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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Year 2019 , Volume  51, Issue 5
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1

Obituary Dr. Ihsan Ilahi


Farrukh Hussain

Obituary Dr. Ihsan Ilahi


ABSTRACT:

Meritorious Professor Dr. Ihsan Ilahi, T.I

(December 15, 1940 – December 9, 2018)

1539-1539 Download
2

Effect of salicylic acid on the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning and translocation in two contrasting rice genotypes under salt stress


Han-Jing Sha, Hua-Long Liu, Bo-Wen Hu, Jiao-Jiao Gu, Wen-Cheng Hu, Yan Jia, Xin-Peng Wang, Hui-Lin Chang and Hong-Wei Zhao

Effect of salicylic acid on the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning and translocation in two contrasting rice genotypes under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress is one of the important abiotic stresses that affect agricultural production. Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant growth and development as well as against stress. The purpose of this work was to analyze the short-term and long-term effect of SA on the dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) accumulation, partitioning, and translocation in two contrasting rice genotypes (salt-tolerant LD5, salt-susceptible MDJ30) under salt stress. Forty two-day-old rice plants were exposed to salinity stress (0, 4.6 dS m-1) for two weeks and then the salt group was sprayed with 60 ml SA (0, 0.5 mmol L-1) per pot for two days. The short-term and long-term effects of SA were analyzed by sampling at 6 and 12 days after the SA treatment, and at heading and maturity stage, respectively. The results showed that salt stress significantly reduced the DM and N accumulation of each above-ground organ, changed allocation pattern and reduced their translocation to panicles. Genotypes showed differences in DM and N distribution and translocation under salt stress. Compared with MDJ30, LD5 accumulated more DM under salt stress, had a higher proportion of stem-sheath DM and maintained the DM translocation to panicle. The response of N accumulation to salt stress in LD5 was higher than that in MDJ30 at tillering stage but was less than that at heading and maturity stage, reflecting that salt tolerant variety gradually adapted to the restriction of N acquisition due to salinization. Exogenous SA promoted the accumulation of DM and N in stem + sheath at short-term and in above-ground organs of rice under salt stress at long-term. SA increased the partitioning ratio of DM and N in panicles of MDJ30 under salt stress but decreased that in LD5. This was mainly due to the fact that SA increased the translocation of assimilates from vegetative organs to panicles of MDJ30, but decreased that of LD5 as its short-term promotion effect resulted in an excessive accumulation in stem + sheath. These results suggested that SA promoted assimilates accumulation in the above-ground organs of rice under salt stress, changed the distribution pattern of nutrients, and its effect on the translocation of assimilates was related to the salt tolerance of genotypes

1541-1550 Download
3

Salicylic acid alleviates salinity stress through the modulation of biochemical attributes and some key antioxidants in wheat seedlings


Abdulaziz Alsahli, Abdel-Kareem Mohamed, Ibrahaim Alaraidh, Abdulla Al-Ghamdi, Ahlam Al-Watban, Mohamed El-Zaidy and Saud M. Alzahrani

Salicylic acid alleviates salinity stress through the modulation of biochemical attributes and some key antioxidants in wheat seedlings


ABSTRACT:

A study was conducted to evaluate the role of salicylic acid (SA; 0, 0.5 and 0.75 mM) on the growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv. Sods 1) under salinity stress. Salinity exposure (0, 25, 75 and 125 mM NaCl) reduced growth of wheat significantly by reducing the fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, leaf development and inducing necrosis on old leaves. Lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased by 3.37 fold and 2.54 fold, respectively, while membrane stability declined with 125 mM NaCl concentration which were however, ameliorated by the application of SA. Under normal conditions, application of SA (0.5 mM) improved growth significantly compared to the untreated controls. Salinity (125 mM) stress enhanced the accumulation of proline (4.63 fold), carbohydrates (39.61%), free amino acids (9.44) and protein content (7.91%) which were further stimulated by application of SA leading to better stress adaptation. Application of SA to salinity stressed upregulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT and APX by 1.76 fold, 2.25 fold and 2.22 fold, respectively leading to better elimination of reactive oxygen species and protection against oxidative stress. Moreover, excess uptake of Na in salinity stressed plants reduced the uptake of K+ and initiated leaf necrosis. However, application of SA mitigated these negative effects to considerable extent. In conclusion, salinity stress adversely affected the growth and development of wheat plants. However, supplementation of proper dosage of SA mitigated these negative effects of salinity through the modulation of the levels of osmolytes, activities of antioxidant enzymes and uptake of essential elements

1551-1559 Download
4

Influence of silicon sources and controlled release fertilizer on the growth of wheat cultivars of Balochistan under salt stress


Ayesha Mushtaq, Sabeena Rizwan, Nelofer Jamil, Tahira Ishtiaq, Shazia Irfan, Tariq Ismail, M. Najam Malghani and M. Naeem Shahwani

Influence of silicon sources and controlled release fertilizer on the growth of wheat cultivars of Balochistan under salt stress


ABSTRACT:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food of Pakistan and constitutes 60% of the daily diet of a human being in Pakistan. Production of wheat can be improved by using marginal lands and the salt affected areas by silicon supplementation and improving fertilizers. As Nanotechnology has brought revolutions in agriculture, therefore silica nanoparticles (SiO2 Nps) have been used in this study to reduce the salinity stress. Seeds of four wheat varieties, Umeed and Raskoh (salt tolerant) and Zarghoon and Shahkar (salt sensitive) were grown in Hydroponics. Hoagland’s Nutrient Solution (HNS) was used as control while treatments included CRF (Controlled Release Fertilizer), CRF with SiO2 Nps, sodium silicate, SiO2 Nps and silicic acid. Salt stress of 100 mM NaCl was induced. Data was recorded for TDS, germination rate, length of root and shoot, fresh and dry weight and chlorophyll content. All results were statistically significant at 0.05 level, sodium silicate and SiO2 Nps were found to control salinity. Excellent results were achieved using CRF and CRF containing SiO2Nps. It has been concluded that SiO2 Nps or its CRF can be useful to compete the salinity and drought stress for growing wheat in the marginal and salt affected land in Pakistan.

1561-1567 Download
5

Evaluation of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on development of synthetic seeds


Muhammad Iqbal, Aamir Ali, Hamid Rashid, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Naima Huma Naveed, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Mubashir Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz and Zubeda Chaudhry

Evaluation of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on development of synthetic seeds


ABSTRACT:

The present investigation highlighted the role of sodium alginate (Na-alginate) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatments on encapsulation of sugarcane (Saccaharum officinarum var. NSG-59) somatic embryos to produce synthetic seeds. Progress in the protocol for direct recovery of plants from man-made seeds under sterile conditions is of major importance. Although it is possible to produce a huge number of plants through tissue culture via embryogenesis or multiple shoot cultures, but their delivery is quite inconvenient. In vitro study pertaining to evaluate the efficient synthetic seeds formation from sugarcane somatic embryos was done in Plant Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Botany, University of Sargodha. Encapsulation of somatic embryos was achieved by using Na-alginate (as gelling agent) and CaCl2 (as complexing agent) respectively through dropping method under sterile conditions (inside Laminar air flow cabinet). Different concentrations of Na-alginate (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, and 4%) and CaCl2 (50mM, 70mM, 90mM, 100mM, 150mM and 200mM) were applied in current process.The gelling matrix of 3% Na-alginate and complexing agent of 100mM CaCl2 yielded firm, clear, isodiametric and compact beads formation. It was observed that duration of Na-alginate treatment on bead formation has no effect however, CaCl2 treatment with 100mM Na-alginate for 15 minutes was more appropriate for isodiametric and compact beads formation. The synthetic seeds provide feasible handling, transport and large scale production of viable plants of sugarcane by direct sowing of synthetic seeds in the soil.

1569-1574 Download
6

Effects of drought and nitrogen addition on growth and leaf physiology of Pinus massoniana seedlings


Defu Wang, Guomin Huang, Honglang Duan, Xueming Lei, Wenfei Liu, Jianping Wu and Houbao Fan

Effects of drought and nitrogen addition on growth and leaf physiology of Pinus massoniana seedlings


ABSTRACT:

Drought and nitrogen deposition are predicted to increase with global change, but the interactive effects of the two factors on tree physiology are still poorly understood. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of drought and nitrogen addition on growth and leaf physiology of Pinus massoniana seedlings. Seedlings were grown in growth chambers with two soil water (i.e. well watered and drought stress) and two nitrogen conditions (i.e. 0 and 40 kg N hm-2 a-1). Biomass accumulation and allocation, leaf relative water content (RWC), free leaf water content (FWC), leaf chlorophyll (Chla+b, Chla, Chlb, Chla/b), contents of carotenoid (Car), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined throughout the entire experimental period. This study showed that the contents of MDA and Pro, SOD activity, root shoot ratio (R/S) and root mass ratio (RMR) were increased significantly in the drought treatment, while Chla+b, Chla, RWC and growth of seedlings were significantly decreased. In contrast, nitrogen addition had positive impacts on leaf chlorophyll content, leaf RWC and growth of seedlings. Leaf chlorophyll content had positive relationship with RWC irrespective of nitrogen supply, while MDA and Pro content had opposite trends. We also found that nitrogen addition could substantially ameliorate the negative impact of drought on P. massoniana, by increasing growth and limiting accumulation of MDA, Pro and SOD activity. This short term study suggests that current ambient nitrogen deposition in southern China may be helpful for establishment of P. massoniana seedlings in bare lands with limited water availability.

