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Year 2020 , Volume  52, Issue 2
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1

Role of sugars, amino acids and organic acids in improving plants abiotic stress tolerance


Naeem Khan, Shahid Ali, Peiman Zandi, Asif Mehmood, Shariat Ullah, Muhammad Ikram, Ismail, Mohammad Adnan Shahid and Md Ali Babar

Role of sugars, amino acids and organic acids in improving plants abiotic stress tolerance


ABSTRACT:

Plant growth and development are affected by many environmental factors. Among them, abiotic factors such as drought and salinity are more destructive; and responsible for worldwide crop losses. These stresses are also responsible for several biochemical and physiological changes in the plants. During metabolomic profiling, it was confirmed that sugars, amino acids and amines are accumulated in different plant species under abiotic stress condition. In most plant species, sugars are considered as the major contributing factor in osmotic adjustment. Soluble sugars are very important in various metabolic events, work as a signal to regulate different gene expression that are involved in photosynthesis, osmolyte synthesis and sucrose metabolism. It was suggested that the accretion of amino acids helps in stress tolerance of plants; through contributing in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, regulation of pH and osmotic adjustments. Among all organic acids, especially succinic, malic and galacturonic acids increase the plant response to long-term drought stress. Amphoteric quaternary amines such as glycine betaine regulate water balance between a plant cell and the environment by stabilizing macromolecular structure and activity. Metabolomic analysis of sugars, amino acids and organic acids is an important tool to correlate the metabolic changes with plant responses. This review aims to explore how sugars, amino acids and organic acids assist plants under severe environmental conditions and alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stresses

355-363 Download
2

Physiological and biochemical response of wheat genotypes under temperature stress


Saquib Hussain, Qamaruddin Chachar, M. Ibrahim Keerio and M. Ubaid Ullah Shirazi

Physiological and biochemical response of wheat genotypes under temperature stress


ABSTRACT:

This paper focuses on the evaluation and performance of newly developed wheat genotypes (DH-7, DH-8, DH-11, DH-12, DH-18, DH-20)along with two local check varieties (Lu-26s and Kiran-95) under three different sowings at various dates viz. November 07 (optimum condition), November 27 (heat stress condition) and December 17 (high heat stress condition) under wire gauze house during 2014-15. All the genotypes showing sensitive, tolerant, medium sensitive, medium tolerant responses to heat stress conditions were selected for various physiological and biochemical plant characters (osmotic pressure, proline, Glycine betain, Sugar, Sodium, Potassium, K/Na ratio, Leaf area, Chlorophyll-a, Chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, cell membrane stability and grain yield) with the objective to determine their impact on the grain yield. All the physio-chemical plant characters revealed significant variation among genotypes and temperature conditions in their interactions and means. Heat stress conditions showed significant increase in osmotic pressure, proline, glycine betain, sugar, sodium and cell membrane stability and significant decrease in potassium, K/Na ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and grain yield over optimum condition. Osmotic pressure, proline and glycine betain showed negative and non-significant correlation with the grain yield whereas sodium and cell membrane stability had negative and significant effect on the grain yield. The overall investigations showed that potassium, K/Na ratio, leaf area, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total chlorophyll displayed positive and significant correlation with the grain yield. Multiple linear regression analyses of variance revealed that potassium contents in the leaves have highest impact i.e. 25.5 percent in grain yield change followed by proline, sodium and glycine betain contents showing 16.0, 13.7 and 13.2 percent impact on yield fluctuation. It is concluded that four genotypes (DH-7, DH8, DH-11 and DH-18) and one local check Lu-26s were identified to have the potential to perform economically under high heat stress condition.

365-374 Download
3

Dynamics of volatile organic compounds in masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)  seedling needles under drought stress


Wenxuan Quan, Chao Zhao and Guijie Ding

Dynamics of volatile organic compounds in masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)  seedling needles under drought stress


ABSTRACT:

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Masson pine adapted their physiological responses under drought stress or not. The needle length, root length, root/shoot ratio and the VOCs of Masson pine seedlings under drought stress were investigated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The results showed that the growth index was enhanced with the increase of stress strength, and the seedling growth, biomass, needle length, and root length were inhibited compared with the well-watered treatment. The amounts of total VOCs under drought stress were increased, the concentration of terpenoids, acids and esters, under drought stress were higher than the well-watered treatment, but the concentration of alcohols and carbonyl compounds was slightly decreased under the moderate drought treatment. Light drought, moderate drought, and severe drought compared with the well-watered treatment, increased the release of VOCs by 49, 50, and 49%, respectively. The results show a key role of the VOCs released in the needles and therefore play a possible key role in drought resistance. This study provides evidence that the needles of Masson pine release more VOCs to adapt to drought conditions.

375-382 Download
4

Evaluation for adaptive thermo-tolerance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under natural stress


Sarwat Afshan and Shakeel R. Farooqi

Evaluation for adaptive thermo-tolerance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under natural stress


ABSTRACT:

Fifteen genotypes of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including eleven commercial cultivars, three landraces, and one Mexican variety were evaluated in an entirely different mega-environment with harsh natural stress. The plants experienced a hot and humid climate during the vegetative and reproductive stages. Three different sowing dates one-month apart were employed to all the genotypes to experience, in replications, three different regimes of harsh environmental conditions that would allow all the developmental and reproductive stages to experience high-temperature stress. It was hypothesized that all the genotypes do not have the same strategy to cope with the conditions and some must do better than others though none of them had been developed for this typical climate. Though all the genotypes were adversely affected due to delayed sowings, few showed some stability in the yield and yield components whereas others managed their green leaf status for a relatively longer duration. It has been learned that spring wheat has adaptive potential to be cultivated in warm-dry tropical weather with irrigation and certain genotypes may be used for a breeding program of wheat with abiotic stress tolerance for such geographical zone.

383-393 Download
5

Physiological response of different accessions of Sesbania sesban and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba under water deficit conditions


Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Sumera Anwar and Kafeel Ahmad

Physiological response of different accessions of Sesbania sesban and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba under water deficit conditions


ABSTRACT:

Identification of leguminous crops and screening of accessions for drought tolerance are effective approaches to ensure food security and hence to increase soil fertility. To appraise the physiological response of Sesbania sesban L. Merril. and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub., their different accessions were evaluated under different field capacities. The accessions were grown in pots, and irrigation was managed to attain 100%, 80%, and 60% field capacity. The photosynthetic attributes and biochemical markers such as photosynthetic pigments, proline, soluble sugars, total soluble proteins, amino acids, glycine betaine, and nutrient contents were employed for evaluation of drought tolerance of all accessions of both crops. All these attributes were adversely affected due to soil moisture deficit conditions, and the response of different accessions to water deficit varied significantly. The soil moisture deficiency significantly reduced the gas exchange attributes, chlorophyll contents, soluble proteins, free amino acids, and N and P contents, while it significantly increased carotenoids, proline, glycine betaine, and K contents. Accession BR99 of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba and accessions Sahianwala and Shahpur of Sesbania sesban showed better performance under soil moisture deficit conditions as compared to the other accessions, so these accessions could be cultivated under semiarid and arid conditions

395-404 Download
6

Individual and combined effect of terminal drought and heat stress on allometric growth, grain yield and quality of bread wheat


Abdul Sattar, Ahmad Sher, Muhammad Ijaz, Malik Saad Ullah, Niaz Ahmad and Ummed Ud-Din Umar

Individual and combined effect of terminal drought and heat stress on allometric growth, grain yield and quality of bread wheat


ABSTRACT:

Among the abiotic stresses, terminal drought and heat stress are two critical threats to crop production worldwide. The objective of this study was to quantify the separate and combined effects of drought and heat stress (during heading and grain-filling stages) on allometric growth, yield, yield components, grain characteristics and grain quality of bread wheat. Experimental treatments were comprised of control (well-watered/normal condition), drought stress (50% field capacity), heat stress (inside the plastic tunnel) and drought + heat (50% field capacity and inside the plastic tunnels). Heat and drought + heat were found to have a much greater influence on the leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate and net assimilation of wheat plants than drought stress alone and control treatment. More reduction in yield and yield components of wheat was noted where combined stress (drought and heat) was applied. Moreover, heat and heat+drought stress reduced both the grain growth duration and the grain growth rate that decreased the 100 grain weight of wheat. A significant reduction in chlorophyll contents while higher concentration of proline and soluble protein of flag leaf over control was observed after drought heat stress treatment. In addition, quality traits of wheat grain were significantly affected under drought, heat and drought +heat stress conditions. Heat and drought+heat decreased the starch contents of grain while protein and gluten contents were predominantly increased under heat or drought + heat stress than drought alone and control treatment. It was concluded that effect of simultaneously applied drought and heat stress is more severe as compared to individual effect drought and heat stress.

