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Year 2019 , Volume  51, Issue 3
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1

Contribution of root structural and functional features towards salinity tolerance in Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. subsp. Fusca


Qurat Ul Ain Rahat, Mansoor Hameed and Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad

Contribution of root structural and functional features towards salinity tolerance in Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. subsp. Fusca


ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted to evaluate structural and functional modifications in Diplachne fusca roots under varying regimes of salt stress. Differently adapted populations were collected from ecologically different regions in the Punjab region namely Pakka Anna (hypersaline dryland), Sahianwala (saline waterlogged area), Kalar Kahar (hypersaline salt marsh), Rahimyar Khan (saline sandy loam) and Treemu (saline seasonal inundation). The plants were grown in normal non-saline condition at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad for 6 months to acclimatize them in the Faisalabad conditions. Three salt stress levels were maintained thereafter, i.e., 0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl for 90 days. All populations responded differently to increasing salt levels. The Pakka Anna population was found to be the most tolerant which relied mainly on increased K+ uptake but maintained Ca2+ uptake in root. An increase in root cross-sectional area was also observed in this population due to increase in storage parenchyma and vascular tissues. This appeared to be crucial towards water conservation in this population. The Sahianwala population collected from saline waterlogged area ranked second in salt tolerance. The notable anatomical modifications in this population included increased vascular tissue and aerenchymatous formation for efficient translocation of nutrients and gaseous exchange especially under anaerobic conditions. It was concluded that differently adapted populations evolved distinctly in geographically isolated regions by development of specific root anatomical features

773-779 Download
2

Enhancing salt tolerance in melon by exogenous application of melatonin and Ca2+


Yan Wu, Qinghai Gao, Shoucheng Huang and Shuangshuang Jia

Enhancing salt tolerance in melon by exogenous application of melatonin and Ca2+


ABSTRACT:

Melatonin and Ca2+ have been implicated in growth, development and stress responses in plants. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin and Ca2+on growth, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant potential and ion homeostasis in melon (Cucumis melon L. cv. Yangjiaosu) seedlings under salt stress. It was observed that salt stress significantly inhibited growth in melon seedlings, while exogenous application of melatonin and Ca2+ alleviated the inhibition. Further analysis showed that exogenous application of melatonin or Ca2+ promoted photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency in salt-stressed melon seedlings. In addition, exogenous melatonin or Ca2+ enhanced accumulation of Ca2+, but reduced accumulation of Na+ in both leaves and roots of melon seedlings under salt stress. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin or Ca2+ reduced oxidative damage, as demonstrated by decreased electrolyte leakage and MDA content,   by stimulating activities of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, POD, CAT and APX, in salt-stressed melon seedlings. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin or Ca2+ acts in the alleviation of salt stress by improving photosynthesis, maintaining ion homeostasis and elevating antioxidant capacity in melon seedlings. Our work also provides a case study and melatonin or Ca2+ may serve as useful agent to relieve salt stress in agricultural production

781-787 Download
3

Physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant properties of two genotypes of Vicia faba grown under salinity stress


Saud M. Alzahrani, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Hussein Migdadi, Salem Alghamdi, Mohammad Altaf Khan and Parvaiz Ahmad

Physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant properties of two genotypes of Vicia faba grown under salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

The faba bean genotypes Hassawi-3 and ILB-4347 were evaluated under three different NaCl treatments (50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM) for growth, physiological parameters, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in leaves. Salinity stress significantly reduced the growth and biomass yield of both genotypes. Calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and potassium (K+) contents were reduced, whereas sodium content was increased in both genotypes with increasing NaCl concentration. Higher levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and K+/Na+ ratio, along with lower Na+ accumulation were observed in ILB-4347 than those in the Hassawi-3 genotype. Chlorophyll, carotene, leaf relative water content (LRWC), proline, and protein content were reduced (by 54.61%, 51.51%, 42.33%, 105.19% and 44.80% in Hassawi-3 and 35.29%, 38.29%, 31.92%, 113.93% and 34.80% in ILB-4347) these effects were treatment and genotype dependent. Salinity stress significantly enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both genotypes; however, Hassawi-3 showed more accumulation compared to ILB-4347. Both genotypes subjected to salt stress showed enhancement in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbic acid (AsA) content. These results indicate that ILB-4347 is more tolerant than the Hassawi-3 genotype against salt stress and could be used as part of a better strategy to reclaim salt affected soils

789-798 Download
4

Response of maize to field drought stress: oxidative defense system, osmolytes’ accumulation and photosynthetic pigments


Sajjad Moharramnejad, Omid Sofalian, Mostafa Valizadeh, Ali Asghari, Mohammad Reza Shiri and Muhammad Ashraf

Response of maize to field drought stress: oxidative defense system, osmolytes’ accumulation and photosynthetic pigments


ABSTRACT:

The study was performed to determine as to whether antioxidant potential (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) as well as some other attributes could be used as potential drought resistance markers in two maize lines (B73 and MO17). Under water deficit conditions, growth traits, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoids as well as grain yield decreased significantly in both lines compared to those under control conditions. In contrast, water deficit caused a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) isozymes as well as levels of glycine betaine (GB), proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), whereas total phenolics, total soluble protein, H2O2, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b ratio, anthocyanin and peroxidase (POX) isozyme activity remained unaffected in both maize lines. Although water deficit stress induced oxidative stress in both maize lines, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and key organic osmolytes increased significantly in both maize lines. For example, SOD isozyme activities, and GB and proline contents were considerably greater in relatively drought resistant MO17 than those in relatively drought sensitive B73. However, in contrast, CAT activity was higher in B73. Overall, SOD isozyme activities, and GB and proline contents were found to be potential biochemical indicators of drought resistance in the two maize lines used in the present study.

799-807 Download
5

Role of potassium, zinc and gibberellic acid in increasing drought stress tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)


Amin Ullah Jan, Fazal Hadi, Fazal Akbar and Abdullah Shah

Role of potassium, zinc and gibberellic acid in increasing drought stress tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)


ABSTRACT:

Nutrients and plant hormone are very essential and play a key role in drought stress tolerance. The current studies was conducted in pots, to investigate the role of potassium, zinc and gibberellic acid in biosynthesis of free proline, total phenolic, antioxidant compounds and drought stress tolerance in sunflower varieties. Plants were grown in glass house and foliar sprays of potassium Nitrate (KNO3), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and gibberellic acid GA3 were applied. Varieties were evaluated for drought tolerance through leaf disc assay and polyethylene glycol PEG6000 was used to induce in-vitro drought stress. Zinc significantly increased the RWC% and maximum value was noted in HS-K6 followed by Rising Sun. Potassium increased the relative water content (RWC %) and the highest RWC % was found in Hysun-33 followed by Rising Sun, SMH-0907 and US-444. The biosynthesis of free Proline and total phenolic contents was significantly increased with Zn and K treatments. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and ascorbic acid biosynthesis were significantly increased by Zn followed by potassium. The Zn treatment significantly reduced the MDA content in sunflower varieties. A significant positive correlation was found between RWC % with proline (R2 = 0.92***) and total phenolic (R2 = 0.95***) respectively. Antioxidant compounds also showed significant positive correlation with relative water content. Conclusively; drought tolerance in sunflower might be increased by foliar application of Zn, K and GA3. Further investigation is suggested to study the effect of Zn, K and GA3 on drought tolerant genes expression

809-815 Download
6

Morpho-physiological responses of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] to multiple stresses of drought, heat and salinity


Aref Alshameri, Fahad Al-Qurainy Salim Khan, Mohammad Nadeem, Abdel-Rhman Gaafar, Abdulhafed Alameri, Mohamed Tarroum, Saleh Alansi and Muhammad Ashraf

Morpho-physiological responses of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] to multiple stresses of drought, heat and salinity


ABSTRACT:

Plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, salt, and heat, have been studied separately, but in fact, plants are exposed simultaneously to a combination of stresses. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the morpho-physiological responses of the guar plant to the combination of heat, drought, and salinity with respect to that to an individual stress. Five treatments including heat, drought, salinity, a combination of multiple stresses and control were applied to two guar accessions namely “BWP-5595” and “24320”. The results showed that heat stress enhanced biomass, plant height, leaf number, leaf elongation, and prolonged time to flowering. However, it reduced root length and water use efficiency, but it had moderately negative effect on leaf area, stomatal conductance and number of pods. Contrastingly, drought stress improved root length, water use efficiency, and leaf elongation. It affected negatively leaf area, plant height, and prolonged days to flowering. Drought stress moderately reduced leaf number, biomass, stomatal conductance, and number of pods. Comparatively, salinity stress had a moderately negative impact on all studied traits except leaf number, which was reduced significantly. However, the combination of multiple stresses severely affected all studied traits except water use efficiency. These results show that the adverse effects of the combination of all three stresses were more pronounced than those of either of the individual stresses.  Of the two guar accessions used, BWP 5595 showed better performance than accession 24320 in most of the traits measured. This indicates that the effect of multiple stresses differs among the accessions of a species.