1575-1585 Download
7

Nutrient leaching of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) seedlings under simulated nitrogen deposition


Wenfei Liu, Yanyan Li, Guomin Huang, Jianping Wu, Honglang Duan, Yingchun Liao, Rongzhen Huang, Zhipeng Xu and Houbao Fan

Nutrient leaching of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) seedlings under simulated nitrogen deposition


ABSTRACT:

To investigate the impacts of nitrogen addition on soil nutrient leaching, a one-year greenhouse experiment was conducted on Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) seedlings with five nitrogen addition treatments: N0 (Control), N1 (60 kg N ha-1 yr-1), N2 (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1), N3 (240 kg ha-1 yr-1) and N4 (480 kg ha-1 yr-1). Results showed that pH values of soil leaching solution were significantly decreased by the treatments of N2, N3 and N4, with respective decline of 15.6%, 19.1%, and 25.9%, compared with the N0 treatment. Nitrogen feritilization increased ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the soil leaching solution. Nitrogen loss due to soil leaching was also enhanced by nitrogen addition, amounting to 7.37, 20.71, 48.72 and 99.48 mg kg-1 for N1, N2, N3, and N4, respectively. Similarly, more K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were leached into the leaching solution with nitrogen addition. The annual loss of the five nutrient ions into the leaching solution ranked as follows: Ca2+﹥NO3-﹥NH4+﹥K+﹥Mg2+. The leaching losses of these five nutrient ions increased with across nitrogen gradients. Our study suggests that high-level nitrogen deposition may cause soil nutrient loss through leaching in subtropical forests.

1587-1592 Download
8

Response of bread wheat genotypes to cell membrane injury, proline and canopy temperature


Munir Ahmad, Adeel Khan, Ghulam Shabbir, M. Kausar Nawaz Shah, Zahid Akram and M. Tanveer

Response of bread wheat genotypes to cell membrane injury, proline and canopy temperature


ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity for physiological traits is imperative in reducing genetic vulnerability and improve the plant species against stressed environments. The present study was designed to assess genetic divergence for some physiological and yield related traits among thirty wheat cultivars. Data were collected for cell membrane injury, proline content, flag leaf area, canopy temperature, spike length, spikelets per spike-1, plant height, grains per spike-1, 1000-grains weight, and yield plant-1. Principal component analysis depicted that five components were responsible for 74.54% variability. Traits that contributed greatest diversity in grain yield followed by flag leaf area and cell membrane injury. Correlation study revealed that direct selection for spikelets spike-1, 1000-grain weight, grains per spike-1 and spike length can contribute towards grain yield. The dendrogram constructed through simple sequence repeats markers categorized 30 wheat cultivars into three clusters based on their similarity. Simple sequence repeats markers were found suitable for characterization and discrimination of wheat cultivars for genetic diversity which would be useful in further breeding programs

1593-1597 Download
9

Evaluation of potential of Epipremnum aureum Engl. in removing zinc (Zn) toxicity


Razi Abbas, Samina Mehnaz and Aisha Saleem Khan

Evaluation of potential of Epipremnum aureum Engl. in removing zinc (Zn) toxicity


ABSTRACT:

In the current research, money plant (Epipremnum aureum Engl.), an indoor plant which is a member of family Araceae was studied in order to explore its potential in the phytoremediation of zinc (Zn), which is toxic for the plant in higher concentrations. Selected plants were treated with different concentrations of ZnCl2 as Zn is known to be toxic for plant growth and development in higher concentration. Doses of ZnCl2 were applied at concentration of 10, 20 and 30ppm which resulted in degradation of chlorophyll, reduction of leaf lamina and inhibition of vascular growth of leaves and stem. Stomata of ZnCl2 treated plants remained closed with higher doses followed by overall reduction in leaf growth which was further revealed through spectrometric techniques. However, as roots did not show any visible symptom of Zn toxicity but accumulation of Zn within stem and leaf tissues (as shown through atomic absorption spectrometry) suggested that plant was capable of translocating Zn to aerial parts, therefore could be used to solve problems caused by Zn toxicity.

1599-1604 Download
10

Carbon storage and allocation pattern in plant biomass under drought stress and nitrogen supply in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus deltoides


Saira Kanwal, Sofia Baig and Imran Hashmi

Carbon storage and allocation pattern in plant biomass under drought stress and nitrogen supply in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus deltoides


ABSTRACT:

Climate change may have multi-faceted adverse effects on forests worldwide such as pest outbreaks, fires, heat waves, and drought. These stresses including changes in water and nutrient availability, cause an imbalance in carbon uptake by plants. In this study, two species Eucalyptus camaldulensis (evergreen) and Populus deltoides (deciduous) were selected for carbon content and allocation analysis with the application of nitrogen fertilizer and water stress treatments. A pot experiment was done by planting 2 years old seedlings in 5kg pots in a glasshouse for four weeks. The experiment was a 2-factor factorial completely randomized design having three water stress levels D0, D1, D2 (1000, 500 and 250 mL) and three nitrogen treatments N0, N1, N2 (0, 0.5 and 1 gNkg-1). Significant and non-significant nitrogen into drought interactions (NxD) were observed for each treatment. Results showed that in Populus deltoides, at N2D2 treatment, shoot carbon content was increased up to 63% to 75%. Whereas in Eucalyptus camaldulensis, shoot carbon content was increased up to 51% to 52% at N0D2 treatment. Leaf carbon contents were increased 23% to 44% in E. camaldulensis and 0.3% to 4% in P. deltoides, at N1D1 treatment respectively. Dry shoot biomass was increased 3.8g to 7g at N2D2 treatment in E. camaldulensis whereas 45g to 81g at N1D2 in P. deltoides. Increased root biomass production was observed in N1D0 of P. deltoides (31.96g) and E. camaldulensis (2.73g). Leaf biomass was more observable in E. camaldulensis, at N1D2, up to 4.72g and in P. deltoides at N2D1 up to 3.4g. A significant increase at NxD interactions was observed in root carbon content, shoot length, root length, root biomass and Relative Water Content (RWC) in E. camaldulensis. Likewise, root length, shoot biomass, root biomass, Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and RWC was significantly increased in P. deltoides at NxD interactions. These significant improvements related to carbon allocation and physiological growth, with NxD interactions, can be attributed to the improved acquisition of nutrients by these species in the drought-stressed environments

1605-1614 Download
11

CO2-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of forage grasses during salt stress and recovery in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)


Muhammad Arfan, Chao Zhang, Da-Wei Zhang, Da-Xu Li, Jia-Jun Yan, Ming-Hong You, Shi-Qie Bai and Hong-Hui Lin

CO2-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of forage grasses during salt stress and recovery in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)


ABSTRACT:

Grassland degradation has become a core issue in research and policy due to recognition of the magnitude of anthropogenic and environmental threats in Qinghai-Tibetan Pleatu (QTP). The problem of soil salinity could worsen in recent scenario of global change. Therefore, an urgent need exists to select salt efficient forage species for sustaining ecosystem services in varying environment. The aim of this study was to investigate different level of salinity treatments and, recovery situations in three forage species (Avena sativa L., Elymus sibiricus L., and Phalaris arundinacea L.). The results showed that increase in salinity level was associated with more symptoms of damage while recovery benefited with the effects being different among three species. Gas exchange (Pn rates and iWUE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (qP, NPQ, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) parameters revealed Elymus sibiricus performance better followed by Phalaris arundinacea. Similar trend was discovered through relative water content (RWC) and electrolyte leakage (EL) results. On the other hand, Avena sativa screened as the most salt sensitive among these three species. Taken together, these results identified Elymus sibiricus as relatively more salt-tolerant species, followed by Phalaris arundinacea in QTP environment.