405-412 Download
7

Ameliorative effect of exogenously alllied oxalic acid on nickel (heavy metal) induced stress in Zea mays


Oluwagbemiga Sewanu Soyingbe, Comrade Ntanzi, Tshepiso Jan Makhafola and Abidemi Paul Kappo

Ameliorative effect of exogenously alllied oxalic acid on nickel (heavy metal) induced stress in Zea mays


ABSTRACT:

Oxalic acid (ethanedioic acid: OA) is the simplest organic acid occurring naturally in plants. It functions as a chelator of metals. The effects of the exogenous application of OA (1000 μM) on maize plants’ (Zea mays) growth parameters and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide contents were evaluated in the presence or absence of nickel (Ni)  induced stress. The plants were treated with 200 μM and 400 μM of nickel sulphate (NiSO4) solution. At the end of the 29-day treatment period, OA enhanced SOD, GSH and catalase activity. The level of lipid peroxidation as determined by TBARS (thiobarbiturate reactive species) was decreased significantly. OA improved the growth parameters of maize plants under nickel induced stress (that is: the root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight all were increased compared to the control). This is a clear indication that OA ameliorates heavy metal stress in maize via biochemical pathways in which it acts as an important chelator and detoxifier of nickel. It thereby depletes the pool of Ni available for the production of free radicals

413-418 Download
8

Response of the growth of Ophiopogon japonicus and its physiological characteristics to aluminum stress


Liu Airong, Zhang Yuanbing, Huang Shoucheng, Zhan Qiuwen and Jiang Zhongyu

Response of the growth of Ophiopogon japonicus and its physiological characteristics to aluminum stress


ABSTRACT:

To explore aluminum (Al) tolerance in Ophiopogon japonicus, we used AlCl3 at the concentrations of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mmol/L to treat O. japonicas for detecting the growth and physiological indexes of the plant under AlCl3 stress. Compared with the control, fresh weight, dry weight, water content, contents of K, Mg, and Fe, activity of catalase in leaves and roots, Ca2+content in roots, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and root activity of O. japonicus roots showed a declining trend with the increase in the AlCl3 concentration. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll, Ca, and soluble protein (SP) contents of leaves, SOD activity and peroxidase (POD) activity of leaves and roots initially increased and then declined. However, the soluble sugar (SS) and Proline (Pro) contents of leaves slightly declined and then increased. The SS, SP, and Pro contents of roots, Al, free amino acid (FAA), superoxide anion (O2•-), and MDA contents, and plasma membrane permeability of leaves and roots showed a increasing trend. Therefore, low-concentration AlCl3 stress inhibited the growth ofO. japonicus, resulting in low water deficit and decline in root activity. Organic osmotica, such as SS, SP, Pro, and FAA, accumulated in leaves and roots, but no inorganic ions (including K, Ca, Mg, and Fe) were found. The antioxidant capacity decreased slightly, and the degree of oxidative damage was mild. High-concentration AlCl3 stress seriously inhibited the growth of O. japonicus, leading to a remarkable reduction in water deficit and root activity. Organic small-molecule osmotica further accumulated in the plant, but inorganic ion deficit was aggravated. The antioxidant capacity decreased, whereas the degree of oxidative damage increased. Comprehensive analysis demonstrated that O. japonicus could endure AlCl3 stress ≤30mmol/L. 

419-426 Download
9

Morphometric characteristic, nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley (Pandanaceae) during ripening: a native berries of Papua, Indonesia


Vita Purnamasari, Nelly Lunga and Simon B Widjanarko

Morphometric characteristic, nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley (Pandanaceae) during ripening: a native berries of Papua, Indonesia


ABSTRACT:

Fruit of Sararanga sinousa Hemsley is called as “Anggur Papua” or “grape Papua” by local people. S. sinousa is endemic to Papua and its fruits are classified as berries. Morphometric characteristic (weight and diameter), nutritional values: namely proximate composition, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH, pectin, ascorbic acid and analysis of antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) of the fruits at three different ripening stages were determined. The weight and diameter of S. sinousa fruit did not differ at different ripening stage viz. At greenish-white, orange-red and red fruit stages. The nutritional value of S. sinousa fruit showed that proteins content, fat and pH remained unchanged as colour of fruit developed from greenish-white to orange-red and red. However, total carbohydrates, soluble solids content, ratio of soluble solids content: titratable acidity, pectin and ascorbic acid were increased significantly, despite the decrease of TA. The antioxidant activity determinated by DPPH method and be avowed as IC50 showed that greenish-white fruit and red fruit had higher values than orange-red fruits. Fruits of S. sinousa are alike berries from morphometric characteristic and nutritional value point of view. Based on soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ratio of SSC/TA and pH, fruits of S.sinousa can be processed into juice, jam and jelly. The greenish-white and red  fruit ripening stages of S. sinousa are considered to be potential  source of  natural antioxidant

427-433 Download
10

Influence of light intensity and some chemical compounds on physiological responses in olive transplants (Olea europaea L.)


Haliz Arif Abdulrahman and Sarfaraz Fatah Al-Bamarny

Influence of light intensity and some chemical compounds on physiological responses in olive transplants (Olea europaea L.)


ABSTRACT:

Leaf physiological responses, chlorophyll content and stomata density of two cultivars Xestawi and Suranni (Olea europaea L.) transplants grown under two levels of light intensity (100% and 50%) of full light and different concentrations of calcium and boric acid (0.25% and 0.50%) and (50 and 100 mg.L-1) respectively were studied in addition to control. These studies aimed to discuss the effect of light intensity and some chemical compounds on some physiological responses of olive transplants [net photosynthesis, stomata transpiration, stomata conductance rates and water use efficiency (WUE), in addition chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, stomata density and guard cell thickness]. The result showed that all above parameters significantly increased in 100% light intensity except in the case of water use efficiency, it decreased in 100% light intensity. While the effect of mineral compounds on all of the parameters were varied. The transplants treated with 100 mg.L-1 boric acid showed higher net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance. Hence, higher rates of water use efficiency, stomata density, guard cell thickness and chlorophyll b were found in transplants treated with both concentrations of calcium (0.25% and 0.50%).

435-445 Download
11

Effect of foliar applications of IAA and GA3 on growth, yield and quality of pea (Pisum sativum L.)


Khalid Hussain, Sana Anwer, Khalid Nawaz, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Nida Zainab, Arifa Nazeer, Zobia Bashir, Syed Saqib Ali, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Khizar Hayat Bhatti and Abdul Majeed

Effect of foliar applications of IAA and GA3 on growth, yield and quality of pea (Pisum sativum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Experiments were conducted at University of Gujrat, Pakistan during growing seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of GA3 and IAA on pea. Four cultivars of pea i.e. Aleena, Classic, Green grass and Meteor were given seven foliar treatments i.e. 0 (control), 50, 100 ppm both for IAA and GA3 and two combined treatments of IAA+GA3 (50 and 100 ppm). Experiment was laid down in completely randomized design with four replicates. Data was collected at seedling and vegetative stages, while yield attributes were calculated at maturity. It was noted that shoot and root lengths, shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area, net assimilation and relative growth were significantly increased by the foliar applications of IAA, GA3. Photosynthetic and transpiration rates, total protein and carbohydrates, fibre contents, Ca2+ and K+ were significantly changed by IAA and GA3 separately and in combine treatments. Combine treatments of IAA and GA3 had better effects rather than separate treatments. IAA had better effects as compared to GA3. POD activities were reduced and CAT activities were enhanced by foliar applications of IAA and GA3. It was concluded that high rate of photosynthesis resulted high biomass production and yield. High Transpiration rates helped to uptake nutrients from soil efficiently that resulted high accumulation of Ca2+ and K+. Reduction in POD activities helped to increase the defence mechanism of plants and high CAT activities caused better balance in plant metabolism as a result growth, yield and quality of pea were increased. These outcomes can be used as a good indicator for researchers to evaluate the pea cultivars response towards plant growth regulators (PGR) to predict for promising yield and quality traits.