817-822 Download
7

Novel drought-inducible Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein STF-2 from soybean (Glycine max) enhances drought tolerance in transgenic plants


Bing Song, Yu Zhang, Yu Li, Yongping Fu and Piwu Wang

Novel drought-inducible Cys2/His2-type zinc finger protein STF-2 from soybean (Glycine max) enhances drought tolerance in transgenic plants


ABSTRACT:

The C2H2-type (Cys2/His2-type) zinc finger proteins are transcription factors which play important roles in growth, development and tolerance ability to adverse stresses. We characterized STF-2 from Glycine max to determine its molecular structure and biological function. The results showed that STF-2 was a novel plant C2H2-type zinc finger protein gene and encoded a 26.7-kDa protein comprising 249 amino acids. STF-2 is strongly expressed in flowers and leaves but only weakly expressed in stems and roots. We constructed a plant expression vector with STF-2 gene and transformed it into tobacco. We found that overexpression of STF-2 enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Our results indicate the STF-2 plays an important role in soybean response to drought stress; furthermore, plant resistance to adversity can be improved by exogenous expression of this gene. 

823-829 Download
8

Overexpression of KvP5CS1 increases salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco


Hongyan Wang, Qiang Ding, Hongbo Shao and Honglei Wang

Overexpression of KvP5CS1 increases salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco


ABSTRACT:

Proline is a generally accumulated osmolytes in plants under salt stress. Overexpressing P5CS gene for more proline production is considered as an effective strategy to improve plant salt tolerance. In this study, KvP5CS1 was cloned from a halophyte Kosteletzkya virginica and transferred to the genome of tobacco (NC89) by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Under normal condition, there is no obvious difference in the growth, chlorophyll and proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity between wild-type (WT) and transgenic seedlings, except that catalase (CAT) activity in wild type was lower than that in transgenic seedlings. However, after treatment by 200 mM NaCl stress for 14 days, transgenic seedlings grew better and showed higher levels of chlorophyll and proline, stronger antioxidant enzyme activities, lower level of malondialdehyde (MDA) than wild type seedlings. These results suggested that overexpression of KvP5CS1 resulted in proline accumulation, stronger antioxidant capacity and increased salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco, indicating KvP5CS1 was involved in plant salt tolerance and might be a promising gene to breed salt-tolerant crops growing in salinized farmlands and coastal lands.

831-836 Download
9

Silicon improves rice nutrition and productivity under salinity


Niaz Ahmed, Maria Murtaza, Muhammad Arif Ali, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Sajid Mahmood, Muhammad Akram Qazi, Iftikhar Ahmad and Zeeshan Haider

Silicon improves rice nutrition and productivity under salinity


ABSTRACT:

Silicon (Si) is a beneficial nutrient for plant growth and productivity. Our investigation was conducted to study the influence of Si application for ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity on rice through sodium regulation in plant tissues. Three same textured soils (sandy clay loam) with different electrical conductivity (ECe: 2.85, 5.28 and 7.57 dS m-1) and pH (8.1, 8.6 and 8.9) were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the Bahauddin Zakariya University Agricultural Farm in Multan, Pakistan. The Si @ 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 as calcium silicate was applied to pots containing 10 kg sandy clay loam soil (sand 48%, silt 17%, clay 35%). A control without Si application was also maintained. The completely randomized design in 3 × 4 factorial experiment with three replications was established. Thirty days old, seedlings of Kernel Basmati rice were transplanted manually and standard cultural practices were followed. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) effect of soil salinity on rice growth and yield parameters. A reduction in grain, straw, leaf and root concentrations of Si, P and K/Na was observed under salinity; however, Si application at 100 mg kg-1 ameliorated the salinity stress and significantly increased the root/shoot dry weights, tiller numbers, grain numbers per spike, paddy yield, harvest index, and P and Si concentrations in root, straw, leaves and grains over control though similar to Si @ 75 mg kg-1 for shoot dry weight, number of tillers, harvest index, grain/root P concentration and leaf Si concentration. The Si application affected K/Na by increasing K uptake with an associated decrease in Na concentration in plant tissues. Thus, Si application at 100 or 75 mg kg-1 soil (200 or 150 kg ha-1) could be a useful strategy for rice production in salt-affected lands. Shoot dry weight, Number of tillers. Harvest index, Grain/root P conc., Leaf Si conc.

837-843 Download
10

Effects of water stress and recovery periods on total lipid and fatty acids in Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (L.) Naudin and related species


Sener Akinci and Dorothy M. Losel

Effects of water stress and recovery periods on total lipid and fatty acids in Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (L.) Naudin and related species


ABSTRACT:

Water stress (drought) is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing plant growth parameters, accompanied by changes in biomass ratios and physiological and biochemical alterations depending on the severity and duration of drought exposure, as well as plant species. Total lipids and fatty acids (FA) are major components of the plant cell, and can be used to understand changes in cell lipid concentrations under water stress. In this study, the aim was to investigate the responses of total and fatty acids (FA) being major components of the plant cell, are required to be understood of changes of compositions of cell lipids under two water stress levels and recovery periods by rewatering of Cucurbitaceae members. Total lipid and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analyses indicated that the species behaved differently with respect to water stress levels and recovery periods. Linolenic (18:3) and eiocosenoic acid (20:1) accounted for the biggest proportion of FA in all species. The major effect of water stress was seen in proportions of 18:3, which increased significantly in leaves of Cucurbita pepo under moderate stress (MS) and severe stress (SS) , whereas it remained unchanged in Cucumis melo under both treatments, but decreased significantly under SS in Ecballium elaterium. During recovery, further changes in FA percentages occurred at different rates in individual species. For the short recovery period determined after 2 days rewatering, the total leaf lipid content increased significantly in previously stressed plants. The effect of the longer recovery period (4d rewatering), was accompanied by a continued increase of total lipid content in all plants in previous MS and SS treatments, and was significant in MS and SS Ecballium compared to control plants. 

845-854 Download
11

Over-expressed HSP 17.6B, encoding HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein, confers heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana


Faiza Tawab, Iqbal Munir, Farhatullah and Aqib Iqbal

Over-expressed HSP 17.6B, encoding HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein, confers heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana


ABSTRACT:

Abiotic stresses are the key hazard limitation to plant development and sustainable agriculture throughout the world. The investigation of stress tolerant genes by genome scale transcriptome analysis will provide opportunities for the development of stress tolerant crop varieties. Here, we report a potential stress tolerance gene HSP17.6B (AT2G29500) in Arabidopsis thaliana that can confer tolerance to Arabidopsis plants upon overexpression. HSP17.6B overexpression resulted in higher root elongation, increased plants survival rate, reduced electrolyte leakage and retention of chlorophyll contents under heat stress condition in comparison to wild-type plants. Overall, we showed AtHSP17.6B as a potential heat stress tolerance candidate in Arabidopsis thaliana

855-864 Download
12

Transcriptome profiling of potassium starvation responsiveness in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)


Wengong Huang, Shuquan Zhang, Guangwen Wu, Ying Yu, Chuanying Ren, Qinghua Kang, Yan Liu, Chunbo Liang, Liguo Zhang and Yaguang Zhan

Transcriptome profiling of potassium starvation responsiveness in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Potassium (K) is an essential plant nutrient. The significance of potassium can be appreciated by observing plants grown under K+-deficient conditions, which greatly restricts growth and development and results in loss of crop quality and yield. Flax (Linum usttatissimum L.) is a significant economic crop that is often negatively impacted by K+ deficiency. To highlight K+ deficiency response mechanisms and increase flax potassium absorption and utilization ratio, flax variety Sofie was studied by studying seedlings after growing with or without K+ supply for 12h and 96h. cDNA was sequenced using an Illumina system. Genes involved in different regulatory mechanisms of K+-uptake during 12h and 96h stress were identified. In the K+-starvation group, 1154 and 247 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered after 12h and 96h of starvation, respectively. The results showed that 546 DEGs were annotated to 46 transcription factor families, 262 DEGs were annotated to signal transduction proteins or as participants in signal transduction pathways, 102 DEGs were annotated to hormone response proteins and 106 DEGs were annotated to transporter proteins. Multiple ion channels were also identified among the DEGs, including ion channel proteins homologous to AKT channels, KAT channels and CNG ion channels. This is the first study to analyze molecular response mechanisms of the flax transcriptome in response to K+ deficiency. These data provide numerous candidate genes with K+ deficiency that should guide future studies to elucidate plant strategies for adaptation to potassium deficiency.

865-878 Download
13

Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics and seed yields of treepeony ‘Fengdan’ (Paeonia ostiiFengdan).


Wanfei Shan, Wenli Ji, Yanlong Zhang, Xinmiao Ji, Xiang Li, Qi Zeng, Ling Liu and Zhuyu Han

Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics and seed yields of treepeony ‘Fengdan’ (Paeonia ostiiFengdan).


ABSTRACT:

This study investigated the effects of shading on photosynthesis, other physiological and biochemical characteristics and seed yield of tree peony (Paeonia ostii FengDan).The results showed that under the natural full sunshine, the net photosynthesis (Pn) of tree peony had a mid-day depression from 12: 00pm to 4:00pm, also the total chlorophyll and the relative content of chlorophyll a and b as well as seed yield were lower compared to 25% shading condition. There was almost no mid-day depression under the condition of 25% and 50% shading, also the total chlorophyll content and the relative content of chlorophyll a and b were both higher in comparison with the full sunshine condition. Pn and seed yeild maintained a higher level all day under 25% shading. Whereas Pn had the lowest level all day under 75% shading and the yield was also declined. It is concluded that tree peony (FengDan) would grow the best and have a high yeild under the condition of 25% shading.