1615-1628 Download
12

Assessment of novel EMS-induced genetic variability in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and selection of promising mutants


Souhail Channaoui, Mostapha Labhilili, Hamid Mazouz, Mohamed El Fechtali and Abdelghani Nabloussi

Assessment of novel EMS-induced genetic variability in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and selection of promising mutants


ABSTRACT:

Induced mutation may be an effective alternative to get a novel genetic variability that might not be found in natural germplasm. Seeds of Brassica napus L. (variety ‘INRA-CZH2’) were treated with Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS), in 1, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6% doses for  6, 7 and 14 hours, and were planted to obtain the M1 plants and then the M2 plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the novel induced variability observed for some important quantitative traits and to select mutants with modified and interesting characteristics. Data were recorded on 10 random plants taken from M2 populations derived from each treatment (dose by duration), along with control plants (wild type), and were evaluated in two contrasted environments. A considerable variability was observed, and EMS treatment had a significant effect on all the traits studied. Compared to control plants, mutants coming from seeds treated with low EMS doses for moderate time, namely 1% EMS (7 hours), flowered and matured earlier and had higher number of pods per plant in both environments. In addition, they were generally more adapted than the check and the other mutants to stressful environments associated with low rainfall, high temperature and late planting at Allal Tazi location. This would explain phenotypic stability and adaptability of these mutants to the environments studied. Besides, late planting at Allal Tazi location was harmful for all the plant materials studied (check and mutants) having exhibited lower performance compared to early planting at Douyet location. Interestingly, this is the first time that a rapeseed mutant combining such desirable characteristics is obtained. This promising mutant exhibiting its stability throughout M1 and M2 generations in both the environments will be valuable and useful for fast development of adapted and agronomically superior rapeseed cultivar

1629-1636 Download
13

Genomic and evolutionary diversity of LTR retrotransposons in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)


Faisal Nouroz and Mukaramin

Genomic and evolutionary diversity of LTR retrotransposons in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)


ABSTRACT:

Of the transposable elements (TEs), the retrotransposons are the most copious elements identified from many sequenced genomes. They have played a major role in genome evolution, rearrangement and expansions based on their copy and paste mode of proliferation. They are further divided into LTR and Non-LTR retrotransposons. The purpose of the current study was to identify the LTR REs in sequenced Phoenix dactylifera genome and to study their structural diversity. A total of 150 P. dactylifera BAC sequences with >60kb sizes were randomly retrieved from NCBI database and screened for the presence of LTR retrotransposons. Seven BAC sequences showed full length LTR Retrotransposons with 4 Copia and 3 Gypsy families having variable copy numbers in respective families. Reverse transcriptase (RT) domain was found as the most conserved domain among Copia and Gypsy superfamilies and was used to deduce evolutionary analysis. The amino acid residues among various RT sequences showed variability in their percentages indicating post divergence evolution. Amino acid Leucine was found in highest proportions followed by Lysine, while Methionine and Tryptophan were in lowest percentages. The phylogenetic analysis based on RT domains confirmed that although having most conserved RT regions, several evolutionary events occurred causing nucleotide polymorphisms and hence clustering of Gypsy and Copia superfamilies into their respective lineages. The study will be helpful in identification and annotation of these elements in other species and genera and their distribution patterns on chromosomes by florescent in situ hybridization techniques. 

1637-1644 Download
14

Experimental induction of 2-(2-phenylethyl) Chromone in aerial roots of Aquilaria sinensis


Tong Zhao, Yi Zhou, Wenyue Li, Xinye Ma, Ruoting Zhan and Weiwen Chen

Experimental induction of 2-(2-phenylethyl) Chromone in aerial roots of Aquilaria sinensis


ABSTRACT:

Agarwood, the valuable spice, is the resin-containing wood formed in Aquilaria, Gonystylus and Gyrinops spp. However, it is facing the problem of wild resource depletion and insufficient artificial production. Investigation and elucidation of the induction and formation processes of the marker ingredients of agarwood, such as sesquiterpenes and chromones, is key to solving this problem. Unlike other studies that have paid more attention to the formation of sesquiterpenes in fresh wood or suspension systems, the present study focused on constructing an aeroponic cultivation system and using it for chromone induction. The experimental results showed that optimal rooting rates and amounts were obtained by cutting off the lateral roots of soil-grtown Aquilaria sinensis seedlings, treating them with 1.5g·L-1 IBA and placing them in the water aeroponic cultivation system. The lateral roots cultivated in 1.2 dS·m-1 MS medium grew vigorously and accumulated the maximum biomass. The GC/MS results showed the formation and continued enrichment of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone starting on the fifth day after treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (50 μM). Therefore, the present study primarily established an aeroponic cultivation system for aerial rooting of A. sinensis that can be used for studying chromone induction; this study also extended the experimental ability for determining how the other marker ingredients of agarwood, chromones, are generated

1645-1651 Download
15

Screening of spring wheat varieties for resistance against copper and lead uptake in a contaminated soil


Ravilya Alybayeva, Valeria Kruzhaeva, Akerke Serbayeva, Saule Atabayeva, Saltanat Asrandina and Zarina Inelova

Screening of spring wheat varieties for resistance against copper and lead uptake in a contaminated soil


ABSTRACT:

The best way to obtain clean crop products on soils polluted with heavy metals is to identify and use varieties that concentrate small amount of heavy metals in the consumed parts of plants. In this regard, varieties of spring wheat under the conditions of the East Kazakhstan region, the metallurgical center of Kazakhstan, were studied to identify metal-resistant forms that could be recommended to production and selection process. 10 zoned varieties of spring wheat were studied. The experiments were performed in the field conditions of natural pollution of the soil with copper and lead. The following was studied: content of heavy metals in the soil of the root zone and in plant seeds, the survival rate during the spring-summer growing season, the yeld and its structure. Studies have shown that copper accumulates in the seeds and its content exceeds the MPC from 1.3 to 1.8 times in almost all genotypes, except for the Kutulukskaya and Ulbinka-25 varieties. Lead also accumulates in the seeds of wheat and its content exceeds the MPC from 3 to 8 times in almost all variants, except for the varieties Erythrospermum-616 and Kutulukskaya. The Glubochanka variety has the highest survivability - 98.6%. The harvest is greatest for the Ulbinka-25, Glubochanka and Erythrospermum-616 and Altai varieties of spring wheat 300-317 g/m2. The Ulbinka-25 variety can be recommended for cultivation on soils polluted with copper, and Erythrospermum-616 variety - lead, as this variety accumulates the least of all the corresponding metal in the seeds and at the same time is characterized by high yield and good survival during the spring-summer growing season. Kutuluka variety can be recommended for cultivation on soils polluted with copper and lead.

1653-1660 Download
16

Line × tester analysis for studying various agronomic and yield related traits in field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


Atif Akram, Taj Naseeb Khan, Nasir Mahmood Minhas, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Ahsan Javed, Saba Rashid, Muhammad Jawaad Atif and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah

Line × tester analysis for studying various agronomic and yield related traits in field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Performance of nine hybrids along with six genotypes including three lines (Roma, Nagina and Continental) and three testers (Peto-86, Riograndi and Naqeeb) was studied following Line × Tester design. Variances due to treatments, parents, crosses and Line × Tester were found significant for all traits apart from clusters plant-1 in parents. Predominance of non-additive gene action was observed for all the traits excepting days to 50% flowering and maturity. Thus heterosis breeding may be rewarding for genetic enhancement of such characters. Tester’s contribution towards total variance was higher in comparison to lines. Line × tester contributed significantly in plant height, clusters plant-1, fruit length, fruit width and average fruit weight. Based on GCA effects, the tester Naqeeb and line Nagina performed better for yield and its related components. Similarly while considering SCA effects, two cross combinations viz., Riograndi × Continental and Naqeeb × Roma were perceived as potential crosses with desirable SCA values for increased yield and are recommended for further evaluation

1661-1665 Download
17

Fruit yield and quality of Dhakki date as affected by fresh and stored pollens of potential male genotypes


Muhammad Iqbal, Khalid Usman, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi and Muhammad Munir

Fruit yield and quality of Dhakki date as affected by fresh and stored pollens of potential male genotypes


ABSTRACT:

A maximum quantity of pollen grains at the time of pollination is helpful for higher fruit set and yield. But mostly, male flowers earlier than female. Male also shed their pollen immediately after spath opening, thus fresh pollens are not available at the time of pollination. Hence pollens are stored and used for pollination as Dhakki dates flower late in the season. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of fresh and stored pollens of potential male genotypes on fruit yield and quality of Dhakki date palm. Twenty Dhakki trees were pollinated with fresh and stored pollens of ten different male trees (designated as M1, M2 …M10) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Three spathes were selected on each Dhakki tree for pollination with fresh and stored pollens on the 2nd day of spath opening. The results indicated that fresh and stored pollens had a significant effect on fruit yield and quality. Fresh and stored pollens of genotype M2 induced highest fruit set (90.13 and 75.12 %), fruit weight (21.82 and 21.3 g), fruit yield (94.79 and 91.79 kg/tree), TSS (38.5 and 37.9 %), total sugar (17.8 and 17.3 %) and pollen viability (95 and 89 %), respectively. On the other hand, Fresh and stored pollens of genotype M3 brought out higher fruit weight (21.12 and 20.7 g), fruit yield (87.2 and 86.4 kg/tree), TSS (39.1 and 38.7 %) and total sugars (17.7 and 17.4 %), respectively. The results suggested that fresh and stored pollens of genotypes M2 and M3 had high potency pollens that induced higher fruit set, fruit yield and fruit quality in Dhakki date

