The seed germination of Digitaria sanguinalis L. weed was accelerated during the interaction of I-4-5 and it was drastically declined by I-3 bacterial culture. However, Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. seeds treated with either I-3 or I-4-5 bacterial culture showed no significant germination inhibition.  The results of this study suggested thatsalt marsh tolerantEnterobacter sp. I-3 can be applied as bacterial herbicides to control weeds in agricultural fields

1959-1963 Download
41
Degradation of phenolic acids and relief of consecutive monoculture obstacle of Rehmannia glutinosa by the combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris
Ruifei Wang, Ying Miao, Chunxiao Kang, Mingjun Li and Qingxiang Yang

Degradation of phenolic acids and relief of consecutive monoculture obstacle of Rehmannia glutinosa by the combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris
ABSTRACT:

Rehmannia glutinosa (R. glutinosa) is a high demand traditional Chinese medicine, but it suffers serious consecutive monoculture obstacle (CMO). The disability of root swelling is one of the negative impacts caused by the R. glutinosa CMO and is related to allelopathy exudates, such as phenolic acids. It is thought that a microbe agent could improve plant health by eliminating the unfavorable effect of allelopathy exudates. In previous research, we isolated two phenolic acid-degrading microbes from rhizosphere soil surrounding R. glutinosa. These were Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris. This study found that Bacillus sp. combined with Pichia pastoris could degrade 97.19% ferulic acid and 98.73% hydroxybenzoic acid over 15 days. R. glutinosa takes a long growth time (7-8 months) under field conditions. We set up a modified tissue culture model to rapidly detect whether Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris combination could relieve the CMO. The results showed that our tissue culture model effectively simulated the R. glutinosa growing process in unplanted or second-year monoculture field. Furthermore, the combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris can significantly relieve the CMO-induced suppression of root swelling. All these results suggested that: 1) The combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris has considerable potential to degrade allelopathy exudates and alleviate the CMO of R. glutinosa; 2) Our tissue culture model could be used to quickly screen effective microbes that could alleviate CMO in plants.

1965-1969 Download
42
Mathematical models based on different thermal and moisture regimes for development of Ascochyta blight of chickpeas
Abid Riaz, Chaudhary Abdush Shakoor and Gulshun Irshad

Mathematical models based on different thermal and moisture regimes for development of Ascochyta blight of chickpeas
ABSTRACT:

Two separate models have been developed to describe the mathematical relationship of temperature and leaf wetness durations with Ascochyta blight development on two chickpea cultivars under controlled conditions. Plants of Balkasar-2000 (moderately resistant cultivar) and AUG-424 (highly susceptible cultivar) of our field trials were artificially  inoculated with Ascochyta rabiei  isolate ID-1 prepared @5x10conidia  ml-1 and subjected  to various controlled environments  to determine the impact  of temperature and leaf wetness durations on disease establishment. Disease severity (%) was significantly affected by temperature, wetness durations and their interactions and depended on the level of resistance of the cultivar. It increased with increasing wetness duration (6-96h) at all the temperatures tested (10-25°C). At least 18h of leaf wetness were required for significant disease establishment (50%) at the optimum temperature of 20°C in AUG-424 and for Balkasar-2000, this value was 96 h. Quadratic trend in disease severity was found in relation to temperature and linear trend was recorded with regard to leaf wetness periods in both the cultivars. This study gives a systematic evaluation of host-pathogen interactions in controlled conditions. This approach of finding out quantitative relationship of disease with these most important variables may serve as a criterion for selection of cultivar for a specific area

1971-1974 Download
43
Mycoflora associated with raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) collected across Pakistan
Shahnaz Dawar, Marium Tariq and Shaista Aslam

Mycoflora associated with raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) collected across Pakistan
ABSTRACT:

Aim of study was to isolate and identify fungal pathogens associated with raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) collected from Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. Around 25 fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from the fifteen samples by using ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) techniques. Of these, 19 species belonging to 11 genera were isolated by deep freezing method, agar plate method yielded 16 species belonging to 9 genera and 16 species belonging to 11 genera were isolated by blotter method. Deep freezing method was found best for isolation of fungi followed by standard blotter method. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most dominant fungi. Samples of raisins from the areas of Lahore, Islamabad and Karachi, respectively were found to be highly infected with fungi. These samples were treated with Ultra Violet (UV-C) radiations which significantly affected the pathogenic profile, but the conidia of Aspergillus niger were appeared to be more persistent that colonized the raisins within the storage time of zero day. However, infection by other storage fungus like Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn. was observed after the storage time of 30 and 60 days. 