879-885 Download
14

Detection of cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on M1 generation of three varieties of Triticum aestivum L.


Signem Oney Birol and Alpay Balkan

Detection of cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on M1 generation of three varieties of Triticum aestivum L.


ABSTRACT:

The effects of 60Cobalt (60Co) gamma radiation on cell division and chromosomal structure in M1 generations of three varieties (NKU Lider, Bezostaja and GK Beke’s) of Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were determined in this study. To understand and compare the tolerance of on three bread wheat varieties to gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300Gy), the frequency of mitotic index, phase indices and genotoxicity rate were scored and statistically interpreted under irradiated and unirradiated conditions, respectively. In parallel with the increasing radiation dose, mean mitotic index rate decreased in NKU Lider and GK Beke’s genotypes. 100Gy 60Co gamma radiation application of NKU Lider was the most powerful genotype to increase mitotic activity as compared to other genotypes. However; depending on increasing dose of gamma radiation, cell division decreased in all studied genotypes except 200Gy application of Bezostaja genotype. Moreover, genotoxicity index of M1 generation in NKU Lider genotype was decreased in all studied radiation doses with the increasing dose of 60Co. Furthermore, three different variety of T. aestivum L. seeds treated with different doses of 60Co gamma radiation  showed many aberrant chromosomes such as disorderly prophase, stickiness, uncoiling chromosomes, disrupted equatorial plate, fragment, micronucleus, alignment anaphase, fault polarization, anaphase and telophase bridges, lagging chromosomes and stickiness in all mitotic phases. Consequently, the results suggest that gamma radiation effects are specific to the radiation dose and species, and even show different responses in different varieties of the same species.

887-894 Download
15

Genetic diversity and relationship of Dongting biluochun tea germplasm in Suzhou revealed by SSR markers. 


Qiongqiong Zhou, Huan Li, Tran Xuan Hoang, Xu Ruan, Yue Zhang, Emmanuel Arkorful, Xuan Chen, Kang Sun and Xinghui Li

Genetic diversity and relationship of Dongting biluochun tea germplasm in Suzhou revealed by SSR markers. 


ABSTRACT:

Dongting Biluochun (DTBLC) tea is one of the top famous tea in China, which is originated from Suzhou city, Jiangsu Province, China. Generally, DTBLC tea is processed using ‘Dongting population’, which have a great genetic diversity. However, little information has been found so far on its genetic diversity. In order to unveil the relationship among the DTBLC germplasm, 68 tea accessions collected from Suzhou geographical origin growing area were analyzed by using 36 pairs of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Finally, a total of 68 tea accessions generated 158 alleles with a mean of 4.39 alleles per locus and 314 genotypes with a mean of 8.72. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was between 0.09 and 0.76, and the mean value was 0.53; the gene diversity index (H) ranged from 0.10 to 0.79, with an average of 0.56, while the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.50 varied from 0.04 to 0.71. The coefficient of the genetic similarity of SSR makers among the tea accessions ranged from 0.49 to 0.89. These results indicated that a considerable genetic diversity existed among these tea accessions. According to the clustering results, 68 tea accessions were clustered into 5 categories with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics based on the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA), which hinted that the territorial division of protection for geographic indication-DTBLC tea was appropriate. However, dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance revealed complex genetic relationships among DTBLC tea germplasm resources, and these collections possessed impressive level of genetic diversity which could be important for subsequent selective breeding, utilization, and conservation of tea germplasm resources in Jiangsu, China.

895-902 Download
16

Genetic diversity of the dye-producing Javanese Tom Indigofera tinctoria L. from three Indonesian islands based on simple sequence repeat markers.


Muzzazinah

Genetic diversity of the dye-producing Javanese Tom Indigofera tinctoria L. from three Indonesian islands based on simple sequence repeat markers.


ABSTRACT:

Javanese Tom (Indigofera tinctoria L.) is commonly used as blue dyes agent by Indonesian fabrics and batik crafters. The research was aimed to identify the genetic diversity and population structure of I. tinctoria L. based on the SSR markers. The research was conducted in 33 regions in three Indonesian islands, with 63 samples. The results from electrophoresis of 15 SSR primers produced 76 bands with 250–750 bp in size. From dendrogram obtained likelihood coefficient of 68–100%. Weirklei3 and Weirklei4 accessions had the highest likelihood coefficient with 100% (same). The highest diversity was recorded in Cirebonean population. The populations from Sumenep, Cirebon, and Flores were grouped as one with high like hood coefficient. Populations from Java, Madura, and Flores islands have high likelihood coefficients. Based on SSR markers, I. tinctoria populations from three Indonesian islands were having a high likelihood coefficient, thus unqualified to be categorized as the infra-species.

903-908 Download
17

Bioinformatics prediction and annotation of apple microRNAs and their targets


Iftekhar Ahmed Baloch, Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai Abdul Hameed Baloch, Tahira Bibi and Muhammad Din

Bioinformatics prediction and annotation of apple microRNAs and their targets


ABSTRACT:

MicroRNAs are non-protein coding regulatory RNAs. These endogenously expressed RNAs range from 18-26 nucleotides in length. Their important functions have been widely reported in animals and plants during organogenesis, growth, transgene inactivation, cell signaling processes, disease development and defense against the attacking viruses and bacteria. These small molecules are evolutionarily conserved from species to species in the same kingdom and their conserved nature becomes an important logical tool for the hunt of new conserved miRNAs in other species by homology search. Apple (Malus domestica L.) is cultivated worldwide. It is the fourth major fruit of Pakistan and several cultivars of apple are grown in Pakistan. Bioinformatic analysis of 325,020 apple ESTs resulted in identification of sixty nine (69) new conserved miRNAs after filtration and completion of the process. The 69 potential apple miRNAs belong to 63 miRNA families (i-e. miR158, 161, 163, 165, 172, 400, 403, 472, 838, 850, 859, 866,  1120, 1170, 1310, 1313, 1426, 1427, 1428, 1438, 1509, 1510, 1512, 1513, 1514, 1518, 1533, 1847, 1861, 1863, 1873, 3629, 3630, 3633, 3635, 3694, 3699, 3706, 3707, 3711, 3954, 4354, 4407, 4412, 4413, 5138, 5142, 6260, 6261, 6271, 6275, 6280, 6290, 6295, 7516, 7520, 7521, 7526, 7528, 7532, 7536, 9672, 9776). One of the identified pre-miRNAs, i.e. mdm-mir-6271 showed 95% query coverage and 85% identity with the peach pre-miRNA. To our knowledge this is the first ever report of a plant precursor microRNA conservation and this interesting finding would open new vistas for miRNA research community. The mdm-mir 3630 pre-miRNA cluster was observed with two mature miRNA sequences. Four of the apple miRNAs (mdm-mir172, mdm-mir403, mdm-mir3635, mdm-miR6271) were found to be transcribed in sense/antisense orientation. Moreover, twelve of the newly predicted miRNAs were randomly selected for experimental validation through RT-PCR. Experimental validation of computationally predicted miRNAs endorses the powerfulness of bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs. The 69 new conserved apple miRNAs targeted a total of 84 mRNAs. These miRNA target are various proteins involved in numerous biological processes i.e. cell signaling, development, stress management and playing role as transcription factors. The results of this research would contribute in understanding the miRNA mediated life processes in apple

909-922 Download
18

Population genetic structure of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae) in central Dinaric Alps and its relevance for DNA barcoding strategies


Adaleta Durmić-Pašić, Jasmina Čakar, Naris Pojskić, Faruk Bogunić, Lejla Lasić, Anesa Ahatović, Semir Dorić and Kasim Bajrović -

Population genetic structure of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae) in central Dinaric Alps and its relevance for DNA barcoding strategies


ABSTRACT:

Of the four species of the genus Satureja (Lamiaceae) that are recognized in Bosnia and Herzegovina, S. subspicata has the the widest distribution. It is taxonomically challenging species of geographically limited distribution and little data on its genetic diversity throughout its range is available. We sampled six geographically distinct populations from Bosnia and Herzegovina and applied nrDNA (ITS1, ITS2), chloroplast markers (matK and trnL) and AFLP to examine genetic diversity of S. subspicata in the center of its distribution range and to explore the possibility of establishing the species DNA barcode. AFLP analysis showed large genetic differentiation among populations as well as moderate correlation between genetic distance among populations and geographic distance among locations. MatK has not proven useful in distinguishing S. subspicata from sympatric species. However, nrDNA sequences provided necessary resolution power, with ITS2 being more informative. Estimates of evolutionary divergence between nrDNA sequences obtained in our research and homologous sequences of sympatric Satureja deposited in the GenBank reveal closer relationship between geographically proximate populations of different species and slight divergence within S. subspicata sequences pool. This outcome highlights the importance of considering overall genetic diversity across the distribution range of a species when assigning DNA barcode.