1667-1674 Download
18

Heterotic effects for yield related attributes in F1 populations of maize


Sardar Ali, Naqib Ullah Khan, Samrin Gul, Rabia Goher, Ishrat Naz, Sher Aslam Khan, Naushad Ali, Muhammad Saeed, Ijaz Hussain, Shah Masaud Khan and Israr Ali

Heterotic effects for yield related attributes in F1 populations of maize


ABSTRACT:

Five white kernel maize inbred lines were crossed in a complete diallel fashion during spring season 2010 at Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak - Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The resulting 20 F1 hybrids, five parental inbred lines and two checks (OPV 'Jalal' and 'Pioneer hybrid 30k08') were evaluated in field experiments during summer season 2011 at four different locations i.e., Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Nowshera, University of Haripur, Haripur, Agriculture Research Station (ARS), Baffa - Mansehra, and Agriculture Research Institute, Mingora - Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. All the experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications with the objective to identify the suitable hybrid combinations on the basis of their genetic potential for commercial cultivation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A Large number of F1 hybrids revealed significant positive heterotic effects for grain yield and most of the yield contributing traits at Swat, followed by Baffa, Mansehra, Haripur and CCRI, Nowshera. Majority of the F1 hybrids revealed significant positive mid and better parent heterotic effects for ear length, grain rows per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield at all the locations. For grain yield, F1 hybrids like PSEV3 × FRHW-1 and PSEV3 × FRHW-2 at CCRI, FRHW-2 × FRHW-1 and SWAJK-1 × FRHW-1 at Haripur, FRHW-1 × SWAJK-1 at Mansehra and FRHW-2 × FRHW-3 and FRHW-1 × SWAJK-1 Mingora, Swat showed desirable and significant positive mid and better parents, economic and commercial heterosis. Therefore, these F1 hybrids could be reliably recommended for cultivation in the tested locations and their use in the future breeding programs for developing high yielding maize genotypes

1675-1686 Download
19

Genetic diversity of Symplocos paniculata of Hunan province revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)


Huifang Cao, Qiang Liu, Peiwang Li, Jingzhen Chen, Changzhu Li, Lijuan Jiang, Li Xia and Mei Chen

Genetic diversity of Symplocos paniculata of Hunan province revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)


ABSTRACT:

The natural populations’ genetic diversity of Symplocos paniculata in Hunan province was evaluated by using Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In all 122 loci were identified in 149 individual plants of six populations using nine selected ISSR primers (UBC815, UBC817, UBC824, UBC835, UBC845, UBC853, UBC862, UBC873 and UBC879) and 92.2% loci were polymorphic. Nei’s gene diversity (H) and shannon information index (I) were 0.3264 and 0.4873, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.5397. Gene flow among populations (Nm) was 0.4763. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that the genetic differentiation among S. paniculata populations was relatively high (p<0.001). The among-population component accounted for 51.1% of the total variation, while the within-population component accounted for 49.8%. Six populations were clustered into three groups by the unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average (UPGMA). The results showed that populations of Da Wei Shan A (DWSA), Da Wei Shan B (DWSB) and Xiang Xi Long Shan (XXLS) were in the first group, populations of Yue Yang Jun Shan (YYJS) and Yong Zhou Dao Xian (YZDX) were in another group, and Heng Yang Hen Shan (HYHS) population separated from all the populations in the dendrogram. The cluster results were mutually related to the geographical elevation, but not to geographical distribution.

1687-1693 Download
20

Ultrastructure, callus induction and micropropagation of Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

 

 


Dalilah Abu Bakar, Rubashiny Veeramohan, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, Noorma Wati Haron and Rosna Mat-Taha

Ultrastructure, callus induction and micropropagation of Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

 

 


ABSTRACT:

The present paper reports the ultrastructure and a protocol for the efficient in vitro callus induction and micropropagation on Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene. Foliar micromorphology study of Phyla nodiflora was investigated by JEOL-7500F Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Diacytic stomata are abundant on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Trichomes are simple unicellular and densely distributed. Callus induction and shoot regenerations were achieved through culturing leaf and stem explants after disinfecting with 70% ethanol 3 minutes, 0.1% HgCl2 for 3 minutes and 20% sodium hypochlorite for 2 minutes on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (pH5.8) supplemented with single and combinations of auxins and cytokinins, which are naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (KN). Maximum 92.5% callus response on single plant growth regulators (PGRs) is 2.5 mg/L NAA (118.6 mg/L) with light green friable callus, 90.0% response from 2.0 mg/L BA (42.7 mg/L) with green compact callus and 89.2% response from combination 3.0 mg/L NAA: 2.0 mg/L KN (165.0 mg/L) with green compact and friable callus and 2.5 mg/L IBA: 1.0 mg/L BA (139.6 mg/L) with green compact callus. Highest shoot regenerations response was from MS media without plant growth regulators (90%) while shoot regenerations from MS media supplemented with combination IAA and BA gave highest multiple shoots with 3 shoots per explants. Mass propagation of callus and plantlets protocol of Phyla nodiflora can assist for future metabolic research.

1695-1702 Download
21

Ex-situ conservation and morpho-biochemical analysis of exotic cultivars of banana


Zainy, Azhar Hussain Shah, Shazia Erum, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Jan Alam, Uzma Khan and Sohail Ahmad Jan

Ex-situ conservation and morpho-biochemical analysis of exotic cultivars of banana


ABSTRACT:

Impact of various (growth/storage) media (SM1 to SM8) on biochemical and morphological traits of three cultivars of banana has been observed in this current study (Pisange, Brazillian and William). Study was carried out using two different temperature treatments i.e. 26°C and 18°C in order to develop an effective protocol for a short term ex situ conservation. Research experiments were carried out at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during 2015. Maximum variations were observed for all of the morphological traits at a varied temperature and media concentrations. At 26°C, enhanced growth (plant height) and increased number of shoots had been observed in all cultivars, while the rate of increased number of roots was non-significant at both temperatures. After conserving the cultivars for short term of 5 months, biochemical analysis was performed. The biochemical analysis revealed the significant variations at both of the temperatures as well as on media. Brazilian cultivar (cultivar 2) substantially accumulated higher concentration of soluble sugar and proline both of provided temperatures as compared to other genotypes Cultivar 3 showed a significant increase in total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a, b (William). The overall maximum proline and contents of chlorophyll were recorded in the cultures that were incubated at 26°C and 18°C respectively. So, 18°C temperature in combination with media SM2 and SM3 is better recommendation for short-term conservation of banana cultivars ex situ while 26°C is the best recommended temperature for maximum growth

1703-1709 Download
22

Ecology of Pinus sylvestris L. forests - a case study from Istanbul (Turkey)


Volkan Altay

Ecology of Pinus sylvestris L. forests - a case study from Istanbul (Turkey)


ABSTRACT:

This study evaluates the P. sylvestris forest community in Istanbul (Turkey). It also includes some of its ecological features. The study was carried out during 2014-2017. P. sylvestris community in Istanbul generally grows on sandy and loamy soils, with moderately acidic, non-calcified, non-saline soils with high organic matter content. The soils contain low levels of phosphorus and adequate levels of potassium. The community is distributed between 50-305 m in the area studied. Tree layer dominantly consists of P. sylvestris. However, occasional existence of Quercus infectoria, Q. cerris and individual existence of Q. robur has also been identified. Although shrub layer is often common, the herbaceous layer is not well developed. The most widespread species in the shrub layer are Rosa canina, Rubus canescens, Crataegus monogyna, Quercus pubescens, Phillyrea latifolia, Erica arborea, Arbutus unedo, Osyris alba, Cistus salviifolius and Cistus creticus. The most widespread species in the herbaceous layer are Brachpodium sylvaticum, Dactylis glomerata ssp. hispanica, Inula oculus-christi and Stachys byzantinum. An examination of floristic composition of the current community in the research area has revealed that the character species of Quercetea pubencentis class. It is also represented by the species of Mediterranean origin belonging to the Quercetea ilicis and Cisto-Micromerietea classes in the shrub layer of the community.

