Electromagnetic radiations and microbial antagonists potential on yield and physiology of sunflower
Shamsa Kanwal, Marium Tariq, Shahnaz Dawar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui
Environmental damage and increase in human population showed that the global food production may soon become insufficient to feed the world’s people. It is essential to improve the agricultural productivity by adopting more simple, sustainable and biologically friendly approach. For this purpose, radiations (gamma rays for 2 minutes, microwave rays for 30 seconds, Uv-c rays for 40 minutes and X-rays (45 Kev) for 10 seconds) and some biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) combinely used to observe influences on crop growth and on pathogenic fungi. Research showed that UV rays with T. harzianum and P. lilacinus gave maximum length and weight of sunflower plant while weight and number of seeds was improved due to combination between microwave rays and P. fluorescens. T. harzianum with x-rays and UV with B. thuringiensis showed reduction of root infecting fungi like M. phaseolina and Fusarium species. However, Fv/fm Quantum yield ratio and photosynthetic performance activity showed elevated results with the treatment having gamma exposed seeds in combination with B. thuringiensis which leads to increase the P values in OJIP curve.
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