923-932 Download
19

In vitro antioxidant activity, macronutrients and heavy metals in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown at different levels of cattle manure amended soil in Jordan valley


Moawiya A. Haddad, Sati Y. Al-Dalain, Jalal A. Al-Tabbal, Nabeel M. Bani-Hani, Dasan M. M. Jaradat And Maher Obeidat And Ezz Al-Dein Al-Ramamneh

In vitro antioxidant activity, macronutrients and heavy metals in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown at different levels of cattle manure amended soil in Jordan valley


ABSTRACT:

A field experiment was conducted at the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension in the Jordan Valley, during summer 2015 to evaluate the effect of cattle manure on antioxidant activity of maize leaves. The study also measured the effect of cattle manure on the bioavailability of heavy metals in maize leaves at harvest. Six treatments were compared, no cattle manure (T1, control), and 4 tons ha−1 (T2), 8 tons ha−1 (T3), 12 tons ha−1 (T4), 16 tons ha−1 (T5), and 20 tons ha−1 (T6) cattle manure. ANOVA followed by LSD test were used to compare the treatments at the 5% significance level. Antioxidant activity using DPPH and ABTS were measured for the six leaves extracts representing six treatments of organic manure. A wet digestion method was used to extract the heavy metals from the dry leaf powder samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity for leaves increased significantly with increasing cattle manure amount applied to soil according to DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The highest antioxidant activity was reached at the highest amount of cattle manure while the control had the lowest. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr and Fe contents in maize leaves of plants grown in soil amended with cattle manure were higher compared to plants grown in no-amended soil. Cattle manure amended soil increased Ca, K and P concentrations in the seeds and leaves of maize. The cattle manure was able to encourage a raise on mineral buildup in aerial parts of tested plants.

933-940 Download
20

Identification of allelic variants of Xgwm261 locus for Rht8 dwarfing gene in Pakistani wheat genetic resource


Aqsa Tabasum, Nayyer Iqbal and Amjad Hameed

Identification of allelic variants of Xgwm261 locus for Rht8 dwarfing gene in Pakistani wheat genetic resource


ABSTRACT:

Semi dwarfing wheat gene (Rht8) is among the important Green Revolution genes to increase productivity by modifying plant stature. Plant height is among one of the important constituent of plant architecture that determines the stability, harvest index and yield of crop plants. Strong linkage of Xgwm261, a wheat microsatellite marker with the dwarfing gene (Rht8) resulting in reduced height makes it well known marker among the breeders. Using this functional SSR marker, Pakistani wheat varieties and land races were analyzed to access the allelic distribution/ variation at microsatellite Xgwm261 locus. The 165-bp and 174-bp alleles of Xgwm261 were most frequent (38 and 24% respectively) among studied genotypes. A 192-bp diagnostic allele of Rht8 gene was not detected in tested germplasm. Here we also report novel WMS261 variants of 182-bp, 188-bp, 196-bp and over 200-bp (205 and 215-bp) in some tested genotypes. For this microsatellite Xgwm261 locus the value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.55. Conclusively, a high level of diversity for this locus was observed. Seven different microsatellite alleles were detected and a strong linkage of these variants at the Rht8 locus if identified will provide a better understanding for gene to environment interaction for designing appropriate marker assisted selection (MAS) for high yielder wheat cultivars. Observed higher frequency of major allele (165-bp) could possibly be due to usage of CIMMYT wheat materials in Pakistani breeding programs. Selection of appropriate alleles will be useful in the varietal improvements breeding programs

941-948 Download
21

EMS induced point mutations in 18S rRNA gene of Hyoscyamus niger L. an important medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalaya.


Durdana Shah, Azra N. Kamili, Aijaz A. Wani, Rubiya Dar, Nazish Nazir, Sumira Tyub and Mohammad Yaseen Mir

EMS induced point mutations in 18S rRNA gene of Hyoscyamus niger L. an important medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalaya.


ABSTRACT:

Hyoscyamus niger contains medicinally important tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In vitro mutagenesis, in combination with molecular marker methods, is a potent technique to produce genetic variability in medicinal plants. The objective of the study was to induce variation in In vitro raised H.niger using Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) as a mutagen. For this purpose the callii were treated with 5 different doses of EMS (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04% and 0.05%) at different time intervals (1/2 hour and 1 hour), and the effect of EMS was observed during morphogenesis. The analysis rvealed that EMS had a profound effect on shoot number and length as well as percentage of shoot formation. 0.03% EMS was seen to be effectively enhancing the average shoot number from 13.5 to 22.0, with 100% callusing response under normal growth regulators. The 18S rRNA gene of the affected plantlets was then amplified and sequenced to observe nucleotide variations, including transitions and transversions, at different concentrations of EMS.

949-955 Download
22

 Purification and characterization of cloned endo-1, 4-β-glucanase gene of Bacillus licheniformis for saccharification of plant biomass


Asma Zafar, Saima Aftab, Muhammad Nauman Aftab, Hamid Mukhtar and Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem

 Purification and characterization of cloned endo-1, 4-β-glucanase gene of Bacillus licheniformis for saccharification of plant biomass


ABSTRACT:

Endo-1, 4-β-glucanases are the hydrolytic enzymes which are commonly used for the saccharification of plant biomass. The endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (bglC) gene of moderately thermophilic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain by means of pET-22b (+) vector. Purification of recombinant endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (bglC) enzyme was done by utilizing the ammonium sulphate method followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and gel filtration. Purification fold of 10.51 was achieved along with enzyme activity and specific activity of 18.25 U/ml/min and 75 U/mg, respectively. The molecular mass of purified recombinant enzyme was 56 kDas determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The enzyme showed resistance to temperature up to 90ºC at pH 3 - 8. The activity of enzyme was improved in the presence of metal ions particularly Co2+ and Mg2+. Organic solvents showed no significant effects on the enzyme activity and the purified enzyme also showed great stability against inhibitors such as Tween 80, β-marcaptoethanol and DTT upto 90%. Among different tested biomass, the endoglucanse enzyme showed highest saccharification (24.2%) with sugarcane bagass. These results showed that recombinant enzyme could be a useful candidate for bioconversion of natural biomass into simple sugars and eventually in biofuel production.

957-966 Download
23

Screening of active formulation from combined sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and neem (Azadirachta indica) aqueous extract to control growth of lesser canary<
Asma Batool, Muhammad Asam Riaz, Faiza Hassan, Shakeela Irum, Shahid Iqbal, Farooq Anwar and Mubshara Saadia

Screening of active formulation from combined sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and neem (Azadirachta indica) aqueous extract to control growth of lesser canary<
ABSTRACT:

The aim of study was to find an effective way of managing growth of lesser canary grass (Phalaris minor) in wheat fields. Sixteen formulations (F1-F16) were prepared by combining the aqueous extracts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and neem (Azadirachta indica) in specific ratios (10-40%). Remarkable allelopathic potential was exhibited by improved growth of wheat and inhibition of the weed growth. The regulatory effects were determined on plant root and shoot lengths, free proline and total phenolic contents, and the antioxidant potential of the wheat and weed plants in pot experiment. The findings suggested ‘F3’ as the most effective formulation prepared by combining one part of aqueous extracts of Helianthus annuus with three parts of Azadirachta indica  extract [S (10%) + N (30%)], as its application (10 times dilution) stimulated the shoot length of wheat and inhibited the root length of canary grass plants. So, we propose this combination as an effective allelopathic strategy to control growth of lesser canary grass in wheat fields.

967-972 Download
24

Biomass and soil carbon stocks assessment in Western Himalayan alpine and subalpine vegetation zones of Kashmir


Shamshad Aziz, Fazan Masood Chughtai, Hamayun Shaheen, Raja Waqar Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar

Biomass and soil carbon stocks assessment in Western Himalayan alpine and subalpine vegetation zones of Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) greatly emphasizes on the accurate estimation of carbon stocks at local and regional levels. The Western Himalayan alpine and subalpine highlands are a good choice to analyze carbon sequestration dynamics because of having unique and fragile ecosystems. Present study was conducted in the alpine and subalpine regions of Kashmir to estimate the biomass and soil carbon stocks. The carbon stocks in the trees, herbs and soil were estimated by using allometric equations, destructive sampling and Walkley-Black method respectively. The average carbon stocks in the alpine region were estimated to be 372.5 t/ha with biomass carbon share of 2.27 tons per hectare while the soil organic carbon stocks share was recorded as 370.6 t/ha. The total carbon stock value of subalpine zone was found to be 340.9 t/ha with biomass carbon reserves as 81.1 t/ha whereas the soil organic carbon as 261 t/ha. Soil carbon contents showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude with alpine zone having higher values as compared to subalpine region. Whereas biomass carbon values showed a negative correlation with altitude with maximum values in sub alpine region as compared to minimum in alpines. Principal Component Analysis revealed altitude as the major factor affecting the carbon stocks. Current study provides the very 1st scientific information about carbon stocks of western Himalayan highlands with diverse future implications. Carbon sequestration potential was found to be negatively affected by fuel wood extraction, over grazing and soil degradation. Sustainable management of these alpine forest is recommended to enhance the carbon stocks as well as to conserve the floristic wealth of the area

973-978 Download
25

Wood carbon and nitrogen of 37 woody shrubs and trees in Tamaulipan thorn scrub, northeastern Mexico


Ratikanta Maiti, Humberto González Rodríguez and Ch. Aruna kumari

Wood carbon and nitrogen of 37 woody shrubs and trees in Tamaulipan thorn scrub, northeastern Mexico


ABSTRACT:

The present study was undertaken to determine interspecific variations of carbon and nitrogen contents of 37 species of woody trees sand shrubs at Linares, Northeastern Mexico. Woods were collected, dried and powdered following standard procedure. Ashed sample was digested in a solution containing HCl and HNO3, using the wet digestion technique. Wood carbon and nitrogen contents (%, dry mass basis) were carried out on 0.020 g of milled dried leaf tissue by using a CHN analyser (Perkin Elemer, model 2400). Wood carbon showed large variations among species (37-51 %) and nitrogen content (0.56-1.97). The five species selected with very high carbon percentage are such as Bernardia myricifolia (51.12); Acacia berlandieri (51.00); Leucophyllum frutescens (50.84); Berberis chochoco (50.56); Havardia pallens (50.36). Similarly, the species showed variations in nitrogen content (0.56-1.97). The species containing high wood nitrogen are Acacia greggii (1.98%), Ebenopsis ebano (1.97 %), Sideroxylon celestrinum (1.75 %), Diospyros texana (1.56 %), and Guaiacum angustifolia (1.52 %). The species with high wood carbon are potential sources of bioenergy and carbon sink. These species store high amounts of carbon following carbon fixation by leaves.