1711-1718 Download
23

Moss coverage improves the microclimates of subalpine forests: implications of Qinghai spruce recruitment in Qilian Mountains, northwest China


Qingtao Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Yunpu Zheng, Muhammad Waseem Ashiq, Xiaoping Wang, Simeng Zhou, Yuhao Zhao, Hong Dang and Ming Xu

Moss coverage improves the microclimates of subalpine forests: implications of Qinghai spruce recruitment in Qilian Mountains, northwest China


ABSTRACT:

Understanding the mechanisms of moss affecting the understory microclimates may further shed lights on forest recruitment, which is closely associated with hydrological and ecological processes of forest ecosystems. We conducted a one-year field experiment to examine the effects of moss thickness on understory microclimates including ground surface temperature (GST), ground surface moisture (GSM), soil temperature (ST), and soil moisture (SM) in a Picea crassifolia forest of Qilian Mountains, northwest China. We found that moss coverage substantially reduced the fluctuation amplitudes of microclimates (p<0.01), as evidenced by the slower diurnal changes in GST, GSM, ST, and SM of moss-covered soil than those of bare soil. Moreover, our results also showed that moss coverage obviously increased GST and ST in winter (December 2014), whereas significantly decreased GST and ST in summer (June 2015). Comparing with bare soil, thick-moss coverage decreased the average annual GST and ST by 0.55°C and 0.62°C, respectively. However, moss coverage significantly increased the annual GSM and SM (p<0.01), especially the SM of thin-moss coverage was increased much higher than that of thick-moss coverage and bare soil. In addition, moss coverage may also prevent heat flux from air to soil surface because the light radiation was exponentially declined from the upper moss canopy to soil with the increase of moss depths. These results suggested that moss coverage may promote the microclimates of the forest understory with heat insulation and water holding, and thus facilitate the P. crassifolia germination and recruitment through changing the hydrological and ecological processes of subalpine forests.

1719-1735 Download
24

Profile of plant species in the tropical dry forest of Tolima (Colombia) exhibiting anthelmintic activity in sheep


Nestor J. Romero Jola and Natalia Escobar Escobar

Profile of plant species in the tropical dry forest of Tolima (Colombia) exhibiting anthelmintic activity in sheep


ABSTRACT:

Phytotherapy is an area of growing scientific interest. Studies on anthelmintic bioactivity of plant species provide new alternatives to face problems such as gastrointestinal parasitism, resistance to synthetic chemical products, environmental impact, and residual activity in products of animal origin. To know the chemical profile of plants in the tropical dry forest (TDF) of Tolima with anthelmintic activity in sheep, a systematic study based on the document "The Tropical Dry Forest in Colombia", which includes 2569 plant species among native, naturalized, and exotic plants from Tolima, was conducted. By using the SCOPUS database, the academic Google search engine, and Microsoft Office 2010 Excel, each species was designated with the same criterion to identify those with anthelmintic activity and qualitative phytochemical content; then, the groups with the highest analysis were identified, and the species with simultaneous analysis were selected from the 3 chemical groups with the highest frequency, and the weight gain AND sheep search criteria was applied to the resulting group. 45 native, 6 naturalized, and 20 exotic species with anthelmintic activity were found. The Fabaceae (13 species), Amaranthaceae (4 species), Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Malvaceae (3 species each) families stand out. The three chemical groups with the high LEVELS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS were tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids, and at a medium level saponins, steroids, and terpenoids. Simultaneous content of tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids was found in 19 native, 3 naturalized, and 12 exotic species, 5 of which present scientific report of use in sheep feed

1737-1744 Download
25

Adaptability, agronomic and yield performance of exotic olive (Olea europaea) cultivars in Pothwar region of Pakistan


Muhammad Azhar Iqbal, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz, Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

Adaptability, agronomic and yield performance of exotic olive (Olea europaea) cultivars in Pothwar region of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

This study was conducted under arid sub-tropical conditions of Pothwar region to evaluate the adaptability of eighteen olive cultivars and selection of suitable genotypes on the basis of fruit yield and oil production. Longest period for pollen donation was observed in olive cultivars Ottobratica, Frantoio, and Hamdi. The shortest pollen production or dissemination time was observed in the cultivars Azerbaijan and Nocellera. Tree canopy, staminate flower, number of flowers per twig, initial and final fruit set percentage, number of shot berries and yield per plant depicted highly significant variation among the cultivars. However, leaf size, pistillate flower, fruit size, fruit weight and oil recovery percentage showed less variation among the cultivars. Final fruit set percentage showed the greatest variability among all the traits in different cultivars. According to the results of study, five olive cultivars including Coratina, Gemlik, Moraiolo, Nabali and Hamdi were found most suitable for oil and fruit yield under the climatic condition of Pothwar region of Pakistan.

1745-1751 Download
26

Major nutrient fluxes and water use efficiency of winter vegetables under peri-urban farming of north-western Punjab, Pakistan


Shoaib Ur Rehman

Major nutrient fluxes and water use efficiency of winter vegetables under peri-urban farming of north-western Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Major nutrient fluxes in urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) under semi-arid conditions in north-west of Pakistan are not fully known. To envisage it, a field study was carried out in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three fertilizers treatments (an unfertilized Control, F0; farm yard manure, FYM (F1) at 14.2 t dry matter (DM) ha-1 containing 108 kg Nitrogen (N), 27kg Phosphorus (P) and a mineral fertilizer treatment (F2) containing the same amount of N and P as in F1 were established during 2011-12. Fertilizer treatments were factorally combined with two irrigation levels i.e. RI; recommended irrigation when irrigation was applied weekly and HRI; half than recommended irrigation where irrigation was applied fortnightly. Subplots randomized within each main plot were assigned to either of the two vegetable species pea (Pisum sativum L.), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.). Highest crop dry matter yields (p>0.05) were recorded for pea (12 t ha-1) under F2 and lowest for cauliflower in RI (6.2 t ha-1) under F1 treatment, respectively. Dry matter yields of both crops were reduced to 11-18% by reducing applying half of the HRI presumably due to water stress. Contrarily, water use efficiencies of both crops were significantly (32-36%) higher under HRI treatment than under RI. Apparent nutrient use efficiencies for C, N, P and K varied widely ranged from 27- 34%. However partial nutrient balances of major nutrients specially for K, remained negative. These results indicate large K mining in the soil which required proper balancing

1753-1759 Download
27

Weed management and herbicide resistant weeds: a case study from wheat growing areas of Pakistan


Saima Hashim, Asad Jan, Shah Fahad, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Karim Bux Laghari, Khawar Jabran and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

Weed management and herbicide resistant weeds: a case study from wheat growing areas of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is among the serious challenges that agriculture face today. In Pakistan herbicide use over last 6 decades has enabled earlier planting of short-season crops and improved weed control in wheat as well as other cropping systems. This has greatly favored the use of more and more herbicides. Conversely, this exercise increased the evolution of resistant biotypes. Wheat being Pakistan’s number one staple crop faces daunting weeds problem. In order to understand the status of herbicide resistant weeds in wheat fields, survey was conducted for two consecutive years (2015-2017) in different regions of Pakistan. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from three hundred farmers randomly selected in all four provinces of Pakistan on herbicides used in wheat, history of crop cultivation regimes and weed species that have seized to respond to field rates of herbicides. Seed of suspected biotypes were collected from the survey sites and preserved in our gene pool for the confirmation of the resistance in the laboratory by bioassay and molecular level in future. Farmers (96%) perceived that Phalaris minor Retz. was the most important annual weed of wheat crop followed by Avena fatua L. (94%). Customarily, three aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicides, clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and diclofop-methyl were used to control different grass weeds such as P. minor, A. sativa L. and A. fatua. In farmers’ opinion, high yield of wheat was associated with the continuous use of these herbicides. Resistance-suspicious weeds were reported from all studied areas (Punjab, KPK, Sindh, and Baluchistan provinces) in fields with the herbicide use history of five to seven years or more. This study suggests that for long-term avoidance of herbicide resistance, in our wheat growing systems we will require embracing practices that decrease selection pressures favoring resistant weeds. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the evolution and dynamics of resistant populations. It is recommended that for the effective management of resistant populations of P. minor and A. fatua, farmers' education on ecologically sustainable weed management is critically important. This study will provide a basis for examining the questions that are relevant to understanding herbicide resistance evolution in Pakistan and that may help determine appropriate weed management strategies.

1761-1767 Download
28

Study of trace elements in fruits of dates at Turbat-Punjgur region of Balochistan with reference to medicinal and environmental pollution


Asif Khan, Manzoor Iqbal Khattak, Rukhsana Jabeen, Saadullah Khan Laghari and Yasir Arafat

Study of trace elements in fruits of dates at Turbat-Punjgur region of Balochistan with reference to medicinal and environmental pollution


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this paper is to present the status of Dates in Balochistan and the determination of the level of heavy elements (B, Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) in fruits of dates. Date is one of the best fruit crop of Pakistan. Dates are grown on an area of 23.880 acres in Pakistan, with an annual production of 7121,200 tonnes in 2011-12. Most of the dates produced in Pakistan are grown in the provinces of Balochistan and Sindh. Dates grown in Pakistan have a strong demand in the domestic and international markets. The organic dates can be easily grown in Pakistan. To increase the size of exports of organic dates on the international market our farmers to follow biological standards. These criteria safeguard all features of diet making from physical benefit (medicinally) and preservation of wildlife for diet dealing out and wrapping. These were performed to investigation were performed to evaluate the level of heavy elements (B, Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn), in which most of the trace elements were in small quantities excluding for Fe, Ni and Zn that they might be formed in rock and underground water materials. However, the stage and the choosiness of the plants can play an important role in absorbing elements can be useful as medicinal and as protection of Environmental Pollution.

