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Year 2017 , Volume  49, Issue SI
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
WATER DEFICIT INDUCED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND YIELD RESPONSES IN ORYZA SATIVA L.
AISHA SHEREEN, A. CHACHER, M. ARIF, S. MUMTAZ, M.U. SHIRAZI AND M.A. KHAN

WATER DEFICIT INDUCED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND YIELD RESPONSES IN ORYZA SATIVA L.
ABSTRACT:

Drought is a serious constraint for rice growth, affecting about 50% of world rice productivity. The yield losses are more severe when drought strikes at flowering stage. Identification of tolerant genotype is urgently needed for the improvement of crop productivity. Under such conditions it requires understanding of physiological strategies adopted by plant to offset the stress. Experiments were conducted using five rice genotypes to study some physiological parameters [i.e. relative water contents (RWC), osmotic potential (OP), proline, total soluble sugars, leaf area, chlorophyll] contributing to yield responses under water stress (aerobic) conditions. Drought tolerant check (IR-04L191) has shown least reduction in grain weight. Among the tested genotypes, comparatively high grain weight was produced by IR83140-B-28-B followed by HHZ-5-Sal 10- DT1 - DT1 under water stress conditions. In addition the genotype HHZ-5-Sal 10- DT1- DT1 and IR 04L 191 also exhibited higher increases in proline and RWC compared to other genotypes. Chlorophyll concentrations and Leaf area were least affected in three tolerant genotypes (IR 83140-B-28-B, IR-72 and HHZ-5-Sal 10- DT1- DT1). Correlation studies under water stress conditions have shown strong negative correlation between RWC and OP. whereas, the parameters of proline (r= 0. 515), potassium (r= 0.802) and TSS (r = 0.617) were positively related with grain weight. Therefore physiological traits such as RWC, proline, potassium, leaf area and chlorophyll may be incorporated along with yield traits in rice screening programmes for water stress tolerance.

1-6 Download
2
EFFECT OF BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
YOUSARA HAFEEZ, SUMERA IQBAL, KHAJISTA JABEEN, SOBIA SHAHZAD, SUMMERA JAHAN AND FAHD RASUL

EFFECT OF BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:

Drought is one of the most detrimental stresses which limit seed germination, plant growth, development and crop yield. The influence of corn cobbiochar producedat 450oC by slow pyrolysis technique was investigated on seed germination and seedling growth of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. under drought condition. The experiment was sequenced according to Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates. There were six treatments viz., Control (0 t ha-1biochar and  no drought), drought, 10 t ha-1biochar, 20 t ha-1biochar, drought + 10 t ha-1biochar, drought + 20 t ha-1biochar. The results exhibited that under water stress seed vigor, germination percentage, shoot length, membrane stability index, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of soybean seedlings decreased significantly compared to control. However biochar applied @ 20 t ha-1proved to be more effective in mitigating the drought stress impacts in all these parameters. A significant increase (p>0.05) in sugar and proline content was observed while protein content and rate of seed germination were not affected significantly (p<0.05) in drought compared to control. Biochar applied @ 20 t ha-1mainly helped to decrease sugar and proline contents but other parameters remained unaffected. So, biochar can be appraised as effective tool to mitigate the impact of water stress on soybean seedlings. Long term effects of biochar on soybean production and soil properties particularly in drought prone areas could be suggested as future thrust

7-13 Download
3
CODON USAGE BIAS ANALYSIS FOR ABIOTIC STRESS GENES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA AND ORYZA SATIVA
SYED QASIM SHAH, MUHAMMAD DIN, MUHAMMAD YOUNAS KHAN BAROZAI AND ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI

CODON USAGE BIAS ANALYSIS FOR ABIOTIC STRESS GENES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA AND ORYZA SATIVA
ABSTRACT:

Codon usage bias (CUB) directly affects the expression level of protein. The protein expression also affects by abiotic stresses such as cold, drought, heat, salt, dehydration, heavy metals and oxidative stresses that reduce the productivity of plants. The current research is based to study the relationship of the CUB analysis for abiotic stress responding and housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. A total of 159 genes (including 138 abiotic stress resistant and 21 housekeeping genes) were subjected for the CUB analysis. Combinations of various bioinformatics tools were applied for the CUB analysis of abiotic stress resistant and housekeeping genes. Out of 159, the 92 abiotic stress resistant and 16 housekeeping genes showed similarities by more than 50% for the usage of codons in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. The most preferred codon usage among these stress resistant and housekeeping genes were also calculated. The CUB analysis and most preferred codons findings will be helpful to engineer the abiotic stress resistant crops through adjusting specific codon usage that enhance yield and productivity of significant plants under biotic and abiotic stresses.

15-23 Download
4
EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF ZEA MAYS UNDER SALT STRESS
HUMAIRA GUL, SYEDA KINZA, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI AND MUHAMMAD HAMAYUN

EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF ZEA MAYS UNDER SALT STRESS
ABSTRACT:

It is well known that salinity badly effect plant growth all over the world and greatly reduces crop production in the affected regions. Selenium functions as antioxidant in plants and in low concentration it also promotes plant growth and produce tolerance against stress. The present study was designed to check the effect of salt and selenium on the biochemistry of Zea mays like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total antioxidants, flavonoids, total phenols and proteins. Zea mays was grown in pots and maize plants were irrigated with different concentration of NaCl (0, 40 mM and 80 mM). Different concentrations of selenium (0, 5 mM, 10 mM and 15 mM) were applied foliarly after one month of germination.

An increase in salt concentration considerably decrease the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, carbohydrates, and total proteins while flavonoids, phenols and total antioxidants showed significant increase with elevated salt concentration. Foliar application of different concentrations of selenium showed an increase in total proteins, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, phenols and flavonoids under saline as well as non-saline conditions. It is concluded from this project that salt has an inhibitory effect on the biochemistry of Zea mays as photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, proteins, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars showed a decline under salt stress, while total antioxidants phenols and flavonoids showed an increase under salt stress. After the application of selenium spray, the proteins, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, phenols and flavonoids showed an increase under both (saline and non-saline) conditions. It is suggested that selenium should applied at 10 mM as it showed better performance on different biochemical attributes in both saline and non-saline conditions.

25-32 Download
5
COMPARATIVE FOLIAR MICRO MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TRIBE ARUNDINEAE, ARISTIDEAE AND CHLORIDEAE FROM MALAKAND AGENCY, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
RAEES KHAN, ASAD ULLAH2, BASHEER KHAN, SHUJAUL MULK KHAN AND ABDUR RASHID

COMPARATIVE FOLIAR MICRO MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TRIBE ARUNDINEAE, ARISTIDEAE AND CHLORIDEAE FROM MALAKAND AGENCY, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Six (6) species of three tribes Arundineae (Arundo donax L. & Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud.), Aristideae (Aristida adscensionis L. & Aristida cyanantha Nees ex Steud.) and Chlorideae (Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers.& Tetrapogon villosus Desf.) were investigated for their foliar micro-morphological variation and its taxonomic significance through Light and Scanning Electron microscope. The three tribes has a great diversity in the micro-morphological features i.e. stomatal type number, size, shape, stomatal density (SD), silica bodies, macrohairs, micro hairs, epidermal cell number, epidermal cell density (ECD), subsidiary cells, prickles, hooks, papillae, short and long cells on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. In species of Arundineae paracytic stomata were observed, in Aristideae tetracytic type of stomata were observed, while in Chlorideae both paracytic and teracytic stomata were seen. The Arundineae has maximum stomatal number (Mean 21.4 to 46.2) and epidermal cell (Mean 51.6 to 77.2). These foliar micro-morphological characters were found significant in the delimitation and systematics of these species and can be used as tool in the identification and assessment of taxonomic problems at species and tribe levels. 

33-42 Download
6
TAXONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SEED MORPHOLOGY
DURDANA KANWAL AND RUBINA ABID

TAXONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SEED MORPHOLOGY
ABSTRACT:

Seed macro and micro morphological characters of 68 taxa within to the family Amaranthaceae were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Generic and keys for species along with detailed seed description have been provided. Great variation was observed in seed shape and surface at generic and specific levels. The present study will provide an additional tool to strengthen the recognition of taxa within the family Amaranthaceae from Pakistan. This data is further analysed numerically by clustering to trace out the phylogenetic relationship of Amaranths taxa at various levels.

43-68 Download
7
AGE AND RADIAL GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CONIFER TREE SPECIES FROM SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
JAVED IQBAL, MOINUDDIN AHMED, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI, ADAM KHAN AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB

AGE AND RADIAL GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CONIFER TREE SPECIES FROM SHANGLA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Dendrochronological studies were conducted in 40 different sites in conifer dominated forests from Shangla District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Wood samples in the form of cores were obtained by using Swedish increment borers including Pinus wallichiana A.B Jackson, Abies pindrow Royle, Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss and Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Donf. In order to determine their ages, growth rates based on annual ring-width characteristics. Diameter and age showed significant correlation (P<0.001) in Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana and Cedrus deodara except Abies pindrow which showed no relationship. Highest growth rate (1.1 ± 0.06 year/cm) was recorded in Pinus wallichiana while for Abies pindrow growth (5.4 ± 1.7 year/cm) was extremely slow. We concluded that age and growth rate greatly varies from tree to tree and site to site even in the same sized trees. It is also shown that largest tree in diameter is not necessarily the oldest. Present study confirmed previous finding that diameter is not a good indicator of age.