979-984 Download
26

Diversity, ecological feature and conservation of a high montane flora of the Shigar valley (Karakorum range) Baltistan region, northern Pakistan


Zaheer Abbas, Jan Alam, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Manzoor Hussain and Arshad Mehmood Abbasi

Diversity, ecological feature and conservation of a high montane flora of the Shigar valley (Karakorum range) Baltistan region, northern Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This paper presents the results of exploratory investigation on the flora of the Shigar valley, Central Karakorum Mountains, conducted in 2013-2016. The studies completed with the documentation of 345 vascular plants distributed in 206 genera and 63 families with maximum species of flowering plants. Asteraceae and Saussurea were leading taxa in terms of family and genera respectively. Arid mountain slopes was main habitat type sharing maximum species (84) in the native flora. Generally, the sum of species exposed herbaceous habit (301 species) with prevalence of perennial herbs (220 species). Life form grouping revealed the excessive occurrence of Hemicryptophytes (139 species). Distribution wise, the Irano-Turanian elements (35.36%) were the most frequent species co-dominating with Western Himalayan elements (28.69%). Some endemic and critically endangered species for instance Festuca hartmannii, Aconitum violaceum var. weilerei, Anaphalis chitralensis, Asperula oppositifolia subsp. baltistanica, Pedicularis staintonii, Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. karakoramica, and Hedysarum falconeri are also recognized. The flora is under extreme natural and human hazards and emphasizes the involvement of international and national organizations dedicated to biological conservation for effective protection of flora particularly the rare and endemic taxa

985-1000 Download
27

Taxonomic and genetic relationships of some Euphorbiaceae species from Taif derived from molecular analyses


Mohamed A. Fadl and Shawkat M. Ahmed

Taxonomic and genetic relationships of some Euphorbiaceae species from Taif derived from molecular analyses


ABSTRACT:

For genetic documentation and studying the taxonomic relationships, 9 species of family Euphorbiaceae; Euphorbia peplus, E. indica, E. prostrata, E. schimperi, E. tirucalli, E. granulata, Clutia myricoides, Ricinus communis, Chrozophora oblongifolia, were investigated depending on six isozymes and different molecular markers (RAPD, SSR, ITS, ITS2, matK and rbcL). Little data was obtained through the utility of RAPD and SSR primers. The four barcoding loci did not reveal discriminatory bands for all the examined species. The three loci; ITS, matK and rbcL, discriminated E. peplus and E. tirucalli from other species within genus Euphorbia. Banding patterns of the six isozyme systems showed great variability. The UPGMA dendrogram obtained depending on the 40 isozyme bands showed different findings from that of DNA. The DNA data was more accurate than isozymes data as it grouped the three species belonging to subg. Chamaesyce (E. indica, E. prostrata and E. granulata), but isozymes was more effective in separating the subfamily Acalyphoideae.

1001-1006 Download
28

Anatomical characteristics of Xeranthemum L. (Compositae) species: taxonomical insights and evolution of life form


Milan Gavrilović, Dragana Rančić, Tamara Škundrić, Zora Dajić-Stevanović, petar d. Marin, Núria Garcia-Jacas, Alfonso Susanna and Pedja Janaćković

Anatomical characteristics of Xeranthemum L. (Compositae) species: taxonomical insights and evolution of life form


ABSTRACT:

Comparative anatomical and micromorphological analyses of root, stem, peduncle, leaf and inflorescence have been conducted on two Xeranthemum species, X. annuum and X. cylindraceum, by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main goal of the study was to examine the most important anatomical features and to find new valid taxonomic delimiting characters for the first time in both species. Regarding vegetative organs anatomy, the data obtained in this study indicated that both species possessed secondary tissues in the root, although these plants are annual. Also, stem anatomy was a typical of the Compositae family members, and anomocytic stomata type and dorsiventral leaf structure were present. On the involucral bracts surface crystals were noticeable, while highly developed multilayer sclerenchyma was present in the mesophyll. Palea anatomy was very similar to bract anatomy. Some floral features were as follows: lateral anther dehiscence, corolla composed of uniseriate epidermis and with a homogeneous parenchyma in the mesophyll, inferior ovary and anatropous ovule with basal placentation. The specific quantitative characters that were different between the examined species were emphasized. Some selected, well defined qualitative anatomical characters (e.g. shape of the young stem and peduncle cross-sections, type of glandular trichomes and cortical vascular bundles occurrence), on the basis of which the studied species were distinguishable, strengthen the taxonomy of the Xeranthemum genus and provide features for better identification of the taxa. This is the first study of the anatomy of Xeranthemum species and some of the characters found (secondary growth and dorsiventral leaves) points towards an adaptation of mesophilous ancestors to xeric habitats in Xeranthemum.

1007-1019 Download
29

Taxonomical, morphological, palynological, anatomical and ecological investigations on monotypic genus Pachyphragma from Turkey


Mehmet Cengiz Karaismailoglu

Taxonomical, morphological, palynological, anatomical and ecological investigations on monotypic genus Pachyphragma from Turkey


ABSTRACT:

The target of this work was to examine the taxonomical, morphological, anatomical, palynological, and ecological features and geographical distribution of the monotypic genus Pachypragma (P. macrophyllum) growing in Turkey. The flowering and fruiting periods of the species were recorded. Sampling was performed at different areas during 2015 to 2016. In the morphological investigation, the description of the genus was updated as a result of comprehensive evaluations of many samples, and distinguishing characteristics of the species. Moreover, micrographs of the seed and pollen surfaces of the species were taken using scanning electron microscope. The seed surface ornamentation was reticulate or alveolate-reticulate. The pollen grains were mostly radially, isopolar, and prolate, with polar axes of 18.36 ± 0.27 µm and equatorial axes of 12.11 ± 0.18 µm, and their outlines were oval in the equatorial axes and elliptical in the polar axes. The pollen grains were mostly tricolpate. The anatomical structures of the stem, root, and leaf were also studied. The geographical dispersion of the taxon is along the borders of Turkey. The physical and chemical features of the soil with live taxa of the studied taxon were ecologically examined. The species risk category was determined in accordance with International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria.

1021-1026 Download
30

Phylogenetic relationships within the cosmopolitan family Rhamnaceae using ATPb gene promoter


Javed Iqbal, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Tariq Mahmood

Phylogenetic relationships within the cosmopolitan family Rhamnaceae using ATPb gene promoter


ABSTRACT:

Eighteen species of Rhamnaceae were collected from different geographical regions of Pakistan to resolve its controversial phylogenetic position using morphological and molecular analysis. The phylogenetic tree based on 71 different micro and macro-morphological characters using Paleontological and statistical software (PAST) with Dice’s coefficient showed an overall genetic diversity of 32%. Further, in each species the atpβ gene promoter was amplified, purified, sequenced and the dendrogram was constructed using Molecular evolutionary genetic analysis (MEGA7) tool which divided the sequences into two main clades showing a narrow genetic diversity of 0.05% with well supported bootstrap’s values (95-100%). Pairwise’s distance ranged from 0.12 to 0.73 with a mean value of 0.396. The phylogenetic study confirmed the work done by earlier phylogeneticist with additional reports of some new species, Berchemia pakistanica, Berchemia edgworthii, Berchemia floribunda, Helinus lanceolatus and Rhamnella gilgitica which are indigenous to Pakistan. The analysis of Cis-regulatory elements  and its mapping via Plant cis-acting regulatory DNA element (PLACE) and Domain graph (DOG) revealed numerous elements including 50 common and 28 unique, showing variation in copy numbers and locations. It was observed that Berchemia pakistanica and Berchemia edgworthii have the unique features possessing diverse cis-regulatory elements with diverse functions.