1769-1774 Download
29

Performance and oil quality of seven olive cultivars under high density planting system in northern Cyprus


Serhat Usanmaz, Ibrahim Kahramanoglu, Turgut Alas and Volkan Okatan

Performance and oil quality of seven olive cultivars under high density planting system in northern Cyprus


ABSTRACT:

Olives (Olea europea L.) play an important role in the Mediterranean agriculture where olive oil is the fundamental fat supply in the Mediterranean diet. Olive tree has been found within the habitats of Cyprus for a long time but, most of the olive cultivars are wild with low yield and low quality. High-density plantations are key factor for improving olive tree productivity and selection of the appropriate cultivar is crucial. The aim of current study was to test the performance and oil quality of five commercial clones cv. ‘Arbequina’, cv. ‘Arbosana’, cv. ‘Sikitita’, cv. Koroneiki and cv. ‘Tosca’ grown in high-density systems in Northern Cyprus in comparison with two local cultivars cv. ‘Kato Drys’ and cv. ‘Klirou’. The experimental studies were conducted in Guzelyurt in Northern Cyprus during 5 sequential crop years from 2013 (2nd growing year) to 2017 (6th growing year). Seedlings of commercial clones were planted with a pattern of 4 x 2 m (1250 trees ha-1) and local cultivars with a pattern of 5 x 5 m (400 trees ha-1). Results indicated that Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki are the most precocious cultivars which bore fruits in the second year after planting and had the highest cumulative olive and olive oil yield in 6 successive growing seasons. However, Arbequina cultivar was also found to have higher free fatty acid contents (% oleic acid) than the IOC limit (0.8% oleic acid) for extra virgin olive oil.

 

1775-1781 Download
30

Effects of environmental factors on the population genetic diversity in the Chinese endangered and endemic medicinal plant Notopterygium incisum


Yang Lucun, Lu Guangxin, Zhao Yuhong and Zhou Guoying

Effects of environmental factors on the population genetic diversity in the Chinese endangered and endemic medicinal plant Notopterygium incisum


ABSTRACT:

Correlation between environmental factors and genetic diversity of 23 populations throughout the distribution range of Notopterygium incisum was examined using nuclear internal transcribed spacer gene fragment (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) rpl20-rps12 intergenic spacer. A total of 635 nucleotides of ITS were sequenced from 343 individuals. 26 haplotypes were defined by 26 variable sites. A total of 772 nucleotides of rpl20-rps12were sequenced from 253 individuals. 30 haplotypes were defined by 26 variable sites. Based on cpDNA rpl20-rps12 region, the correlations between the haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and environmental factors were all non-significant. However, based on ITS sequences, a significant positive relationship was observed between haplotype diversity and ammonium nitrogen, annual average rainfall and elevation, as well as between nucleotide diversity and ammonium nitrogen and annual average rainfall. Synchronously, significant negative relationships were observed between haplotype diversity and latitude and variation coefficient of rainfall, as well as between nucleotide diversity and latitude. Latitude, elevation, annual average rainfall, variation coefficient of rainfall and ammonium nitrogen were the dominant factors that influenced the genetic diversity of N. incisum. The genetic diversity of N. incisum tended to increase in the environment with lower latitude, more rainfall, more ammonium nitrogen, higher elevation and a more stable climate

1783-1791 Download
31

Microstructural features of achene of sibbaldia species (Rosaceae)


Syeda Saleha Tahir, Muhammad Tahir Rajput, Abdul Latif Khokhar and Nasiruddin Shaikh

Microstructural features of achene of sibbaldia species (Rosaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Achene of Sibbaldia species, exhibits a significant micro-morphological diversity, which can be used as an important taxonomic tool for their identification. The shape, size and ornamentation on the surface of Achene of 9 species of Sibbaldia were examined by using the SEM. Achene’s are mostly obovoid, narrow obovoid, globular obovoid, with the range of variation reniform to orbicular. Mostly brown in colour, size ranges from 05 mm to 02.00 mm long, 04mm to 1.20 mm broad. Mircostructural features of achences of S. micropetala are different from all other species of Sibbaldia and thus its placement is questioned in genus Sibbaldia of family Rosaceae

1793-1796 Download
32

Reproductive and pollination biology of Sorbus alnifolia, an ornamental species


Linjun Yao, Yin Zhang, Keliang Zhang and Jun Tao

Reproductive and pollination biology of Sorbus alnifolia, an ornamental species


ABSTRACT:

Sorbus alnifolia (Rosaceae) is grown as an ornamental and as a fruit tree, but has low fruit set rate. Wood from S. alnifolia is used in making equipment, vehicles, and models. Knowledge of its pollination biology may prove useful in solving the problem of low fruit set, but is still lacking. The present study investigated the pollination biology of Sorbus alnifolia in temperate montane forests of eastern China, including aspects of morphology, floral biology, the reproductive system, flower-visitor observations, and an analysis of the pollen ovule ratio. The flowers are sequentially hermaphrodite and protogynous. Pollen and stigmas have a dynamic overlapping period of fertility of at least 3 d. Flowers of this species can set fruit via natural pollination (23.5%), artificial self-pollination (8.63%), and artificial cross-pollination (27.41%) and apomixis has not been observed (0%). The main pollinators were insects of the families Nymphalidae, Apidae and Tenthredinidae. Although S. alnifolia is adapted to insect pollination, it readily sets fruit via autogamy when no insect visits occur; this can be supported by artificial self-pollination as an adaptive strategy for reproduction under unfavorable environmental conditions. In rainy days, both pollen viability and insect activity decreased significantly. Hand pollination is recommended and could significantly increase fruit set thereby solving the problem of low fruit set in S. alnifolia. The information gained from this study should provide a useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for this species.

1797-1802 Download
33

Morphology and structure of starch granules in storage root of purple sweet potato


Hongmei Zhu, Meng Zhao, Xiaodan Su, Meijun Zhu and Gang Gao

Morphology and structure of starch granules in storage root of purple sweet potato


ABSTRACT:

The microstructure and formation process of starch granule in purple sweet potato tube were examined by light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in this study. The results showed that the proliferation of division activities of amyloplasts was followed by massive accumulation of amyloplasts in cells. The amyloplasts then produced several eccentric starch granules, and the structure of binary and tetrad starch granules was evident upon imaging by LM, TEM, and SEM. In the original formation of starch granule, there were no absolute crystals aggregated. Some blocklet crystals gradually appeared in the starch granules as numerous ‘microgranules’ were tightly connected into the chain, containing the double helix of amylopectin. Many ‘microgranules’ were observed on the exterior surface of the starch granule and formed multiple concentric shells which increased the diameter of starch. 

1803-1808 Download
34

Pollen morphology of the genus Pedicularis L. Orobanchaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir and its taxonomic implications


Muhammad Qaiser and Anjum Perveen

Pollen morphology of the genus Pedicularis L. Orobanchaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir and its taxonomic implications


ABSTRACT:

Pollen morphology of 22 species of the genus Pedicularis L. belonging to 11 series from Pakistan and Kashmir was examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Out of 22 species, pollen of 16 species were examined for the first time, of which 6 species were endemic to the area under consideration. The genus Pedicularis is a ± eurypalynous taxon. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tri-syncolpate and bi-syncolpate, prolate-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal, sub-prolate rarely prolate. Sexine is slightly thicker than nexine or as thick as nexine. Tectum is quite variable, ranging from psilate to fine-medium scabrate-punctate or micro-foveolate-rugulate. On the basis of exine ornamentation four distinct pollen types viz., Pedicularis albida-type, Pedicularis oederi-type, Pedicularis bicornuta-type, and Pedicularis roylei-type were recognized. Little correlation was found between the infrageneric classification and the pollen type. Species belonging to one series (an infrageneric category) may fall in different pollen types or vice versa. However, pollen morphology was significantly helpful at specific level within each pollen type. A strong correlation was found between the aperture configuration and corolla type but without any correlation between the pollen type and the corolla type

1809-1818 Download
35

Standing stock of seaweeds in submerged habitats along the Karachi Coast, Pakistan: an alternative source of livelihood for coastal communities