447-460 Download
12

Bioinformatics studies of OSGLP8-12 gene from Oryza sativa (Japonica) reveal its role in conferring resistance against disease and stresses


Irfan Safdar Durrani, Asad Jan, Shaheen Shah, Aqib Iqbal, Dawood Ahmad, Habibiullah Khan and Syed Muhammad Saqlain Naqvi

Bioinformatics studies of OSGLP8-12 gene from Oryza sativa (Japonica) reveal its role in conferring resistance against disease and stresses


ABSTRACT:

Plants, from Myxomycetes to Gymnosperms has been found to contain ubiquitous proteins namely Germins. These proteins are found to express mainly during plant development; that is specifically confined, to specific organs including seeds, roots, shoots, fruits and nectar glands. Additionally, these proteins are, also found to express in response to different biotic and abiotic stress conditions. The current study was conducted by exploiting different bioinformatics tools in order to analyze OSGLP8-12 gene sequence for various parameters. Phylogenetic analysis of this gene reveled the clustering of this gene with other homologous genes in: group 2A and that was very close to another Germin like protein gene namely Germin like protein gene 8-3, the disease resistance gene. The OsGLP8-12 gene along with other homologous genes was selected from phylogenetic tree and subject to Genevestigator in order to find/ predict the functions associated with OsGLP8-12 gene. The gene under study was found to express in various plant organs variably, with high expression in mid early stage of plant development in different developmental stages. With reference to the induction of this gene by different biotic and abiotic factors, the gene was found to show strong expression in response to both factors. These findings suggest the involvement of this gene in development as well as biotic and abiotic stresses.

461-467 Download
13

Management of root rot fungi by Grewia asiatica L. leaves and on the growth of crop plants


Shahnaz Dawar, Asma Hanif and Rukkiya Siddique

Management of root rot fungi by Grewia asiatica L. leaves and on the growth of crop plants


ABSTRACT:

Plant pathogenic fungi deteriorate roots leading immense losses to agricultural economy of Pakistan, for this reason research was conducted to investigate the fungicidal potential of Grewia asiatica leaves powder against infectious fungi to ameliorate the cowpea and bottle gourd growth. In vitro, 100% concentration of G. asiatica leaves (aqueous extract) showed prodigious growth inhibition against tested fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina) recorded in paper disc and well methods, while 75% concentration controlled both F. oxysporumand M. phaseolina but 50% only suppressed the  mycelium of F. oxysporum observed in both methods as compared to control. In vivo, leaves powder of G. asiatica used as organic amendment at 0.5 and 0.1% showed effectual enhancement on plant growth, where 1.0% suppressed the Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. colonization notably. Leaves extract of G. asiatica at 100% recorded greater suppression of pathogenic fungi colonization significantly when drenched in soil, while 75% showed maximum inhibition of root decay pathogens but highest plant growth found by 50% concentration. Furthermore, when tested seeds treated with 100% extract of G. asiatica leaves showed elevation in the growth on both hosts and controlling the colonization of pathogenic fungi as compared to 75 and 50% concentrations.

469-476 Download
14

Genetic diversity of pumpkin based on morphological and SSR markers


Wang Yunli, Wang Yangyang, Xu Wenlong, Wang Chaojie, Cui Chongshi and Qu Shuping

Genetic diversity of pumpkin based on morphological and SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

Cucurbita pepo is an economically important plant. However, the fact that there are few high-quality varieties that have limited the development of this plant in Cucurbita breeding programs. Aiming to provide genetic improvement and application on breeding of Cucurbita breeding programs, the diversity of 64 C. pepo accessions was analyzed using morphological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 45 morphological traits in C. pepo accessions presented large morphological characteristic variability, from 6.30% (for flower shape) to 70.84% (for fruit umbilicus diameter), with an average variability of 34.43%, whereas the average diversity index of all traits was 1.25, ranging from 0.2% (for seed width) to 4.8% (for seed thickness). Sixty accessions were discriminated into 2 clusters morphological and molecular markers: cluster I included 5 accessions with hull-less seeds, and cluster II included 59 accessions with shell-covered seeds. Cluster II was divided into 5 sub-clusters with different fruit and leaf shapes based on morphological data, and accessions with similar phenotypic features were grouped together. Cluster II was divided into dwarf and normal sub-clusters using SSR markers and accessions with the same origin and same geographical distribution were clustered together. There were some differences between the relationships morphological markers and SSR markers in this study. Morphological markers and SSR markers among the 64 C. pepo are not interchangeable methods but are complementary methods that together ensure the comprehensiveness and accuracy of analytical results

477-487 Download
15

Transcriptomic analysis of Anabasis aphylla seedlings under freezing treatment


Ya-Ling Chang, Meng Wen Peng, Guang Ming Chu and Mei Wang

Transcriptomic analysis of Anabasis aphylla seedlings under freezing treatment


ABSTRACT:

Anabasis aphylla is a salt and alkali resistant shrub which grows in arid and semi-arid areas. There are few reports about the transcriptome of A. aphylla. The objective of this study was to analyze the transcriptome of A. aphylla under freezing treatment so as to better understand its molecular mechanism of freezing adaptation. Illumina sequencing was used to obtain large-scale transcriptome sequencing of A. aphylla under freezing treatment. Nine genes were then analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. A total of 7101 differentially expressed genes were obtained, including 2460 up-regulated genes and 4641 down-regulated genes. Gene Ontology annotation analysis indicated many freeze-relevant categories like ‘response to freeze and stimulus’. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis uncovered some important pathways, such as ‘metabolic pathways’ and ‘plant hormone signal transduction pathway’. The 9 genes analysis showed that the real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results were consistent with the expression trend of transcriptome analysis genes. The acceptance and conduction of the freeze signal is an important process of freezing adaptation in plants and adaptation to the environment.

489-500 Download
16

Codon-optimized recombinant expression assay for a monomeric 17kDa basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): blueprints towards human therapeutic proteins


Liu Xiuming, Naveed Ahmad, Zhang Jiwei, Wang Zhenghao, Guo Yingnan, Yao Na, Dong Yuanyuan, Wang Nan, Li Xiaowei, Wang Fawei, Li Haiyan and Li Xiaokun

Codon-optimized recombinant expression assay for a monomeric 17kDa basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): blueprints towards human therapeutic proteins


ABSTRACT:

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) also called as FGF2/FGF-β is an important growth factor and signal protein belongs to heparin binding growth factor family. The naturally occurring bFGF family is capable of stimulating a wide variety of biological activitiesand cellular responses including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, mitogenesis, embryonic development, cellular growth, wound repair process, oncogenic responses and neural development. The present work demonstrated the designing of a preferential codon optimizing strategy for bFGF recombinant protein by recruiting alfalfa as a suitable host bioreactor system. To validate our experimental design the over-expression vector p1390R carrying bFGF gene was efficiently transformed in to alfalfa using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. We have confirmed the successful integration of bFGF gene in alfalfa using various molecular techniques. In addition, the transcription regulation of bFGFin transgenic alfalfa was determined through RT-PCRthereby orchestrating gene activity.Subsequently, the recombinant protein of bFGF was separated on SDS-PAGE resulting in a 17kDa product. Moreover, the identification of specific bFGF single protein within a complex mixture of proteins was semi-quantitatively detected on western blot by estimating the size and color intensity of target protein. Altogether, our findings highlight anadvance molecular farming technique resulting in a controlled recombinant expression assay for a monomeric 17kDa bFGF protein in transgenic lines of alfalfa. The present work provides adequate information on the exploitation of plant host systems as bioreactors for essential recombinant therapeutic proteins such as vaccines, hormones, signaling molecules and antibodies with pharmacological potential in future researches.