1027-1040 Download
31

Characterization of wheat germplasm with seed quality parameters and glutenin subunits


Khaist Begum, Habib Ahmad and Aqib Iqbal

Characterization of wheat germplasm with seed quality parameters and glutenin subunits


ABSTRACT:

Wheat as the most important staple cereal crop of Pakistan cultivated for daily consumption and industrial uses is mostly associated with the composition of gluten proteins, which is the quality of its end-use. This paper reports the results of our research endeavor where 40 wheat genotypes collected from the core germplasm collection of CCRI (The Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak), were evaluated for seed quality parameters, variation in one high molecular weight (HMW) and two low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits (GS) and association between the seed quality and HMW- GluB1 locus. Our results revealed that the average Total Grain Protein (TGP) content of all the genotypes was 16.5% (ranging from 11.3 to 20.8%), the Glutenin and Gliadins constituents were 23.6% (ranging from 13.30-31.63%) and 17.5% (ranging from 14.95-19.16%) of the TGP. The variable concentration of the gluten protein resulted in Gli/Glu ratio in a range of 0.5 to 1.39. Furthermore, the By9 allele of HMW-GluB1 locus occurred at a frequency of 0.5 and the LMW-GS alleles GluA3e and GluB3i at 0.3 and 0.48. The absence of By9 allele of HMW-GluB1 locus resulted in a significant decrease in the TGP, Glutenin and gliadins content and an increase in the Gli/Glu ratio. TGP was found to be statistically and most strongly associated with the By9 allele of HMW-GluB1 locus. These findings provide a baseline for molecular markers assisted breeding and gene pyramiding for improving wheat varieties.

1041-1048 Download
32

Investigation of the genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships for the species of the genus Anthriscus Pers. (Apiaceae) distributed in Turkey, using the non - coding “trn” regions of the chloroplast genome


Pelin Yilmaz Sancar, Semsettin Civelek, Mehmet Tekin and Sevgi Durna Dastan

Investigation of the genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships for the species of the genus Anthriscus Pers. (Apiaceae) distributed in Turkey, using the non - coding “trn” regions of the chloroplast genome


ABSTRACT:

The genus Anthriscus Pers. of the family Apiaceae is a small sized genus with 16 species, distributed in the world. In Turkey it is represented by 8 taxa, distributed in 4 sections. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic proximity and distances of taxa to each other and to identify interrelationships, systematic and phylogenetic relationships using the sequence analysis information of the non-coding trn region in the chloroplast genome of the Anthriscus species in Turkey. The phylogenetic tree showed that the taxa A. caucalis var. caucalis and A. tenerrima var. tenerrima (belonging to sect. Anthriscus) with A. cerefolium var. trichocarpa (belonging to sect. Cerefolium) had completed their speciations and isolation with other species in terms of speciation was provided. It can be said that A. kotschyi, the only representative of the sect. Caroides in Turkey, is isolated having completed its speciation also. The presence of the continuing gene exchange between the taxa can be mentioned, while the taxonomy of the two taxa of A. sylvestris and A. lamprocarpa, two members of the sect. Cacosciadium, cannot be determined more clearly yet. For this reason, it can be said that the A. sylvestris subsp. sylvestris and A. sylvestris subsp. nemorosa taxa, previously identified as two subspecies belonging to A. sylvestris, should be raised again to A. sylvestris and A. nemorosa taxa. In addition, an infrageneric arrangement and subsequent taxonomic regulation need to be made for the subspecies belonging to the A. lamprocarpa taxa.

1049-1057 Download
33

Phyto-purification of polluted water by using Poaceae case of Lake Reghaia


Boussaid Khadidja and Cheboutimeziou Nadjiba

Phyto-purification of polluted water by using Poaceae case of Lake Reghaia


ABSTRACT:

This work has two parts as a first part, we are interested in eliminating the heavy metals by two plants that belong to the family of Poaceae (Arundo donax and Phragmites australis). It is the treatment via planted filters. Secondly, the comparison has been made of the tolerance and accumulation by these two plants. A purification system is set up which consists of two vats: one located in height and the second in low to receive the water that flows from the first vat, in which were planted macrophytes. The results obtained, show a significant elimination of the heavy metals on the plants filter of Phragmites australis compared to Arundo donax after a stay of 30 days. The yields of eliminations are respectively 84.45% and 75.00% for Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. The results of this study also showed a significant reduction in COD, BOD5, Conductivity, Phosphate and Nitrate. The greatest accumulation of heavy metals is produced in the roots followed by leaves for both plants. The calculated values of biological transfer coefficient (BTC) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that Phragmites australis and Arundo donax are effectively acting as species of phytoremediation for some heavy metals

1059-1066 Download
34

Phytochemical analysis of medicinally important constituents of Teucrium stocksianum Boiss


Samra Irum, Sobia Tabassum, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Gulfraz and Pervez Anwar

Phytochemical analysis of medicinally important constituents of Teucrium stocksianum Boiss


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants have an illimitable source of natural compounds for drug development. The study was conducted to authenticate the pharmacological importance of Teucrium stocksianum boiss using different biological assays. Dried powder from the leaves of the Teucrium stocksianum boiss was used to get crude extract with methanol and the resultant yield crude extract was further partitioned with different solvents in an increasing polarity. The extracts were assessed for phytochemicals, thin layer chromatography, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, antihemolytic, antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity employing different solvents systems. The solvent fractions were assessed for in-vitro antioxidant assays to compute the quenching ability of H2O2 and ethanolic extracts were found more potent to scavenge free radicals (19.2±0.43 µg/ml) as compared to other fractions. The aqueous extracts were found more effective in reducing power assay by showing the highest EC50 value of i.e. 5.5±0.81µg/ml. Significant cytotoxicity against brine shrimp was manifested by ethanol (150.62 µg/ml) and chloroform (138.2 µg/ml) extracts while a conspicuous antitumor activity against Agrobacterium tumefaecins was exhibited by ethanol extracts (87.9±0.02). A moderate antihemolytic activity was noticeable by ethanol and chloroform extracts. Our study highlights the importance of different solvent extraction procedures in the processing of natural products. It also indicates that this study might be a valuable source of natural antioxidants to obstruct the damage linked to free radicals. Therefore, T. Stocksianum boiss could be potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical industry.

1067-1074 Download
35

The trade-off between growth and reproduction in an alpine herbaceous plant along an elevation gradient


Ji Zhang, Yanli Zhao and Yuanzhong Wang

The trade-off between growth and reproduction in an alpine herbaceous plant along an elevation gradient


ABSTRACT:

The relationship between growth and reproduction is a fundamental aspect of the reproductive strategy for a plant. Using an allometric perspective for both vegetative and reproductive traits allows us to understand and predict the impact of environmental change on a plant species. Here, we investigated the allometric relationships in Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. individuals at non-flowering and flowering stages along an elevation gradient in southwest China. We found that the mean values of the metrics were significantly higher in G. rigescens plants at reproductive stage than those at vegetative stage. However, allometric analysis showed that the plants in vegetative stage had higher root and stem biomass than those in reproductive stage at a given size, while leaf biomass showed fixed allometric trajectory. The height of G. rigescens was higher in flowering individuals than that in non-flowering individuals at small size, while the contrary was obtained at large size. Analysis of covariance showed that the root biomass was not affected by elevation, whereas the stem biomass, leaf biomass, and total biomass increased with increasing elevation. In conclusion, allocating biomass to roots and stems in G. rigescens individuals reduced when flowering occurred, but the resource investment in leaves was not changed. As the total biomass increased with increasing elevation, the effects of elevation on leave and stem biomass of G. rigescens could be partly size-dependent.

1075-1080 Download
36

Germination capacity and viability of stored pollen in two ornamentals species of the genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpini Oideae-Fabaceae) and their maintenance


Anjum Perveen and Shaukat Ali

Germination capacity and viability of stored pollen in two ornamentals species of the genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpini Oideae-Fabaceae) and their maintenance


ABSTRACT:

Pollen germination capacity and viability of two species viz., Caesalpinia gellisii (Hook.) Dietr. and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Swartz. of the family  Fabaceae were examined up to 48 weeks. Viability was determined on the basis of germination ability of pollen on sucrose medium with boric acid solution. Fresh pollen were stored at different storage conditions including refrigerator (4°C), freezer (-20°C, -30°C), freeze drier (-60°C), vacuum chamber and organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature -60°C showed better germination as compared to pollen stored at 4°C and fresh. C. pulcherrima showed much better germination percentage at -60°C (61.00%) whereas, C. gellisii, showed 30.80% germination after 48 weeks of storage. Pollen stored over silica gel in vacuum of both the species showed good germination as compared to organic solvents. Freezer (-20ºC & -30ºC) and freeze dryer (-60ºC) maintained pollen germination capacity and viability for a longer period as compared to fresh, refrigerated, pollen treated in vacuum over silica gel and organic solvents. Conclusively both low temperature and RH humidity are the most influential factors in controlling germination and viability of pollen grains.

1081-1083 Download
37

Variability of qualitative features of Plagiothecium nemorale in central and eastern Europe


Grzegorz J. Wolski

Variability of qualitative features of Plagiothecium nemorale in central and eastern Europe


ABSTRACT:

The most frequently indicated taxonomically significant features among species of the genus Plagiothecium are qualitative features. However, there are no articles in the literature which describe the analysis of variability or provide the statistical analysis of these features. The material for this research came from Central and Eastern Europe, from the largest Herbaria in: Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and Ukraine. 2 107 specimens described as P. nemorale sensu lato were revised, out of which 140 specimens were selected for detailed research. They were tested for 11 qualitative features and statistically analysed. The analyses show that the studied features to a different extent co-exist with each other and among the tested specimens two groups can be distinguished. In addition, we can indicate that four features make it possible to distinguish specimens belonging to particular groups: the shape (SHA), the serrations of the leaf apex (SEA), and the shape of the cells from the top and middle part of the leaf (SC1, SC2).