 

69-72 Download
8
TRIBE ANDROPOGONEAE FROM NEELUM VALLEY, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR: PHYLOGENY BASED ON MORPHO-ANATOMY
KHAWAJA SHAFIQUE AHMAD1, MANSOOR HAMEED, SANA FATIMA, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, FAROOQ AHMAD, MEHWISH NASEER, ANEELA ZAHOOR AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD

TRIBE ANDROPOGONEAE FROM NEELUM VALLEY, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR: PHYLOGENY BASED ON MORPHO-ANATOMY
ABSTRACT:

The monophyletic tribe Andropogoneae (Poaceae) is a diverse group, which comprises economically important and environmentally essential clade of C4 grasses. To find out the phylogenetic relationships, both morphological and molecular data sets were used. The morphological matrix including26 characters, were used to build a UPGMA trees implement in PAUP* 4.0b. For molecular studies, combined quality nuclear (ITS) and plastid loci (ndhF, rbcL, trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL and matK) were used for phylogenetic analysis using Maximum Likelihood (ML) as implemented in RAxML-VI-HPC and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses in MrBayes v.3.2. Based on 19 key morphological characteristics, anatomical data was subjected to multivariate cluster analysis. We found overall topologies between the morphological tree and ML/BI tree were incongruent. However, Andropogoneae was found to be monophyletic. Astrong support crown clade, including Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Heteropogon, and Schizachyrium, was recovered within Andropogoneae, and Apludamutica (1.00/100) was the first branch within this tribe. Significant variations for anatomical characteristics were exceedingly high and most of the characters seem to be related to environmental conditions. However, characteristics like shape of bulliform cells in leaf blade, presence of silica bodies in leaf epidermis, and more importantly the nature of pubescence can be related to systematics, at species level.

73-82 Download
9
DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN THE PTERIDOPHYTE FLORA OF PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
ALIA GUL, JAN ALAM, ABDUL MAJID, HABIB AHMAD AND M. QAISER

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN THE PTERIDOPHYTE FLORA OF PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:

Current investigation aims to analyze diversity and nature of distribution of the pteridophyte taxa of Pakistan based on published literature and current field studies by the authors. Many field visits were conducted in Hazara Division and some locations of Gilgit-Baltistan province from 2012 to 2014. An updated checklist suggests that there are 202 species and intra-specific taxa distributed in 62 genera and 19 families. Dryopteridaceae was the largest family with 47 taxa (23.5%), followed by Pteridaceae (41 taxa; 20.5%) and Woodsiaceae (21 taxa; 11.5%). Dryopteris Adonson was the largest genus with 23 species (11.38%), followed by Asplenium L. and Polystichum Roth with 18 species (8.90 %) each. Generic index was 3.27. Sino Japanese elements were dominant with 154 taxa (78.35%), followed by Irano Turanian and Saharo Sindian elements with 6 (3.09%) species. Seventy three taxa (36.5%) were extremely rare and 36 rare (18%). Potential areas were Kashmir (110 spp.; 56.70%), Mansehra District (84 spp., 43.29%) and Abbottabad District (80 spp.; 41.23%). Neolepisorus fortunei (T.Moore) Li Wang is reported for Pakistan. The genus Neolepisorus Ching is also a new record for Pakistan. Further field studies are imperative in order to draw a true picture of the pteridophyte diversity of Pakistan especially focusing North Balochistan, Kurram Agency, Dir Upper, Kohistan and Gilgit-Baltistan.

83-88 Download
10
SPECIES DIVERSITY AND PHYTO-CLIMATIC GRADIENT OF A MONTANE ECOSYSTEM IN THE KARAKORUM RANGE
ZAHEER ABBAS, SHUJA UL MULK KHAN, JAN ALAM, ZAHID ULLAH, SHER WALI KHAN AND NAVEED ALAM

SPECIES DIVERSITY AND PHYTO-CLIMATIC GRADIENT OF A MONTANE ECOSYSTEM IN THE KARAKORUM RANGE
ABSTRACT:

Analyzing species diversity and understanding phyto-climatic gradient is crucial for proper management of montane ecosystem. The study site is located in the Karakoram Mountains, Baltistan (Northern Pakistan), covering an area of 2750 Km². It is situated on the right bank of the River Indus in the Central Karakorum Mountains at an elevation range of 2000 to 6000 m at sea level. On the basis of change in topography, elevation and climate study area was classified into four Vegetation Zones viz. dry zone, agro-forestry zone, Sub-alpine zone and Alpine zone. A total of 180 species of vascular plants representing 139 genera and 53 families were collected with generic index of 1.2. Twenty four families were represented by single species. and family Asteraceae was dominant family including 36 species followed by families Papilionaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceaeand Chenopodiaceae representative of 11, 10, 10 and 8 species respectively. Artemisia (7 species), Chenopodium (4), Astragalus (4) and Geranium (3) were identified as leading genera. Habit wise perennial herbs prevailed with 113 species followed by annuals (41 species), shrubs (18), biennials (3) and trees (3).In biological spectrum, the area is dominated by 46% of Hemicryptophytes (84 species) followed by 21% therophytes (39), 11% Chamaephytes (21), 10% Nanophanerophytes (18),10% Geophytes (14) and 2% Mega-phanerophytes (3). The altitudinal gradient of species showed that the species richness declines with increase in elevation from sea level. Most of the species found in the middle elevations (2700-3300m) and a sharp decrease were observed at high elevation (above 3900m).  Agricultural encroachment, grazing, blasts for gemstones; rock drifting and land sliding were common and severe natural and anthropogenic threats. These and many other threats to the available vegetation urge for more precise botanical explorations and prompt conservatory management in the scenario of national and global interest in these fragile ecosystems.

89-98 Download
11
ECO-TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY DISTRICT BUNER (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA) PAKISTAN
SHAUKAT ALI AND ANJUM PERVEEN

ECO-TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY DISTRICT BUNER (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA) PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Eco-taxonomic and ethnobotanical studies were conducted in a Chagharzai valley of District Buner (KPK) Pakistan in four consecutive years 2011-2014. During this study a total of 127 species belonging to 108 genera, distributed in 34 families were identified. The dominant community of the valley was Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana and Quercus incanna based on importance value index. The IVI of Pinus roxburghii was (100.9), followed by Pinus wallichiana (91.58) and under story species Quercus incanna (64.45). Bio-spectrum, leaf size classification of all the species was recorded. The soil of the study area showed a variation from sandy to loam or clay as well with acidic pH, low organic matter, water holding capacity and Calcium carbonate while potassium is recorded up to 150 Meq/lit in soil sample 3. The ethnobotanical study was carried out by interviewing the local elders and herbalists (Hakeems), during this study 60 ethnobotanically important species were recorded

99-109 Download
12
CLIMATIC VARIATION EFFECTS ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) GENOTYPES
AHMAD SHER, FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN, HAKOOMAT ALI, MUHAMMAD IJAZ, ABDUL SATTAR, T.A. YASIR, SAMI UL-ALLAH AND ABDUL QAYYUM

CLIMATIC VARIATION EFFECTS ON CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:

Canola (Brassica napus) is an important quality edible oil crop. An increase in the production of canola can significantly reduce the import of edible oil. With climate change, production of canola is expected to suffer due to water availability issues. Keeping this fact in mind, this study was planned to evaluate the performance of various canola genotypes under diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan having different rainfall. The experiment was planned in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten canola genotypes viz. Bulbul-98, Zafar-2000, Abaseen, Rainbow, Shiralee, Con-I, Dunkeld, 19-H, Westar and Con-II were grown at three experimental sites (Haripur, Rawalpindi, Layyah) for two years. The results indicated that the chlorophyll contents index, seasonal crop growth rate, seed yield, oil yield, protein contents and the water productivity was the highest at Haripur site and the lowest at Layyah site. However, the oil contents were the maximum at Layyah site during the second year. Among the canola genotypes, the genotype ‘Zafar-2000’ had the highest chlorophyll content index, seasonal crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, seed/oil yield and water productivity than other canola genotypes. However, during the second year, the highest chlorophyll content index, seasonal crop growth rate, seed/oil yield and water productivity were noted in genotype ‘19-H’. This study indicated that the high rainfall areas (e.g. Haripur, Rawalpindi) must be exploited to grow the canola crop to lessen the import of oil from foreign markets. In low rainfall areas (e.g. Layyah), the canal and tube well irrigation facilities are available and the water shortage can be accomplished through irrigation with minimum reliance on rainfall. 