501-507 Download
17

Marker trait association study in wheat genotypes under normal and drought conditions using SSR markers


Sonia Munir, Muhammad Azmat, Farooq Ahmad Khan, Usman Saleem, Salman Saleem and Muhammad Salman

Marker trait association study in wheat genotypes under normal and drought conditions using SSR markers


ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted in the department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In total 226 genotypes were grown in polythene bags and drought stress was imposed using PEG-6000 (20%) and data were collected for shoot and root length, root shoot ratio, fresh weight and dry weight. The genotypes which showed good performance for all the parameters were selected (100 genotypes) and evaluated during the next two years 2013-14 and 2014-15 under both the normal and meiotic stage (pre-anthesis) drought stress conditions. The data for the following 14 traits were recorded, numbers of days to heading, numbers of days to maturity, plants height, peduncle length, spike length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, spikelets / spike, grains number / spike, grains weight / spike, tillers / plant, 1000 grain weight and with yield per plant.  The significant results were shown by the genotypes, environment and (G x E) their interaction for almost all the parameters studied. The DNA of these 100 genotypes was extracted and 25 SSR markers were applied. It was concluded that about nine of the markers were linked with nine parameters studied and the level of probable was taken as one percent and phenotypic changes ranged between 14 to 32% under the water stress condition. And under the normal, irrigated conditions only 6 markers were found to be linked and the phenotypic variability ranged from 14 to 22%. The SSR marker CFA2086 showed significant association with 1000 grain weight under normal as well as under drought conditions. The 5 markers such as WMC382, CFA2086, CFA2121, CFA2263 and WMC2610 were associated with spikelets per spike which could be considered as trait specific MTA.

509-513 Download
18

Gene cloning, recombinant expression and purification of a rice germin like protein (OsRGLP1)


Syed Irtiza Hussain Shah Gardezi, Dure Shahwar, Zaigham Abbas and Syed Muhammad Saqlan Naqvi

Gene cloning, recombinant expression and purification of a rice germin like protein (OsRGLP1)


ABSTRACT:

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are plant glycoproteins, which are included in cupin superfamily. These proteins show high similarity in sequence but diversity in function and are reportedly involved in conferring biotic and/or abiotic stress tolerance to plants. In order to fully characterize the protein and establish structure-function relationship, it is important to obtain purified protein. Here we report the molecular cloning and recombinant expression of a rice germin like protein 1 (OsRGLP1) in E. coli. Expression vectors pET20b and pET14b carrying C-terminus His tag were used for cloning, optimal expression, and subsequent purification. OsRGLP1 expression was confirmed through western blotting using anti-His monoclonal primary antibody. OsRGLP1 was further purified using Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography. The recombinant protein will be useful for characterizing the protein and raising antibodies for further applications.

515-518 Download
19

Ethno-medicinal plants and traditional knowledge linked to primary health care among the indigenous communities living in western hilly slopes of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan


Shafiq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Shehla Shinwari, Mushtaq Ahmad, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Shazia Sultana and Maryam Akram Butt

Ethno-medicinal plants and traditional knowledge linked to primary health care among the indigenous communities living in western hilly slopes of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Medicinal plants are the rich source of bioactive compounds so that’s why number of human ailments is treated by plant based medications. The main objective of this study is to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants used by indigenous communities living in western hilly Slopes of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan with special emphasis on health issues facing by the local people of this area. Ethnobotanical data were recorded from 127 local informants. This data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. Data collected in field was then analyzed by using different quantitative indices. Different quantitative indices were fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF). In this study 75 plants belonging to 78 families are reported for treating different human ailments with the highest number of species being used for Digestive disorders followed by respiratory diseases. Herbs (52 species) were found to be the most used plants. This study allows identifying many high value medicinal plant species of this region, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection of these medicinal plants and these plants should be evaluated for further phytochemical screening and biological activities for future drug discovery and development.

519-530 Download
20

Phytochemical composition and potent biological activities of Ficus benjamina var. comosa leaves extract


Asma Ashraf, Sara Zafar, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Muhammad Umar Ijaz, Saima Muzammal, Farkhanda Asad, Farhat Jabeen and Muhammad Shahid

Phytochemical composition and potent biological activities of Ficus benjamina var. comosa leaves extract


ABSTRACT:

Present work has been commenced to evaluate the possible antioxidant, antibacterial, hemolytic and antiviral properties of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus benjamina var. comosa. Total phenolic and flavonoid have also been estimated. DPPH free radicals scavenging method was used to assess antioxidant activity while anti-biofilm activity of the ethanolic leaves extracts was done by microtitre-plate assay against Pseudomonas aerugonisa, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cerus. For hemolytic activity the ethanolic extract toxicity was observed against human erythrocytes In vitro. In addition, SPF embryonated chicken eggs were used to check the antiviral activity against Newcastle disease virus. The values of total phenolic and flavonoid components were 4.50 ± 1.1 mg (GAE gm) and 11.20 ± 8.9 (QE mg) respectively. The results indicate that leaves have good antioxidant activity of 68.27 % ±1.08 with respect to ascorbic acid equivalence and biofilm inhibition against all the tested bacterial strains. Hemolytic activity is 2.14 % ±0.41 however at low concentration there was not any significant change observed on erythrocyte membrane. In antiviral In ovo activity 60 µg/mL showed complete inhibition of NDV growth while 120 µg/mL dose is lethal for embryo

531-535 Download
21

Allelopathic potential of sorghum water extract and it’s mulching on Echinochloa colona (L.) link in maize


Sheheryar, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Iqtidar Hussain, Mohammad Safdar Baloch, Faisal Ali and Fakhar Abbas

Allelopathic potential of sorghum water extract and it’s mulching on Echinochloa colona (L.) link in maize


ABSTRACT:

Sorghum allelopathy can be a vital tool in curbing weeds in maize as substitute to hazardous chemical weedicides to mitigate environmental pollution. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sorghum water extracts (SWE) and sorghum mulch (SM) for controlling Echinochloa colona (L.) Link (jungle rice) in hybrid maize (HC-8080). For this purpose, a field experiment was executed with allelopathic treatments which were SWE @ 15 L ha-1 (foliar sprayed at 15 days after sowing (DAS), SWE @ 15 L ha-1 (sprayed at 15 & 30 DAS), SWE @ 15 L ha-1 (sprayed at 15, 30 & 45 DAS), SM @ 8 t ha-1, SM @ 8 t ha-1 + SWE @ 15 L ha-1 and control. Results showed that SWE @ 15 L ha-1 (sprayed at 15, 30 & 45 DAS) reduced jungle rice weed density by 65%, its fresh weight by 49% and dry weight by 58% as compared control. Besides, this treatment increased number of grains cob-1, 1000-grains weight and grains yield each by 25% over control. However, application of SM @ 8 t ha-1 alone was not very effective but gave better results when combined with SWE@ 15 L ha-1. It was concluded that sorghum water extract can be used as natural jungle rice weed inhibitor in maize.

537-540 Download
22

Maize improvement through selfed progeny recurrent selection across different environments


Mohammad Sajjad, Naqib Ullah Khan, Samrin Gul, Shahid Ullah Khan, Zarina Bibi, Sardar Ali, Naushad Ali and Sher Aslm Khan

Maize improvement through selfed progeny recurrent selection across different environments


ABSTRACT:

Recurrent selection is a cyclical breeding procedure which has been mostly used for the improvement of maize populations. This study was aimed at comparing the responses of maize S1 and S2-lines through selfed progeny recurrent selection under genotype by environment interactions. During spring-2014, for developing S1 (selfed) lines in cycle-1, 500 plants were selfed. Two-cycle populations [PSEV3 (S1)-C1 and PSEV3 (S2)-C2] and base population (PSEV3-C0) were studied during summer season across four environments i.e., two each years (2016 and 2017) and locations. Cyclical populations revealed significant (p≤0.01) differences for all the traits. The cycle × year interactions were significant for ear length, 100-grain weight, and grain yield. The cycle × year × location interactions were significant for kernel rows per ear and 100-grain weight. In C2 population, the improvement in earliness and yield traits was recorded followed by C1 population. Performance of C2 was overwhelming at CCRI during 2017 while base population (PSEV3-C0) exhibited poor performance across years and locations. The responses to selection were encouraging for days to tasseling, cobs per m2, cob length, kernel rows per cob, 100-kernel weight and grain yield. Overall and average genetic gains per cycle were persuading for days to tasseling, cobs per m2, cob length, kernel rows per cob, 100-kernel weight and grain yield. The recurrent selection was found more effective in improving maize base population (PSEV3-C0) for maturity and yield related traits. Simultaneous improvement owing to selfed-progeny recurrent selection suggests further testing of advance cycles in the maize population