 

1085-1092 Download
38

Rapid in-vitro propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium through shoot bud explants


Muhammad Imtiaz, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Muhammad Ali Khan, Fazal Jalal, Sayed Hussain, Fazal Said and Hong Bo

Rapid in-vitro propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium through shoot bud explants


ABSTRACT:

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is perennial short day flowering plant. Nodal explants of Chrysanthemum were cultured on simple Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, MS media supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzyl adenine (6-BA) alone and in combination with different concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Thidiazuron (TDZ) for shoot initiation and the regenerated shoots were sub-cultured on MS, ½ MS and ¼ MS media for rooting. No shoot induction was recorded in explants cultured on simple MS, but the phyto-hormones addition to MS media resulted in 100% shoot induction. In case of MS media supplemented with 6-BA, maximum shoot buds (12) and shoot length (6.06 cm) explant-1 were recorded when 44.39 µM 6-BA was added to MS media. In case the MS media was supplemented with 6-BA+NAA, maximum (11)shoot buds  explant-1 were recorded in explants cultured in MS+88.79 µM 6-BA+10.74 µM NAA media. Among the different concentrations of 6-BA+TDZ added to MS media, maximum (6.67) shoot buds explant-1 were recorded for explants planted in MS+88.79 µM 6-BA+9.08 µM TDZ. The regenerated shoots were then sub cultured on MS, ½ MS and ¼ MS media for rooting. In that case, there was non-significant effect on root length. However, maximum (15.78) roots were recorded for those cultured in ½ MS media. Thus it is concluded that supplementing MS media with 44.39µM 6-BA is the best concentration for rapid shoot regeneration and½ MS is optimal for the In vitro rooting of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

1093-1098 Download
39

Evaluation of biological potential and physico-chemical properties of Acridocarpus orientalis (Malpighiaceae)


Najeeb Ur Rehman, Fazal Mabood, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Syed Abdullah Gillani, Ghulam Abbas, Ajmal Khan, Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Javid Hussain

Evaluation of biological potential and physico-chemical properties of Acridocarpus orientalis (Malpighiaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Acridocarpus orientalis, an arid land plant and famous in Arabian region for medicinal values, has been investigated for its biological and ecological role in the current study. The methanol (JAOMF) extract of stem and leaves of A. orientalis along with various fractions (n-hexane; JAOHF, chloroform; JAOCF, ethyl acetate; JAOEF, n-butanol; JAOBF, and aqueous; JAOWF) were tested for allelopathic, cytotoxic, anti-fungal, antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. In case of allelopathic potential, the higher concentration (100 mg) of dried leaves and stem were significantly suppressing the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. Among various fractions, n-butanol and chloroform have inhibited the radical and hypocotyl growths of lettuce seeds in a dose-dependent manner. The fractions showed a week growth inhibitory effects against Chitomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus niger. Total flavonoid contents were significantly higher in ethyl acetate (279.85 μg/g of dry extract) and n-butanol (142.22 μg/g of dry extract) fractions of stem while n-hexane (77.6 μg/g of dry extract) fraction of leaves showed higher flavonoid contents. Total phenolic contents were found higher in the ethyl acetate fraction of stem (16.8 mg/g of dry weight) followed by n-butanol (10.6 mg/g of dry weight). Aqueous fraction of leaves showed significantly higher anti-lipid peroxidation (60.6%) activity followed by chloroform (49.9%). Higher concentration of chloroform fraction of stem expressed higher cytotoxic effects for adenocarcinoma and hepatoma cancer cell lines as compared to other fractions.

1099-1106 Download
40

Biochemical screening of crude extract and its derived fractions obtained from Calligonum polygonoieds and Typha latifolia


Zabta Khan Shinwari, Nisar Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Wajid Amin, Abdul Wahab and Muhammad Ilyas Khan

Biochemical screening of crude extract and its derived fractions obtained from Calligonum polygonoieds and Typha latifolia


ABSTRACT:

The extracts and its derived fractions from two important medicinal plants species Calligonum polygonoieds and Typha latifolia were tested for microbicidy against two bacteria and two fungal pathogens and preliminary phytochemical evaluation. The crude extract and fractions from C. polygonoieds plant were found to be most potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosaas compared to Escherichia coli. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed moderate inhibition zones of 8 mm against P. aeurginosa followed by crude extract, n-hexane and chloroform fractions each giving 7 mm zone of inhibitions. The crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction of C. polygonoieds revealed 8 mm inhibition against E. coli followed by chloroform fraction with 7 mm zone of inhibition. In case of T. latifoliaplant crude extract and aqueous fractions were found to be the most effective against Pseudomonas and E. coli giving inhibitions zone of 10 and 11 mm respectively. Chloroform fraction of the plant showed 8 mm while other fractions showed 7 mm zone of inhibition. Both the selected plants were found equally potential against the tested fungi. n-butanol fraction of C. polygonoieds gave 10 mm zone of inhibition against F. oxysporum, followed by crude extract of ethyl acetate showing 8 mm. The n-hexane and chloroform fractions showed 11 mm of inhibition against A. alternata. n- hexane fraction and crude extract from T. latifolia gave 11 mm inhibition against F. oxysporem and A. alternata. The selected plant extracts were analyzed for the presence of different bioactive chemical groups. In preliminary phytochemical screening alkaloid, phenol and saponins were found in both plants. After the result and screening of the selected research plants it is concluded that both plants are potentially active and showed good antimicrobial activity and presence of important phytochemicals.

1107-1111 Download
41

Effect of herbicides and intercropping on weeds and yields of maize and the associated intercrops


Shahida Bibi, Ijaz Ahmad Khan, Zahid Hussain, Sajjad Zaheer and Syed Mehar Ali Shah

Effect of herbicides and intercropping on weeds and yields of maize and the associated intercrops


ABSTRACT:

Two field trials were conducted at the farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan in 2014 and 2015, to investigate the effect of intercropping on maize, mungbean, cowpea and sesbania, in which maize was the main crop and the others were intercrops. A two factorial design was used. Factor A comprised of pendimethalin application as pre-emergence and no herbicide application. Factor B consisted of four mono-cropping treatments of Zea mays L. (maize), Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek (mungbean), Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (sesbania), and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea), along with six intercropping treatments viz. 5 legumes rows and 6 maize rows in combinations i.e. mungbean+maize, cowpea+maize, sesbania+maize, and also 10 legume crops rows and 6 maize rows in combinations mungbean+maize, cowpea+maize, and sesbania+maize. The results indicated a significant influence of the years, the use of herbicide, the treatments of intercropping, and the interaction effect of the herbicide x intercropping on the yields of studied crops which meant that the differences among the observations were statistically significant. For the year effect, the mean yields were higher in 2014; while for the effect of herbicide use, the maize grain yield was higher in pendimethalin applied plots. Stating the effect of intercropping, mungbean grain yield was highest in plots of mungbean mono-cropping and lowest in mungbean: maize intercropping (sown in ratio of 5:6 rows). Cowpea and sesbania biomasses were significantly higher in herbicide plots and also in mono-cropping plots of cowpea and sesbania plots, respectively in 2014 and 2015. The values of the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) were between 1.40 and 1.49 for all the intercropping treatments, with the highest LER calculated for sesbania-maize intercropping (10:6 rows). Therefore, the herbicide pendimethalin as pre-emergence @1.5 kg ha-1 in maize crop along with intercropping of any of the studied legume crops at the 1:1 row sowing ratio is the best combination for achieving desirable weed control, higher crop yields and greater LERs.

1113-1120 Download
42

Comparison of foliar and soil applications for correction of iron deficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)


Shamim Akhtar, Nazneen Bangash, Muhammad Sajjad Iqbal, Armghan Shahzad, Muhammad Arshad and Fayyaz-Ul-Hassan

Comparison of foliar and soil applications for correction of iron deficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)


ABSTRACT:

Pakistan has extensive iron (Fe) deficiency in its calcareous soils in Pothwar tract. The problem leads to Fe deficiency Chlorosis in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) due to high pH and high bicarbonate levels. Foliar as well as soil applications of Fe-EDTA, FeSO4 and sequestrene were used in pots for amelioration of Fe deficiency in already screened genotypes BARI-2000 (Fe deficiency tolerant) and BARD-699 (Fe deficiency sensitive). Pod number of BARI-2000 increased upto 36% by foliar treatments of Fe-EDTA as compared to control. Soil applications of FeSO4 resulted 22% increase in pod number in BARI-2000. Pod number of BARD-699 was increased upto 62% and 52% as compared to control when Fe-EDTA and sequestrene were applied as foliar application. Strong correlation was found among photosynthetic rate and total Fe in BARI-2000. Similarly transpiration rate was positively correlated with total Fe and transpiration rate in BARI-2000. In BARD-699 strong correlation was found among photosynthetic rate and morpho-physiological parameters. Similarly transpiration rate was positively correlated with different parameters. Our results suggested that foliar applications were more effective in combating Fe deficiency in peanut.