111-117 Download
13
PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FUMARIA INDICA (HAUSSKN.) PUGSLEY; A TRADITIONALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
BAKHT NASIR, MADIHA AHMAD, SYEDA SANIA ZAHRA, HUMAIRA FATIMA AND TOFEEQ UR-REHMAN

PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FUMARIA INDICA (HAUSSKN.) PUGSLEY; A TRADITIONALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
ABSTRACT:

Plants represent an illimitable bank of molecules for new drug discovery and development. The current study was aimed to scientifically validate and test the traditionally important medicinal plant ‘Fumaria indica’ using multimode standardized assays. The plant was screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antidiabetic and protein kinase inhibitory potential employing a range of solvents in the extraction process. Highest amount of gallic acid equivalent total phenolic (25.59 ± 0.18 µg GAE/mg dry weight (DW) and quercetin equivalent total flavonoid (9.38 ± 1 µg QE/mg DW) contents were quantified in methanol+distilled.water extract (M+Dw). RP-HPLC profiling revealed the presence of appreciable quantity of apigenin, myricetin, quercetin and rutin ranging from 0.030 to 0.215 µg/mg DW. Highest DPPH free radical scavenging efficiency (IC50 81.03 µg/ml), total antioxidant capacity (16.43 ± 0.14 ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/mg DW) and total reducing power (41.17 ± 2.22 AAE/mg DW) were quantified in the M+Dw extract. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against Micrococcus luteus by ethanolic extract (MIC Ë‚ 3.70 µg/ml) while acetone+distilled water and ethanol extracts showed substantial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 33.33 µg/ml). Significant cytotoxicity against brine shrimps (LC50 349.55 µg/ml) and Hep G2 cell line (IC50 8.45 ± 2.11 µg/ml) was manifested by n-hexane and n-hexane+ethyl acetate extracts respectively while a conspicuous protein kinase inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E strain was exhibited by the n-hexane+ethanol extract (18 ± 0.23 mm bald phenotype at 100 µg/disc). A moderate in vitro antidiabetic activity by virtue of alpha amylase inhibition was manifested by ethyl acetate extracts. Our study highlighted the importance of using a multi-solvent extraction process in bioprospecting of medicinal plants. It also validates the traditional medicinal uses of F. indica and emphasizes the need of further screening, isolation and characterization of its biologically active principles.

119-132 Download
14
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS DRUGS IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
GHULAM DASTAGIR, MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI AND ZANIB AKBAR ABBASI

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED AS DRUGS IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE
ABSTRACT:

Modern medicine starts the study of human body from the level of cell and tissues while Unani Medicine starts its study from the very lowest level of organization and that is an element. Leaves seeds and roots of some selected medicinal plants collected from the Lora, Abbottabad were analyzed for elemental concentration such as Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na and Zn using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Among the leaves it was observed that calcium was maximum (98.2 ppm) in Justacia adhatoda and minimum (0.396 ppm) in Oxalis corniculata followed by K which was greater (59.06 ppm) in Mentha viridis and lower (0.127 pm) in Zanthoxylum armatum. Among the seeds the results showed that calcium was maximum (301.4 ppm) in Punica granatum and minimum (0.5 ppm) in Avena sativa followed by K and it was greater (60.64 ppm) in P. granatum and lower (1.082 ppm) in Pinus roxburghii. Other elements like Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na and Zn contents were higher in Berberis lycium roots than Taraxicum officinale roots. The present investigation revealed that various plant parts of medicinal plants of Lora, Abbottabad are rich source of important minerals and calcium contents will help the local people in hypertension, osteoporosis and in bones strength. Potassium contents in leaves may be effective in blood pressure and in constipation.

133-137 Download
15
EVALUATION OF PHYTODIVERSITY FOR ALLELOPATHIC ACTIVITY AND APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT: JAPANESE MEDICINAL PLANTS
MUHAMMAD IBRAR SHINWARI, OSAMU IIDA, MARYUM IBRAR SHINWARI AND YOSHIHARU FUJII

EVALUATION OF PHYTODIVERSITY FOR ALLELOPATHIC ACTIVITY AND APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT: JAPANESE MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABSTRACT:

Climate change impact is ready to interfere in agro-ecosystems. Improvement of adaptations of crops to forthcoming climatic changes must be focused in research. In the present study, leaf liter of 160 medicinal plant samples (156 species) belonging to 134 genera and 74 families were collected from Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources, Tanegashima, Japan and subjected to evaluation of their allelopathic effects using the Sandwich method. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was used as a test plant material in the bioassay because of its reliability for germination. Top ten medicinal plant species found with maximum inhibition activity were Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) followed by Tylophora tanakae (Ascepiadaceae), Cinchona sp. (Rubiaceae), Flueggea virosa (Phyllanthaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Justicia procumbens (Acanthaceae), Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae), Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae), Lycium chinense (Solanaceae) and Elaeocarpus japonicas (Elaeocarpaceae). Moreover, the presented results also showed minimum growth inhibition or maximum growth stimulation by Ligustrum japonicum (Oleaceae) followed by Vitex rotundifolia (Lamiaceae) and Alpnia intermedia (Zingiberaceae).These results may be utilized as benchmark information for further research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature. The information obtained could also be helpful in the development of new and potent bioactive chemicals from natural products

139-144 Download
16
ALLELE SPECIFIC GENOTYPING ASSAY OF FGR GENE AND SEED QUALITY EVALUATION OF RICE VARIETIES OF PAKISTAN
SHAGUFTA SAHAR, SADDIA GALANI, SYED GHULAM MUSHARRAF AND ABID AZHAR

ALLELE SPECIFIC GENOTYPING ASSAY OF FGR GENE AND SEED QUALITY EVALUATION OF RICE VARIETIES OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Pakistan is blessed with high quality rice having supreme attributes of physicochemical, cooking and eating properties and characteristic popcorn like aroma. Among all the quality traits, fragrance is the most valuable attribute with huge economic importance which is controlled by fragrant gene (fgr). An 8-bp deletion and 3 SNPs in the exon 7 in fgr gene result in accumulation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aromatic rice conferring fragrance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the rice grain quality attributes (physical, chemical and cooking properties) along with organoleptic analysis. Rice aroma evaluation was done by sensory analysis (cooking / KOH test) and genotyping of fgr gene by Allele Specific Assay (ASA). Results showed that out of 35rice varieties tested, only 12 showed high score of aroma by cooking / KOH test. While these varieties had extra-long/long and slender grains with medium amylose content and soft texture. Allele Specific genotyping was carried out to validate the aroma by specifically amplifying of fgr gene (8bp deletion). The assay showed 255bp band for 12 varieties (Khushboo, Sughdaasi, Mehak, Basmati 385, GA-5015, Super Basmati, Shaheen Basmati, MG-Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati-198, Basmati 515 and Basmati 370) confirming their status of fragrance. The remaining 22 were found to be non-fragrant varieties giving 355bp PCR product which is particular for non- fragrant. This fgr allele specific markers / genotyping of fragrance allele can be utilized as a robust tool to discriminate between aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties within local traditional varieties that possess fgr and facilitate in marker assisted selection in aromatic rice breeding programs.

145-154 Download
17
ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDIGENOUS RICE ACCESSIONS OF NORTHERN PAKISTAN USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS
AYESHA BIBI, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI, FIDA MUHAMMAD ABBASI, IFTIKHAR AZIM NIAZ AND KHATIBA BIBI

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDIGENOUS RICE ACCESSIONS OF NORTHERN PAKISTAN USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS
ABSTRACT:

Indigenous rice germplasm was evaluated for total seed storage proteins diversity using 116 accessions. We obtained 18 visible polypeptide bands out of which eight were polymorphic (44.4%) and ten bands were found monomorphic (55.6%). Entire banding profile was divided into three groups (I, II and III) based on their molecular weight. Each of three groups had six bands. Glutelin and Prolamin fragments had high polymorphism percentage, while Albumin and Globulin subunits had low polymorphism percentage. Based upon the study using UPGMA all 116 accessions were categorized into seven clusters in which accession 7202 and 7205 were present in cluster II showing marked dissimilarity with other accessions. Cluster III had 74 accessions which showed that on the basis of storage protein profile low genetic diversity was present in these rice accessions.

155-161 Download
18
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ASSOCIATED TRAITS AND LEAF RUST RESISTANCE OF F2 SEGREGATING POPULATION OF WHEAT
ABDUL WAJID CHANNA, MAHBOOB ALI SIAL, HADI BUX, SADAF TABASSUM QURESHI AND RABIA ASMA MEMON

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ASSOCIATED TRAITS AND LEAF RUST RESISTANCE OF F2 SEGREGATING POPULATION OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:

Genetic analysis of some yield contributing traits of four F2 segregating populations (NIA-Amber x Marvi-2000, TD-1 x Khirman, NIA-10/8 x NIA-Amber and Marvi-2000 x NIA-Sunehri) originated from cross combinations of six parental wheat varieties was conducted. Experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, Pakistan during wheat season, 2013-14. Genetic parameters viz. genetic variance (Vg), environmental variance (Ve), heritability in broad sense (h2b.s) and genetic advance (G.A) were studied for days to booting, days to heading, days to maturity, grain filling period, plant height, spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike, thousand grains weight, grain yield per plant, grain yield per plot, biological yield per plot, harvest index and leaf rust resistance. Results revealed that F2 progenies Marvi-2000 x NIA-Sunehri and NIA-10/8 x NIA-Amber were found best combiner progenies with potential to transfer highest heritability with genetic advance for traits viz. days to booting, days to heading, days to maturity, grain filling period, plant height, grains per spike, grain yield per plant and harvest index. For leaf rust resistance, NIA-10/8 x NIA-Amber showed highest heritability along with genetic advance, indicating selection improvement and greater effectiveness. Highest heritability (h2b.s) was recorded for plant height (80.1%), 1000-grain weight (90.7%), grain yield per plant (95.9%), grain yield per plot (95.7%), harvest index (95.8%) and leaf rust resistance (85.2%). Our findings provided valid information regarding genetic architecture of various yield associated traits and leaf rust resistance of above segregating pro­­genies which could be utilized in future breeding programmes.

