What structural traits ensuring Solidago canadensis L. to invade heterogeneous habitats successfully?
Yuliang Wang, Shoucheng Huang and Song Wang
Solidago canadensis is a non-native weed that has invaded China, which has had a large ecological impact on the areas. In this paper, we attempts to understand the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Solidago canadensis that ensure it to invade to heterogeneous habitats. We found that the characteristics that facilitate S. canadensis invasion and adaptation to heterogeneous ecological environments are as follows: low leaf porosity, thick cuticle, and long trichomes, which play a role in water retention and protection. The developed vascular bundles and bundle sheath extensions within the leaf blades increase the transport capacity of photosynthetic products through the leaf blade, thereby fulfilling the developmental needs of underground vegetative organs. In addition, the secondary structures of the stem differentiate early. S. canadensis has septate fibers and large amounts of alternating tissues and vestured pits. Simple and transverse perforation plates account for 94.9 and 51%, respectively, and alternate pitting accounts for 53.8%. The primary root stops developing relatively early to adapt to the development needs of underground structures. Flowering, inflorescence structure, and failure to establish continuous access to local insects, lead to failure in the development of capitulum. The exterior of mature pollen grains is enclosed by a callose wall, which facilitates pollen transmission. Rhizomes have become the substance and structural basis of independent propagules
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