1121-1127 Download
43

Functional, antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and food safety applications of Curcuma longa and Cuminum cyminum


Ali Akbar, Imran Ali, Samiullah, Naqeeb Ullah, Shabir Ahmad Khan, Ziaur Rehman and Seed Ur Rehman

Functional, antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and food safety applications of Curcuma longa and Cuminum cyminum


ABSTRACT:

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seeds are common spices used in foods and are necessary commodity of kitchens. They have known potential in health and pharmacentical industries. In present study, we explored the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and functional properties of turmeric and cumin seeds extracts. The extracts were also used against Escherichia coli in active packaging for pathogen control and food safety. It was found in the study that, phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and quinon were absent while the coumarin and terpenoids were present in cumin, whereas turmeric was found rich in phlobatannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and quinon except coumarin, which was found absent. The total phenolic contents of cumin and turmeric were estimated as 51.2 mg/g and 20 mg/g of dry weight equivalent to gallic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of 44% and 46% were recorded for cumin and turmeric respectively. The FTIR analysis established the presence of different functional groups preliminary confirmed by chemical analysis. Both cumin and turmeric were found active against a group of pathogenic bacteria including, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli. Enhanced antibacterial activity of cumin was noted compared to turmeric extracts. Both extracts were found active against different fungal species, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces boulardii. Cumin and Turmeric extracts incorporated in alginate- based film for packaging and foodborne pathogens control in meat were found reducing the number of pathogenic bacteria E. coli.

 

1129-1135 Download
44

The effects of magnetic field and rhizobial inoculation on nitrogen fixation process and growth parameters in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


Neda Kazemi Khaledi, Sara Saadatmand, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad and Taher Nejadsattari

The effects of magnetic field and rhizobial inoculation on nitrogen fixation process and growth parameters in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)


ABSTRACT:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of magnetic field and rhizobial inoculant on the Alfalfa's growth parameters (leaves, nodules number, shoot and root lengths) and nitrogen fixation process. Inoculated and non-inoculated seed with Sinorhizobium meliloti were subjected to 0.75mT and 1.5mT intensities of magnetic field. Plants were analyzed after 60 days growing. Findings showed 1.5mT magnetic intensity reduced growth parameters, nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR) and ammonium content, while nitrate and nitrite content increased in comparison with the control group. Application of rhizobial inoculant with 1.5mT intensity increased growth parameters, NR, NIR activity, nitrite, and ammonium content, while it reduced nitrate accumulation in comparison with the single application which was received just 1.5mT intensity. A separate application of 0.75mT intensity increased growth parameters, but had no effect on NR, NIR activity, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite contents, while using rhizobial inoculant individually and combined with 0.75mT intensity increased growth parameters, NR, NIR activity, and ammonium content. Also, it decreased nitrate and nitrite contents as compared to the control. As a result, it could be concluded that rhizobial inoculant application, alone or in combination with a suitable magnetic intensity (0.75mT), could be used as a biofertilizer for vegetable production in sustainable and ecological agricultural systems.

1137-1141 Download
45

Genetic divergence on the basis of principal component, correlation and cluster analysis of yield and quality traits in cotton cultivars


Ameer Hussain

Genetic divergence on the basis of principal component, correlation and cluster analysis of yield and quality traits in cotton cultivars


ABSTRACT:

The present research work was conducted to obtain genetic divergence regarding fiber and yield associated traits among 12 different Chinese cotton varieties (cultivars) of upland cotton. The phonological studies were accomplished via carrying out correlation, and cluster analyses. The outcomes from current study demonstrated strong positive correlation (0.69) between number of bolls per plant and cottonseed yield as well as positive significant correlation between lint index (0.94) and staple length (0.70); however, fiber strength exhibited significant negative correlation (0.65) with cottonseed yield per plant. Heat map of experimented genotypes depicted seven clusters are I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII keeping cluster-III at extreme for highest individual genotypic scores concerning different fiber and yield associated traits. Principal component analysis revealed total variability of 74.38% among genotypes contributed by PC-1 (52.86%) and PC-2 (21.52%).Yield related traits i.e., number of bolls per plant, cotton seed yield and staple length contributed positive significant component loadings for the first two PCs. Cluster analysis (k) grouped studied cultivars into three discrete clusters. Cluster-2 and cluster-3 got optimum values for cottonseed yield, number of bolls per plant, seed index and staple length. The information was fetched together after applying different statistical tools in order to make the outcomes of genetic diversity fruitful for developing an improved cotton breeding program

1143-1148 Download
46

Effect of four plant extracts against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum


Gul Makai Panezai, Mariam Javaid, Sadaf Shahid, Wasia Noor, Zohra Bibi and Ambreen Ejaz

Effect of four plant extracts against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum


ABSTRACT:

The storage of food products and grains against creepy-crawly creatures that damage the crops is a serious problem throughout the World. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four plants extract Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Lemon blam (Melissa officinalis) against two pests Trogoderma grananium and Tribolium castaneum to check the percent mortality rate of larvae and adults. For the preparation of extract fresh leaves of concern plants were collected and dried. The dried leaves were grinded and each plant samples (5grams) were soaked in 100 ml of ethanol. The liquid extracts were filtered and poured for experimental purpose. Three replications were made for each treatment. Statistical analysis was done by RCB method and package used for calculation was M-statC. Results revealed that all the plants extract had lethal effect against adults and larvae of both stored pests as compared to control treatment. Rosmarinus officinalis extract was the most efficient against the adults of both stored grain pests, causing 58.67% mortality in Tribolium castaneum and 80.00% mortality in Trogoderma grananium. Similarly, Rosmarinus officinalis also showed maximum mortality against Tribolium castaneum larvae (58.67%) and Trogoderma grananium larvae (65%). It is concluded from the above results that Rosmarinus officinalis showed the highest mortality rate against larvae and adult of both stored grain pests. Insecticidal effects of plants extract have been considered to be most effective and accessible to control several insect pests. This biological method for controlling stored grain pest is an efficient technique as compared to chemical method because of their high toxicity that affects the quality of crop and very costly which is not affordable.

1149-1153 Download
47

A comparative study of cow dung compost, goat pellets, poultry waste manure and plant debris for thermophilic, thermotolerant and mesophilic microflora with some new reports from Pakistan


Nayara Noreen, Nadia Ramzan, Zahida Perveen and Saleem Shahzad

A comparative study of cow dung compost, goat pellets, poultry waste manure and plant debris for thermophilic, thermotolerant and mesophilic microflora with some new reports from Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Isolations from the cow dung, goat pellets, poultry waste manure and plant debris samples yielded 44 fungal and 15 bacterial species. The isolated fungi included 13 mesophilic, 11 thermotolerant and 20 thermophilic species. Similarly, six mesophilic, five thermotolerant, and four thermophilic bacteria were isolated. Of these, three species of fungi viz., Annelophora africana, Conidiobolus thermophilus and Haplotrichum croceum appeared to be new records from Pakistan, not hitherto reported. The highest percentage of thermophilic fungi and bacteria occurred in cow dung followed by goat pellet, poultry waste and plant debris in descending order. Similarly, highest percentage of thermotolerant fungi and bacteria occurred in goat pellet followed by poultry waste, cow dung and plant debris, respectively. The highest percentage of mesophilic fungi and bacteria occurred in plant debris followed by poultry waste, goat pellet and cow dung. The growth of thermophilic fungi was better on yeast starch agar (YSA) as compared to potato sucrose agar (PSA) medium. However, the thermotolerant fungi showed better growth on PSA medium. Among the mesophilic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium dipodomyis, Stachybotrys chartarum and Syncephalastrum racemosum showed better growth on YSA medium, whereas, PSA was more suitable for the remaining mesophilic fungi. The optimal temperature for growth of the mesophilic microorganisms was 28°C whereas thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms grew best at 40 and 50°C, respectively

1155-1159 Download
48

Role of fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with root nodules of mungbean in the induction of nodulation by the rhizobia in mungbean.


Rubina Noreen, Syed Abid Ali, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Habiba, Faizah Urooj, Amna Tariq Jahan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Role of fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with root nodules of mungbean in the induction of nodulation by the rhizobia in mungbean.


ABSTRACT:

Fluorescent Pseudomonas has been reported to associate with root nodules of a number of plants and play role in plant disease suppression and increased plant growth. However their role in nodule formation is still unclear. In a gnotobiotic experiment, combined effect of two isolates each of fluorescent Pseudomonas (NAFP-19 and NAFP-32) and rhizobia (Rhizobium vignae (NFB-103) and R. vignae (NFB-109) on nodules of mungbean was evaluated. The results showed an increase in the number of nodule primordia, mature nodules and the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in mungbean plants. In screen house experiment, garden soil which was naturally infested with root rotting fungi and rhizobia was used. Dual application of Pseudomonas and rhizobia in the garden soil produced greater number of nodules per plant and higher nitrogen fixation than when rhizobia were used alone. Dual application of bacteria also suppressed root rotting fungi. The results showed that nodule associated fluorescent Pseudomonas played a role in plant-rhizobia symbiosis.

1161-1168 Download
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