163-170 Download
19
ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIGLYCATION AND IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM CENTRAL KARAKORAM NATIONAL PARK (CKNP) GILGIT, PAKISTAN
QAMAR ABBAS, SHER WALI KHAN, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL, SAJJAD ALI AND RAHMATULLAH QURESHI

ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIGLYCATION AND IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM CENTRAL KARAKORAM NATIONAL PARK (CKNP) GILGIT, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Oxidative species are regularly formed in the physiological system as a result of a number of normal metabolic activities especially the energy related processes. Although there is an innate mechanism of antioxidant defense system but over production of the oxidative species may lead to a worse state formally called “oxidative stress”. The natural endogenous antioxidant defense system is supplemented by phytochemicals with antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to determine antioxidant, antiglycation and immunomodulatory activities of various solvent based extracts of selected medicinally important plants from Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP), Gilgit, Pakistan. The plants were selected based on their traditional use in different ailments. Among the studied plants, ethyl acetate fraction of Pulsatilla wallichiana showed promising activity against DPPH radicals with its 31µg/mL IC50 which was comparable with the standard antioxidant compound (gallic acid with 23µg/mL IC50). Methanolic fractions of P. wallichiana and Saussurea simpsoniana showed the highest antiglycation activity with 45% and 41%, respectively. The dichloromethane fractions of S. simpsoniana and Salvia nubicola showed highest immunomodulatory activity (51.2 and 54.28 µg/mL IC50, respectively). Among the studied plants, dichloromethane fraction of S. simpsoniana showed highest antiglycation potential (45%), followed by methanolic fraction of P. wallichiana (41%) and S. nubicola (40%). Based on results, it can be concluded that P. wallichiana and S. simpsoniana possess antioxidant, antiglycation and immunomodulatory activities that can be used in drug discovery programme. The mechanistic studies are required to validate the activity of these plants at molecular level.

171-175 Download
20
EXPLORATION OF MEDICINAL PHYTO-DIVERSITY AT MAKRAN COAST; A REALM OF OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
ALI NOMAN, MUHAMMAD AQEEL, SHAHBAZ KHAN, SUMERA ANWER AND QASIM ALI

EXPLORATION OF MEDICINAL PHYTO-DIVERSITY AT MAKRAN COAST; A REALM OF OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
ABSTRACT:

Pakistan has been endowed with marvelous diversity of potentially therapeutic plants. Makran region is largely comprised of hills along with barren land. Unequivocally, medicinal plants are appreciably utilized by the local communities. These medicinal plants not only used for specific diseases as well as used in combination with other herbal medicinal plants. Due to over exploitation of area, unplanned developmental works and deteriorating law and order situation, wild flora of this district is threatened. This is the foremost report of its nature from this area. This research presents traditional knowledge on medicinal plants usage cum belief as medicine by native population of Gawadar. By adopting standard methods i.e. questionnaire, field visits, interviews etc. data was collected. Statistical tool, FIC and FL values were calculated to analyze the gathered information for evaluation of knowledge about importance of diverse medicinal plants. Plant species reported in this area are commonly practiced for multifarious purposes e.g. herbal drugs, fodder, wood and essential oils etc. Chief plant habit observed was shrubs. Plants and their parts such as roots, stem, leaves, wood, flowers, bark, seeds, latex and fruits are in common use for various purposes. As per calculated FIC,it is evident that category “gastro-intestinal problems” with FIC values 0.897 carried highest degree of agreement by informants. Highest FL was noted in Calotropis procera (87 %) followed by Indigofera oblongifolia (78 %).

177-190 Download
21
IMPACT OF VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE TOXIN ON MORPHOGENETIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UPLAND COTTON
N. BIBI, F. LI, I.M. AHMED, K. FAN, S.N. YUAN AND X.D. WANG

IMPACT OF VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE TOXIN ON MORPHOGENETIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UPLAND COTTON
ABSTRACT:

To obtain insights into the mechanism of Verticillium wilt, we elucidated the effects of Verticillium dahliae toxin (Vd toxin) on physiological and biochemical responses of the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Our results demonstrated that Vd toxin significantly (P<0.05) decreased the nutrition uptake up to 75% in NIAB-846, 70% in Zheda B, 63% in Zheda R, 56% in NIAB-111 and 34% in NIAB-999 than non-treated control. Significant reduction was observed in root growth parameters like root surface area, root length, root diameter and root volume. Further, Vd toxin treatment triggered the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), while reduced the contents of ascorbate (ASA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the magnitudes of decrease in antioxidants values were lower in NIAB-999 resulting relatively low accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) as compared with other genotypes. In addition, the toxic effects of 24 h Vd toxin treatment were persistent even after two weeks of its removal and resulted in suppressed plant growth. According to integrated score, cotton genotypes were categorized for relative tolerance against Verticillium wilt in an order of NIAB-999 > NIAB-111 > Zheda R > Zheda B > NIAB-846. Our findings indicated that utilization of Vd toxin is environmentally friendly approach and nutrition uptake by plant might be a valuable tool for the screening of cotton genotypes against Verticillium wilt. 

191-199 Download
22
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THORN APPLE (SOLANUM INCANUM L.), A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES OF THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
IFTIKHAR AHMAD, MUMTAZ HUSSAIN, M. SAJID AQEEL AHMAD, M. ASIM SULTAN, M. YASIN ASHRAF, MISHAL IFTIKHAR, ATTIA NOREEN AND AHMAD MUNEEB

SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRITIONAL AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THORN APPLE (SOLANUM INCANUM L.), A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES OF THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

In this study, Thorn Apple (Solanum incanum L.) plants collected during different seasons from various sites (Khabeki, Khoora, Dape Sharif, Anga, Jallar) in Soon Valley (Salt Range) were analyzed for some of the nutritional and medicinal components to investigate the spatio-temporal variations in the synthesis/accumulation of these compounds. The aim was to select the suitable harvesting season and site for deriving maximum quantity of these compounds from the plant. Partial RDA ordination biplot regarding the effects of seasons on biochemical attributes of S. incanum shoots showed that moisture and alkaloidal contents and most of the nutrients such as P, K, Ca and Fe strongly correlated with spring (growing) season. Fats and phenols were correlated with winter and autumn. Total minerals, Zn, Mg, fibers, proteins and N were associated with summer. The spatial effects of different sites on biochemical parameters indicated that dry matter, fibers, Na, Ca, Zn and NFES (nitrogen free extractable substances) were strongly correlated with nutrients and high field capacity at Khabeki site. Alkaloids, phenols, fats and K showed almost equal correlation with drier Dape Sharif and Jallar sites. However, in S. incanum fruits, Zn, Mg and Fe showed no significant correlation with any specific site, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids, dry matter, K and P were strongly associated with salt and drought stressed area of Jallar, whereas Ca, Na and fibers were weakly correlated. Protein, nitrogen, fats, phenols and minerals were strongly correlated with nitrogen containing clay loam soils of Khabeki and Jallar sites. NFES was also correlated with fruits collected from Khoora site whose soil was inversely correlated with N contents that is why NFES were higher at this site. In roots of S. incanum, phenols and alkaloids were correlated with high soil pH and more availability of minerals during spring. Therefore for S. incanum, summer season is the most favorable season for the synthesis of nutritional components and spring season for medicinal components, whereas areas with stressed and high pH soil (Jallar and Dape Sharif) are the most suitable sites for collecting S. incanum plants possessing maximum quantity of medicinal as well as nutritional components. However, for fruit collection of S. incanum, stressed (Jallar) site is the most suitable for medicinal components and high mineral containing (Khabeki) site for nutritional components.

201-210 Download
23
ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF FOUR FICUS SPECIES FROM DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
SHEHZAD AZAM, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ, MEHWISH MAQBOOL, WAHEEDA MUSHTAQ, HAROON MEHMOOD, AZHAR AZAM AND MUHAMMAD SHAHZAMAN

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF FOUR FICUS SPECIES FROM DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Ficus genus has medicinally important plant and being used by indigenous communities of Azad Kashmir. In this research, some taxa of Ficus (F. bengalensis, F. carica, F. sermentosa, and F. semicordata) were analyzed to investigate their antimicrobial potential. In antibacterial analysis three strains viz: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were tested using negative and positive controls. For antimycotic studies three fungi taxa: Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were used in compatible with both type of control set up for comparison. In analysis, plant samples were extracted by maceration method using four solvents Petroleum Ether (P.E.), Chloroform, Methanol and water. Two methods viz: Agar Well Diffusion Method and Micro dilution method. Methanol was proved to be the best solvent with highest %age yield. Highest zone of inhibition (ZI) was found for methanolic extract of lead of Ficus bengalensis against S. aereus with 22.3±0.65 mm and AI: 0.94. For fungi maximum ZI was 25.3±0.60 mm against C. albicans. In Ficus bengalensis extracts; most resistant bacterial strains was P. aeruginosa with MBC of 93.5±0.30 µg and most resistant fungus was A. flavus with MFC of 108.6±1.12µg. Among F. carica extracts best ZI was 20.5±0.55 mm and AI of 0.93 agaisnt P. aeruginosa whilst for antimycotic analysis MFC was 51.4±0.60 µg found for F. solani. In analysis of macerates of F. sermentosa; highest ZI (19.7±0.55 mm) was found for E. coli and ZI of 23.1±0.66 mm for C. albicans for methanolic extract. In its extracts, best MBC was 86.9±0.30 µg agaisnt S. aereus and MFC with 95.5±0.85 µg for F. solani. For extract analysis of F. semicordata, good ZI was explored for S. aereus with 19.5±0.80 µg and for fungus activity it was found that methanolic extract had highest ZI (21.3±0.45 mm) for A. flavus. In this plant activity tests, it was found that best MIC (40.5±0.60 µg), MBC (39.5±0.25µg) for E. coli and MFC (99.6±0.55 µg) F. solani. Out all analyzed taxa; methanolic extract of F. bengalensis was found to be best for antimicrobial dose of medication with least MBC and MFC followed by macerates of and F. semicordata. This research reveals that Ficus bengalensis and F. semicordata are more effective agaisnt bacteria and fungi than leaf extracts of Ficus carica and F. sermentosa. The current findings might be useful for preparation of herbal recipes or allopathic medicines by pharmaceutical industries to cure resistant gaining microbes. This will culminate into alternative medicine development by indigenous pharmacopeia for cure of these pathogens with drugs having no-side effects, synergistic in action and easy to purchase.