1975-1979 Download
44
Isolation, identification of an axenic fungal isolate of Aspergillus sp. (MBL-1511) and its subsequent improvement for enhanced extracellular lipolytic potential through monoculture fermentation
Tehreema Iftikhar, Sidra, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka, Hammad Majeed and Roheena Abdullah

Isolation, identification of an axenic fungal isolate of Aspergillus sp. (MBL-1511) and its subsequent improvement for enhanced extracellular lipolytic potential through monoculture fermentation
ABSTRACT:

The present investigation was conducted for extracellular lipases production. One hundred and forty samples of fungi were isolated from different environment and food samples. Among all the isolated cultures, an isolate obtained from chicken roasted in oil (MBL-1511) gave the highest extracellular lipase through SSF. Hyper producer strain (MBL-1511) was morphologically identified. A morphologically identified isolate of Aspergillus niger (MBL 1511) was verified by DNA barcoding marker like 18S rRNA gene sequence. The sequence of Aspergillus niger (MBL 1511) was registered with accession no. [GenBank: KP172477] in the public nucleotide library (genbank) of NCBI. The selected hyper producer of Aspergillus niger (MBL-1511) strain was subjected to physical and chemical mutagenic treatments to improve its lipolytic potential. Proximate analysis confirmed brassica meal as the best basal substrate with the lipases potential of 10.67±0.01 IU/mL (wild) and 19.58±0.04 IU/mL (mutant). The optimum conditions for the maximized extracellular lipases production were 1.0 mL inoculum at 30oC after 72 h at pH of 6.2. Finally, a potent mutant of A. niger [MBL-1511SA-4(150 min)] with an increased activity of 161 % over the wild strain was obtained when olive oil was used at 1% (v/v) concentration.

 

1981-1994 Download
45
Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal potential of endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with Salvadora persica L. and Salvadora oleoides Decne
Farzana Korejo, Rubina Noreen, Syed Abid Ali, Fozia Humayun, Afshan Rahman, Viqar Sultana and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal potential of endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with Salvadora persica L. and Salvadora oleoides Decne
ABSTRACT:

In the present study, cell-free culture filtrates of 35 isolates of endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas, isolated from roots, shoots and leaves of Salvadora persica L. and  Salvadora  oleoides Decne were examined for antibacterial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium) and Gram  positive  (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria in-vitro. Most of them showed strong antibacterial activity by producing zone of inhibition. Cell free culture filtrates of  Pseudomonas  also  caused growth inhibition of root rotting fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium   solani  and F.oxysporum  by  producing zone of inhibition. Solvent fractions of 5 potential isolates were also evaluated for antibacterial activity. Both hexane and chloroform fractions of cell-free culture filtrates showed antibacterial and antifungal activity at varying degree. Endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas offering important sources of antimicrobial compounds for pharmacological benefits, besides, their role in crop protection and plant growth.

1995-2004 Download
46

Genetic expression of yellow rust resistance, yield and yield related traits in wheat using Griffing's combining ability analysis


Khilwat Afridi, Naqib Ullah Khan, Fida Mohammad, Shahid Ullah Khan, Safdar Hussain Shah and Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah

Genetic expression of yellow rust resistance, yield and yield related traits in wheat using Griffing's combining ability analysis


ABSTRACT:

Knowledge of traits inheritance is a prerequisite for any plant breeding program. Wheat cultivars like Pirsabak-85, Khyber-87, Saleem-2000, Pirsabak-04, Pirsabak-05 and Shahkar-13 were crossed in 6 × 6 half diallel fashion during 2010-11 at the Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak - Nowshera, Pakistan. The F1 and F2 half diallel hybrids in comparison with parental genotypes were studied during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The aim of the present work was to explore the genetic basis of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici) resistance, flag leaf area, 1000-grain weight and grain yield in F1 and F2 wheat hybrids through Griffing's combining ability approach. Significant (p≤0.01) differences were observed among the genotypes for all the traits. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant (p≤0.01) for majority of the traits in both the generations. Genetic components of variances due to GCA and SCA revealed that SCA variances excelled the GCA for majority of the traits, thus non-additive type of gene action controlled the inheritance of such traits. However, flag leaf area and 1000-grain weight in F1 generation showed preponderance of GCA variances and revealed additive type of gene action advocating those traits. Based on GCA effects, Pirsabak-05 was considered as the best general combiner for rust resistance and yield traits in F1 generation. However, in F2 generation, cultivar Shahkar-13 appeared to be the best general combiner for rust resistance and grain yield. The F1 hybrid Pirsabak-85 × Pirsabak-04 and F2 population Pirsabak-05 × Shahkar-13 performed better for majority of the traits. Therefore, these promising populations need to be further exploited for yellow rust resistance and grain yield in future breeding programmes.