541-549 Download
23

Species composition and diversity of plants at different successional stages in small catchments of Karst areas


Zhang Zhenming, Huang Xianfei and Liu Yingying

Species composition and diversity of plants at different successional stages in small catchments of Karst areas


ABSTRACT:

This study focused on the composition and species diversity of plants during different succession periods based on a field investigation in Houzhai Valley in Puding County, a karst area in Guizhou Province in Southwest China. The results showed that the vegetation in this area was mainly in four succession stages: grassland, shrub grassland, shrub forest and arbour forest. There were also some artificial fruit-bearing forests. In summary, 97 families, 230 genera and 382 species were investigated and recorded in the studied region. The predominant three families with the largest number of species were the Rosaceae, Compositae and Poaceae. The percentage of the life forms as arbour, shrub, herb and rattan accounted for 14.66%, 29.84%, 43.46% and 11.52% of the total species, respectively. The species richness index and Simpson's diversity index were as follows: arbour forest > shrub forest > shrub grassland > fruit-bearing forest > grassland. The species evenness and Shannon–Wiener index were as follows: arbour forest > shrub forest > shrub grassland > grass > fruit-bearing forest. In different stages of vegetation succession in the karst area, the measures taken for the restoration of vegetation and afforestation should be based on the specific species.

551-556 Download
24

Phenology and yield of coarse and fine rice under varying levels of zinc and farmyard manure


Mohammad Munir, Ayub Khan, Shah Masaud Khan, Sher Aslam Khan, Muhammad Saeed and Abdul Bari

Phenology and yield of coarse and fine rice under varying levels of zinc and farmyard manure


ABSTRACT:

In order to investigate the effect of Zn and FYM levels on phenology and yield of coarse and fine rice cultivars, field experiments were conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangements having three replications. The experiment consisted of four levels of Zn (0, 6, 12 and 18 kg ha-1) and two levels of FYM (0 and 15 t ha-1) applied to two rice cultivars,   coarse rice cultivar (Fakhr-e-Malakand) and fine rice (Basmati-385). Application of FYM at the rate 15 t ha-1 produced taller plants, hastened heading, physiological maturity and shortened grain filling duration by 4, 2 and 6 days, respectively over control whereas   biological and grain yield increased by 51% and 48%, over control plots. Likewise, Zn level of 18 kg ha-1 increased plant height by 4.6%, hastened heading by 3 days and extended grain filling duration by 4 days while biological yield and grain yield increased by 11.51 % and 22 %, respectively over control. Fine rice cultivar Basmati-385 had taller plants, delayed heading, physiological maturity and 19.31 % and 17.91% lower biological and grain yields, as compared to coarse rice cultivar Fakhr-e-Malakand. It is concluded that the application Zn and FYM either alone or in combination can substantially improve rice productivity.

557-564 Download
25

Agronomic characterization and the possibility for potential use of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) in the forage production in Bulgaria


Viliana Vasileva and Emil Vasilev

Agronomic characterization and the possibility for potential use of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) in the forage production in Bulgaria


ABSTRACT:

The permanent climate changes having occurred in the last decade present a serious risk to the agricultural crops. ?his requires to study new herbaceous forage species having pronounced resistance to unfavorable abiotic factors and good adaptive capacity towards the new conditions. Legumes species that can provide self-sowing and persist continuously in the sward become of practical importance. Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is an annual drought resistant legume with winter-spring type of development and ability for self-sowing. The studies with subterranean clover during the last years showed that it has practical applicability under the climatic conditions of Bulgaria. When sown at an appropriate time in the autumn, it establishes a uniform stand before the beginning of the permanent cold spell and grows up early in the spring and forms a dense sward. Subterranean clover was found as a suitable component for mixtures with widely used perennial grass and legume forage crops and contributed to weed infestation decreasing, higher productivity and persistence of the pasture systems. In addition, due to the prostrate habit it is strongly tolerant to grazing. The subterranean clover is adaptable to the changing climatic conditions and its use as a natural bio-recourse in the pastures could be a contribution to finding a solution in the field of forage production to mitigate the adverse effects of climatic change.

565-568 Download
26

Differences in seedling distribution patterns between wind-dispersed Liquidambar formosana and rodent-dispersed Quercus acutissima


Guohai Wang, Zaixi Yang, Pan Chen and Changhu Lu

Differences in seedling distribution patterns between wind-dispersed Liquidambar formosana and rodent-dispersed Quercus acutissima


ABSTRACT:

Plants rely on a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their seeds, including both abiotic and biotic vectors. Distribution patterns of seedlings may be different owing to these differences in seed dispersal vectors; however, few studies have examined this assumption. In this study, we compared several seedling parameters (number, diameter, height, and distance from the mother tree) between a wind-dispersal species, Liquidambar formosana, and a rodent-dispersal species, Quercus acutissima, growing in the same bamboo forest and also examined how the type of dispersal vector influenced the spatial distribution of seedlings. One-hundred and seventy-four individual L. formosana seedlings and 84 individual Q. acutissima seedlings were recorded, and the average diameter and height of Q. acutissima seedlings were significantly larger than those of L. formosana seedlings. The seedling density of L. formosana showed a single-peak whereas Q. acutissima showed multiple peaks at different distances from the parent plant. The average dispersal distance of Q. acutissima seedlings (11.13 ± 9.45 m) was much further than that for L. formosana (7.71 ± 6.74 m). The results of this study suggest that rodent-dispersed plants may have an increased chance of survival and a longer dispersal distance than wind-dispersed plants, and that animal-dispersal might be more conducive to the spread and regeneration of plant populations.

569-573 Download
27

Assessment of genetic diversity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces based on physico-chemical and nutritive quality using cluster and principal component analysis


Uzma Arif, Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Malik Ashiq Rabbani and Ayaz Ahmed Arif

Assessment of genetic diversity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces based on physico-chemical and nutritive quality using cluster and principal component analysis


ABSTRACT:

Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Genetic and environmental factors lead to a variation in protein content and also influence the quality of seed of dry pea (Pisum sativum L.). The area and production for dry peas are increasing but knowledge is lacking on how the pea landraces differ in the seed quality. The purpose of the present study was biochemical characterization of 46 pea landraces in order to evaluate the moisture content, fat, fiber, protein, ash, phenolic content, carbohydrates, pH, chlorophyll content and TSS. The data obtained after biochemical analysis were subjected to statistical analysis. The cluster analysis indicated the probable association within 46 pea landraces. Landraces L7, L13, L19, L25, L26, L27, L30 and A43 were showing variation in term of analyzed biochemical traits. Correlation coefficients among all the biochemical traits were computed. Ash content was showing maximum positive and highly significant correlation with moisture content (0.583**), phenolic content (0.76**) and fat (0.371**). Fiber was showing highly significant and positivele correlation with three characters which were: protein (0.455**), total soluble solid (0.437**), and fat (0.399**). Positive and highly significant association was found among carbohydrate and pH (0.418**). Fat content was showing positive and significant correlation with moisture content (0.316*), protein (0.313*) and total soluble solid (0.312*), respectively. These findings can be used to guide future breeding studies and germplasm management of these pea landraces. Based on our findings, it is recommended that pea landraces which performed well in the experiment and bear bright future prospects should be considered in designing future hybridization programs to elucidate the correlation among various biochemical aspects at molecular level among different pea genotypes

575-580 Download
28

Variability of some Pakistani commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties for agro-morphological and end-use quality traits


Haji Muhammad Umer Memon, Saqib Arif, Hadi Bux, Mahboob Ali Sial, Ali Murad Rahoo, Wazir Ali Maitlo and S.M. Mujataba

Variability of some Pakistani commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties for agro-morphological and end-use quality traits