211-220 Download
24
GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS WHEAT GERMPLASM FROM DIFFERENT AREAS OF PAKISTAN USINGAGRO-MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS
KHATIBA BIBI, INAMULLAH, HABIB AHMAD, AYESHA BIBI, RABIA MASOOD, HAKIM KHAN AND AZIZ UD DIN

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS WHEAT GERMPLASM FROM DIFFERENT AREAS OF PAKISTAN USINGAGRO-MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS
ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity was studied among 102 wheat genotypes using 19 agro-morphological characters. Multivariate analysis including cluster number and principal component analyses were carried out. Significant variation was found for all the characters. The largest variation was observed in awn length (44.10), number of tillers (38.57), biological yield (23.57), flag leaf area (20.19) and peduncle length (18.85). The 102 genotypes were grouped into five clusters based on hierarchical clustering method. PCI showed maximum genetic variability 18.15%, PCII contributed 13.33%, and PCIII accounted for 10.78% of total morphological diversity. Genotypes PS 2004, 011872 and 010742, have high thousand grain weight, highest spike length, high number of tillers per plant. PS 2004, 011872 and 010742 three elite genotypes identified on the basis of important agro- morphological traits for future breeding program under Mansehra conditions. 

221-227 Download
25
DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF MOLECULAR CHAPERON (HSP70) AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES: INDUCING THERMOTOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.).
MUHAMMAD KAZIM ALI, ABID AZHAR, ERUM US SALAM AND SADDIA GALANI

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF MOLECULAR CHAPERON (HSP70) AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES: INDUCING THERMOTOLERANCE IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.).
ABSTRACT:

Hyperthermia adversely affects cell structure and function, leading to necrosis and death of the plant that ultimately result in yield loss. Induced expression of the molecular chaperone protein HSP70 and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and POD), can prevent heat induced cell death, by protecting structural and functional proteins conformation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) respectively. In this study, temporal expression of molecular chaperones (HSP70) and antioxidant enzymes were determined during grain filling stage of eight local rice (IR-6, IR-8, DR-82, DR-83, DR-92, K-95, Sada Hayat, Shahkar) cultivars under different temperature regimes (control, 42±2 0C and recovery treatments) for different time episodes (24, 48 and 72h). Results revealed heat stress induced expression of HSP70 with increasing duration of heat stress and this temporal expression was strongly correlated with thermotolerance in rice cultivars. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) gel-based study showed, elevated temperature, in general, enhanced expression and activity; however, it was cultivar specific. Among all cultivars, “DR-82”, “DR-83” and “Sada Hayat”, showed comparatively low expression of HSP70 as well as compromised and decline activity of SOD and POD under stress condition. Cultivar, “K-95” had strong expression of HSP70, more than one heat responsive bands of SOD and POD, provoking thermotolerance. It is concluded that heat shock proteins specifically expression of HSP70 can minimize heat induced damages and cell death by maintaining structural and functional protein integrity and play key role in development of thermotolerance, therefore can be used as potential biomarker of heat stress tolerance in rice. 

229-238 Download
26
AUGMENTED TRIGLYCEROL ACYLHYDROLASE UNITS BY OPTIMIZATION AND CONVENTIONAL BREEDING OF ASPERGILLUS STRAIN (MBL-1612)
MUHAMMAD KAMRAN BASHIR, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR, SIDRA, ROHEENA ABDULLAH AND MUHAMMAD ALI

AUGMENTED TRIGLYCEROL ACYLHYDROLASE UNITS BY OPTIMIZATION AND CONVENTIONAL BREEDING OF ASPERGILLUS STRAIN (MBL-1612)
ABSTRACT:

The present investigation describes the production potential of a morphologically identified isolate of an ascomycetous fungus i.e., Aspergillus sp. (MBL-1612) that was verified by DNA barcoding marker like 18S rRNA gene sequence. Later, the sequence of Aspergillus sp. (MBL-1612) was registered with Accession No. KM924435 in the public nucleotide library (genbank) of NCBI. The selected hyper producer of Aspergillus sp. (MBL-1612) strain was then subjected to physical and chemical mutagenic treatments in order to improve its lipolytic potential. Proximate analysis proved mustard meal as the best substrate with the maximum extracellular lipases activity of 9.73 UmL-1 (wild) and 16.87 UmL-1 (mutant). The optimum conditions for the best lipase production through solid substrate fermentation were established by using 10 gram substrate, 1.0mL inoculum level at 35oC after 96 h at pH of 6.5. Finally, the maximum production by mutant strain of Aspergillus sp. was achieved when olive oil was used at 1% (149.43 %).

239-247 Download
27
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GROWTH PARAMETERS FOR SODIUM AND IRON TOXICITIES IN UPLAND AND LOWLAND CULTIVARS OF ORYZA SATIVA L.
NUSRAT JAHAN, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD JAVED, FAZILAH ABD MANAN, SAMIULLAH KHAN, AZMAN ABD SAMAD AND MUDASSIR ISRAR ZAIDI

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GROWTH PARAMETERS FOR SODIUM AND IRON TOXICITIES IN UPLAND AND LOWLAND CULTIVARS OF ORYZA SATIVA L.
ABSTRACT:

Abiotic stresses are common limitations to rice productivity worldwide. Sodium and iron toxicities affect the rice crop yield adversely. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of these toxicities on seedling growth and ionic distribution in (two upland: SK1 and Panderas and three lowland: Pokkali, MR211 and Firat) rice varieties. Sodium and iron toxicities (NaCl: 0, 80mM and 120mM and FeCl2: 0, 3.5mM and 7.5mM) were imposed separately, to three weeks old seedling for two weeks, using a hydroponic system. Results showed a significant adverse effect on growth traits with an increase in iron and sodium toxicities. Ionic distribution analysis of roots, leaves and flag leaves revealed that an increase in Na+ and Fe2+ ions reduced K+ uptake. Pokkali showed low accumulations of Na+ and Fe2+ in root, leaves and flag leaf in all stress levels of these toxicities. Firat showed high accumulation of Na+ and low accumulation of Fe2+ in high stress levels of these toxicities, respectively. MR211and Panderas showed high stress injury scores in both toxicities. Therefore, it is concluded that the tolerance for sodium and iron toxicities may be independent mechanisms as reflected by physiochemical analysis. However, ability to uptake potassium would help the seedling to ameliorate the effects of these toxicities. 

249-254 Download
28
RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST VEGETATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS (ADAPHIC, TOPOGRAPHIC AND SOIL NUTRIENTS) FROM SOME FROSTED AREAS OF HIMALAYAN, HINDU KUSH AND KARAKORAM RANGES OF GILGIT-BALTSITAN, PAKISTAN- (A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH)
MUHAMMAD AKBAR, MOINUDDIN AHMED, FAISAL HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI, GHULAM RAZA, SUJJAD HYDER AND NAEEM ABBAS

RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST VEGETATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS (ADAPHIC, TOPOGRAPHIC AND SOIL NUTRIENTS) FROM SOME FROSTED AREAS OF HIMALAYAN, HINDU KUSH AND KARAKORAM RANGES OF GILGIT-BALTSITAN, PAKISTAN- (A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH)
ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between forest vegetation and environmental gradients from some forested area of Himalayan, Hindu Kush and Karakoram ranges of Pakistan. Forty stands were sampled from three districts of Gilgit-Baltistan. Ward’s cluster analysis for classification and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) for ordination were applied to seek the vegetation distribution and composition. Ward’s cluster analysis when applied on tree species data and understory species data each give five groups and these five groups distinctly distributed on ordination plan. In cluster groups of trees Group I (a) and Group II are dominated by Pinus wallichiana, Group I (b) mono specific group of Pinus wallichiana, Group III Picea smithiana, Group IV Betula utilis and group V is consist on two mono specific stands of Abies pindrow and Juniperus macropoda. In cluster of ground flora Group I dominated by Potentilla anserine, Group II Urtica dioica, Group III Viola rupestris, and Fragaria nubicola, Group IV Cicer songaricum and Group V Bergenia stracheyi consequently. The groups of tree and understory vegetation are readily superimposed on DCA ordination plane. Classification and ordination showed similar distribution pattern of tree species as well as understory vegetation. Relationships between the ordination axes with topographic (elevation and slope) and edaphic variables (pH, TDS, Salinity, conductivity and water holding capacity) also employed. In case of tree vegetation data cluster groups among the environmental factors only edaphic factor salinity (P < 0.05) and soil nutrient K+ (P < 0.05), (P < 0.05) showed positively correlated with axes 1, and axes 2, 3 correspondingly while in case of understory data cluster groups between the topographic variables elevation (P < 0.05) was found positively correlated with axes 1. While among the edaphic factors only pH (P < 0.05), (P < 0.01) was showed positively correlated with axes 2 and 3 respectively. Whereas among the soil nutrients only Fe++ was recorded (P < 0.05) positively correlated with ordination axes 3. Both cases most of the environmental variables did not show significant correlation this may due to the anthropogenic disturbances however further studies are needed to explore the rest of parts of the said regions.

