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Thursday, March 30, 2017

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Relationship between different agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production in wild milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) in Pakistan

Mehreen Javeria and Khalid Hussain


Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) is an important medicinal plant that have a complex of flavonolignans mainly silymarin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry to prepare medicines against liver diseases. Mostly, the seeds collected from wild plants are used to extract silymarin contents, although, it is also produced in leaves and roots. Silymarin contents can vary under different agro-climatic regions. This study was aimed with a novel idea to find the relationship between varied agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production that has not been established so far. To evaluate these aspects, wild plants of milk thistle were collected from five different agro-climatic regions of Pakistan during two seasons 2018-19 and 2019-20. Fluctuating agro-climatic conditions significantly changed the antioxidant activities, ion accumulation and production of silymarin contents in milk thistle. Silymarin contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from all the parts of milk thistle.  Higher contents of silymarin (2.01 to 3.19%) were present in seeds and lowest concentration of silymarin contents was observed in roots (0.021 to 0.094%) and leaves (0.121 to 0.721%). Higher silymarin contents (3.19%) was found in seeds during 2019-20 at region Dina. This region was relatively different in agro-climatic conditions due to high rainfall and humidity, low temperature, soil Ec and pH. There was a positive correlation of silymarin contents with average rainfall and soil organic matter that was directly linked with silymarin production. While, temperature, humidity %, soil Ec and pH showed negative correlation with silymarin production. It was concluded that the production of silymarin consents have strong relationship with agro-climatic regions. These outcomes can be imperative for the collection and cultivation of milk thistle

To Cite this article: Javeria, M. and K. Hussain. 2022. Relationship between different agro-climatic conditions and silymarin production in wild milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaert.) in Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 54(1): DOI:

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