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to examine sixteen commercial wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties for agro-morphological, physicochemical and dough rheological traits variability. Agro-morphological attributes including height of plants (cm), main spike length (cm), grains per spike, heading/maturity days, spikes per meter and thousand kernels weight (g) were observed at two locations (Petaro and Sakrand) of Sindh, besides, physicochemical traits such as test weight (kg/hl), wet/dry gluten content (%), gluten index, grain protein content (%) and dough rheological characteristics including time for dough development (min.), softening degree of dough (ICC), dough stability (min.), water absorption (%) and farinograph quality number were also observed. Data were statistically analysed for combined ANOVA followed by DMRT and Pearson’s correlation. Wheat genotypes expressed highly significant differences at p<0.05 for all the observed traits. Significantly highest means for thousand kernels weight (51.1g) and 10-kernels width (3.6cm) were observed in wheat variety Imdad-2005. TJ-83 yielded significantly the highest dry gluten content (12.0%), wet gluten content (24.2%) and grain protein content (14.1%). Besides, wheat varieties T.J-83, Pak-81 and Zardana possessed the excelled respective grain protein content means of 14.1%, 13.4% and 13.5%. Grain protein content established positive correlation to wet gluten (r = 0.92**), water binding in gluten (r = 0.84*) and dry gluten content (r = 0.99**), while its non-significant negative correlation existed with thousand kernels weight (r = -0.19) and test weight (r = -0.2). Dough stability had significant correlation to dough development time (r = 0.61*). Highly significant and negative correlation of degree of softening was developed to stability of dough (r = -0.80**) and farinograph quality number (r = -0.77**). Present studies provided a comprehensive knowledge of nutritional properties of wheat varieties and will be helpful while selection of potentially quality genotypes

581-592 Download
29

Climate growth response of Pinus sibirica (Siberian Pine) in the Altai Mountains, northwestern China


Sher Shah, Jian Yu, Qijing Liu, Jingning Shi, Adnan Ahmad, Dilawar Khan and Abdul Mannan

Climate growth response of Pinus sibirica (Siberian Pine) in the Altai Mountains, northwestern China


ABSTRACT:

The Altai Mountains in Northwest China has a great potential for dendroclimatological studies. Dendrochronological and climatological response analysis potentials of the northwest China Altai Mountains are hitherto unexplored. In this study, for the first time we have developed chronology statistics and climate response growth analysis of Pinus sibirica using (dplR) and (Treeclim) packages of the R program, with the overall goal of documenting baseline information for future research. The chronology covered a span of up to 202 years in the study site. The results highlighted that the chronology showed highly significant negative correlation to the previous year June and highly positive significant correlation to the late winter March maximum, minimum and average temperature respectively. The results further revealed negative responses for the previous year March in term of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) value (-0.027) but positive PDSI values (0.035, 0.014, 0.027) for April, May, and June. The results indicate that tree ring widths are not responding positively to the previous year growing season at the current chronologies of 202 years. These findings suggest more extensive research on the climate-growth reconstruction and Response Function Analysis of the trees for longer chronologies up to their natural age of 800 years. 

593-600 Download
30

Diversity and abundance of climbers in relation to their hosts and elevation in the monsoon forests of Murree in the Himalayas


Amjad Ur Rahman, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Zafeer Saqib, Zahid Ullah, Zeeshan Ahmad, Semih Ekercin, Abdul Samad Mumtaz and Habib Ahmad

Diversity and abundance of climbers in relation to their hosts and elevation in the monsoon forests of Murree in the Himalayas


ABSTRACT:

Climbers play diverse roles in the biology of forests. Climber species due to its fragile nature are sustible to any change in the forests. Knowledge about climber species in the forests is relatively inadequate and this is the first effort to report the climber plant species in Pakistan. Ecological methods were used to find out climbers abundance, distribution and their relationship with trees/ shrubs in five 1-ha plot range of 735 m to 1754 m elevation at sea level at five localities viz., Baroha, Ghoragali, Numbal, Patriata and Salgaran in the Murree Forests in Western Himalaya, Pakistan during the year of 2016-2017. An overall 3400 climbing plants belonging to 23 species, 19 genera and 13 families were identified and described. Apocynaceae (22%) was the most leading family followed by Ranunculaceae (13%) Rosaceae (13%) and Menispermaceae (9%). Based on our findings the climber species are classified into four classes based on their habit/ form as well. The dominant class was represented by twining climbing mode (43%) followed by woody (30.4%) and hook mode (22%) while tendrils (4.3%) were rare. The abundance and distribution of climber plants were affected by parameters like biotic factors (collection pressure, grazing pressure and No. of hosts) and abiotic factors (topographic and edaphic). Canonical Corresponding Analysis (CCA) indicated that grazing and collection pressures along with elevation were the most important factors influencing the distribution and abundances of climbers. Documentation of the climbers is imperative in the context of increasing forest disturbances, deforestation and fragmentation of forest habitat. Current study will lead towards many other detail studies on climbers in near future.

 

601-612 Download
31

Population structure and dynamics of the endangered tree Tetracentron sinense Oliver


Wenying Li, Huaichun Li, Xiaohong Gan, Xuemei Zhang and Zengli Fan

Population structure and dynamics of the endangered tree Tetracentron sinense Oliver


ABSTRACT:

Tetracentron sinense is an endangered tree in China in appendix III of CITES. The current status and dynamics of wild population of T. sinense are unknown, but are vital to its conservation. Diameter at breast height (or basal height for individuals <2.5 m) of all individuals of the T. sinense population in Meigu Dafengding Nature Reserve was investigated. Population size structure, time-specific life tables, survival analysis, and time series analysis were used to analyze the conservation status and dynamics of a natural population. The size structure of the population showed a spindle shape, with few younger individuals (including seedling and sapling) being present, and more middle-aged and aged individuals. The survival curve was a Deevey-type II. The mortality rate, killing power, mortality density, and hazard rate of the population all peaked in the 6th and 12th age-classes. In the first six age-classes, survival rate decreased monotonically, while the cumulative mortality rate rapidly increased, after which the change in trend became relatively gentle. The population size is expected to decrease rapidly in the future 6 and 12 age-classes. The result showed that the natural population was relatively stable, but was in the early stage of decline. The population size of T. sinense in Meigu Dafengding Reserve decreased during the early stage, stabilized in middle stage, and declined in the final stage. The lack of seedlings or saplings might reflect f bottleneck in the regeneration of T. sinense natural population.

613-619 Download
32

The effect of forest grazing planning on forest ecology and carrying capacity: a case study of Mediterranean region in Turkey


Ka?ikçi D., Arma?an M.E, Türko?lu T. And Tolunay A.

The effect of forest grazing planning on forest ecology and carrying capacity: a case study of Mediterranean region in Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Mediterranean region of Turkey has mountainous and hilly topography that is ecologically suitable for goat grazing. However most of the time goat producers do not consider the carrying capacity of the shrublands and overgrazing or undergrazing occur. Since overgrazing or undergrazing affect the ecology of the shrublands, the purpose of the study was to compare the grazing plan prepared by Isparta Sütçüler Forest Administration Office for determining the herb and dry substance yield, the best month of the year for grazing and the optimum number of goats per grazing hectare. According to scientific studies, 4 goats can be grazed per year annually on free grazing ranges with 100% canopy coverage. Accordingly, 3 different parcels were determined at regions in settlements where grazing is allowed thereby the canopy coverages of kermes oak were tried to be calculated for the grazing areas. Based on these ratios, the optimum number of goats that can be grazed at these areas was determined. According to the acquired data, while the number of goats that can be grazed on an area of 57.605 ha was calculated as 81.453, this was put forth in the grazing management plan prepared by the Forest Administration as 57.605 goats. This corresponds to 23,848 fewer goats in comparison with the optimum number indicated in the study. It was observed when the grazing plan was compared with the data acquired in the study that the grazing areas in the village are sufficient for the current number of goats, however it was determined in our study that the current grazing areas can be sufficient for greater number of goats. 

621-628 Download
33

Cladistics and phenetics on some taxa of Polygonaceae Juss.