255-272 Download
29
AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR DNA EXTRACTION FROM FRESH AND HERBARIUM SPECIMENS OF HELIOTROPES
SAMINA NAURIN AND MUHAMMAD QAISER

AN EFFICIENT PROTOCOL FOR DNA EXTRACTION FROM FRESH AND HERBARIUM SPECIMENS OF HELIOTROPES
ABSTRACT:

High quality DNA is essential in various techniques of molecular systematic. Herbarium specimens are the valuable source of genetic information in this respect especially for those taxa which grow in areas which are difficult to access, very rare or endangered. However, the DNA obtained from the herbarium specimen is often highly fragmented or present in very low quantity. Most of the Heliotropium L. species produce large number of secondary metabolites. For isolating high quality DNA, free from secondary metabolites, a low cost but efficient protocol for different species of Heliotropium L. is developed. The DNA isolated with this protocol was successfully used for PCR based downstream applications such as gene amplification, DNA sequencing and Bar coding.

273-278 Download
30
IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY FIRE SMOKE ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLEUROTUS (FLABELLATUS) DJAMOR, R-22
SAADULLAH KHAN LEGHARI, MUDASSIR ASRAR, ATTA MUHAMMAD, SAEED-UR-RAHMAN AND ZAHOOR ILAHI

IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY FIRE SMOKE ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLEUROTUS (FLABELLATUS) DJAMOR, R-22
ABSTRACT:

Mushrooms are very sensitive to environmental pollution but no scientific study has been conducted so far to evaluate the effect of air pollution on their growth. The objective of this study was to check the impact of fire smoke caused by burning of solid waste (house-hold and hospital waste) on cultivation and nutrition of mushrooms. Total yield, moisture content, dry matter, ash, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, crude fiber of Pleurotus (Flabellatus) Djamor (R-22) commonly known as Oyster mushroom were estimated. The Oyster mushroom was exposed for 20, 40, 60 Min/day to smoke caused by burning of two types of house hold waste and hospital waste in different treatment rooms. Smoke damaged mushrooms soft tissue thus total yield, was reduced to almost half, moisture content and carbohydrates were also significantly reduced. The smoke from hospital waste burning had more harmful effects as compare to smoke from house hold waste burning. However ash, dry matter, protein, and crude fiber were not affected by smoke air pollution.

279-282 Download
31
EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PLANTS TO DEVELOP SILVER NANOPARTICLES
SUMERA JAVAD, BAREERA OBAID, AMINA TARIQ, ZUNAIRA IQBAL AND NADIA GHAFFAR

EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PLANTS TO DEVELOP SILVER NANOPARTICLES
ABSTRACT:

Nanotechnology involving nanoparticles is a remarkably important field of present time having various industrial and medicinal uses. Biological production of nanoparticles using plants or microorganisms being eco-friendly is the remotely adopted way to produce these particles. In present study plants used were black pepper (Piper nigrum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), red chili (Capsicum annuum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), black cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and tea (Camellia sinensis) for development of nanoparticles using water as solvent. After being treated with silver nitrate, color of all plants extracts changed, indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles. The amount and efficiency of these nanoparticles was evaluated by testing their antibacterial activity against two bacterial strains named Bordetella petrussis (human pathogen) and Xanthomonas axonopodis (plant pathogen). It was found that silver nanoparticles showed larger inhibition zones for both bacterial species as compared to their relative pure plant extracts. Results also revealed that for bacterial specie Bordetella petrussis, the most activity was shown by silver nanoparticles of clove extract with an inhibition zone of 32mm. For the bacterial strain Xanthomonas axonopodis the largest inhibition zone of 23.4mm was formed by silver nanoparticles of black cardamom extract showing the most effective antibacterial activity. It was concluded that antibacterial drugs can be formulated from these nanoparticles with maximum efficiency.

283-287 Download
32
ASSESSMENT OF EXTRACELLULAR METABOLITES FROM BACILLUS SPECIES AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES AND ROOT-INFECTING FUNGI IN ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) MOENCH
MUHAMMAD WASEEM ABBASI, MARIUM TARIQ, MUHAMMAD QASIM KHAN AND MUHAMMAD JAVED ZAKI

ASSESSMENT OF EXTRACELLULAR METABOLITES FROM BACILLUS SPECIES AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES AND ROOT-INFECTING FUNGI IN ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.) MOENCH
ABSTRACT:

Bacillus species are well known rhizobacteria for their potential to improve plant growth and control of plant pathogens. Bacillus species were isolated from rhizosphere of different crop plants in lower Sindh. Secondary metabolites of Bacillus cereus (KUB-15), B. coagulans (KUB-20) and B. cereus (KUB-27) were extracted in ethyl acetate and hexane. Two concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm) of these extracts were applied to Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) seeds for the assessment of a) plant growth promoting ability b) root-knot nematode parasitism and c) infection of root-infecting fungi. Both extracts at 1000 ppm concentration showed significantly higher plant height and weight compared to lower concentration (500ppm). Root-knot nematode parasitism was measured in term of number of galls, egg masses and eggs/egg mass. Lower concentrations of the extracts showed greater parasitism of nematodes compared to higher concentration of both the solvents. Least root-knot nematode parasitism was observed in plants treated with ethyl acetate extract of KUB-20 at 1000 ppm. Colonization of three root-infecting fungi namely, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium species was recorded. Lowest infection of M. phaseolina (8.86%) and R. solani (17.71%) was observed with ethyl acetate extracts of KUB-20 and KUB-27, respectively. However, colonization of Fusarium species was greatly reduced by both ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of KUB-20 at 1000 ppm

289-294 Download
33
DETECTION OF SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH WHEAT VARITIES AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
TANVEER HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ, SHEHZAD AZAM, MEHWISH MAQBOOL AND WAHEEDA MUSHTAQ

DETECTION OF SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH WHEAT VARITIES AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Pakistan is very fertile for wheat production but there are problems of yield loss, low grain quality and substandard fodder. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is invaded by several fungal pathogens; many of them are seed-borne. In current study, 29 different seed-borne pathogens were isolated from eight wheat varieties of district Bhimber Azad Kashmir during the years 2014 and 2015. Mycoflora was explored by using Agar plate method (APM), standard blotter method (SBM), washing method (WM) and deep freeze blotter method (DFBM). Deep freezing method showed better results among all protocols. Tilletia tritici (87.5%) and Cladosporium herbarum (87.5%) were more prevalent fungal pathogens on the most wheat varieties. Susceptibility analysis depicted that varieties Fareed-2006, Seher-2006, Lasani-2008 and Millat-2011are most vulnerable for fungal attack and not suitable for growth in this study area. Wheat varieties V4 (Faisalabad- 2008), V7 (Punjab-2011) and V8 (Galaxy-2013) showed least prevalence and these three wheat varieties are cultivated dominantly in the study area. For control measures two chemical and biological methods were used. In chemical protocol fungicides Benlate (56.84%) and Thiabendazole (58.44%) showed good fungal control. In biological treatment, applying plant extracts showed better germination rates (79.5A, 81.6A and 78.2A) in study area in comparison with other treatments. Fungicide treatments also gave better germination rate (77.3A), but are not recommended due to their detrimental and toxic impacts on environment and human health. This study recommends that biocontrol method for elimination of seed mycoflora which is ecofriendly, less costly and easily to handle. It depicts that seed-borne diseases severely affect the biomass and gains quality and quantity of wheat crop. As conclusion wheat variety Galaxy-2013 (0.7EF) showed maximum resistance to seed mycoflora hence it is recommended as the best variety for cultivation in the study area

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34
ADDITIONS TO THE DIVERSITY OF MUSHROOMS IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABDUL RAZAQ AND SALEEM SHAHZAD

ADDITIONS TO THE DIVERSITY OF MUSHROOMS IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

      Samples of Basidiomycetous fungi were collected from different parts of Gilgit, Pakistan. Spore prints were prepared by removing the stalk and placing the cap overnight on a white sheet. The samples were brought to the laboratory of Biological Sciences department, KIU, Gilgit, for further in-vitro investigation. During this research work 15 species have been collected and identified viz., Krombholziella oxydabilis, Krombholziella scabra, Leccinum carpini, Leccinum crocipodium, Leccinum versipelle, (Order Boletales: Family: Boletaceae); Gyrodonlividus (Order Boletales: Family: Strobilomycetaceae); Porphyrellus psedoscaber, Tylopilusfelleus (Order Boletales: Family: Gyrodontaceae); Omphalotus olearius (Order Boletales: Family: Paxillaceae); Inocybe agardhii, Inocybe geophylla, Inocybe nappies, Naucoria centunculus (Order Cortinariales: Family Cortinariaceae); Ganoderma applanatum (Order Ganodermetales: Family Ganodermataceae); and Inonotus radiates (Order Hymenochaetales: Family Hymenochaetaceae). All these species appeared to be new records from Gilgit-Baltistan, not hitherto reported. 