Amjad Ali, Saad Malik, Arjumand Z. Zaidi, Naveed Ahmad, Seema Shafique, Muhammad Nouman Aftab and K. Aisha

Standing stock of seaweeds in submerged habitats along the Karachi Coast, Pakistan: an alternative source of livelihood for coastal communities


ABSTRACT:

Seaweeds are widely used as an alternate source of livelihood for coastal communities in different countries. Submerged habitats with nutrient-rich coastal waters along the Pakistan coast have rich algal stocks. With few exceptions, studies on seaweeds in Pakistan are mostly confined to intertidal areas. We have conducted preliminary surveys at Buleji, along the Karachi coast to access existing standing stocks of seaweeds. Samples were collected by SCUBA diving. Relative species abundances were determined using quadrat techniques. Overall, 17 species of macroalgae were recorded belonging to 2 major groups (Phaeophyceae 12, Rhodophyceae 5) and 6 families. Except diving site 6, the communities were dominated by Sargassum species. The majority of the recorded species had wide distribution ranges. Distribution patterns were mainly controlled by habitat type, depth, oceanographic conditions, and the nature of the sites. Many of the recorded species are commercially important. It is expected that further underwater surveys will help in exploring more algal beds along this coastline. A sustainable use of this algal biomass can provide an alternative source of income for coastal communities. Moreover, Pakistan has a long coastline with different geomorphic features; in this regard seaweed aquaculture in coastal areas especially near big cities can insert positive ecological impacts on coastal ecosystems as well as on the economic conditions of the coastal communities.

1819-1830 Download
36

Description of community types from different habitats around Karachi, Pakistan


Fariha Naz, Moinuddin Ahmed and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui

Description of community types from different habitats around Karachi, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Phytosociological sampling was conducted at six different habitats around Karachi using quadrat method. On the basis of floristic composition and dominant species, 17 community types were recognized. Maximum water  holding capacity, organic matters, CaCO3, pH, TDS, salinity and conductivity of soils belong to each stand were determined. Each habitat showed different values of water holding capacity, salinity and CaCO3. Highest (44%) water holding capacity, organic matter (9%) and salinity (8.23ppm) was recorded from Tidal zone with gradual decrease in saline waterlogged area, alluvial plain to rocky plain. Highest amount of CaCO3 was recorded from rocky area. It is shown that alluvial plain to dry stream similar floristic composition i.e. Euphorbia caducifolia- Commiphora wightii- Prosopis juliflora, with Capparis decidua, Ziziphus nummularia were recorded in many sites. Stands belonged to different habitats were clearly separated out on two dimentional Bray-Curtis stand ordination. All the three ordination axes showed significant correlations with many edaphic factors. Salinity and electrical conductivity showed highly significant correlation with axes 1 and 3. Once widely distributed climatic climax species Prosopis cineraria was recorded in a few places with low Importance value index. It is concluded that due to anthropogenic disturbances and aggressive growth of Prosopis juliflora, natural vegetation has altered considerably.

1831-1838 Download
37

Multi-strain bacterial inoculation of Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia ficaria and Burkholderia phytofirmans with fertilizers for enhancing resistance in wheat against salinity stress


Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Niaz Muhammad Hussain, Subhan Danish, Umar Aslam and Zahir Ahmad Zahir

Multi-strain bacterial inoculation of Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia ficaria and Burkholderia phytofirmans with fertilizers for enhancing resistance in wheat against salinity stress


ABSTRACT:

Development of improved crop production technologies having less or no harmful effects on environment, has become centre to mitigate salinity stress. Soil salinity hampers crops productivity by elevation of ethylene level in plants which can be decreased by activity of ACC deaminase. Despite reduction of salinity stress produced ethylene by inoculation of single strain ACC deaminase producing PGPR, multistrains inoculation with inorganic fertilizer could be more effective. So far, single-strain seed inoculation with ACC deaminase producing PGPR to improve crop growth under stress conditions has been widely investigated. However, the current study was conducted to examine the efficacious role of multi-strain PGPR inoculation in the presence of recommended mineral fertilizer (RNPKF) on wheat growth under artificially induced salinity stress. The multi-strain PGPR, Enterobacter cloacae (W6), Serratia ficaria (W10) and Burkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN) with mineral fertilizers significantly increased root (40%) and spike length (54%), root (65%) and shoot (63%) dry weight in wheat as compared to control and even single-strain inoculation. A significant improvement in straw (0.96-fold), economic (1.69-fold), biological yields (1.20-fold), phosphorus concentration in grain (1.43-fold) and shoot (1.75-fold) as compared to control validated the use of multi strain inoculation with mineral fertilizers, as an effective and environmentally safe technique to improve resistance to wheat plants against salinity

1839-1846 Download
38

Successful callogenesis from leaf and petiole of Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb and antibacterial activity of callus extracts


Inham Ul Haq, Ghazal Khurshid, Anum Zeb Abbasi, Ismat Nawaz, Tatheer Naqvi, Muhammad Arfan, Mohammad Maroof Shah, Bilal Ahmed Zafar Amin, Jamshaid Hussain, Muhammad Arif Ali, Shafiq Ur Rehman and Raza Ahmad

Successful callogenesis from leaf and petiole of Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb and antibacterial activity of callus extracts


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants have been used for centuries to prevent and treat different health disorders. Bergenia ciliata is native to Himalayas and is used traditionally as an antipyretic, an astringent, diuretic and for dissolving kidney and bladder stones. Due to the medicinal value of B. ciliata, it has been over-exploited leading to be classified an an endangered species. The current study was designed to see B. ciliata response to tissue culturing specifically to callus formation and antibacterial activity of callus extracts. Callus inducing media was supplemented with 2, 4-D and Kinetin. Visible signs of callus formation on cut edges of explants were observed after 13 and 14 days of culturing and leaf showed 95% while petiole depicted 88% callus induction, respectively. Highest dry weight of callus was obtained from petioles (0.61 mg), which was 12% higher than that of dry weight of callus produced by leaf explants on same medium. The ethanolic extract of both petiole and petiole-derived callus demonstrated promising antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacterial strains. The results suggested that callus from valuable medicinal plants can provide a way to produce essential metabolites and help in the conservation of the natural population of endangered plants. In future, evaluating biochemical composition of callus and plants extracts will enable us to find new dimensions to get maximum benefits from in-vitro technique.

1847-1852 Download
39

Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from A. jacquemontii extract, their characterization and antimicrobial potential


Madiha Iqbal and Jehan Bakht

Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from A. jacquemontii extract, their characterization and antimicrobial potential


ABSTRACT:

The present study investigates synthesis of silver nano-particles from the methanolic extract of A. jacquemontiitubers. Based on visual monitoring of color change from colorless / very light yellow to brown/yellowish brown indicated Ag-metal reduction and synthesis of AgNPs. UV-vis Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that solution containing 1:5 ratios (1ml AgNO3 solution and 5ml extract) produced maximum amount of stableAgNPs. AgNPs were most stable at 1mM NaCl, comparatively moderate stable at 0.5M NaCl and relatively least stable at 1M NaCl concentration. The AgNPs samples heated up to 80-100°C temperature were less stable than the AgNPs collected at 20-40°C temperature range thus suggesting higher stability of AgNPs at lower temperatures. XRD studies revealed that synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature with 14.12 nm average size. FTIR analysis suggested the possible involvement of alkenes, ethers and carboxylic acid / phenol functional groups containing compounds in the reduction and capping of Ag-metal and AgNPs. Antimicrobial potential of silver NPs indicated that P. aeruginosa was highly susceptible while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant microbe. E. coli, C. albicans, S. aureus and X. campestris showed moderate sensitivity to AgNPs.