Mohamed Elsayed Tantawy, Salma Said Abd El-Ghany, Zeinab Ahmed Elwan, Ishak Fahmy Ishak and Usama Kamal Abdel-Hameed

Cladistics and phenetics on some taxa of Polygonaceae Juss.


ABSTRACT:

Polygonaceae is a large dicot family of approximately 48 genera and 1200 species worldwide. The main objective of the current investigation is to compare between the pathways of evolution and the degree of similarity among the present polygonaceous taxa. To achieve the intended target, two character data sets were tested; morphological and molecular traits. Winclada/Nona programs were used for cladistic analysis while NTSYS-PC software for phenetic analysis. The resulted cladogram supports the monophylly of Polygonaceae with its five lineages, while the obtained phenogram comprises five groups. It was concluded that there was a close concordance between the results of phylogentic and phenetic studies on Polygonaceae

629-637 Download
34

Role of dairy manure in improving wheat yield under deficit irrigation


Sarvet Jehan, Muhammad Iqbal, Zahir Ahmed Zahir and Muhammad Farooq

Role of dairy manure in improving wheat yield under deficit irrigation


ABSTRACT:

Water scarcity has become a challenge for food security at national and global level. This problem has been aggravated by population explosion and inefficient irrigation practices. Keeping this in view, a lysimetric experiment was carried out to evaluate the impact of dairy manure under various moisture levels on growth and produce of wheat and soil properties. Three levels of irrigation were maintained based on soil field capacity (FC) at 60%, 80% and 100% FC in main plots, while four levels of dairy manure at 10, 15, 20 and 25 Mg ha-1 were used in subplots. It was found that dairy manure improved the hydraulic conductivity under each moisture regimes and it was dependent on quantity applied. Soil bulk density and soil strength decreased with increase in level of dairy manure. The deficit moisture level in soil suppressed the growth and reduced the wheat yield, however, application of dairy manure mitigated the moisture deficiency and improved growth and yield parameters. Similarly soil moisture content affected the photosynthetic rate of the plants, but amending soil with dairy manure alleviated this stress. Application of dairy manure significantly enhanced soil organic carbon at all levels of irrigation. The results suggest that dairy manure can alleviate growth and yield reduction of wheat caused by water deficiency through improvement in soil properties and by enhancing soil organic carbon contents

639-644 Download
35

Prunus longispinosa (Rosaceae): a new species from Kurdistan, Iraq


Shamiran Salih Abdulrahman and Saleem Esmael Shahbaz

Prunus longispinosa (Rosaceae): a new species from Kurdistan, Iraq


ABSTRACT:

Prunus longispinosa S.E. Shahbaz and S.S, Abdulrahman (Rosaceae), a new species from Kurdistan-Iraq, is described and illustrated. It differs from all Iraqi taxa of the subgenus Amygdalus by the dark reddish color of their one-year-old twigs and the very whitish thorny branches. The new species is closely related to P. spinosissima but can be easily separated by its green drupes vs. reddish drupes from one side and green from the other. The new species also shows close resemblance to Prunus lycioides but the later differs from it in having one reddish side and pale green side of their one-year-old twigs and glabrous drupes vs. dark reddish color of their one-year-old twigs and pubescent drupes for the new species

645-651 Download
36

Tree ring studies from some conifers and present condition of forests of Shangla district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Javed Iqbal, Moinuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui and Adam Khan

Tree ring studies from some conifers and present condition of forests of Shangla district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Dendroecological investigations were carried out for different sites of Shangla District, using 3 conifer tree species i.e. Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara. Wood samples were subjected to dendrochronological processes, analyzed under microscope and measured on Velmax measuring system attached to a computer. Growth rate at every 10 years interval were determined and its variation in various dbh classes were investigated. The present findings showed that age and growth rate varies from species to species and site to site, even among the individuals of a single species growing in a same site. It was shown that growth rate decreased after 18th century. It was observed that small dbh tree was not necessarily younger than large dbh trees. Present study shows that age increases roughly with increasing tree size but also agreed with previously workers that dbh is not a good indicator of age in multisized and multiaged population

653-662 Download
37

New source of resistance to stripe rust in wheat landrace PI388060 originated from Punjab, Pakistan


Fatima Khalid, Yesrab Aman, Muzaffar Shaukat, Javed Iqbal Mirza, Maryam Tariq, Anjum Munir, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Tariq Mahmood

New source of resistance to stripe rust in wheat landrace PI388060 originated from Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Stripe rust is one of the devastating diseases with potential to affect wheat yield all over the world. It is essential to continuously identify novel causes of resistance and make them available for commercial use in wheat breeding. In current study, fifty wheat landraces were evaluated against eight stripe rust races from different areas of Pakistan at seedling stage and landrace PI 388060 was identified as resistant to all these stripe rust races. The line PI 388060 was crossed with Avocet ‘S’ to derive F2 and F3 progenies for analysis. Seedling and adult plant analysis of the F2 and F3 progeny revealed presence of one major gene in this line. Chi square analysis of the glasshouse data gave good fit to expected segregation ratio of 3:1. Family analysis of the randomly selected F3 lines and their field screening also revealed segregation of the lines in 3:1 ratio. Line #36 exhibited very good resistance in glass house against all the four stripe rust isolates and good resistant reaction in field with highest final rust severity of 10. PI 388060 seemed to be a significant source of resistance to stripe rust and further genetic analysis will be conducted to pinpoint new stripe rust resistant gene in this landrace. The lines from this cross are being raised to get advanced F7 population to further characterize the gene

663-671 Download
38

Estimation of losses caused by root rotting fungi and root knot nematodes infecting some important crops in lower Sindh and Hub, Balochistan of Pakistan


Gulnaz Parveen, Faizah Urooj, Shumaila Moin, Hafiza Farhat, Muhammad Faisal Fahim and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

Estimation of losses caused by root rotting fungi and root knot nematodes infecting some important crops in lower Sindh and Hub, Balochistan of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Soil-borne plant diseases caused by root-knot nematodes and root rotting fungi are a serious threat to modern agriculture. In Pakistan, no extensive research work has been done on crop losses estimation by these pathogens and pests. During the present study, survey of diseased agricultural fields, at different locations in Lower Sindh and Hub, Balochistan was carried out in different seasons to determine the losses caused by soil-borne root-rotting fungi and root-knot nematodes in some economic crops like chili (Capsicum annuum L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), egg-plant (Solanum melongena L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.). The most common root rot pathogens found in all the areas visited were Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and species of Fusarium viz., Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani. Two species of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica were also found causing root- knot disease. Loss to chili crop was found upto 36-56% when infected with F. solani and R. solani combined with root knot nematodes. Whereas loss to melon crop was found 30-60% due to F.solani in different areas of Thatta. Association of Fusarium spp., with root knot nematodes was found causing 50-85% loss to tomato crop. Charcoal rot caused by M. phaseolina was found to be an important disease of sunflower and cotton. Variations in losses due to these pathogens depended upon combination of pathogens and soil types

673-678 Download
39

Antifungal activity of some medicinal plant extracts against soil-borne phytopathogens


Misbah Shirazi, Muhammad Abid, Faisal Hussain, Alia Abbas and Uzma Sitara

Antifungal activity of some medicinal plant extracts against soil-borne phytopathogens


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, the extracts of different plant parts were used to control the growth of soil-borne fungi viz., Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. Five plants including Amaranthus viridis, Euphorbia hirta, Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum and Carica papaya were selected to check their antifungal and inhibition activity against soil-borne phytopathogens. The different parts of plants such as leaves, stems and fruits were dried and grounded for powder extract. The powder extract of three different concentrations 1, 3 and 5% were prepared and used against the soil-borne fungi by disc diffusion and food poison methods. Almost all plants showed antifungal activity against the F. oxysporum, M. phaseolina and R. solani. A. viridis and E. hirta showed maximum inhibition potential activity in disc diffusion method against above mentioned soil-borne pathogens as compared to other three plants, therefore A. viridis and E. hirta can be utilized for antifungal management of fungal diseases, particularly F. oxysporum, M. phaseolina and R. solani.