305-309 Download
35
INFLUENCE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS
S. MAITLO, A. QAYOOM RAJPUT, R. NAZ SYED, M. ALI KHANZADA, N. AHMED RAJPUT AND A. MUBEEN LODHI

INFLUENCE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS
ABSTRACT:

All the conditions that affect the ecological survival of pathogens are essential for formulating pathogen management strategies and for multiplication to meet the requirement of further research. In-vitro studies revealed that colony growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris varied significantly with different culture media, temperatures, nutritional sources and with different pH levels. Moreover, its conidial size and number of macro and micro conidia were also varied with different growth conditions. Richards’s agar and potato dextrose agar appear as the best growth media, which produced rapidest colony growth, biggest conidia and highest sporulation as compared to the other culture media. The Foc grew between 10-45oC, maximum colony growth occurred at 30oC followed by 25 and 35oC. It produced conidia of significantly higher length and width at 30oC followed by at 25oC. While all other temperature levels produced comparatively smaller conidia. Its highest sporulation took place at 30-35oC and no conidial production occurred below 15oC and above 45oC. Alterations in nutritional sources also caused great influence on the growth and sporulation of the test fungus. Among different nutrients tested, sucrose and dextrose came up as the most suitable carbon sources, while potassium nitrate and peptone as best nitrogen sources. The Foc produced maximum dry mycelial weight and sporulation at pH 6-7, whereas the extreme pH levels (8 and 9) produced less numbers of conidia. 

311-316 Download
36
A CYTOPLASMIC EFFECTOR PSCRN161 ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE IN NICOTIANA BENTHAMIANA AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
NASIR AHMED RAJPUT, MUHAMMAD ATIQ, ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI, NA GUO, ASMA SAFDER, REHANA NAZ SYED, MUHAMMAD SHAKEEL, MEIXIANG ZHANG, TINGLI LIU AND DAOLONG DOU

A CYTOPLASMIC EFFECTOR PSCRN161 ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE IN NICOTIANA BENTHAMIANA AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI
ABSTRACT:

Phytophthora sojae, is a pathogen of soybean that deliver an extensive number of effector proteins into plant cells. The Crinkling and Necrosis (CRN) cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in water loving pathogens and their encoding genes are extremely expressed at the infective periods in P. sojae. However the molecular mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, an effector of P. sojae CRN161 was characterized by transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We confirmed that PsCRN161 was localized to the host cell nucleus and suppressed host cell death elicited by above tested cell death-inducing proteins, such as PsAvh241, R3a/Avr3a, PsojNIP, BAX and PsCRN63. Our results showed that PsCRN161 could significantly enhanced plant resistance to the infection of P. capsici. Furthermore, we found that expression levels of the plant defense-associated genes were also up-regulated in planta expression of PsCRN161. This study indicate that PsCRN161 may function as a suppress host plant immunity and therefore enhanced plant disease resistance.

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37
PREVALENCE OF POSTHARVEST ROTS OF MANGO IN DIFFERENT FARMS OF SINDH, PAKISTAN
REHANA NAZ SYED, ABDUL MUBEEN LODHI, NASIR AHMED RAJPUT, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL KUMBHAR AND MUHAMMAD ALI KHANZADA

PREVALENCE OF POSTHARVEST ROTS OF MANGO IN DIFFERENT FARMS OF SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

A serious threat to the mango industry is postharvest decay. Postharvest losses of fresh mango fruits are reported to be more than half of its production in some of the developing countries. Pakistan is one of the main mango growing countries of the world. Highly perishable nature and its susceptibility to post harvest diseases, is the major hindrance in exporting to distant foreign markets. Latent infections by plant pathogenic fungi in the field are the main reason of postharvest disease development during transit and storage. A study was carried out for three consecutive years (2013-2015) to provide an overview of postharvest diseases and pathogens in different orchards of the Sindh. In isolation from the twigs collected from trees Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the most predominant fungus with significant highest frequency of 30.77, 25.00 and 7.5%, followed by Alternaria alternata with the frequency of 20.00, 9.1 and 14.5% while,  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides frequencies were 4.82, 6.2 and 3.9% during 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Incidences and severity of the diseases greatly varied from farm to farm. No significant difference were observed between the incidence of postharvest rots and fruits collected from either side of the trees. Irrespective of fruits position on the tree, stem end rot (SER) remains the predominant postharvest rots on the mangoes of selected orchards. The overall incidences of SER were 10.83, 14.64 and 3.21% in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. The incidences of anthracnose and Alternaria rot were very low. It’s evident from the data that with the passage of time a considerable reduction was occurred in the development of postharvest rots on the mangoes of selected orchards due to the adoption of good farm management practices. L. theobromae was predominantly isolated from the mango fruits having typical symptoms of the stem end rot disease. It is concluded that attention should be given to develop effective strategy to control mango postharvest diseases and more focus should be given to stem end rot. Moreover, it also appears that pre-harvest practices including farm sanitation plays a vital role in keeping the development of postharvest diseases at low level.

325-330 Download
38
PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA AND GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA)
W. HASSAN, S. BASHIR, S. HANIF, A. SHER, A. SATTAR, A. WASAYA, H. ATIF AND M. HUSSAIN

PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA AND GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA)
ABSTRACT:

Phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are known as beneficial bacteria that enhance the growth of the plants, when applied to the crops. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of two PSB spp. i.e., Pseudomonas striata and Bacillus polymyxa on the growth and development of mung bean. Seeds of mung bean i.e. 4 seeds per pot having 500 g loamy soil/pot were inoculated with broth of selected isolates and sown. Nutrition was provided through Hoagland nutrient solution. For control, sterilized flasks having 0.03 M MgSO4 solution were used to dip the seeds. After forty days, mung bean plants were harvested and important growth parameters were recorded. Results revealed that inoculation with PSB, increased plant height (11.88-30.69%), branchs/plant (18.35-39.20%), leaves/plant (12.10-41.30%), pods/plant (26.84-57.54%), seeds/plant (6.901-23.43%), pod length (13.00-38.02%) and 1000seed weight (10.07-35.83%), number of effective nodules (7.0-18.0%), nodule density (12.0-21.0%), chlorophyll a and b (5.4-11.4% and 6.6-12.8%), carotenoids (11.4-43.5%), protein (0.05-0.15%) and proline (0.09-0.321%), respectively as compared to un-inoculated control. Moreover, PSB also enhanced the availability of P and N up to 13.56% and 8.56% respectively in soil and uptake of macronutrients i.e., N (0.35-1.21% and 0.51-1.56%), P (0.18-0.65% and 0.26-0.77%), K (1.01-2.89% and 1.21-3.11%), Ca (0.19-0.74% and 0.23-0.88%) and Mg (0.15-0.61 and 0.19-0.78%) in root and shoot of plant compared to control. Further PSB enhanced the soil microbial biomass i.e. MBC (35.4-48.6%), MBN (19.6-35.3%) and MBP (8.41-18.2%), and decreased the non-effective nodules ranging from 5.5-3.0%. The PSB had a convincingly positive impact on the growth, development and productivity of the mung bean and fruit quality, and P and N availability in the soil, and macronutrients uptake in plant without polluting the environment. Therefore, PSB can be used as an alternative and eco-friendly approach for sustainable crop production.

331-336 Download
39
SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN POTENTIAL NITRIFICATION RATES IN MANGROVE SEDIMENT AT SANDSPIT BACKWATERS, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
YASMEEN ZAMIR AHMED, SEEMA SHAFIQUE, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN, ADNAN KHAN AND PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUE

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN POTENTIAL NITRIFICATION RATES IN MANGROVE SEDIMENT AT SANDSPIT BACKWATERS, KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Sandspit coastal area is located between Hawksbay and Manora channel, south of Karachi. The area opposite to sandy coast is covered by mangrove forest at Sandspit backwaters. The potential nitrification rates in sediment from rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere at Sandspit backwater mangrove forest was examined using sodium chlorate inhibition method. Samples collected during pre-monsoon (Jan), monsoon (June) and post-monsoon (Nov) seasons were analyzed using two different concentration of inhibitor. The higher inhibitor concentration (30mM) was found to be more effective than lower (15mM) concentration used. The potential nitrification rates were slightly higher during monsoon as compared to other seasons. The potential nitrification values ranged from 0.06 (post-monsoon) to 1.20 mg NO2- N gw-1h-1 (monsoon). The potential nitrification rates had significant correlation with the incubation time (p<0.005, n=3). The nitrifiers in mangrove sediments appear to tolerate a range of physical and chemical parameters, such as, temperature (17-28 ºC), Salinity (36-42), pH (6.8-8.9), and DO (3.7-6.5 mg/L) and maintain steady potential nitrification rates, as observed during experimentation in two sediments types during all seasons.

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40
PHYCOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF BROWN ALGA SARGASSUM TENERRIMUM FROM KARACHI COAST
LAILA SHAHNAZ, AMIR HAIDER AND HINA SHEHNAZ

PHYCOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF BROWN ALGA SARGASSUM TENERRIMUM FROM KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:

The thalli of brown  alga Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh  collected from upper and lower littoral deep rocky  pools at  Buleji, Manora and Paradise Point in the month of February 2008 to March 2009. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the methylated fatty acids exhibited the presence of total 29 fatty acids, i.e. 12 saturated and 17 unsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of former acids was higher (70 %) than that of the later ones (30 %). Palmitic acid (C16:0) was present in the greatest quantity (34.12 %) followed by stearic acid (C18:0) which was present (13.01 %). Among unsaturated acids hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3) was found in a highest amount (7.12 %).  Cholesterol was  identified by EIMS and 1H-NMR. 