2005-2013 Download
47
RAPD based characterization of chickpea isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii
Abida Akram, Pakeeza Amber, Sheikh Muhammad Iqbal, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Arshad Javaid and Saeed Mukhtar

RAPD based characterization of chickpea isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii
ABSTRACT:

Collar rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., results in heavy economic losses to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop every year. Previous work on this devastating fungus reported just its morphological and physiological aspects, but little is known at molecular level. Present research was focused on estimating the genetic variation among 12 strains of S. rolfsii isolated from infected chickpea plants through Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Fungal strains were obtained from Crop Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. Out of 40 random decamer primers studied, 6 gave the clear polymorphic amplification pattern in terms of band number. A total of 52 loci were traced by these primers and 100% polymorphism was obtained. The value of similarity matrix ranged from 55.8–88.5%. Strain AM-04 and AM-06 shared maximum of 88.5% similarity while AM-07 and AM-09 were 55.8% similar. Similarity of the remaining genotypes was between 55.7–84.6%. Cluster composition results indicated that AM-07 was the most diverse from the rest of genotypes which showing genetic distance of 35.7%. On the whole, all the strains were 64.3% similar to each other and only 35.7% variation existed among them

2015-2022 Download
48
Importance of fungal root rot pathogens of cassava in Benin
V.A. Zinsou, L.A.C. Afouda, B.C. Ahohuendo and K. Wydra

Importance of fungal root rot pathogens of cassava in Benin
ABSTRACT:

Cassava root rots are important diseases in different agroecological zones of West Africa. The causing pathogens were collected from 101 farmers’ fields in forest mosaic savanna, southern guinea savanna, northern guinea savanna and sudan savanna of Benin were isolated, identified and analyzed for their virulence. A total of 51 isolates were found showing different disease reaction with 13.7% highly virulent, 17.6%, virulent and 13.7% moderately virulent. The potential root rot pathogens found in the agroecological zones of Benin were Botryodiplodia theobromae accounting for 66.7% (most frequently in the southern guinea savanna and the forest mosaic savanna), Fusarium solani for 11.7%, Fusarium oxysporum for 9.1%, Nattrasia mangiferae for 3.9%, Fusarium semitectum for 1.9% and Sclerotium rolfsii for 1.9%. Nattrasia mangiferae was found only in the sudan savanna at the frequency of 3.9%. Trichoderma and Rhizopus species were also found during our investigations but theirs effects were non virulent on cassava root

2023-2028 Download
49
Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in Ammodendron biofolium
Yan-Lei Zhu, Xiao-Ping She, Jian-She Wang and Hai-Ying Lv

Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in Ammodendron biofolium
ABSTRACT:

The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. 

2029-2035 Download
50
Native conifers of Vietnam - a review
Phan Ke Loc, Pham Van The, Phan Ke Long, Regalado J, Averyanov L.V. and Maslin B

Native conifers of Vietnam - a review
ABSTRACT:

This review includes 33 species,2 subspecies and 5 varieties of native conifers belonging to 5 families and 19 genera from Vietnam. The largest family is Pinaceae (5 genera, 13species). Next are Cupressaceae (7 genera, 7 species), Podocarpaceae (4 genera, 7 species), Taxaceae (2 genera, 5 species) and Cephalotaxaceae (1 genus and species). Thirty taxa, representing 90% of the total are assessed as nationally threatened. Among them 3 as ‑ CR (Cupressus tonkinensis, Glyptostrobus pensilis, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis), 8 as ‑ EN (Abies delavayi subsp. fansipanensis, Calocedrus macrolepis var. macrolepis, Cunninghamia lanceolata var. konishii, Fokienia hodginsii, Keteleeria davidiana, Pinus armandii subsp. xuanhaensis, P. henryi, Taxus wallichiana) and 19 as VU. Data on morphology, ecology, biology and habitat for acceptedtaxa are updated in the light of critical study of new collections. Notwithstanding the revised information presented here, it is likely that further changes to the conifer flora of Vietnam will occur in the future because many mountain regions remain poorly explored botanically, many existing collections lack fertile parts that are needed for positive identifications, and there exists a number of species-groups that require further critical taxonomic study. These groups include the following: Keteleeria davidiana and Keteleeria evelyniana, Nageia fleuryi and Nageia nagi, Taxus chinensis and Taxus wallichiana, Tsuga chinensis and Tsuga dumosa, Podocarpus annamiensis and Podocarpus neriifolius, Pinus dalatensis and Pinus anemophila, Pinus kwangtungensis and Pinus wangii. Podocarpus neriifolius var. annamiensis (N.E. Gray) L.K. Phan, comb. et stat. nov. is also proposed.

2037-2068 Download