679-685 Download
40

Mycorrhizal fungi of some Orchis species of Turkey


Vildan Akin Mutlu and Yasemin Özdener Kömpe

Mycorrhizal fungi of some Orchis species of Turkey


ABSTRACT:

In Turkey, orchids are under a serious threat of extinction as a result of both excessive collecting and severe destruction of their habitats. Studies conducted have shown that the protection of orchids depends on the presence of mycorrhizal fungal biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to isolate the orchid mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of the individuals of 7 Orchis species taken from three different habitats in Samsun (Turkey) and to create a fungus bank after molecular identification is conducted. For this reason, the plant roots of Orchis species were collected at the spring and summer months of 2014 and 2015. Isolates were classified according to morphological characteristics and examined according to rDNA ITS sequences. Nine isolates were defined morphologically as Rhizoctonia-like, while one isolate was defined as non- Rhizoctonia. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) method was used to find out the similarities and differences of morphological characteristics and cladogram was constructed. In order to be able to define the isolates of 3 clads formed with morphological data at molecular level, we obtained ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 area by using ITS 4 and ITS 5 primers. Based on DNA sequencing, it was found that 7 of the 9 Rhizoctonia-like isolates were associated with sequences of Tulasnellaceae species while 2 were associated with sequences of Ceratobasidiaceae species and 1 non-Rhizoctonia isolate was associated with sequences of Pezizaceae species.

687-695 Download
41

The effect of three tillage treatments on weed infestation in maize monoculture


Svetlana Chovancova, Frantisek Illek and Jan Winkler

The effect of three tillage treatments on weed infestation in maize monoculture


ABSTRACT:

This study assessed the impact of using soil tillage on the weed infestation intensity and weed species composition in maize monoculture. Maize has been grown in monoculture consecutively in our research since 2001 and three treatments of soil tillage were applied: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and no-tillage (NT). Maize monoculture occurs across large plots of land and due to the growth conditions of maize and emerging conservational tillage technologies a broad variety of weed species is introduced and widespread in such plots. The weed infestation in our research had been observed for four years between 2012 and 2015. An arithmetic method and the multivariate analyses of ecological data were used to determine the effect of tillage on weed infestation. The highest weed infestation mainly formed by perennial species was recorded in NT, whereas rich spectrum of annual weed species were more frequently observed in MT. Based on our results can be stated that the specific soil treatments have created different conditions not only for weed emergence, but also for soil properties. Thus, studying the effect of soil tillage treatments on weed infestation may enable further development of weed infestation prediction followed by a targeted application of herbicides leading to the farmers’ cost cutting and less stress for environment.

697-701 Download
42

Phytoplankton community dynamics during Asian monsoon system preponderate in the coastal waters of northern region of Arabian sea bordering Pakistan


Farah Naz Khokhar, Zaib-Un-Nisa Burhan, Tahira Naz, Javed Abassi, Naveed Ahmad, Amjad Ali, Pervaiz Iqbal and Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui

Phytoplankton community dynamics during Asian monsoon system preponderate in the coastal waters of northern region of Arabian sea bordering Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Seasonal variations in population structure of phytoplankton community with respect to water parameters were investigated from in the coastal and near-shore waters (Manora Island and Mubarak Village stations) bordering Karachi in the northern Arabian Sea. Study was conducted from April 2008 - March 2010 and the data was pooled for: i) Spring inter-monsoon (SIM: March–April), ii) Autumn inter-monsoon (AIM: October–November), iii) Southwest monsoon (SWM: May–September), iv) Northeast monsoon (NEM: December–February). A clear seasonal pattern in phytoplankton population structure and composition was recorded. High phytoplankton productivity was recorded during AIM (MI-1; 126 x 103 Cells L-l) and NEM (MI-1; 124x103 Cells L-l) periods. Diatoms contribute significantly higher proportion in the phytoplankton community (120x103cellsL-l) as oppose to dinoflegellates (54.6x103cellsL-l). High phytoplankton taxa counts were recorded at MI stations (200 -208 spp.) during NEM and AIM. High shannon index value 3.5 (SIM) and low 1.14 (SWM) were recorded in near-shore waters at MI and MV, respectively. The Pearson's correlation was calculated and resulted significantly positive correlated among the community and with water parameters. With respect to taxocene structure, MI coatal stations appear to be distinctly different from MI near-shore and MV stations. Influence of reversing monsoonal wind and local effect of Layari outfall on the abundance and distribution is noted. 

703-709 Download
43

Morphological studies of the subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy of Artemisia L. in Balochistan (Pakistan)


Thomas Peer, Ulrike Gartner and Lal Badshah

Morphological studies of the subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy of Artemisia L. in Balochistan (Pakistan)


ABSTRACT:

Based on 2,500 herbarium vouchers of the subgenus Seriphidium of Artemisia, which were collected from 21 sites across Central and NW-Balochistan, morphological studies and detailed drawings of stem leaves were performed with the aim to be able to identify the most common Artemisia species of Balochistan by a few vegetative characters. The following species were recognized: Artemisia quettensis (most common and endemic species in the area), A. turanica, A. oliveriana, A. sieberi, A. stenocephala, and A. santolina. Some presumed hybrid species had intermediate morphological characters, such as A. quettensis x A. oliveriana, A. quettensis x A. turanica, A. oliveriana x A. turanica, and A. oliveriana x A. sieberi. Key characters of the species, illustrations, and data on the distribution were provided. The frequent polyploidization and hybridization processes within this species complex were emphasized, and the effects on speciation and habitat preference were discussed. The present study also suggests a possible relationship between species distribution patterns, xeromorphism and climatic factors, varying from northeast to southwest Balochistan

711-722 Download
44

The effect of black seed oil (Nigella sativa) on in vitro digestibility, chemical and fermentation characteristics of Hungarian vetch-wheat silage


Gizem Arican and Asuman Arslan Duru

The effect of black seed oil (Nigella sativa) on in vitro digestibility, chemical and fermentation characteristics of Hungarian vetch-wheat silage


ABSTRACT:

The aim of the study to determine some chemical, fermentation properties and In vitro organic matter digestibility, metabolisable energy and net energy lactation contents of silages obtained by adding black seed (Nigella sativa) oil to vetch-wheat mixtures at different levels. For this purpose, 0.00% (control), 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 and 1.60 levels of black seed oil were added to the vetch-wheat in laboratory conditions and the ensiling period was 75 days. According to the findings obtained from the study, dry matter and organic matter contents of silages were significantly increased by adding the black seed oil compared to the control group (p<0.01). It has been determined that the differences in crude protein, ether extract, crude ash, NDF, ADF, pH and propionic acid, In vitro organic digestibility, metabolisable energy and net energy lactation contents of silages are not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the lactic acid content of the silages was increased with the addition of black seed oil by 1.60% (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen and butyric acid contents were not determined in the experiment silages. At the end of the research, it was concluded that silage can be obtained at good quality by adding 1.60% of black seed oil to Hungarian vetch-wheat silages.

723-727 Download
45

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION ON PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT GRASSLANDS IN NORTHERN CHINA


Yuan Miao, Juan Xuan, Zhen Zhang, Anqun Chen, Huitao Shen and Yinzhan Liu

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION ON PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT GRASSLANDS IN NORTHERN CHINA


ABSTRACT:

Soil water is a major limiting factor to determine the grassland productivity in temperate grassland of China. Artificial irrigation is a useful way to increase the grassland productivity to improve the grassland service. However, the irrigation effects might be different among different grassland types including desert, typical, and meadow steppes across the Chines North Temperate grassland due to the variation in water limitation among them. To test it, three controlled water addition experiments were conducted in three steppe types including a desert, a typical, and meadow grassland, respectively. In each steppe, 18 plots with 1 m2 were setup, and six treatments (i.e. added none, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 percent of annual mean annual precipitation) were supplied during growth season. We assessed the biomass production of each plot at the end of growth season. We found artificial irrigation had strong positive effects on grassland productivities of the three steppes. However, as expected, the effects of irrigation differed among the three different grassland types. The effect was stronger for typical steppe than for other two steppe types. In the meadow steppe, the grassland productivity did not increase anymore after the irrigation more than 40% of the local annual mean precipitation, possibly because the source limitation from water to nutrient. Further studies are still needed to test to improve the grassland management and service

729-733 Download
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