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41
INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN COTTON BY THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) AND SEAWEED AGAINST CHARCOAL ROT DISEASE
AFSHAN RAHMAN, FARZANA KOREJO, VIQAR SULTANA, JAHAN ARA AND SYED EHTESHAMUL-HAQUE

INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN COTTON BY THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) AND SEAWEED AGAINST CHARCOAL ROT DISEASE
ABSTRACT:

Synergetic effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sargassum ilicifolium was evaluated in inducing  resistance in cotton against charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina under screen house conditions. In this study, plants inoculated with P. aeruginosa in S. ilicifolium amended soil showed the highest antioxidant activity both in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2 -azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) test. Infection percentage of M. phaseolina was significantly suppressed in P. aeruginosa used alone or with S. ilicifolium amended soil. Proline is a potent osmolyte which greatly elevated in M. phaseolina infested plant that was found to reduce in P. aeruginosa + seaweed treatment. Increased level of salicylic acid in S. ilicifolium +P. aeruginosa treatment under charcoal rot stress indicated the induction of systemic resistance. In another signaling molecule, polyphenol was significantly enhanced by mixed application ofP. aeruginosa + brown seaweed S. ilicifolium. Our results suggested that highest antioxidant activities positively correlated with elevated level of phenolic contents that may provide a protection and induced resistance in cotton plant against charcoal rot disease.

347-353 Download
42
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS TREATED SEEDS AGAINST ROOT DECAY PATHOGENS AND IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH ON CROP PLANTS
ASMA HANIF AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS TREATED SEEDS AGAINST ROOT DECAY PATHOGENS AND IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH ON CROP PLANTS
ABSTRACT:

Seed treatment with homeopathic drugs considered as an environment-friendly and has positive impacts on plant growth and inhibition of pathogenic fungi (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina). A Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of homeopathic drugs and control strategies on the colonization of root infecting fungi. Seed treatment with Arnica montana and Thuja occidentalis at 75% v/v concentration (prepared from 30C) showed significant effect in the control of root infecting fungi and increased the height and weight of shoot, root, pods, chlorophyll and protein contents, whereas A. monatana and T. occidentalis at 50% v/v concentration (prepared from 30C) showed maximum growth parameters as well as suppressed the root rot fungi on mung bean, okra, sunflower and mash bean respectively after 180 days of plant growth. 

355-362 Download
43
ENHANCED LINCOMYCIN PRODUCTION BY STREPTOMYCES LINCOLNENSIS THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS
HAMID MUKHTAR, NADIA KANWAL, ALI NAWAZ, AMJED HUSSAIN AND IKRAM UL HAQ

ENHANCED LINCOMYCIN PRODUCTION BY STREPTOMYCES LINCOLNENSIS THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

In the present study, production of lincomycin by Streptomyces lincolnensis through submerged fermentation has been reported. Culture medium M6 consisting of glucose (15 g/L), starch (40 g/L), molasses (20 g/L), corn steep liquor (20 g/L), peptone (10 g/L) and CaCO3 (8.0 g/L) was found best for growth of Streptomyces lincolnensis and production of lincomycin. The increased production of lincomycin by Streptomyces lincolnensis was obtained at 30ËšC (64.6 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 3.12 mm diameter of inhibition zone), 7.5 pH (78.3 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 3.19 mm diameter of inhibition zone) and 144 hours incubation (80.8 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 3.30 mm diameter of inhibition zone), respectively. For maximum production of lincomycin by Streptomyces lincolnesis, different carbon sources, organic and inorganic nitrogen sources were also studied. 4% of lactose (82 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 3.30 mm diameter of inhibition zone) as a carbon source, 8% of meat extract (81.1 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 4.10 mm diameter of inhibition zone) as an organic nitrogen source and ammonium nitrate (82.4 mg/mL of dry cell mass with 5.00 mm diameter of inhibition zone) as an inorganic nitrogen source were optimized. The inoculum quality and quantity were also optimized for high yield of lincomycin. 2% of 72 hours old vegetative inoculum of Streptomyces lincolnensis in the form of pellet was found best for the growth of Streptomyces lincolnensis for subsequent lincomycin production using shake flask method

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44
A NEW PETRIFIED WOOD MILLETTIOXYLON SINDHIENSIS SP. NOV. (FABACEAE) FROM THANOBOLA KHAN, SINDH, PAKISTAN
NOOR-UL-AIN SOOMRO, BASIR AHMED ARAIN, TAHIR RAJPUT AND SYEDA SALEHA HASSANEY

A NEW PETRIFIED WOOD MILLETTIOXYLON SINDHIENSIS SP. NOV. (FABACEAE) FROM THANOBOLA KHAN, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

A petrified fossil wood collected from Manchar Formation of Miocene age exposed in Thanobola Khan Sindh Pakistan is described as a new fossil wood species belonging to family Febaceae. Thin sectionsof fossil wood  were prepared by standard ground thin section techniques. All xylotomical attribute revealed from the microscopic studies  were used to compare with modern wood and already reported fossil woods. The sample was found comparable with family Fabaceae and with genus Mellitia in respect of character of small sized vessels, banded  Parenchyma and  uniseriate xylem rays. The new taxon is described as Mellitioxylon sindhiensis sp.nov. the specific epithet refers to the Sindh province of Pakistan from where fossil wood was collected.

369-374 Download
45
USE OF AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF GREYWATER
MEHRUNISA MEMON, HAIDER BUX JATOI, ABDUL MAJID NAREJO, RASOOL BUX MAHAR, ABDUL KHALIQUE ANSARI AND MUHAMMAD IQBAL BHANGER

USE OF AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF GREYWATER
ABSTRACT:
Some aquatic plants have the ability to treat the water there by improving its quality. The main objectives of the study were to introduce the greywater treatment using local plants and secondly to assess its quality for agricultural use. In this regard, vertical flow subsurface constructed wetland units were operated to treat greywater of residential area of Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam using three types of plants i.e. Cyperus iria, Phragmites karka and Typha elephantina. Water samples were collected before and after their treatment with each plant. pH and BOD values decreased from 8.32 and 402 mg L-1 in untreated greywater to a minimum of 7.46 and 48 mg L-1 respectively in the one treated by Phragmites karka. The plant species were not effective with regard to EC, TDS and TSS. After recycling, the NO3-N contents remained more or less same, which was the major form of nitrogen in greywater samples, however, it reduced in Cyperus iria and phosphorus in addition to Cyperus iria was recycled under Typha elephantina. Potassium contents in all the cases were more or less similar and increased to small extent. It was concluded that greywater contains significant quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and can be used as a value added fertilizer in agriculture. Phragmites karka was effective in reducing pH, BOD and Cyperus iria in NO3-N. The increase in salt content of treated water may be due to the salt content of soil itself used in reed beds which can be avoided by using soil with low salt content.

375-381 Download
46
IMPACT OF DISTINCT COMPOSITIONAL VARIATIONS IN FLOURS OF VARIOUS MILLED STREAMS ON DOUGH BEHAVIOR AND END QUALITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS
RAHIL AHMED, RASHIDA ALI, SYED ASAD SAEED, SYED MUHAMMED GHUFRAN SAEED AND LUBNA MOBIN

IMPACT OF DISTINCT COMPOSITIONAL VARIATIONS IN FLOURS OF VARIOUS MILLED STREAMS ON DOUGH BEHAVIOR AND END QUALITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS
ABSTRACT:

Each flour mill produces number of break and reduction streams with distinct differences in physicochemical characteristics of flours which at the end of processing are blended to produce “composite flours” that is dispatched to various baking units making breads, cakes, pasta, biscuits, burgers, rolls, pizza etc. Milling streams vary in physical, nutritional, sensorial and textural properties of the bakery products as indicated by variations in properties such as the particle size, color and composition. The influential chemical parameters include endosperm and bran proteins, starch and damage starch, non-starch polysaccharides and ash, while physical parameters include particle size, water absorption and bulk density etc. Type of mills used in processing (dry/wet, ball, stone, roller and hammer mills) also show impact on particle morphology, its size distribution, crystalline structure and pasting properties etc. Flour particle size, damage starch, protein, ash content determine the rheological properties of dough as the water absorption, dough development time and dough stability that are interlinked to shape, size, weight and volume of the end product. Type of grain, tempering/conditioning of grain, inducing enzyme treatment drastically affect the end quality. The oxidative cross-linking potential of various streams depends on the processing and blending the steams. It significantly shows that blending requires selection of suitable specific streams that will produce the desired composite flour ideal for bakers. The present study is based on exploring the physicochemical properties of 6 break streams and 14 reduction streams, its influence on dough behavior and finally the impact of dough rheological characteristics on the end quality of biscuit. It shows that flour functionality suitable for biscuit production may be achieved by altering milling and blending techniques. Conclusively we may say that a strong professional link between millers and processors is missing and highly skilled manpower is strongly needed at both the ends to supervise the processing of wheat for bakery products in Pakistan

383-387 Download