1853-1857 Download
40

Pharmacognostic evaluation and instrumental analysis (SEM) for the standardization of Piper nigrum L., (black pepper) fruit


Najma Shaheen, Shahlla Imam, Rafi Akhter Sultan, Safia Abidi, Iqbal Azhar and Zafar Alam Mahmood

Pharmacognostic evaluation and instrumental analysis (SEM) for the standardization of Piper nigrum L., (black pepper) fruit


ABSTRACT:

Piper nigrum, commonly known as “black pepper” has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of various ailments i.e., cold, flu, fever, headaches, nasal congestion, improves digestive health, and enhances brain health. Piperine is an active constituent having various pharmacological properties such as anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic, and diuretic etc. The present study was aimed to assess the pharmacognostic characters and standardize the Piper nigrum fruit for identification, and authentication. Macro-microscopic characterization and heavy metal profile (trace elements) were determined using standard analytical methods. The macroscopic study revealed the blackish to brown color seed, aromatic odor, pungent taste and almost globular shaped with wrinkled surface, while powder microscopic analysis indicated the presence of tissue such as perisperm, epicarp, stone cells, and sclereids cells etc. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the sample showed the presence of micro particles. While energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDAX) showed the C, O, K, Mg, Ca, and Cl elements. These specific identities will be useful in authentication and standardization of the crude drug as well as to control the adulterations and differentiate the different varieties of black pepper drug

1859-1863 Download
41

Screening of maize genotypes under northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) epiphtotic at Rawlakot Azad Kashmir


Tahsin Razzaq, Muhammad Fareed Khan, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Huma Tariq and Muhammad Ilyas

Screening of maize genotypes under northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) epiphtotic at Rawlakot Azad Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is most devastating maize foliar disease in Himalayan region of the world, caused by fungus Exerohillum turcicum. The present investigations were carried out to screen the 30 maize genotypes against NCLB under agro-climatic field conditions of Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir-Pakistan. Artificial inoculation was done at four to six leaf stages during spring 2017. The disease severity of maize genotypes was assessed using 0-5 points scale. Data were recorded on number of lesions on leaf, lesion length, number of infected leaf, number of infected plants, percentage leaf infection, percentage plant infection, disease severity, disease index, disease incidence and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC). Genotypes had significant differences for NCLB severity and reactions and were classified into resistant, highly resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible categories. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60%, disease index (20-66%), disease intensity (16-34%) and area under disease progressive curve was 22-362%-dsu (percentage development stage unit). Based on disease rating scale and pathological traits, it was reported that three genotypes i.e., Karamat-Bar-25, SZP-13200 and NCEV-1530-11 had lowest values for all pathological traits and severity rating of 5R, 5R and 10R respectively and marked as highly resistant (R) genotypes, whereas three genotypes viz., Soan-3, Ghuari-122 and Kissan-60 were evaluated as highly susceptible (S) within germplasm and had highest values for all pathological traits and severity rating of 90S, 90S and 80S respectively. Fourteen genotypes were moderately resistant (MR), 10 were moderately susceptible (MS) under field conditions. Results suggested that the genotypes found resistant to leaf blight might be utilized in future breeding program. Alternatively, the said promising genotypes might also be used as parents in hybridization in order to transfer the gene for resistance to early blight to existing adapted high yielding cultivars

1865-1875 Download
42

Bio-efficacy of Trichoderma isolates and Bacillus subtilis against root rot of muskmelon Cucumis melo L. caused by Phytophthora drechsleri under controlled and field conditions


Muhammad Zohaib Anjum, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Imtiaz Hussain

Bio-efficacy of Trichoderma isolates and Bacillus subtilis against root rot of muskmelon Cucumis melo L. caused by Phytophthora drechsleri under controlled and field conditions


ABSTRACT:

Root rot of muskmelon caused by Phytophthora drechsleri (Tucker) is considered the most important disease limiting muskmelon production in Pakistan. In this study, three molecularly characterized isolates of Trichoderma (T. harzianum HK, T. harzianum HM, T. asperellum TH) and phenotypically characterized isolate of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated against P. drechsleri under laboratory conditions. The different antagonism assays such as, dual culturing, non-volatile, volatile metabolites and field conditions were tested. The results showed that all tested isolates of Trichoderma and Bacillus subtilis significantly (p<0.001) inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen. In all dual cultures, T. asperellum TH showed maximum mycelial inhibition followed by T. harzianum HK, T. harzianum HM and Bacillus subtilis. Non-volatile metabolites were more effective against pathogens than volatile metabolites. Under field conditions, percent disease incidence was decreased while percent plant survival, dry root and shoot weight significantly (p<0.001) were increased by the application of To (combination of all tested Trichoderma isolates and B. subtilis) followed by T. asperellum TH during both growing seasons. It is suggested that bio-control agents can be used for the sustainable management of root rot of muskmelon. (Cucumis melo L.)

1877-1882 Download
43

Effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on soil microbial population and growth parameters of F1 Mongal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.)


Yunita P. Arjune, A. A. Ansari, Sirpaul Jaikishun and Oudho Homenauth

Effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on soil microbial population and growth parameters of F1 Mongal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.)


ABSTRACT:

This study aims to investigate the effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on the growth of F1 Mongal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.). The treatments used were vermicompost (T1), promix (T2), 189 components (T3) and a combination of 189 and vermicompost (T4). The study showed that in T1 there was maximum increase in Azotobacter count (7.04%) whereas T3 was better in terms of Nitrosomonas (111.72%) in soil medium used for cultivation. Increase in plant height was maximum in T1 (1217.28%) followed by T2 whereas greater increase in number of leaves was recorded for T1 (2387.9%) followed by T3 which was statistically significant based ANOVA. Vermicompost (T1) was highly effective in influencing plant growth and fruit parameters than the other treatments based on rank analysis of all the parameters

1883-1889 Download
44

Chemical control of whip smut of sugarcane caused by Sporisorium scitamineum


Muhammad Aslam Rajput, Rehana Naz Syed, Muhammad Ali Khanzada, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Fahad Nazir Khoso and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi

Chemical control of whip smut of sugarcane caused by Sporisorium scitamineum


ABSTRACT:

Whip smut of sugarcane is considered as the most important disease of sugarcane and occurrs in almost all sugarcane producing regions of the world, including Pakistan. In many cases, the use of the chemical fungicides becomes indispensable to combat destructive plant diseases, which otherwise cause heavy economical losses. Fungicides not only eradicate smut from the planting material, but also prevent re-infection when they are used as a pre-plant treatment of setts. During the present investigation, setts are inoculated with teliospores suspension of Ustilago scitaminea and treated with eleven different fungicides. Pre-inoculated setts are dipped for 30 minutes in hot fungicide solution, ambient fungicide solution. Hot and ambient water without fungicides serves as control. Most of the fungicide treatments significantly improved sett germination and check the smut development. For most of the quantitative and qualitative parameters, Bayleton, Bavistan and Tilt provide better results, as compared to the other fungicides. Based on the results we conclude that the effectiveness of fungicides increase more when applied as hot water fungicidal dip than ambient fungicidal dip.

1891-1897 Download
45

Molecular diagnosis of begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of Urena lobata


Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Md. Abdul Ilah, Ihsanullah Daur and Azamal Husen

Molecular diagnosis of begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of Urena lobata


ABSTRACT:

Urena lobata L. is a commonly growing weed usually called as Caesar Weed, or Congo Jute. A begomoviral suspected disease was observed on many Urena lobata plants. The begomoviral association was confirmed by applying coat protein gene as well as betasatellites primers. The full length and betasatellites molecules were cloned and sequenced. The total sequence had 2742 nt in full length while betasatellites had 1340 nt. The analysis of full-length sequenses revealed the highest identities (99.8%) with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus-Okra from Tamil Nadu (FJ176236). The betasatellites sequences had identity (92.8%) with MYVMB-Aurangabad-Okra (GU111977) followed BYVMB-Okra isolates from Raichur (92.7%) as well as Varanasi (92.3%). The phylogenetic analysis of full genome showed the closest relationship with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus isolates from Tamil Nadu as well as New Delhi. The full betasatellites molecule clustered with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellites isolates from Coimbatore, Raichur, Aurangabad and Varanasi. Based on the results generated, the begomovirus causing disease of U. lobata was identified as a variant of BYVMV in India.

1899-1906 Download
46

Global Himalaya plant research trend and performance in science citation index from 1998 to 2017


Da-Cheng Hao, Xue Yuan, Yan-Hong Di and Pei-Gen Xiao

Global Himalaya plant research trend and performance in science citation index from 1998 to 2017


ABSTRACT:

Himalaya plants have essential ecological implications and are frequently used by local tribes for various purposes, many of which are traditionally used to cure various ailments in humans and livestock. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the global scientific production of Himalaya plant research, study the characteristics of Himalaya plant research activities, and identify patterns, tendencies, and regularities of related articles. Data were based on the online version of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded), from the Web of Science database. Articles referring to Himalaya plant were assessed by the trend of publication output during 1998 to 2017. Globally, 2,471 papers were published during the 20-year study period. The most productive countries, institutions, Web of Science subject categories, and journals, as well as the most cited articles, were identified. The mainstream research on Himalaya plant was in the plant sciences, ecology, environmental sciences, pharmacology and pharmacy. India, China, USA, and Pakistan held the majority of total world production. Research on the species diversity and conservation, medicinal plants, and ethnobotany remained the hotspot during the 20-year study period, whereas that on the related topic “climate change” increased dramatically since 2009. CONCLUSION: With synthetic analysis of word in article title, author keyword, abstract, and Key Words Plus Key Words Plus, it can be concluded that application of compounds derived from Himalaya plants in clinical medicine, pharmacology and oncology, and research related to chemistry, genetics, and microbiology is the ongoing Himalaya plant research in the 21st century. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Himalaya plants and their associated microbes.

1907-1916 Download
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